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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



545
Anon., Epistle Of Barnabas, 16


nanMoreover I will tell you likewise concerning the temple, how these wretched men being led astray set their hope on the building, and not on their God that made them, as being a house of God.,For like the Gentiles almost they consecrated Him in the temple. But what saith the Lord abolishing the temple? Learn ye. Who hath measured the heaven with a span, or hath measured the earth with his hand? Have not I, saith the Lord? The heaven is My throne and the earth the footstool of My feet. What manner of house will ye build for Me? Or what shall be my resting place? Ye perceive that their hope is vain.,Furthermore He saith again; Behold they that pulled down this temple themselves shall build it.,So it cometh to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up.,Again, it was revealed how the city and the temple and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture saith; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the tower thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spake.,But let us enquire whether there be any temple of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week is being accomplished, the temple of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord.,I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God.,But it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Give heed then that the temple of the Lord may be built gloriously.,How? Understand ye. By receiving the remission of our sins and hoping on the Name we became new, created afresh from the beginning. Wherefore God dwelleth truly in our habitation within us. How? The word of his faith, the calling of his promise, the wisdom of the ordinances, the commandments of the teaching, He Himself prophesying in us, He Himself dwelling in us, opening for us who had been in bondage unto death the door of the temple, which is the mouth, and giving us repentance leadeth us to the incorruptible temple.,For he that desireth to be saved looketh not to the man, but to Him that dwelleth and speaketh in him, being amazed at this that he has never at any time heard these words from the mouth of the speaker, nor himself ever desired to hear them. This is the spiritual temple built up to the Lord.


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12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 66.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

66.1. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 66.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי־זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ־לִי וְאֵי־זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי׃ 66.1. Thus saith the LORD: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place?"
2. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.4-1.5, 2.6, 4.4, 4.6, 4.9-4.11, 5.3-5.4, 6.15, 6.18, 7.3, 9.7-9.8, 11.6, 12.4, 14.5, 15.8, 16.1-16.10, 17.2, 18.1, 21.1, 21.3, 21.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.4. Being therefore persuaded of this, and being conscious with myself that having said much among you I know that the Lord journeyed with me on the way of righteousness, and am wholly constrained also myself to this, to love you more than my own soul (for great faith and love dwelleth in you through the hope of the life which is His)--considering this therefore, that 1.5. if it shall be my care to communicate to you some portion of that which I received, it shall turn to my reward for having ministered to such spirits, I was eager to send you a trifle, that along with your faith ye might have your knowledge also perfect. 2.6. These things therefore He annulled, that the new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, being free from the yoke of constraint, might have its oblation not made by human hands. 4.4. And the prophet also speaketh on this wise; Ten reigns shall reign upon the earth, and after them shall arise another king, who shall bring low three of the kings under one. 4.6. Ye ought therefore to understand. Moreover I ask you this one thing besides, as being one of yourselves and loving you all in particular more than my own soul, to give heed to yourselves now, and not to liken yourselves to certain persons who pile up sin upon sin, saying that our covet remains to them also. 4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance. 4.11. For the scripture saith; Woe unto them that are wise for themselves, and understanding in their own sight. Let us become spiritual, let us become a temple perfect unto God. As far as in us lies, let us exercise ourselves in the fear of God, [and] let us strive to keep His commandments, that we may rejoice in His ordices. 5.3. We ought therefore to be very thankful unto the Lord, for that He both revealed unto us the past, and made us wise in the present, and as regards the future we are not without understanding. 5.4. Now the scripture saith; Not unjustly is the net spread for the birds. He meaneth this that a man shall justly perish, who having the knowledge of the way of righteousness forceth himself into the way of darkness. 6.15. For a holy temple unto the Lord, my brethren, is the abode of our heart. 6.18. Now we have already said above; And let them increase and multiply and rule over the fishes. But who is he that is able [now] to rule over beasts and fishes and fowls of the heaven; for we ought to perceive that to rule implieth power, so that one should give orders and have dominion. 7.3. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled. 9.7. For the scripture saith; And Abraham circumcised of his household eighteen males and three hundred. What then was the knowledge given unto him? Understand ye that He saith the eighteen first, and then after an interval three hundred In the eighteen 'I' stands for ten, 'H' for eight. Here thou hast JESUS (IHSOYS). And because the cross in the 'T' was to have grace, He saith also three hundred. So He revealeth Jesus in the two letters, and in the remaining one the cross. 9.8. He who placed within us the innate gift of His covet knoweth; no man hath ever learnt from me a more genuine word; but I know that ye are worthy. 11.6. And again He saith in another prophet; And He that doeth these things shall be as the tree that is planted by the parting streams of waters, which shall yield his fruit at his proper season, and his leaf shall not fall off, and all things whatsoever he doeth shall prosper. 12.4. And again in another prophet He saith; The whole day long have I stretched out My hands to a disobedient people that did gainsay My righteous way. 14.5. But He was made manifest, in order that at the same time they might be perfected in their sins, and we might receive the covet through Him who inherited it, even the Lord Jesus, who was prepared beforehand hereunto, that appearing in person He might redeem out of darkness our hearts which had already been paid over unto death and delivered up to the iniquity of error, and thus establish the covet in us through the word. 15.8. Finally He saith to them; Your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with. Ye see what is His meaning ; it is not your present Sabbaths that are acceptable [unto Me], but the Sabbath which I have made, in the which, when I have set all things at rest, I will make the beginning of the eighth day which is the beginning of another world. 16.1. Moreover I will tell you likewise concerning the temple, how these wretched men being led astray set their hope on the building, and not on their God that made them, as being a house of God. 16.1. For he that desireth to be saved looketh not to the man, but to Him that dwelleth and speaketh in him, being amazed at this that he has never at any time heard these words from the mouth of the speaker, nor himself ever desired to hear them. This is the spiritual temple built up to the Lord. 16.2. For like the Gentiles almost they consecrated Him in the temple. But what saith the Lord abolishing the temple? Learn ye. Who hath measured the heaven with a span, or hath measured the earth with his hand? Have not I, saith the Lord? The heaven is My throne and the earth the footstool of My feet. What manner of house will ye build for Me? Or what shall be my resting place? Ye perceive that their hope is vain. 16.3. Furthermore He saith again; Behold they that pulled down this temple themselves shall build it. 16.4. So it cometh to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up. 16.5. Again, it was revealed how the city and the temple and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture saith; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the tower thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spake. 16.6. But let us enquire whether there be any temple of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week is being accomplished, the temple of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord. 16.7. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God. 16.8. But it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Give heed then that the temple of the Lord may be built gloriously. 16.9. How? Understand ye. By receiving the remission of our sins and hoping on the Name we became new, created afresh from the beginning. Wherefore God dwelleth truly in our habitation within us. How? The word of his faith, the calling of his promise, the wisdom of the ordices, the commandments of the teaching, He Himself prophesying in us, He Himself dwelling in us, opening for us who had been in bondage unto death the door of the temple, which is the mouth, and giving us repentance leadeth us to the incorruptible temple. 17.2. For if I should write to you concerning things immediate or future, ye would not understand them, because they are put in parables. So much then for this. 18.1. But let us pass on to another lesson and teaching. There are two ways of teaching and of power, the one of light and the other of darkness; and there is a great difference between the two ways. For on the one are stationed the light giving angels of God, on the other the angels of Satan. 21.1. It is good therefore to learn the ordices of the Lord, as many as have been written above, and to walk in them. For he that doeth these things shall be glorified in the kingdom of God; whereas he that chooseth their opposites shall perish together with his works. For this cause is the resurrection, for this the recompense. 21.3. The day is at hand, in which everything shall be destroyed together with the Evil One. The Lord is at hand and his reward. 21.9. For this reason I was the more eager to write to you so far as I was able, that I might give you joy. Fare ye well, children of love and peace. The Lord of glory and of every grace be with your spirit.
3. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.6, 11.23, 15.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work? 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures
4. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.22. But it has happened to them according to the true proverb, "The dog turns to his own vomit again," and "the sow that had washed to wallowing in the mire.
5. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.17. that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.
6. New Testament, Acts, 4.36 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.36. Joses, who by the apostles was surnamed Barnabas (which is, being interpreted, Son of Exhortation), a Levite, a man of Cyprus by race
7. New Testament, Galatians, 3.14, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise.
8. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.13, 9.24, 12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 9.24. For Christ hasn't entered into holy places made with hands, which are representations of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
9. New Testament, Romans, 4.13-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. For the promise to Abraham and to his seed that he should be heir of the world wasn't through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 4.14. For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is made of no effect.
10. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Justin: And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: 'And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regards not persons, and takes not rewards.' And in Leviticus: 'Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned. Leviticus 26:40-41 For the circumcision according to the flesh, which is from Abraham, was given for a sign; that you may be separated from other nations, and from us; and that you alone may suffer that which you now justly suffer; and that your land may be desolate, and your cities burned with fire; and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence, and not one of you may go up to Jerusalem.' For you are not recognised among the rest of men by any other mark than your fleshly circumcision. For none of you, I suppose, will venture to say that God neither did nor does foresee the events, which are future, nor foreordained his deserts for each one. Accordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and justice, for you have slain the Just One, and His prophets before Him; and now you reject those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent Him- God the Almighty and Maker of all things- cursing in your synagogues those that believe in Christ. For you have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those who now have the mastery. But as often as you could, you did so. Wherefore God, by Isaiah, calls to you, saying, 'Behold how the righteous man perished, and no one regards it. For the righteous man is taken away from before iniquity. His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away from the midst. Draw near hither, you lawless children, seed of the adulterers, and children of the whore. Against whom have you sported yourselves, and against whom have you opened the mouth, and against whom have you loosened the tongue?' Isaiah 57:1-4
11. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. רבא אמר כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק וכן אמר רב ששת כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק,ואף רב הדר ביה דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב מונה עשרים ואחד יום כדרך שמונה עשרה ימים מר"ה עד יוה"כ ומתחיל וכיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק והלכתא כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big עד מתי שואלין את הגשמים ר' יהודה אומר עד שיעבור הפסח ר' מאיר אומר עד שיצא ניסן שנאמר (יואל ב, כג) ויורד לכם גשם יורה ומלקוש בראשון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק יורה בניסן יורה במרחשון הוא (דתנן) יורה במרחשון ומלקוש בניסן א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בימי יואל בן פתואל נתקיים מקרא זה דכתיב ביה (יואל א, ד) יתר הגזם אכל הארבה וגו' אותה שנה יצא אדר ולא ירדו גשמים ירדה להם רביעה ראשונה באחד בניסן,אמר להם נביא לישראל צאו וזרעו אמרו לו מי שיש לו קב חטים או קבים שעורין יאכלנו ויחיה או יזרענו וימות אמר להם אעפ"כ צאו וזרעו נעשה להם נס ונתגלה להם מה שבכתלין ומה שבחורי נמלים,יצאו וזרעו שני ושלישי ורביעי וירדה להם רביעה שניה בחמשה בניסן הקריבו עומר בששה עשר בניסן נמצאת תבואה הגדילה בששה חדשים גדילה באחד עשר יום נמצא עומר הקרב מתבואה של ששה חדשים קרב מתבואה של אחד עשר יום,ועל אותו הדור הוא אומר (תהלים קכו, ה) הזורעים בדמעה ברנה יקצרו הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך הזרע וגו' מאי הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך וגו' א"ר יהודה שור כשהוא חורש הולך ובוכה ובחזירתו אוכל חזיז מן התלם וזהו בא יבא ברנה,מאי נושא אלומותיו א"ר חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא קנה זרת שיבולת זרתים,א"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגם בא אל הארץ שבע שנים בהנך שבע שנים מאי אכול,א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן שנה ראשונה אכלו מה שבבתים שניה אכלו מה שבשדות שלישית בשר בהמה טהורה רביעית בשר בהמה טמאה חמישית בשר שקצים ורמשים ששית בשר בניהם ובנותיהם שביעית בשר זרועותיהם לקיים מה שנאמר (ישעיהו ט, יט) איש בשר זרועו יאכלו,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (הושע יא, ט) בקרבך קדוש ולא אבוא בעיר משום דבקרבך קדוש לא אבוא בעיר א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אמר הקב"ה לא אבוא בירושלים של מעלה עד שאבוא לירושלים של מטה,ומי איכא ירושלים למעלה אין דכתיב (תהלים קכב, ג) ירושלם הבנויה כעיר שחוברה לה יחדיו,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו י, ח) ובאחת יבערו ויכסלו מוסר הבלים עץ הוא א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אחת היא שמבערת רשעים בגיהנם מאי היא ע"ז כתיב הכא מוסר הבלים עץ הוא וכתיב התם (ירמיהו י, טו) הבל המה מעשה תעתועים,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מ"ד (ירמיהו ב, יג) כי שתים רעות עשה עמי תרתין הוא דהוו עשרין וארבע שביקא להו א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אחת שהיא 5a. bRava saidan alternative suggestion: bOnce one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops,i.e., he continues the mention of rain consistently until the summer. bAnd, so too, Rav Sheshet said: Once one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops.In other words, once one has begun to mention rain in his prayers in the additional prayer on the Eighth Day of Assembly, he continues to do so uninterrupted, even in the Diaspora.,The Gemara adds: bAnd even Rav retractedhis previously stated opinion, bas Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: One counts twenty-one daysfrom Rosh HaShana, just bas one counts ten days from Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur. Andafter the twenty-one days, bone startsto mention rain, band once one has started, he no longer stops.The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion that bonce one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bUntil when does one request rain? Rabbi Yehuda says:We request rain buntil Passover has passed. Rabbi Meir says: Untilthe month of bNisan has ended, as it is stated: “And He causes to come down for you the rain,the bfirst rain andthe blast rain, in the firstmonth” (Joel 2:23). Since the verse states that it rains in Nisan, the first month, this indicates that the entire month is considered part of the rainy season., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak:Is the bfirst rain in Nisan?The bfirst rain is in Marḥeshvan, as we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe first rainis bin Marḥeshvan and the last rainis bin Nisan.Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: This verse was fulfilled in the days ofthe prophet bJoel, son of Pethuel,in a year bconcerningwhich bit is written: “That which the palmer-worm has left, the locust has eatenand that which the locust has left, the canker-worm has eaten; and that which the canker-worm has left, the caterpillar has eaten” (Joel 1:4), when no crops remained. In bthat year,the month of bAdar ended andstill bno rain had fallen.The rain of the bfirst rainy season fell for them on the first of Nisan. /b,After the first rain fell, bthe prophet said to the Jews: Go out and sow. They said to him: One who hasone ikavof wheat or two ikavof barleyleft, bshould he eat them and liveoff them for a while bor sow them and die?Given the improbability of the crops’ growth under these circumstances, it appears wasteful to plant them rather than consume that which remains. The prophet bsaid to them: Nevertheless, go out and sow. A miracle occurred for them and they discoveredwheat and barley seeds bthatwere hidden bin the walls and thatwere concealed bin ant holes. /b, bThey went out and sowed on the second, third, and fourthdays of Nisan, bandthe rain of the bsecond rainy season fell for them on the fifth of Nisan.The crops grew so quickly that btheywere able to bsacrificethe iomer /ioffering in its proper time, bon the sixteenth of Nisan. Consequently, grain thatnormally bgrows in six months grew in eleven days, and consequently,the iomerthat isgenerally bsacrificed from grainthat grows bin six months was sacrificedthat year bfrom grainthat grew bin eleven days. /b, bAnd with regard to that generationthe verse bsays: “They who sow in tears shall reap withsongs of bjoy. Though he goes on his way weeping, who bears the measure of seed,he shall come home with joy, bearing his sheaves” (Psalms 126:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression: b“Though he goes on his way weeping, who bearsthe measure of seed”? bRabbi Yehuda said: An ox, when it plowedat that time, bit wenton its way bweepingand lamenting its labor; bandyet bupon its return,through the same furrow, bitwas able to beat the young shoots [ iḥaziz /i]of crops that had already sprouted bfrom the furrow. And this isthe meaning of the phrase: b“He shall come home withsongs of bjoy.” /b,The Gemara further asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression: b“Bearing his sheaves”? Rav Ḥisda said, and some say this was taught in a ibaraita /i:The bstalkof that crop was one bspan,i.e., the distance between the thumb and the little finger, while the bearitself was btwo spans,i.e., the ears were twice as long as the stalk, whereas usually the stalk is three or four times longer than the ear.,§ Incidental to the interpretation of these verses, the Gemara cites a series of verses, starting with the topic of hunger, that also involve questions that Rav Naḥman posed to Rabbi Yitzḥak. bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For the Lord has called upon a famine and it shall also come upon the land seven years”(II Kings 8:1)? Specifically, bin those seven years, whatdid they beat? /b,Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRabbi Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows:In bthe first year they atethat bwhich was in their houses;in bthe secondyear bthey atethat bwhich was in their fields;in bthe thirdyear they ate the bmeat oftheir remaining bkosher animals;in bthe fourthyear they ate the bmeat oftheir remaining bnon-kosher animals;in bthe fifthyear they ate the bmeat of repugt creatures and creeping animals,i.e., any insects they found; in bthe sixthyear they ate the bflesh of their sons and their daughters;and in bthe seventhyear they ate the bflesh of theirown barms, to fulfill that which is stated: “Each man shall eat the flesh of his own arm”(Isaiah 9:19)., bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “It is sacred in your midst, and I will not enter the city”(Hosea 11:9)? This verse is puzzling: bBecause it is sacred in your midst, willGod bnot enter the city?Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa saidthe verse should be understood bas follows: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I shall not enter Jerusalem above,in heaven, buntil I enter Jerusalemon earth down bbelowat the time of the redemption, when it will be sacred in your midst.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is theresuch a place as bJerusalem above?The Gemara answers: bYes, as it is written: “Jerusalem built up, a city unified together”(Psalms 122:3). The term unified indicates that there are two cities of Jerusalem, a heavenly one and an earthly one, which are bound together.,§ bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And with one they are brutish and foolish, the teaching of their vanity is a stock”(Jeremiah 10:8)? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRabbi Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: There is onetransgression bthat causes the wicked to burn in Gehenna. What is thistransgression? bIdol worship.This can be proven by a verbal analogy. bIt is written here: “The teaching of their vanity [ ihevel /i] is a stock,” and it is written there,with regard to idols: b“They are vanity [ ihevel /i], a work of delusion”(Jeremiah 10:15)., bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For my people have committed two evils”(Jeremiah 2:13)? bWere thereonly btwoevils they performed? Were, then, the btwenty-fourviolations listed in the book of Ezekiel babandoned,i.e., pardoned? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows:They have violated bonetransgression bthat is /b
12. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.26.7-4.26.14 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4.26.7. Again he adds the following: For our philosophy formerly flourished among the Barbarians; but having sprung up among the nations under your rule, during the great reign of your ancestor Augustus, it became to your empire especially a blessing of auspicious omen. For from that time the power of the Romans has grown in greatness and splendor. To this power you have succeeded, as the desired possessor, and such shall you continue with your son, if you guard the philosophy which grew up with the empire and which came into existence with Augustus; that philosophy which your ancestors also honored along with the other religions. 4.26.8. And a most convincing proof that our doctrine flourished for the good of an empire happily begun, is this — that there has no evil happened since Augustus' reign, but that, on the contrary, all things have been splendid and glorious, in accordance with the prayers of all. 4.26.9. Nero and Domitian, alone, persuaded by certain calumniators, have wished to slander our doctrine, and from them it has come to pass that the falsehood has been handed down, in consequence of an unreasonable practice which prevails of bringing slanderous accusations against the Christians. 4.26.10. But your pious fathers corrected their ignorance, having frequently rebuked in writing many who dared to attempt new measures against them. Among them your grandfather Hadrian appears to have written to many others, and also to Fundanus, the proconsul and governor of Asia. And your father, when you also were ruling with him, wrote to the cities, forbidding them to take any new measures against us; among the rest to the Larissaeans, to the Thessalonians, to the Athenians, and to all the Greeks. 4.26.11. And as for you — since your opinions respecting the Christians are the same as theirs, and indeed much more benevolent and philosophic — we are the more persuaded that you will do all that we ask of you. These words are found in the above-mentioned work. 4.26.12. But in the Extracts made by him the same writer gives at the beginning of the introduction a catalogue of the acknowledged books of the Old Testament, which it is necessary to quote at this point. He writes as follows: 4.26.13. Melito to his brother Onesimus, greeting: Since you have often, in your zeal for the word, expressed a wish to have extracts made from the Law and the Prophets concerning the Saviour and concerning our entire faith, and has also desired to have an accurate statement of the ancient book, as regards their number and their order, I have endeavored to perform the task, knowing your zeal for the faith, and your desire to gain information in regard to the word, and knowing that you, in your yearning after God, esteem these things above all else, struggling to attain eternal salvation. 4.26.14. Accordingly when I went East and came to the place where these things were preached and done, I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to you as written below. Their names are as follows: of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book ; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books. Such are the words of Melito.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 227
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 515
aramaic, targum, targumic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
barnabas, letter of, the two ways Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 515
barnabas, letter of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 515
barnabas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
canon (scriptural), canonical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
cassius dio Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
clement of alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
communities, pauline Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 227
conflict, of jews and christians (parting of the ways) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
cross Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
david, the king, as prophet Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
double treatise Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
epistle of barnabas, and the temple Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 283
epistle of barnabas, genre Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 276
epistle of barnabas, structure Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 276
eschatology Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 227
eusebius Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
geography Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 227, 228
hadrian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
hermeneutics, hermeneutical key Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
jerusalem, in christian thought Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 227, 228
jesus, suffering Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
jesus, traditions Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 253
jewish-christian relations Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
land, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 227, 228
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
messiah, gods anointed, suffering, death of the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
origen Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
passion narrative Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
persecution, rejection, death vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
pilgrimage Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 228
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
psalms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
righteousness (δικαιοσύνη), relationship to teachers Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 253
righteousness (δικαιοσύνη) Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 253
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
roman, empire Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
syria–palestine Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 253
teacher, as tradents Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 253
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem), destruction Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem), restoration Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
temple Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 228
temple (jerusalem) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
two ways, the' Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 253
two ways (tractate of) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 509
wilken, r. Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 228