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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



811
Anon., Didache, 9-10


nanBut after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire.


nanNow concerning the Thanksgiving (Eucharist), thus give thanks. First, concerning the cup: We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of David Your servant, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. And concerning the broken bread: We thank You, our Father, for the life and knowledge which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let Your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Your kingdom; for Yours is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ forever. But let no one eat or drink of your Thanksgiving (Eucharist), but they who have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, Give not that which is holy to the dogs. Matthew 7:6


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

46 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.10, 9.4, 10.5, 21.8, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.4. אַל־תֹּאמַר בִּלְבָבְךָ בַּהֲדֹף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם מִלְּפָנֶיךָ לֵאמֹר בְּצִדְקָתִי הֱבִיאַנִי יְהוָה לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּבְרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 10.5. וָאֵפֶן וָאֵרֵד מִן־הָהָר וָאָשִׂם אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת בָּאָרוֹן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוַּנִי יְהוָה׃ 21.8. כַּפֵּר לְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִיתָ יְהוָה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 9.4. Speak not thou in thy heart, after that the LORD thy God hath thrust them out from before thee, saying: ‘For my righteousness the LORD hath brought me in to possess this land’; whereas for the wickedness of these nations the LORD doth drive them out from before thee." 10.5. And I turned and came down from the mount, and put the tables in the ark which I had made; and there they are, as the LORD commanded me.—" 21.8. Forgive, O LORD, Thy people Israel, whom Thou hast redeemed, and suffer not innocent blood to remain in the midst of Thy people Israel.’ And the blood shall be forgiven them." 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 10.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.1. גֶּפֶן בּוֹקֵק יִשְׂרָאֵל פְּרִי יְשַׁוֶּה־לּוֹ כְּרֹב לְפִרְיוֹ הִרְבָּה לַמִּזְבְּחוֹת כְּטוֹב לְאַרְצוֹ הֵיטִיבוּ מַצֵּבוֹת׃ 10.1. בְּאַוָּתִי וְאֶסֳּרֵם וְאֻסְּפוּ עֲלֵיהֶם עַמִּים בְּאָסְרָם לִשְׁתֵּי עינתם [עוֹנֹתָם׃] 10.1. Israel was a luxuriant vine, Which put forth fruit freely: As his fruit increased, He increased his altars; The more goodly his land was, The more goodly were his pillars."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.19-5.22, 6.24-6.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 80.7, 80.11, 80.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

80.7. תְּשִׂימֵנוּ מָדוֹן לִשְׁכֵנֵינוּ וְאֹיְבֵינוּ יִלְעֲגוּ־לָמוֹ׃ 80.11. כָּסּוּ הָרִים צִלָּהּ וַעֲנָפֶיהָ אַרְזֵי־אֵל׃ 80.19. וְלֹא־נָסוֹג מִמֶּךָּ תְּחַיֵּנוּ וּבְשִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא׃ 80.7. Thou makest us a strife unto our neighbours; And our enemies mock as they please." 80.11. The mountains were covered with the shadow of it, And the mighty cedars with the boughs thereof." 80.19. So shall we not turn back from Thee; Quicken Thou us, and we will call upon Thy name."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.2, 56.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.2. הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2. וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 56.8. נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מְקַבֵּץ נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹד אֲקַבֵּץ עָלָיו לְנִקְבָּצָיו׃ 5.2. And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. ." 56.8. Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered."
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.21, 39.37 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.21. וְאָנֹכִי נְטַעְתִּיךְ שֹׂרֵק כֻּלֹּה זֶרַע אֱמֶת וְאֵיךְ נֶהְפַּכְתְּ לִי סוּרֵי הַגֶּפֶן נָכְרִיָּה׃ 2.21. Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, Wholly a right seed; How then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto Me?"
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 19.10-19.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.11. וַיִּהְיוּ־לָהּ מַטּוֹת עֹז אֶל־שִׁבְטֵי מֹשְׁלִים וַתִּגְבַּהּ קוֹמָתוֹ עַל־בֵּין עֲבֹתִים וַיֵּרָא בְגָבְהוֹ בְּרֹב דָּלִיֹּתָיו׃ 19.12. וַתֻּתַּשׁ בְּחֵמָה לָאָרֶץ הֻשְׁלָכָה וְרוּחַ הַקָּדִים הוֹבִישׁ פִּרְיָהּ הִתְפָּרְקוּ וְיָבֵשׁוּ מַטֵּה עֻזָּהּ אֵשׁ אֲכָלָתְהוּ׃ 19.13. וְעַתָּה שְׁתוּלָה בַמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ צִיָּה וְצָמָא׃ 19.14. וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִמַּטֵּה בַדֶּיהָ פִּרְיָהּ אָכָלָה וְלֹא־הָיָה בָהּ מַטֵּה־עֹז שֵׁבֶט לִמְשׁוֹל קִינָה הִיא וַתְּהִי לְקִינָה׃ 19.10. Thy mother was like a vine, in thy likeness, Planted by the waters; She was fruitful and full of branches By reason of many waters." 19.11. And she had strong rods To be sceptres for them that bore rule; And her stature was exalted Among the thick branches, And she was seen in her height With the multitude of her tendrils." 19.12. But she was plucked up in fury, She was cast down to the ground, And the east wind dried up her fruit; Her strong rods were broken off and withered, The fire consumed her." 19.13. And now she is planted in the wilderness, In a dry and thirsty ground." 19.14. And fire is gone out of the rod of her branches, It hath devoured her fruit, So that there is in her no strong rod To be a sceptre to rule.’ This is a lamentation, and it was for a lamentation."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 16.7-16.42 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.7. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אָז נָתַן דָּוִיד בָּרֹאשׁ לְהֹדוֹת לַיהוָה בְּיַד־אָסָף וְאֶחָיו׃ 16.8. הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה קִרְאוּ בִשְׁמוֹ הוֹדִיעוּ בָעַמִּים עֲלִילֹתָיו׃ 16.9. שִׁירוּ לוֹ זַמְּרוּ־לוֹ שִׂיחוּ בְּכָל־נִפְלְאֹתָיו׃ 16.11. דִּרְשׁוּ יְהוָה וְעֻזּוֹ בַּקְּשׁוּ פָנָיו תָּמִיד׃ 16.12. זִכְרוּ נִפְלְאֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹפְתָיו וּמִשְׁפְּטֵי־פִיהוּ׃ 16.13. זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדּוֹ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב בְּחִירָיו׃ 16.14. הוּא יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ מִשְׁפָּטָיו׃ 16.15. זִכְרוּ לְעוֹלָם בְּרִיתוֹ דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃ 16.16. אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וּשְׁבוּעָתוֹ לְיִצְחָק׃ 16.17. וַיַּעֲמִידֶהָ לְיַעֲקֹב לְחֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 16.18. לֵאמֹר לְךָ אֶתֵּן אֶרֶץ־כְּנָעַן חֶבֶל נַחֲלַתְכֶם׃ 16.19. בִּהְיוֹתְכֶם מְתֵי מִסְפָּר כִּמְעַט וְגָרִים בָּהּ׃ 16.21. לֹא־הִנִּיחַ לְאִישׁ לְעָשְׁקָם וַיּוֹכַח עֲלֵיהֶם מְלָכִים׃ 16.22. אַל־תִּגְּעוּ בִּמְשִׁיחָי וּבִנְבִיאַי אַל־תָּרֵעוּ׃ 16.23. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ בַּשְּׂרוּ מִיּוֹם־אֶל־יוֹם יְשׁוּעָתוֹ׃ 16.24. סַפְּרוּ בַגּוֹיִם אֶת־כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים נִפְלְאֹתָיו׃ 16.25. כִּי גָדוֹל יְהוָה וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד וְנוֹרָא הוּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִים׃ 16.26. כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃ 16.27. הוֹד וְהָדָר לְפָנָיו עֹז וְחֶדְוָה בִּמְקֹמוֹ׃ 16.28. הָבוּ לַיהוָה מִשְׁפְּחוֹת עַמִּים הָבוּ לַיהוָה כָּבוֹד וָעֹז׃ 16.29. הָבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבוֹד שְׁמוֹ שְׂאוּ מִנְחָה וּבֹאוּ לְפָנָיו הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַדְרַת־קֹדֶשׁ׃ 16.31. יִשְׂמְחוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְתָגֵל הָאָרֶץ וְיֹאמְרוּ בַגּוֹיִם יְהוָה מָלָךְ׃ 16.32. יִרְעַם הַיָּם וּמְלוֹאוֹ יַעֲלֹץ הַשָּׂדֶה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ׃ 16.33. אָז יְרַנְּנוּ עֲצֵי הַיָּעַר מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי־בָא לִשְׁפּוֹט אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 16.34. הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 16.35. וְאִמְרוּ הוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעֵנוּ וְקַבְּצֵנוּ וְהַצִּילֵנוּ מִן־הַגּוֹיִם לְהֹדוֹת לְשֵׁם קָדְשֶׁךָ לְהִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ בִּתְהִלָּתֶךָ׃ 16.36. בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעֹלָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן וְהַלֵּל לַיהוָה׃ 16.37. וַיַּעֲזָב־שָׁם לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה לְאָסָף וּלְאֶחָיו לְשָׁרֵת לִפְנֵי הָאָרוֹן תָּמִיד לִדְבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃ 16.38. וְעֹבֵד אֱדֹם וַאֲחֵיהֶם שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁמוֹנָה וְעֹבֵד אֱדֹם בֶּן־יְדִיתוּן וְחֹסָה לְשֹׁעֲרִים׃ 16.39. וְאֵת צָדוֹק הַכֹּהֵן וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה בַּבָּמָה אֲשֶׁר בְּגִבְעוֹן׃ 16.41. וְעִמָּהֶם הֵימָן וִידוּתוּן וּשְׁאָר הַבְּרוּרִים אֲשֶׁר נִקְּבוּ בְּשֵׁמוֹת לְהֹדוֹת לַיהוָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 16.42. וְעִמָּהֶם הֵימָן וִידוּתוּן חֲצֹצְרוֹת וּמְצִלְתַּיִם לְמַשְׁמִיעִים וּכְלֵי שִׁיר הָאֱלֹהִים וּבְנֵי יְדוּתוּן לַשָּׁעַר׃ 16.7. Then on that day did David first ordain to give thanks unto the LORD, by the hand of Asaph and his brethren." 16.8. O give thanks unto the LORD, call upon His name; Make known His doings among the peoples." 16.9. Sing unto Him, sing praises unto Him; Speak ye of all His marvellous works." 16.10. Glory ye in His holy name; Let the heart of them rejoice that seek the LORD." 16.11. Seek ye the LORD and His strength; Seek His face continually." 16.12. Remember His marvellous works that He hath done, His wonders, and the judgments of His mouth;" 16.13. O ye seed of Israel His servant, Ye children of Jacob, His chosen ones." 16.14. He is the LORD our God; His judgments are in all the earth." 16.15. Remember His covet for ever, The word which He commanded to a thousand generations;" 16.16. [The covet] which He made with Abraham, And His oath unto Isaac;" 16.17. And He established it unto Jacob for a statute, To Israel for an everlasting covet;" 16.18. Saying: ‘Unto thee will I give the land of Canaan, The lot of your inheritance.’" 16.19. When ye were but a few men in number, Yea, very few, and sojourners in it," 16.20. And when they went about from nation to nation, And from one kingdom to another people," 16.21. He suffered no man to do them wrong, Yea, for their sake He reproved kings:" 16.22. ’Touch not Mine anointed ones, And do My prophets no harm.’" 16.23. Sing unto the LORD, all the earth; Proclaim His salvation from day to day." 16.24. Declare His glory among the nations, His marvellous works among all the peoples." 16.25. For great is the LORD, and highly to be praised; He also is to be feared above all gods." 16.26. For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens." 16.27. Honour and majesty are before Him; Strength and gladness are in His place." 16.28. Ascribe unto the LORD, ye kindreds of the peoples, Ascribe unto the LORD glory and strength." 16.29. Ascribe unto the LORD the glory due unto His name; Bring an offering, and come before Him; Worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness." 16.30. Tremble before Him, all the earth; The world also is established that it cannot be moved." 16.31. Let the heavens be glad, and let the earth rejoice; And let them say among the nations: ‘The LORD reigneth.’" 16.32. Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; Let the field exult, and all that is therein;" 16.33. Then shall the trees of the wood sing for joy, Before the LORD, for He is come to judge the earth." 16.34. O give thanks unto the LORD; for He is good; For His mercy endureth for ever." 16.35. And say ye: ‘Save us, O God of our salvation, And gather us together and deliver us from the nations, That we may give thanks unto Thy holy name, That we may triumph in Thy praise.’" 16.36. Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, From everlasting even to everlasting. And all the people said: ‘Amen, ‘and praised the LORD." 16.37. So he left there, before the ark of the covet of the LORD, Asaph and his brethren, to minister before the ark continually, as every day’s work required;" 16.38. and Obed-edom with their brethren, threescore and eight; Obed-edom also the son of Jedithun and Hosah to be door-keepers;" 16.39. and Zadok the priest, and his brethren the priests, before the tabernacle of the LORD in the high place that was at Gibeon," 16.40. to offer burnt-offerings unto the LORD upon the altar of burnt-offering continually morning and evening, even according to all that is written in the Law of the LORD, which He commanded unto Israel;" 16.41. and with them Heman and Jeduthun, and the rest that were chosen, who were mentioned by name, to give thanks to the LORD, because His mercy endureth for ever;" 16.42. and with them Heman and Jeduthun, to sound aloud with trumpets and cymbals, and with instruments for the songs of God; and the sons of Jeduthun to be at the gate."
9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground."
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.27-1.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.27. Gather together our scattered people, set free those who are slaves among the Gentiles, look upon those who are rejected and despised, and let the Gentiles know that thou art our God.' 1.28. Afflict those who oppress and are insolent with pride. 1.29. Plant thy people in thy holy place, as Moses said.'
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 36.1-36.17, 51.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 36.2. and cause the fear of thee to fall upon all the nations. 36.2. A perverse mind will cause grief,but a man of experience will pay him back. 36.3. Lift up thy hand against foreign nations and let them see thy might. 36.4. As in us thou hast been sanctified before them,so in them be thou magnified before us; 36.5. and let them know thee, as we have known that there is not God but thee, O Lord. 36.6. Show signs anew, and work further wonders;make thy hand and thy right arm glorious. 36.7. Rouse thy anger and pour out thy wrath;destroy the adversary and wipe out the enemy. 36.8. Hasten the day, and remember the appointed time,and let people recount thy mighty deeds. 36.9. Let him who survives be consumed in the fiery wrath,and may those who harm thy people meet destruction. 36.11. Gather all the tribes of Jacob,and give them their inheritance, as at the beginning. 36.12. Have mercy, O Lord, upon the people called by thy name,upon Israel, whom thou hast likened to a first-born son. 36.13. Have pity on the city of thy sanctuary,Jerusalem, the place of thy rest. 36.14. Fill Zion with the celebration of thy wondrous deeds,and thy temple with thy glory. 36.15. Bear witness to those whom thou didst create in the beginning,and fulfil the prophecies spoken in thy name. 36.16. Reward those who wait for thee,and let thy prophets be found trustworthy. 36.17. Hearken, O Lord, to the prayer of thy servants,according to the blessing of Aaron for thy people,and all who are on the earth will know that thou art the Lord, the God of the ages. 51.12. for thou didst save me from destruction and rescue me from an evil plight. Therefore I will give thanks to thee and praise thee,and I will bless the name of the Lord.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 51.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.3. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled.
15. Anon., Didache, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 4.1-4.2, 6.1-6.3, 7.1, 7.4, 8.1-8.2, 9.1-9.5, 10.1-10.7, 11.1-11.3, 11.7, 12.4, 13.2, 15.1, 15.3-15.4, 16.3, 16.7-16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
16. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 8.3, 34.7, 59.3-59.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.3. Μετανοήσατε, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνομίας ὑμῶν: εἶπον τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῦ λαοῦ μου. Ἐὰν ὦσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἐὰν ὦσιν πυρρότεραι κόκκου καὶ μελανώτεραι σάκκου, καὶ ἐπιστραφῆτε πρός με ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας καὶ εἴπητε: Πάτερ: ἐπακούσομαι ὑμῶν ὡς λαοῦ ἁγίου. 34.7. καὶ ἡμεῖς, οὖν, ἐν ὁμονοίᾳ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ συναχθέντες τῇ συνειδήσει, ὡς ἐξ ἑνὸς στόματος βοήσωμεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐκτενῶς εἰς τὸ μετόχους ἡμᾶς γενέσθαι τῶν μεγάλων καὶ ἐνδόξων ἐπαγγελιῶν αὐτοῦ. 59.3. ... ἐλπίζειν There appears to be a lucuna in the Greek : Lightfoot supplies *do\s h\mi=n, ku/rie. ἐπὶ τὸ ἀρχεγόνον πάσης κτίσεως ὄνομά σου, Eph 1, 18 ἀνοίξας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ Is. 57, 15 γινώσκειν σε τὸν μόνον ὕψιστον ἐν ὑψίστοις, Is. 13, 11 Ps. 32, 10 ἅγιον ἐν ἀγίοις ἀναπαυόμενον. τὸν ταπεινοῦντα ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων, τὸν διαλύοντα λογισμοὺς Job 5, 11 ἐθνῶν, τὸν ποιοῦντα ταπεινοὺς εἰς ὕψος καὶ τοὺς I Sam, 2, 7; cf. Luke 1, 53 ὑψηλοὺς ταπεινοῦντα, τὸν πλουτίζοντα καὶ πτωχίζοντα, τὸν ἀποκτείνοντα καὶ ζῆν ποιοῦντα, kai\ sw/zonta appears to be inserted before kai\ zh=n by SL, but is omitted by CK. Deut. 32, 39; cf. I Sam. 2,6; 11 Kings 5, 7 μόνον εὑρέτην eu)erge/thn ( "benefactor" ) C, "creator" K; the text is doubiful but eu(re/thn (LS) seems more likely to be implied by K than eu)erge/thn, and is therefore slightly more probable. πνευμάτων καὶ θεὸν πάσης σαρκός: τὸν ἐπιβλέποντα ἐν τοῖς ἀβύσσοις, τὸν ἐπόπτην Num. 16, 22; 27, 16 ἀνθρωπίνων ἔργων, τὸν τῶν κινδυνευόντων Dan, 3, 31 (*wulg. 3, 55); cf. Sirach 16, 18. 19 Judith 9, 11 βοηθόν, τὸν τῶν ἀπηλπισμένων σωτῆρα, τὸν παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστην καὶ ἐπίσκοπον: τὸν πληθύνοντα ἔθνη ἐπὶ γῆς καὶ ἐκ πάντων ἐκλεξάμενον τοὺς ἀγαπῶντάς σε διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ ἠγαπημένου παιδός σου, δἰ οὗ ἡμᾶς ἐπαίδευσας, Ps. 118, 114; cf, Judith 9, 11 ἡγίασας, ἐτίμησας: 59.4. ἀξιοῦμέν σε, δέσποτα, βοηθὸν γενέσθαι καὶ ἀντιλήπτορα ἡμῶν. τοὺς ἐν θλίψει ἡμῶν σῶσον, τοὺς ταπεινοὺς ἐλέησον, τοὺς πεπτωκότας ἔγειρον, τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπιφάνηθι, τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς ἴασαι, τοὺς πλανωμένους τοῦ λαοῦ σου ἐπίστρεψον: χόρτασον τοὺς πεινῶντας, λύτρωσαι τοὺς δεσμίους ἡμῶν, ἐξανάστησον τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας, παρακάλεσον τοὺς ὀλιγοψυχοῦντας: I Kings 3, 60; II Kings 19, 19; Ezek. 86, 23 Ps. 78, 13; 94, 7; 99, 8 γνώτωσάν σε ἅπαντα τὰ ἔθνη. ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ θεὸς μόνος καὶ Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ὁ παῖς σου καὶ ἡμεῖς λαός σου καὶ πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς σου.
17. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.2. especially if the Lord should reveal aught to me. Assemble yourselves together in common, every one of you severally, man by man, in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ, who after the flesh was of David's race, who is Son of Man and Son of God, to the end that ye may obey the bishop and presbytery without distraction of mind; breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality and the antidote that we should not die but live for ever in Jesus Christ.
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.3, 4.1, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Women, slaves and minors are exempt from reciting the Shema and putting on tefillin, but are obligated for tefillah, mezuzah, and Birkat Hamazon (the blessing after meals)." 4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour." 4.3. Rabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen." 4.4. Rabbi Eliezer says: if a man makes his prayers fixed, it is not [true] supplication. Rabbi Joshua says: if one is traveling in a dangerous place, he says a short prayer, saying: Save, O Lord, Your people the remt of Israel. In every time of crisis may their needs be before You. Blessed are You, O Lord, who hears prayer."
20. Mishnah, Pesahim, 10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.17, 11.17-11.34, 14.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 11.17. But in giving you this command, I don't praise you, that youcome together not for the better but for the worse. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.19. For there also mustbe factions among you, that those who are approved may be revealedamong you. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come. 14.16. Otherwise if you blesswith the spirit, how will he who fills the place of the unlearned saythe "Amen" at your giving of thanks, seeing he doesn't know what yousay?
22. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
23. New Testament, Acts, 2.38, 2.42, 2.46, 4.25, 8.16, 20.7, 20.11, 27.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? 8.16. for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. 20.11. When he had gone up, and had broken bread, and eaten, and had talked with them a long while, even until break of day, he departed. 27.35. When he had said this, and had taken bread, he gave thanks to God in the presence of all, and he broke it, and began to eat.
24. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.18, 5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father;
25. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.14, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!
26. New Testament, Hebrews, 6.1-6.2, 11.8, 11.10, 13.13-13.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Therefore leaving the doctrine of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection -- not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God 6.2. of the teaching of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. 11.8. By faith, Abraham, when he was called, obeyed to go out to the place which he was to receive for an inheritance. He went out, not knowing where he went. 11.10. For he looked for the city which has the foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 13.13. Let us therefore go forth to him outside of the camp, bearing his reproach. 13.14. For we don't have here an enduring city, but we seek that which is to come. 13.15. Through him, then, let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to his name.
27. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons:
28. New Testament, Romans, 1.8, 8.15, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, that your faith is proclaimed throughout the whole world. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service.
29. New Testament, John, 15.16, 16.23-16.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.16. You didn't choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 16.23. In that day you will ask me no questions. Most assuredly I tell you, whatever you may ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. 16.24. Until now, you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be made full.
30. New Testament, Luke, 1.69, 10.7, 22.14-22.20, 24.13-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.69. And has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
31. New Testament, Mark, 6.41, 8.6-8.7, 9.5, 14.22-14.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 8.6. He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground, and he took the seven loaves. Having given thanks, he broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve, and they served the multitude. 8.7. They had a few small fish. Having blessed them, he said to serve these also. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God.
32. New Testament, Matthew, 6.1-6.18, 7.6, 10.5-10.6, 10.10, 11.25, 12.31, 26.26-26.29, 28.16, 28.18-28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 7.6. Don't give that which is holy to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 12.31. Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them. 28.18. Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
33. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
34. Anon., Acts of Peter, 7-9, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Justin, First Apology, 14.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tertullian, Apology, 39.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. The object of our worship is the One God, He who by His commanding word, His arranging wisdom, His mighty power, brought forth from nothing this entire mass of our world, with all its array of elements, bodies, spirits, for the glory of His majesty; whence also the Greeks have bestowed on it the name of Κόσμος . The eye cannot see Him, though He is (spiritually) visible. He is incomprehensible, though in grace He is manifested. He is beyond our utmost thought, though our human faculties conceive of Him. He is therefore equally real and great. But that which, in the ordinary sense, can be seen and handled and conceived, is inferior to the eyes by which it is taken in, and the hands by which it is tainted, and the faculties by which it is discovered; but that which is infinite is known only to itself. This it is which gives some notion of God, while yet beyond all our conceptions - our very incapacity of fully grasping Him affords us the idea of what He really is. He is presented to our minds in His transcendent greatness, as at once known and unknown. And this is the crowning guilt of men, that they will not recognize One, of whom they cannot possibly be ignorant. Would you have the proof from the works of His hands, so numerous and so great, which both contain you and sustain you, which minister at once to your enjoyment, and strike you with awe; or would you rather have it from the testimony of the soul itself? Though under the oppressive bondage of the body, though led astray by depraving customs, though enervated by lusts and passions, though in slavery to false gods; yet, whenever the soul comes to itself, as out of a surfeit, or a sleep, or a sickness, and attains something of its natural soundness, it speaks of God; using no other word, because this is the peculiar name of the true God. God is great and good - Which may God give, are the words on every lip. It bears witness, too, that God is judge, exclaiming, God sees, and, I commend myself to God, and, God will repay me. O noble testimony of the soul by nature Christian! Then, too, in using such words as these, it looks not to the Capitol, but to the heavens. It knows that there is the throne of the living God, as from Him and from thence itself came down.
37. Tertullian, On Baptism, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. But they whose office it is, know that baptism is not rashly to be administered. Give to every one who begs you, has a reference of its own, appertaining especially to almsgiving. On the contrary, this precept is rather to be looked at carefully: Give not the holy thing to the dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine; Matthew 7:6 and, Lay not hands easily on any; share not other men's sins. If Philip so easily baptized the chamberlain, let us reflect that a manifest and conspicuous evidence that the Lord deemed him worthy had been interposed. Acts 8:26-40 The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle, nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer's sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture, was thus suitably discovered - to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain's chariot. The Scripture which he was reading falls in opportunely with his faith: Philip, being requested, is taken to sit beside him; the Lord is pointed out; faith lingers not; water needs no waiting for; the work is completed, and the apostle snatched away. But Paul too was, in fact, 'speedily' baptized: for Simon, his host, speedily recognized him to be an appointed vessel of election. God's approbation sends sure premonitory tokens before it; every petition may both deceive and be deceived. And so, according to the circumstances and disposition, and even age, of each individual, the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary - if (baptism itself) is not so necessary - that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, Forbid them not to come unto me. Let them come, then, while they are growing up; let them come while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; let them become Christians when they have become able to know Christ. Why does the innocent period of life hasten to the remission of sins? More caution will be exercised in worldly matters: so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine! Let them know how to ask for salvation, that you may seem (at least) to have given to him that asks. For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred - in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom - until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence. If any understand the weighty import of baptism, they will fear its reception more than its delay: sound faith is secure of salvation.
38. Anon., The Acts of Paul And Thecla, 39, 42, 5, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

39. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. רב אויא חלש ולא אתא לפרקא דרב יוסף למחר כי אתא בעא אביי לאנוחי דעתיה דרב יוסף א"ל מ"ט לא אתא מר לפרקא א"ל דהוה חליש לבאי ולא מצינא א"ל אמאי לא טעמת מידי ואתית א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המוספין א"ל איבעי ליה למר לצלויי צלותא דמוספין ביחיד ולטעום מידי ולמיתי א"ל ולא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר יוחנן אסור לו לאדם שיקדים תפלתו לתפלת הצבור א"ל לאו אתמר עלה א"ר אבא בצבור שנו,ולית הלכתא לא כרב הונא ולא כריב"ל כרב הונא הא דאמרן כריב"ל דאריב"ל כיון שהגיע זמן תפלת המנחה אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המנחה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר' נחוניא בן הקנה היה מתפלל בכניסתו לבית המדרש וביציאתו תפלה קצרה אמרו לו מה מקום לתפלה זו אמר להם בכניסתי אני מתפלל שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי וביציאתי אני נותן הודאה על חלקי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בכניסתו מהו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי ולא אכשל בדבר הלכה וישמחו בי חברי ולא אומר על טמא טהור ולא על טהור טמא ולא יכשלו חברי בדבר הלכה ואשמח בהם,ביציאתו מהו אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי ששמת חלקי מיושבי בית המדרש ולא שמת חלקי מיושבי קרנות שאני משכים והם משכימים אני משכים לדברי תורה והם משכימים לדברים בטלים אני עמל והם עמלים אני עמל ומקבל שכר והם עמלים ואינם מקבלים שכר אני רץ והם רצים אני רץ לחיי העולם הבא והם רצים לבאר שחת:,ת"ר כשחלה ר' אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו אמרו לו רבינו למדנו אורחות חיים ונזכה בהן לחיי העולם הבא,אמר להם הזהרו בכבוד חבריכם ומנעו בניכם מן ההגיון והושיבום בין ברכי תלמידי חכמים וכשאתם מתפללים דעו לפני מי אתם עומדים ובשביל כך תזכו לחיי העולם הבא,וכשחלה רבי יוחנן בן זכאי נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו כיון שראה אותם התחיל לבכות אמרו לו תלמידיו נר ישראל עמוד הימיני פטיש החזק מפני מה אתה בוכה,אמר להם אילו לפני מלך בשר ודם היו מוליכין אותי שהיום כאן ומחר בקבר שאם כועס עלי אין כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני אין איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני אין מיתתו מיתת עולם ואני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולשחדו בממון אעפ"כ הייתי בוכה ועכשיו שמוליכים אותי לפני ממ"ה הקב"ה שהוא חי וקיים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים שאם כועס עלי כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני מיתתו מיתת עולם ואיני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולא לשחדו בממון ולא עוד אלא שיש לפני שני דרכים אחת של גן עדן ואחת של גיהנם ואיני יודע באיזו מוליכים אותי ולא אבכה,אמרו לו רבינו ברכנו אמר להם יהי רצון שתהא מורא שמים עליכם כמורא בשר ודם אמרו לו תלמידיו עד כאן אמר להם ולואי תדעו כשאדם עובר עבירה אומר שלא יראני אדם.,בשעת פטירתו אמר להם פנו כלים מפני הטומאה והכינו כסא לחזקיהו מלך יהודה שבא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רבן גמליאל אומר בכל יום ויום מתפלל אדם שמנה עשרה רבי יהושע אומר מעין י"ח ר"ע אומר אם שגורה תפלתו בפיו מתפלל י"ח ואם לאו מעין י"ח,ר"א אומר העושה תפלתו קבע אין תפלתו תחנונים,ר' יהושע אומר ההולך במקום סכנה מתפלל תפלה קצרה ואומר הושע ה' את עמך את שארית ישראל בכל פרשת העבור יהיו צרכיהם לפניך ברוך אתה ה' שומע תפלה,היה רוכב על החמור ירד ויתפלל ואם אינו יכול לירד יחזיר את פניו ואם אינו יכול להחזיר את פניו יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים היה מהלך בספינה או באסדא יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הני י"ח כנגד מי,א"ר הלל בריה דר' שמואל בר נחמני כנגד י"ח אזכרות שאמר דוד (תהלים כט, א) בהבו לה' בני אלים רב יוסף אמר כנגד י"ח אזכרות שבקריאת שמע א"ר תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כנגד שמונה עשרה חוליות שבשדרה.,ואמר ר' תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיכרע עד שיתפקקו כל חוליות שבשדרה,עולא אמר עד כדי שיראה איסר כנגד לבו רבי חנינא אמר כיון שנענע ראשו שוב אינו צריך אמר רבא והוא דמצער נפשיה ומחזי כמאן דכרע,הני תמני סרי תשסרי הוויין,אמר רבי לוי ברכת הצדוקים ביבנה תקנוה כנגד מי תקנוה,א"ר לוי לרבי הלל בריה דרבי שמואל בר נחמני כנגד (תהלים כט, ג) אל הכבוד הרעים לרב יוסף כנגד אחד שבקריאת שמע לר' תנחום א"ר יהושע בן לוי כנגד חוליא קטנה שבשדרה:,ת"ר שמעון הפקולי הסדיר י"ח ברכות לפני רבן גמליאל על הסדר ביבנה אמר להם ר"ג לחכמים כלום יש אדם שיודע לתקן ברכת הצדוקים עמד שמואל הקטן ותקנה,לשנה אחרת שכחה 28b. After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: bRav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef’s Shabbat lecture. WhenRav Avya bcame the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef,and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya’s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef. brTo this end, he asked him: bWhy did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture? brRav Avya bsaid to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unableto attend. brAbaye bsaid to him: Why did you not eat something and come? brRav Avya bsaid to him:Does bthe Master not holdin accordance with bthatstatement bof Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer. brAbaye bsaid to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, andthen bcometo the lecture. brRav Avya bsaid to him:Does bmy Master not holdin accordance with bthatstatement bof Rabbi Yoḥa: A person may not recite hisindividual bprayer prior to the communal prayer? brAbaye bsaid to him:Was bit not stated regarding this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Abba said: They taughtthis bin a communalsetting? brIn other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion., bAndthe Gemara summarizes: bThe ihalakhais neither in accordance withthe statement of bRav Huna nor in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara explains: It is not bin accordance withthe statement of bRav Huna, as we saidabove with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the timeto recite bthe afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In addition to the ihalakhotrelating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: bRabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him:The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so bwhat room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpirecaused bby mein the study hall. bAnd upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathe complete formula of Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana’s prayer: bUpon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishapin determining the ihalakha btranspirescaused bby me, and that I not fail in any matter of ihalakha /i, and that my colleagues,who together with me engage in clarifying the ihalakha, bwill rejoice in me.He specified: bAnd that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nordeclare bimpure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of ihalakha /i, and that I will rejoice in them. /b, bUpon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sitidly bonstreet bcorners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early topursue bmatters of Torah, and they rise early topursue bfrivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction. /b,On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life,guidelines by which to live, band we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bHe said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logicwhen studying verses that tend toward heresy ( ige /i’ ionim /i), band placeyour children, while they are still young, bbetween the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. Fordoing bthat, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b,A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer’s mentor, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: When bRabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer,the man whose life’s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, bfor whatreason bare you crying?With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?, bHe said to them:I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. bIf they were leading me before a flesh and blood kingwhose life is temporal, bwho is here today anddead bin the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternaland, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; bif he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration,as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. bIf he kills me, his killing is not for eternity,as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, bI am able to appease him with words andeven bbribe him with money,and beven so I would crywhen standing before royal judgment. bNow that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry? /b,His students bsaid to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it beHis bwill that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His studentswere puzzled band said: To that pointand not beyond? Shouldn’t one fear God more? bHe said to them: Would thata person achieve that level of fear. bKnow that when one commits a transgression, he saysto himself: I hope bthat no man will see me.If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.,The Gemara relates that bat the time of his death,immediately beforehand, bhe said to them: Remove the vesselsfrom the house and take them outside bdue to the ritual impuritythat will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. bAnd prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is comingfrom the upper world to accompany me., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the iAmidaprayer, also known as iShemoneh Esreh /i, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as itefilla /i, prayer. bRabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites theprayer of beighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says:A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites ban abridgedversion of the prayer of beighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva saysan intermediate opinion: bIf he is fluent in his prayer, he recites theprayer of beighteen blessings, and if not,he need only recite ban abridgedversion of the prayer of beighteen blessings. /b, bRabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplicationand is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw., bRabbi Yehoshua says: One whocannot recite a complete prayer because he bis walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remt of Israel, at every transition [ iparashat ha’ibur /i],the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. bMay their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer. /b,While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. bOne who was riding on a donkey should dismount and praycalmly. bIf he is unable to dismount, he should turn his facetoward the direction of the Temple. bIf he is unable to turn his face,it is sufficient that bhe focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.Similarly, bone who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [ iasda /i]and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, bshould focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the iAmidaprayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. bCorresponding to what were these eighteenblessings instituted? When the iShemoneh Esrehwas instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?, bRabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s namethat King bDavid saidin the psalm: b“Give unto the Lord, O you sons of might”(Psalms 29). bRav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in iShema /i. Rabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spinebeneath the ribs.,Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion based the iAmidaprayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:In those blessings where one is required to bow, bone who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude. /b,Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, bUlla said:Until bhe can see a small coin [ iissar /i],on the ground before him bopposite his heart(Rav Hai Gaon). bRabbi Ḥanina said:There is room for leniency; bonce he moves his headforward, bhe need notbow any further. bRava said: But thatapplies only if bhe is exerting himselfwhen doing so, band he appears like one who is bowing.However, if he is able, he should bow further.,Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are bthese eighteenblessings? bThey are nineteen. /b, bRabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics,which curses informers, bwas instituted in Yavneand is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: bCorresponding to what wasthis nineteenth blessing binstituted? /b, bRabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani,who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing bcorresponds toa reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: b“The God of glory thunders” ( /bPsalms 29:3). bAccording to Rav Yosef,who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in iShema /i, the additional blessing bcorresponds tothe word bone that is in iShema /i.Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. bAccording towhat bRabbi Tanḥumsaid that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said,that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing bcorresponds to the small vertebra that isat the bottom bof the spine. /b,In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: bThe Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arrangedthe beighteen blessings,already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, bbefore Rabban Gamliel,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin, bin order in Yavne.Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. bRabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics,a blessing directed against the Sadducees? bShmuel HaKatan,who was one of the most pious men of that generation, bstood and instituted it. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe next year,when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, bhe forgotthat blessing
40. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. אין גזעו מחליף אף צדיק ח"ו אין גזעו מחליף לכך נאמר ארז אילו נאמר ארז ולא נאמר תמר הייתי אומר מה ארז אין עושה פירות אף צדיק ח"ו אין עושה פירות לכך נאמר תמר ונאמר ארז,וארז גזעו מחליף והתניא הלוקח אילן מחבירו לקוץ מגביהו מן הקרקע טפח וקוצץ בסדן השקמה שני טפחים בבתולת השקמה שלשה טפחים בקנים ובגפנים מן הפקק ולמעלה בדקלים ובארזים חופר למטה ומשריש לפי שאין גזעו מחליף,הכא במאי עסקינן בשאר מיני ארזים כדרבה בר הונא דאמר רבה בר הונא עשרה מיני ארזים הן שנאמר (ישעיהו מא, יט) אתן במדבר ארז שיטה והדס וגו',ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר שגזר שלש עשרה תעניות על הצבור ולא ירדו גשמים באחרונה התחילו הצבור לצאת אמר להם תקנתם קברים לעצמכם געו כל העם בבכיה וירדו גשמים,שוב מעשה בר' אליעזר שירד לפני התיבה ואמר עשרים וארבע ברכות ולא נענה ירד רבי עקיבא אחריו ואמר אבינו מלכנו אין לנו מלך אלא אתה אבינו מלכנו למענך רחם עלינו וירדו גשמים הוו מרנני רבנן יצתה בת קול ואמרה לא מפני שזה גדול מזה אלא שזה מעביר על מדותיו וזה אינו מעביר על מדותיו,ת"ר עד מתי יהו הגשמים יורדין והצבור פוסקין מתעניתם כמלא ברך המחרישה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים בחרבה טפח בבינונית טפחיים בעבודה שלשה טפחים,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אין לך טפח מלמעלה שאין תהום יוצא לקראתו שלשה טפחים והא תניא טפחיים לא קשיא כאן בעבודה כאן בשאינה עבודה,א"ר אלעזר כשמנסכין את המים בחג תהום אומר לחבירו אבע מימיך קול שני ריעים אני שומע שנאמר (תהלים מב, ח) תהום אל תהום קורא לקול צנוריך וגו',אמר רבה לדידי חזי לי האי רידיא דמי לעיגלא (תלתא) ופירסא שפוותיה וקיימא בין תהומא תתאה לתהומא עילאה לתהומא עילאה א"ל חשור מימיך לתהומא תתאה א"ל אבע מימיך שנא' (שיר השירים ב, יב) הנצנים נראו בארץ וגו':,היו מתענין וירדו גשמים קודם הנץ החמה כו': ת"ר היו מתענין וירדו להם גשמים קודם הנץ החמה לא ישלימו לאחר הנץ החמה ישלימו דברי ר' מאיר ר' יהודה אומר קודם חצות לא ישלימו לאחר חצות ישלימו,רבי יוסי אומר קודם ט' שעות לא ישלימו לאחר ט' שעות ישלימו שכן מצינו באחאב מלך ישראל שהתענה מתשע שעות ולמעלה שנאמר (מלכים א כא, כט) הראית כי נכנע אחאב וגו',ר' יהודה נשיאה גזר תעניתא וירדו להם גשמים לאחר הנץ החמה סבר לאשלומינהו א"ל רבי אמי קודם חצות ואחר חצות שנינו שמואל הקטן גזר תעניתא וירדו להם גשמים קודם הנץ החמה כסבורין העם לומר שבחו של צבור הוא,אמר להם אמשול לכם [משל] למה הדבר דומה לעבד שמבקש פרס מרבו אמר להם תנו לו ואל אשמע קולו,שוב שמואל הקטן גזר תעניתא וירדו להם גשמים לאחר שקיעת החמה כסבורים העם לומר שבחו של צבור הוא אמר להם שמואל לא שבח של צבור הוא אלא אמשול לכם משל למה הדבר דומה לעבד שמבקש פרס מרבו ואמר להם המתינו לו עד שיתמקמק ויצטער ואחר כך תנו לו,ולשמואל הקטן שבחו של צבור היכי דמי אמר משיב הרוח ונשב זיקא אמר מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא:,מעשה וגזרו תענית בלוד כו': ונימא הלל מעיקרא אביי ורבא דאמרי תרווייהו לפי שאין אומרים הלל 25b. bits shoots do not replenishthemselves when its stump is cut down, bso too, Heaven forbid,with regard to ba righteous person, his shoots will not replenishthemselves, i.e., he will be unable to recover from misfortune. bTherefore, it is stated “cedar”in the verse. Just as the cedar grows new shoots after its stump is cut down, so too, a righteous individual will thrive again. Conversely, bwere it stated “cedar” and were it not stated “palm tree,” I would saythat bjust asin the case of ba cedar, it does not produce fruit, so too, a righteous man, God forbid, does not produce fruit,i.e., he will have no reward in the World-to-Come. bTherefore, it is stated “palm tree” and it isalso bstated “cedar.” /b,§ The Gemara asks: bAnddo ba cedar’s shootsreally breplenishthemselves? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who bought a tree from another to chopit down for wood, without acquiring total ownership of the tree, he must blifthis ax ba handbreadth and chopthere, so as to allow the tree to grow back? However, bina case where he purchased ba large sycamore,he must leave btwo handbreadths. Inthe case of ban untrimmed sycamore,he must leave bthree handbreadths. Ina situation where one bbought reeds or grapevines,he may chop only bfrom thefirst bknot and above. Inthe case of bpalms or cedars,one may bdig down and uprootit, bas its shootswill bnot replenishthemselves. This ibaraitaindicates that cedars will not grow new shoots after they have been cut down.,The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here? With other species of cedars.This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabba bar Huna, as Rabba bar Huna said: There are ten species of cedars, as it is stated: “I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtleand the oil tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree and the larch together” (Isaiah 41:19). The seven species mentioned in this verse are all called cedars, as are three additional species., bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving Rabbi Eliezer, who decreeda complete cycle of bthirteen fasts upon the congregation, but rain did not fall. Atthe end of bthe lastfast, bthe congregation began to exitthe synagogue. bHe said to them: Have you prepared graves for yourselves?If rain does not fall, we will all die of hunger. bAll the people burst into tears, and rain fell. /b,There was banother incident involvingRabbi Eliezer, bwho descendedto serve as prayer leader bbefore the arkon a fast day. bAnd he recited twenty-four blessings, but he was not answered. Rabbi Akiva descended before the arkafter him band said: Our Father, our King, we have no king otherthan bYou. Our Father, our King, for Your sake, have mercy on us. And rainimmediately bfell. The Sages were whisperingamong themselves that Rabbi Akiva was answered while his teacher, Rabbi Eliezer, was not. bA Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bnot because thisSage, Rabbi Akiva, bis greater than that one,Rabbi Eliezer, bbut that this one is forgiving, and that one is not forgiving.God responded to Rabbi Akiva’s forgiving nature in kind by sending rain.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bHow much rain must fall for the community to cease their fastfor rain? If the rain penetrates the soil bby the fulldepth of the blade of ba plowuntil the spot where it bbends,they may cease fasting; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis saya different measurement: If the earth is completely bdry,the soil must become moist to the depth of a single bhandbreadth.For baveragesoil, they must wait until the moisture reaches a depth of btwo handbreadths.If it is bworkedsoil, i.e., soil that has been plowed, the moisture must reach to a depth of bthree handbreadths. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: There is no handbreadthof rain bfrom above toward whichthe water of bthe deep does not rise three handbreadths.The Gemara raises an objection: bBut isn’t it taughtin another ibaraitathat the water of the deep rises btwo handbreadths?The Gemara explains: This is bnot difficult. Here,in first ibaraita /i, it is referring bto workedland, which water penetrates faster, whereas bthere,in the second ibaraita /i, it is referring bto unworkedland, which water does not penetrate as easily, and therefore the water of the deep rises only two handbreadths., bRabbi Elazar said: When the waterlibation bwas poured during the festivalof iSukkot /i, these waters of the bdeep say to the otherwaters of the deep: bLet your water flow, as I hear the voices of twoof our bfriends,the wine libation and the water libation, which are both poured on the altar. bAs it is stated: “Deep calls to deep at the sound of your channels,all Your waves and Your billows are gone over me” (Psalms 42:8), i.e., the upper waters of the deep call to the lower waters of the deep when they hear the sound of the libations., bRabba said: I have seen thisangel in charge of water, bRidya, in the form of a calf whose lips were parted, standing between the lowerwaters of the bdeep and the upperwaters of the bdeep. To the upperwaters of the bdeep, he said: Distill your waterand let it rain. bTo the lowerwaters of the bdeep, he said: Let your water flowfrom below, bas it is stated: “The flowers appear on the earth;the time of the singing has come, and the voice of the turtledove [ itur /i] is heard in our land” (Song of Songs 2:12). The appearance of flowers in this verse alludes to the libations, as both the blooming of flowers and pouring of these libations are annual events. The time of the singing is referring to the singing of the Festival. Finally, the term iturin Aramaic can also mean an ox; in this context, it is interpreted as a reference to the angel Ridya.,§ The mishna teaches: If bthey were fastingfor rain band rain fell for them before sunrise,they need not complete their fast until the evening. bThe Sages taught:If bthey were fastingfor rain band rain fell for them before sunrise,they need bnot completetheir fast, as the obligation to fast does not come into effect until sunrise. However, if rain fell bafter sunrise, theymust bcompletetheir fast. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:If rain fell bbefore midday,they need bnot completetheir fast; however, if it rains bafter midday, theymust bcompletetheir fast.,Rabbi Yosei says: If rain falls bbefore the ninth hour,three hours into the afternoon, they need bnot completetheir fast; if it rains bafter the ninth hourof the day, they must bcompletetheir fast, bas we found with regard to Ahab, king of Israel, who fasted from the ninth hour and onward,as it bis stated:“And it came to pass, when Ahab heard these words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly. And the word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite saying: bDo you see how Ahab humbles himself before Me?”(I Kings 21:27–29). According to tradition, this occurred in the ninth hour., bRabbi Yehuda Nesia decreed a fast, and rain fell for them after sunrise. He thought to completethe fast, but bRabbi Ami said to himthat bwe learned: Before noon and after noon,i.e., the ihalakhais in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. bShmuel HaKatan decreed a fast, and rain fell for them before sunrise. The people thought to say:This bisa sign of bthe praiseworthiness of the community,as we merited rainfall even before we prayed., bHe said to them: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? Toa situation where there is ba slave who requests a reward from his master,either food or livelihood, bandthe master bsays tohis ministers: bGive himwhat he asks for band let me not hear his voice,as I would rather not have to listen to him. Here, too, evidently God has no desire to hear our prayers., bAgain,on another occasion, bShmuel HaKatan decreed a fast, and rain fell for them after sunset.Based on his previous response, bthe people thought to say:This bisa sign of bthe praiseworthiness of the community,as God listened to our prayers all day. bShmuelHaKatan bsaid to them: It is nota sign of bthe praiseworthiness of the community. Rather, I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? Toa situation where there is ba slave who requests a reward from his master, andthe master bsays tohis ministers: bWait until he pines away and suffers, and afterward giveit bto him.Here too, the delay is not to the congregation’s credit.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, baccording tothe opinion of bShmuel HaKatan,what is considered bthe praiseworthiness of the community; what are the circumstancesin which approval is shown from Heaven? The Gemara explains: When the prayer leader brecites: He Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blows;and when bhe recites:And bthe rain fall, and rain falls. /b,The mishna teaches: bAn incidentoccurred in bwhichthe court bdecreed a fast in Lod,and when rain fell they ate and drank, and afterward they recited ihallel /i. The Gemara asks: bAnd let us recite ihallelat the outset,without delay. Why did they first go home and eat? bAbaye and Rava both said: Because one recites ihallel/b
41. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.34. Celsus would also have us to offer first-fruits to demons. But we would offer them to Him who said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth. And to Him to whom we offer first-fruits we also send up our prayers, having a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, and we hold fast this profession as long as we live; for we find God and His only-begotten Son, manifested to us in Jesus, to be gracious and kind to us. And if we would wish to have besides a great number of beings who shall ever prove friendly to us, we are taught that thousand thousands stood before Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand ministered unto Him. And these, regarding all as their relations and friends who imitate their piety towards God, and in prayer call upon Him with sincerity, work along with them for their salvation, appear unto them, deem it their office and duty to attend to them, and as if by common agreement they visit with all manner of kindness and deliverance those who pray to God, to whom they themselves also pray: For they are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for those who shall be heirs of salvation. Let the learned Greeks say that the human soul at its birth is placed under the charge of demons: Jesus has taught us not to despise even the little ones in His Church, saying, Their angels do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven. And the prophet says, The angel of the Lord encamps round about them that fear Him, and delivers them. We do not, then, deny that there are many demons upon earth, but we maintain that they exist and exercise power among the wicked, as a punishment of their wickedness. But they have no power over those who have put on the whole armour of God, who have received strength to withstand the wiles of the devil, and who are ever engaged in contests with them, knowing that we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
46. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 2.57, 7.34, 8.11 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253, 254
abortion Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
abraham Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
agape Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109; Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198
agathonice Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164
altars Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
amidah Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249, 253
apolytrosis Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
apostles, and liturgies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
apostles Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
aramaic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
augustine Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
banquets Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
baptism, and conversion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
baptism, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism, third century Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 232; Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 240, 261, 263; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
birkat ha-mazon Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
birkath ha-mazon Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 249, 262
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
bishop Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
bishops, as choir leader Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
bishops, gnostic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
bishops Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
blessings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
body of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
bread, as food Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
bread, as species of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
bread, blessing of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
catechumenate, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
catechumens Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 237
celebration Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
cena Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
chosen people Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 247, 254, 262
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
churches, liturgy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 560, 561
circumcision Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 261
clement, second Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
clement of alexandria Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
covenant, new Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
cross Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
cuming g.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
david/davidic king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247, 254, 262
deacons Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
death, of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
diakonoi Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
didache Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513; Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113, 127; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87, 88, 102; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 235, 236, 237, 238, 240, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262, 263
doresse j. and lanne e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
doxology Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 262
eighteen benedictions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 99
emmaus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262, 263
episcopoi Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
eschatology Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
ethnicity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249
eucharist, before nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480, 482
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262, 263
eucharist, eucharistic, community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12, 404
eucharist, liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
eucharist, new testament period Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, sacrifice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
eucharist, second-century rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480, 482
eucharist, space Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
eucharist, sunday Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198
eucharist Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
eucharistic prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
fast Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87
fasting Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 240, 261; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
fish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
food Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164
forms of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 210, 211
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 237, 240, 249, 254, 261, 262, 263
gentiles Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
gnosis/gnosticism/gnostic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 254
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 246, 247, 253, 254, 262
god as king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253
greek Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
harmony (συμφωνία), harmonization, musical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
hebrews, letter to the Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
hippolytus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
historiola Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
holy of holies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253, 261
hymn Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
hypocrites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 261, 262, 263
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
identity, (in)group identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249
identity, christian identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 263
identity, gnostic identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253, 254, 261, 262
identity, jewish identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249, 261
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 235, 236, 237, 238, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262, 263
immortality Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
irenaeus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
isaac, binding of (akedah) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 240, 246, 247, 249, 261, 262
jerusalem, earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
jerusalem Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
jesus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 236, 237
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 237, 246, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262, 263
jewish liturgy Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85
jews, prayer Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 99
john chrysostom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
judaism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 237, 249, 253, 261, 262
judgement Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
kedushah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 247, 249, 262
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
liturgical, readings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
liturgical, traditions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
liturgical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
liturgy, origins of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
lords day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
lords prayer Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262, 263; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
maranatha Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254, 262
marcosians Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
martyrdom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
matthew, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 240
matthew Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 87
meal, agape Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
meal, common Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 236, 238, 240, 263
meal, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
meal, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
meal, liturgical, religious, ritual, sacred Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
meals Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164
metaphor Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12, 404
midrash, and piyyut Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 561
mount, moriah Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
music Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 211
mussaf prayer for rosh hashana Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
nag hammadi Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 254
narrative, audience Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
narrative (common) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
nomina sacra Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
obedience Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247
old greek bible version Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
old testament Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 247, 261
oral and written Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 172
pagan/gentile prayer/prayer practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 262
papyri Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
paul, acts of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
paul Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
people of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249, 254, 261, 263
persuasion, peter, first letter of Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
pharisees, proto-pharisees Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 172
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 87
pleroma Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
prayer, christian Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 560, 561
prayer Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 88
prayereucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109
prayers, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
prayers, meal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
prayers, thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
prayers Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
promised land Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247, 249, 262
prophet Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
prophets/prophetic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 247, 261
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
psalms, the psalm titles Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 172
psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
rhetoric Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
rituals Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 261
rome Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
sabbath Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
sacred, meals Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
sacrifice, animal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice, christs Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice, of isaac Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
sanctus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 560
scribal practices Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
second temple period/judaism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
septuagint Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
sermon on the mount Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 240, 261
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
shemoneh esreh/ eighteen benedictions Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
shemoneh esreh Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
singing, of psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
sons/children of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247, 254
spiritual food and drink Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254, 262, 263
strack-billerbeck Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198, 203
sunday Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238
synagogues, liturgy Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 99
teacher, criteria for assessment Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 127
teacher, διδάσκαλος Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 127
tertullian Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 232
textual criticism Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
thecla Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 232
torah Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113
traditions, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
traditions, matthean Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
two ways, the Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113, 127
two ways, teaching of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 237, 240, 261
two ways (tractate of) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
valentinus/valentinians Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
werner e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 211
wine Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
women, church leadership Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 232
women, priesthood' Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 232
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
words for prayer, εὐχαριστέω/ εὐχαριστία Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
worship, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480, 482
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198, 203, 210, 211
worship, day of worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238
worship, early christian worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253
worship Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238
θυμιατήριον Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404