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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



545
Anon., Epistle Of Barnabas, 10.7


ἀλλὰ οὐδὲ τὴν ὕαιναν φάγῃ: οὐ μή, φησίν, γένῃ μοιχὸς οὐδὲ φθορεὺς οὐδὲ ὁμοιωθήσῃ τοῖς τοιούτοις. πρὸς τί; ὅτι τὸ ζῷον τοῦτο παρ ἐνιαυτὸν ἀλλάσσει τὴν φύσιν καὶ ποτὲ μὲν ἄρρεν, Lev, 11. 20 ποτὲ δὲ θῆλυ γίνεται.Again, neither shalt thou eat the hyena; thou shalt not, saith He, become an adulterer or a fornicator, neither shalt thou resemble such persons. Why so? Because this animal changeth its nature year by year, and becometh at one time male and at another female.
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

9 results
1. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.100-4.107 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.100. Moreover, Moses has not granted an unlimited possession and use of all other animals to those who partake in his sacred constitution, but he has forbidden with all his might all animals, whether of the land, or of the water, or that fly through the air, which are most fleshy and fat, and calculated to excite treacherous pleasure, well knowing that such, attracting as with a bait that most slavish of all the outward senses, namely, taste, produce insatiability, an incurable evil to both souls and bodies, for insatiability produces indigestion, which is the origin and source of all diseases and weaknesses. 4.101. Now of land animals, the swine is confessed to be the nicest of all meats by those who eat it, and of all aquatic animals the most delicate are the fish which have no scales; and Moses is above all other men skilful in training and inuring persons of a good natural disposition to the practice of virtue by frugality and abstinence, endeavouring to remove costly luxury from their characters 4.102. at the same time not approving of unnecessary rigour, like the lawgiver of Lacedaemon, nor undue effeminacy, like the man who taught the Ionians and the Sybarites lessons of luxury and license, but keeping a middle path between the two courses, so that he has relaxed what was over strict, and tightened what was too loose, mingling the excesses which are found at each extremity with moderation, which lies between the two, so as to produce an irreproachable harmony and consistency of life, on which account he has laid down not carelessly, but with minute particularity, what we are to use and what to avoid. 4.103. One might very likely suppose it to be just that those beasts which feed upon human flesh should receive at the hands of men similar treatment to that which they inflict on men, but Moses has ordained that we should abstain from the enjoyment of all such things, and with a due consideration of what is becoming to the gentle soul, he proposes a most gentle and most pleasant banquet; for though it is proper that those who inflict evils should suffer similar calamities themselves, yet it may not be becoming to those whom they ill treated to retaliate, lest without being aware of it they become brutalized by anger, which is a savage passion; 4.104. and he takes such care to guard against this, that being desirous to banish as far as possible all desire for those animals abovementioned, he forbids with all his energy the eating of any carnivorous animal at all, selecting the herbivorous animals out of those kinds which are domesticated, since they are tame by nature, feeding on that gentle food which is supplied by the earth, and having no disposition to plot evil against anything.WHAT QUADRUPEDS ARE CLEANXVIII. 4.105. The animals which are clean and lawful to be used as food are ten in number; the heifer, the lamb, the goat, the stag, the antelope, the buffalo, the roebuck, the pygarga, the wildox, and the chamois, {19}{#de 14:4.} for he always adheres to that arithmetical subtilty which, as he originally devised it with the minutest accuracy possible, he extends to all existing things, so that he establishes no ordices, whether important or unimportant, without taking and as it were adapting this number to it as closely connected with the regulations which he is ordaining. Now of all the numbers beginning from the unit, the most perfect is the number ten, and as Moses says, it is the most sacred of all and a holy number, and by it he now limits the races of animals that are clean, wishing to assign the use of them to all those who partake of the constitution which he is establishing. 4.106. And he gives two tests and criteria of the ten animals thus Enumerated{20}{#le 11:3.} by two signs, first, that they must part the hoof, secondly, that they must chew the cud; for those which do neither, or only one of these things, are unclean. And these signs are both of them symbols of instruction and of the most scientific learning, by which the better is separated from the worse, so that all confusion between them is prevented; 4.107. for as the animal which chews the cud, while it is masticating its food draws it down its throat, and then by slow degrees kneads and softens it, and then after this process again sends it down into the belly, in the same manner the man who is being instructed, having received the doctrines and speculations of wisdom in at his ears from his instructor, derives a considerable amount of learning from him, but still is not able to hold it firmly and to embrace it all at once, until he has resolved over in his mind everything which he has heard by the continued exercise of his memory (and this exercise of memory is the cement which connects idea
2. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 3.6, 4.8, 5.11, 7.4, 10.3-10.6, 10.8, 11.10, 12.2, 13.1, 16.3, 16.5-16.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.6. To this end therefore, my brethren, He that is long-suffering, foreseeing that the people whom He had prepared in His well-beloved would believe in simplicity, manifested to us beforehand concerning all things, that we might not as novices shipwreck ourselves upon their law. 4.8. But they lost it by turning unto idols. For thus saith the Lord; Moses, Moses, come down quickly; for thy people whom thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt hath done unlawfully. And Moses understood, and threw the two tables from his hands; and their covet was broken in pieces, that the covet of the beloved Jesus might be sealed unto our hearts in the hope which springeth from faith in Him. 5.11. Therefore the Son of God came in the flesh to this end, that He might sum up the complete tale of their sins against those who persecuted and slew His prophets. 7.4. What then saith He in the prophet? And let them eat of the goat that is offered at the fast for all their sins. Attend carefully; And let all the priests alone eat the entrails unwashed with vinegar. 10.3. Accordingly he mentioned the swine with this intent. Thou shalt not cleave, saith he, to such men who are like unto swine; that is, when they are in luxury they forget the Lord, but when they are in want they recognize the Lord, just as the swine when it eateth knoweth not his lord, but when it is hungry it crieth out, and when it has received food again it is silent. 10.4. Neither shalt thou eat eagle nor falcon nor kite nor crow. Thou shalt not, He saith, cleave unto, or be likened to, such men who now not how to provide food for themselves by toil and sweat, but in their lawlessness seize what belongeth to others, and as if they were walking in guilelessness watch and search about for some one to rob in their rapacity, just as these birds alone do not provide food for themselves, but sit idle and seek how they may eat the meat that belongeth to others, being pestilent in their evil-doings. 10.5. And thou shalt not eat, saith He, lamprey nor polypus nor cuttle fish . Thou shalt not, He meaneth, become like unto such men, who are desperately wicked, and are already condemned to death, just as these fishes alone are accursed and swim in the depths, not swimming on the surface like the rest, but dwell on the ground beneath the deep sea. 10.6. Moreover thou shalt not eat the hare. Why so? Thou shalt not be found a corrupter of boys, nor shalt thou become like such persons; for the hare gaineth one passage in the body every year; for according to the number of years it lives it has just so many orifices. 10.8. Moreover He hath hated the weasel also and with good reason. Thou shalt not, saith He, become such as those men of whom we hear as working iniquity with their mouth for uncleanness, neither shalt thou cleave unto impure women who work iniquity with their mouth. For this animal conceiveth with its mouth. 12.2. And He saith again in Moses, when war was waged against Israel by men of another nation, and that He might remind them when the war was waged against them that for their sins they were delivered unto death; the Spirit saith to the heart of Moses, that he should make a type of the cross and of Him that was to suffer, that unless, saith He, they shall set their hope on Him, war shall be waged against them for ever. Moses therefore pileth arms one upon another in the midst of the encounter, and standing on higher ground than any he stretched out his hands, and so Israel was again victorious. Then, whenever he lowered them, they were slain with the sword. 13.1. Now let us see whether this people or the first people hath the inheritance, and whether the covet had reference to us or to them. 16.3. Furthermore He saith again; Behold they that pulled down this temple themselves shall build it. 16.5. Again, it was revealed how the city and the temple and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture saith; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the tower thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spake. 16.6. But let us enquire whether there be any temple of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week is being accomplished, the temple of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord.
3. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
4. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
5. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.12-3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6. New Testament, Galatians, 5.16-5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law.
7. New Testament, Romans, 2.28-2.29, 7.5-7.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter.
8. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.8.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 166, 165

165. it falls in their way to damage. The weasel class, too, is peculiar: for besides what has been said, it has a characteristic which is defiling: It conceives through the ears and brings forth through the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alterity Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 120
animals, exotic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
animals, in allegories Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
animals, treating humans as Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
anthropology (place of man) Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 120
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
barnabas, letter of, the two ways Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
barnabas, letter of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
bodies, classifying, as monstrous, Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
christian sources, jews in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
classical sources, menageries in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
classical sources, moralizing in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
clement of alexandria Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
desire (epithumia) Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
dietary laws biblical Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
dietary laws symbolic interpretation of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
food, impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
gender, in allegory Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
grammatical archive, commentarial assumptions, enigma/riddle (αἴνιγμα/παραβολὴ) Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 93
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, clarity/clarification (σαφήνεια/σαφηνίζειν) Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 93
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 93
heretics Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
humans, animalizing Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
hyenas Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
identity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
ignatius of antioch, letters Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
judaism, christian criticism of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 516
judaism, in epistle of barnabas Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 43
marvels, books of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
menageries, in classical sources Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
menageries, in the roman empire Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
natural history Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
philo of alexandria, allegory in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
pliny, genre of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
roman empire, the menagerie in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
sex, same-sex Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
sexual relations in second- and third-century christian sources' Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 85
the monstrous, and monstrous bodies Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 100
virunum Alvar Ezquerra, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras (2008) 120