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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Anon., Didache, 9-10

nanBut after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire.

nanNow concerning the Thanksgiving (Eucharist), thus give thanks. First, concerning the cup: We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of David Your servant, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. And concerning the broken bread: We thank You, our Father, for the life and knowledge which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let Your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Your kingdom; for Yours is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ forever. But let no one eat or drink of your Thanksgiving (Eucharist), but they who have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, Give not that which is holy to the dogs. Matthew 7:6

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.27-1.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.27. Gather together our scattered people, set free those who are slaves among the Gentiles, look upon those who are rejected and despised, and let the Gentiles know that thou art our God.' 1.28. Afflict those who oppress and are insolent with pride. 1.29. Plant thy people in thy holy place, as Moses said.'
2. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 36.1-36.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 36.2. and cause the fear of thee to fall upon all the nations. 36.2. A perverse mind will cause grief,but a man of experience will pay him back. 36.3. Lift up thy hand against foreign nations and let them see thy might. 36.4. As in us thou hast been sanctified before them,so in them be thou magnified before us; 36.5. and let them know thee, as we have known that there is not God but thee, O Lord. 36.6. Show signs anew, and work further wonders;make thy hand and thy right arm glorious. 36.7. Rouse thy anger and pour out thy wrath;destroy the adversary and wipe out the enemy. 36.8. Hasten the day, and remember the appointed time,and let people recount thy mighty deeds. 36.9. Let him who survives be consumed in the fiery wrath,and may those who harm thy people meet destruction. 36.11. Gather all the tribes of Jacob,and give them their inheritance, as at the beginning. 36.12. Have mercy, O Lord, upon the people called by thy name,upon Israel, whom thou hast likened to a first-born son. 36.13. Have pity on the city of thy sanctuary,Jerusalem, the place of thy rest. 36.14. Fill Zion with the celebration of thy wondrous deeds,and thy temple with thy glory. 36.15. Bear witness to those whom thou didst create in the beginning,and fulfil the prophecies spoken in thy name. 36.16. Reward those who wait for thee,and let thy prophets be found trustworthy. 36.17. Hearken, O Lord, to the prayer of thy servants,according to the blessing of Aaron for thy people,and all who are on the earth will know that thou art the Lord, the God of the ages.
3. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.3. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled.
4. Anon., Didache, 9.2, 9.4, 10.7, 11.1, 11.3, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
5. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 34.7, 59.3-59.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34.7. καὶ ἡμεῖς, οὖν, ἐν ὁμονοίᾳ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ συναχθέντες τῇ συνειδήσει, ὡς ἐξ ἑνὸς στόματος βοήσωμεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐκτενῶς εἰς τὸ μετόχους ἡμᾶς γενέσθαι τῶν μεγάλων καὶ ἐνδόξων ἐπαγγελιῶν αὐτοῦ. 59.3. ... ἐλπίζειν There appears to be a lucuna in the Greek : Lightfoot supplies *do\s h\mi=n, ku/rie. ἐπὶ τὸ ἀρχεγόνον πάσης κτίσεως ὄνομά σου, Eph 1, 18 ἀνοίξας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ Is. 57, 15 γινώσκειν σε τὸν μόνον ὕψιστον ἐν ὑψίστοις, Is. 13, 11 Ps. 32, 10 ἅγιον ἐν ἀγίοις ἀναπαυόμενον. τὸν ταπεινοῦντα ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων, τὸν διαλύοντα λογισμοὺς Job 5, 11 ἐθνῶν, τὸν ποιοῦντα ταπεινοὺς εἰς ὕψος καὶ τοὺς I Sam, 2, 7; cf. Luke 1, 53 ὑψηλοὺς ταπεινοῦντα, τὸν πλουτίζοντα καὶ πτωχίζοντα, τὸν ἀποκτείνοντα καὶ ζῆν ποιοῦντα, kai\ sw/zonta appears to be inserted before kai\ zh=n by SL, but is omitted by CK. Deut. 32, 39; cf. I Sam. 2,6; 11 Kings 5, 7 μόνον εὑρέτην eu)erge/thn ( "benefactor" ) C, "creator" K; the text is doubiful but eu(re/thn (LS) seems more likely to be implied by K than eu)erge/thn, and is therefore slightly more probable. πνευμάτων καὶ θεὸν πάσης σαρκός: τὸν ἐπιβλέποντα ἐν τοῖς ἀβύσσοις, τὸν ἐπόπτην Num. 16, 22; 27, 16 ἀνθρωπίνων ἔργων, τὸν τῶν κινδυνευόντων Dan, 3, 31 (*wulg. 3, 55); cf. Sirach 16, 18. 19 Judith 9, 11 βοηθόν, τὸν τῶν ἀπηλπισμένων σωτῆρα, τὸν παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστην καὶ ἐπίσκοπον: τὸν πληθύνοντα ἔθνη ἐπὶ γῆς καὶ ἐκ πάντων ἐκλεξάμενον τοὺς ἀγαπῶντάς σε διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ ἠγαπημένου παιδός σου, δἰ οὗ ἡμᾶς ἐπαίδευσας, Ps. 118, 114; cf, Judith 9, 11 ἡγίασας, ἐτίμησας: 59.4. ἀξιοῦμέν σε, δέσποτα, βοηθὸν γενέσθαι καὶ ἀντιλήπτορα ἡμῶν. τοὺς ἐν θλίψει ἡμῶν σῶσον, τοὺς ταπεινοὺς ἐλέησον, τοὺς πεπτωκότας ἔγειρον, τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπιφάνηθι, τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς ἴασαι, τοὺς πλανωμένους τοῦ λαοῦ σου ἐπίστρεψον: χόρτασον τοὺς πεινῶντας, λύτρωσαι τοὺς δεσμίους ἡμῶν, ἐξανάστησον τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας, παρακάλεσον τοὺς ὀλιγοψυχοῦντας: I Kings 3, 60; II Kings 19, 19; Ezek. 86, 23 Ps. 78, 13; 94, 7; 99, 8 γνώτωσάν σε ἅπαντα τὰ ἔθνη. ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ θεὸς μόνος καὶ Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ὁ παῖς σου καὶ ἡμεῖς λαός σου καὶ πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς σου.
6. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.2. especially if the Lord should reveal aught to me. Assemble yourselves together in common, every one of you severally, man by man, in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ, who after the flesh was of David's race, who is Son of Man and Son of God, to the end that ye may obey the bishop and presbytery without distraction of mind; breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality and the antidote that we should not die but live for ever in Jesus Christ.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.1, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour." 4.3. Rabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen."
9. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.17, 11.23-11.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come.
10. New Testament, Acts, 2.42, 2.46, 20.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight.
11. New Testament, Hebrews, 6.1-6.2, 13.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Therefore leaving the doctrine of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection -- not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God 6.2. of the teaching of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. 13.15. Through him, then, let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to his name.
12. New Testament, Romans, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service.
13. New Testament, Luke, 22.14-22.20, 24.3, 24.13-24.29, 24.31-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
14. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God.
15. New Testament, Matthew, 6.9-6.13, 26.26-26.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom.
16. Anon., Acts of Peter, 7-9, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Justin, First Apology, 14.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Tertullian, Apology, 39.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. The object of our worship is the One God, He who by His commanding word, His arranging wisdom, His mighty power, brought forth from nothing this entire mass of our world, with all its array of elements, bodies, spirits, for the glory of His majesty; whence also the Greeks have bestowed on it the name of Κόσμος . The eye cannot see Him, though He is (spiritually) visible. He is incomprehensible, though in grace He is manifested. He is beyond our utmost thought, though our human faculties conceive of Him. He is therefore equally real and great. But that which, in the ordinary sense, can be seen and handled and conceived, is inferior to the eyes by which it is taken in, and the hands by which it is tainted, and the faculties by which it is discovered; but that which is infinite is known only to itself. This it is which gives some notion of God, while yet beyond all our conceptions - our very incapacity of fully grasping Him affords us the idea of what He really is. He is presented to our minds in His transcendent greatness, as at once known and unknown. And this is the crowning guilt of men, that they will not recognize One, of whom they cannot possibly be ignorant. Would you have the proof from the works of His hands, so numerous and so great, which both contain you and sustain you, which minister at once to your enjoyment, and strike you with awe; or would you rather have it from the testimony of the soul itself? Though under the oppressive bondage of the body, though led astray by depraving customs, though enervated by lusts and passions, though in slavery to false gods; yet, whenever the soul comes to itself, as out of a surfeit, or a sleep, or a sickness, and attains something of its natural soundness, it speaks of God; using no other word, because this is the peculiar name of the true God. God is great and good - Which may God give, are the words on every lip. It bears witness, too, that God is judge, exclaiming, God sees, and, I commend myself to God, and, God will repay me. O noble testimony of the soul by nature Christian! Then, too, in using such words as these, it looks not to the Capitol, but to the heavens. It knows that there is the throne of the living God, as from Him and from thence itself came down.
19. Anon., The Acts of Paul And Thecla, 39, 42, 5, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. רב אויא חלש ולא אתא לפרקא דרב יוסף למחר כי אתא בעא אביי לאנוחי דעתיה דרב יוסף א"ל מ"ט לא אתא מר לפרקא א"ל דהוה חליש לבאי ולא מצינא א"ל אמאי לא טעמת מידי ואתית א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המוספין א"ל איבעי ליה למר לצלויי צלותא דמוספין ביחיד ולטעום מידי ולמיתי א"ל ולא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר יוחנן אסור לו לאדם שיקדים תפלתו לתפלת הצבור א"ל לאו אתמר עלה א"ר אבא בצבור שנו,ולית הלכתא לא כרב הונא ולא כריב"ל כרב הונא הא דאמרן כריב"ל דאריב"ל כיון שהגיע זמן תפלת המנחה אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המנחה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר' נחוניא בן הקנה היה מתפלל בכניסתו לבית המדרש וביציאתו תפלה קצרה אמרו לו מה מקום לתפלה זו אמר להם בכניסתי אני מתפלל שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי וביציאתי אני נותן הודאה על חלקי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בכניסתו מהו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי ולא אכשל בדבר הלכה וישמחו בי חברי ולא אומר על טמא טהור ולא על טהור טמא ולא יכשלו חברי בדבר הלכה ואשמח בהם,ביציאתו מהו אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי ששמת חלקי מיושבי בית המדרש ולא שמת חלקי מיושבי קרנות שאני משכים והם משכימים אני משכים לדברי תורה והם משכימים לדברים בטלים אני עמל והם עמלים אני עמל ומקבל שכר והם עמלים ואינם מקבלים שכר אני רץ והם רצים אני רץ לחיי העולם הבא והם רצים לבאר שחת:,ת"ר כשחלה ר' אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו אמרו לו רבינו למדנו אורחות חיים ונזכה בהן לחיי העולם הבא,אמר להם הזהרו בכבוד חבריכם ומנעו בניכם מן ההגיון והושיבום בין ברכי תלמידי חכמים וכשאתם מתפללים דעו לפני מי אתם עומדים ובשביל כך תזכו לחיי העולם הבא,וכשחלה רבי יוחנן בן זכאי נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו כיון שראה אותם התחיל לבכות אמרו לו תלמידיו נר ישראל עמוד הימיני פטיש החזק מפני מה אתה בוכה,אמר להם אילו לפני מלך בשר ודם היו מוליכין אותי שהיום כאן ומחר בקבר שאם כועס עלי אין כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני אין איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני אין מיתתו מיתת עולם ואני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולשחדו בממון אעפ"כ הייתי בוכה ועכשיו שמוליכים אותי לפני ממ"ה הקב"ה שהוא חי וקיים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים שאם כועס עלי כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני מיתתו מיתת עולם ואיני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולא לשחדו בממון ולא עוד אלא שיש לפני שני דרכים אחת של גן עדן ואחת של גיהנם ואיני יודע באיזו מוליכים אותי ולא אבכה,אמרו לו רבינו ברכנו אמר להם יהי רצון שתהא מורא שמים עליכם כמורא בשר ודם אמרו לו תלמידיו עד כאן אמר להם ולואי תדעו כשאדם עובר עבירה אומר שלא יראני אדם.,בשעת פטירתו אמר להם פנו כלים מפני הטומאה והכינו כסא לחזקיהו מלך יהודה שבא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רבן גמליאל אומר בכל יום ויום מתפלל אדם שמנה עשרה רבי יהושע אומר מעין י"ח ר"ע אומר אם שגורה תפלתו בפיו מתפלל י"ח ואם לאו מעין י"ח,ר"א אומר העושה תפלתו קבע אין תפלתו תחנונים,ר' יהושע אומר ההולך במקום סכנה מתפלל תפלה קצרה ואומר הושע ה' את עמך את שארית ישראל בכל פרשת העבור יהיו צרכיהם לפניך ברוך אתה ה' שומע תפלה,היה רוכב על החמור ירד ויתפלל ואם אינו יכול לירד יחזיר את פניו ואם אינו יכול להחזיר את פניו יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים היה מהלך בספינה או באסדא יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הני י"ח כנגד מי,א"ר הלל בריה דר' שמואל בר נחמני כנגד י"ח אזכרות שאמר דוד (תהלים כט, א) בהבו לה' בני אלים רב יוסף אמר כנגד י"ח אזכרות שבקריאת שמע א"ר תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כנגד שמונה עשרה חוליות שבשדרה.,ואמר ר' תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיכרע עד שיתפקקו כל חוליות שבשדרה,עולא אמר עד כדי שיראה איסר כנגד לבו רבי חנינא אמר כיון שנענע ראשו שוב אינו צריך אמר רבא והוא דמצער נפשיה ומחזי כמאן דכרע,הני תמני סרי תשסרי הוויין,אמר רבי לוי ברכת הצדוקים ביבנה תקנוה כנגד מי תקנוה,א"ר לוי לרבי הלל בריה דרבי שמואל בר נחמני כנגד (תהלים כט, ג) אל הכבוד הרעים לרב יוסף כנגד אחד שבקריאת שמע לר' תנחום א"ר יהושע בן לוי כנגד חוליא קטנה שבשדרה:,ת"ר שמעון הפקולי הסדיר י"ח ברכות לפני רבן גמליאל על הסדר ביבנה אמר להם ר"ג לחכמים כלום יש אדם שיודע לתקן ברכת הצדוקים עמד שמואל הקטן ותקנה,לשנה אחרת שכחה 28b. After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: bRav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef’s Shabbat lecture. WhenRav Avya bcame the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef,and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya’s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef. brTo this end, he asked him: bWhy did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture? brRav Avya bsaid to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unableto attend. brAbaye bsaid to him: Why did you not eat something and come? brRav Avya bsaid to him:Does bthe Master not holdin accordance with bthatstatement bof Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer. brAbaye bsaid to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, andthen bcometo the lecture. brRav Avya bsaid to him:Does bmy Master not holdin accordance with bthatstatement bof Rabbi Yoḥa: A person may not recite hisindividual bprayer prior to the communal prayer? brAbaye bsaid to him:Was bit not stated regarding this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Abba said: They taughtthis bin a communalsetting? brIn other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion., bAndthe Gemara summarizes: bThe ihalakhais neither in accordance withthe statement of bRav Huna nor in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara explains: It is not bin accordance withthe statement of bRav Huna, as we saidabove with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the timeto recite bthe afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In addition to the ihalakhotrelating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: bRabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him:The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so bwhat room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpirecaused bby mein the study hall. bAnd upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathe complete formula of Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana’s prayer: bUpon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishapin determining the ihalakha btranspirescaused bby me, and that I not fail in any matter of ihalakha /i, and that my colleagues,who together with me engage in clarifying the ihalakha, bwill rejoice in me.He specified: bAnd that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nordeclare bimpure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of ihalakha /i, and that I will rejoice in them. /b, bUpon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sitidly bonstreet bcorners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early topursue bmatters of Torah, and they rise early topursue bfrivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction. /b,On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life,guidelines by which to live, band we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bHe said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logicwhen studying verses that tend toward heresy ( ige /i’ ionim /i), band placeyour children, while they are still young, bbetween the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. Fordoing bthat, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b,A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer’s mentor, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: When bRabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer,the man whose life’s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, bfor whatreason bare you crying?With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?, bHe said to them:I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. bIf they were leading me before a flesh and blood kingwhose life is temporal, bwho is here today anddead bin the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternaland, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; bif he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration,as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. bIf he kills me, his killing is not for eternity,as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, bI am able to appease him with words andeven bbribe him with money,and beven so I would crywhen standing before royal judgment. bNow that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry? /b,His students bsaid to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it beHis bwill that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His studentswere puzzled band said: To that pointand not beyond? Shouldn’t one fear God more? bHe said to them: Would thata person achieve that level of fear. bKnow that when one commits a transgression, he saysto himself: I hope bthat no man will see me.If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.,The Gemara relates that bat the time of his death,immediately beforehand, bhe said to them: Remove the vesselsfrom the house and take them outside bdue to the ritual impuritythat will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. bAnd prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is comingfrom the upper world to accompany me., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the iAmidaprayer, also known as iShemoneh Esreh /i, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as itefilla /i, prayer. bRabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites theprayer of beighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says:A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites ban abridgedversion of the prayer of beighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva saysan intermediate opinion: bIf he is fluent in his prayer, he recites theprayer of beighteen blessings, and if not,he need only recite ban abridgedversion of the prayer of beighteen blessings. /b, bRabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplicationand is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw., bRabbi Yehoshua says: One whocannot recite a complete prayer because he bis walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remt of Israel, at every transition [ iparashat ha’ibur /i],the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. bMay their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer. /b,While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. bOne who was riding on a donkey should dismount and praycalmly. bIf he is unable to dismount, he should turn his facetoward the direction of the Temple. bIf he is unable to turn his face,it is sufficient that bhe focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.Similarly, bone who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [ iasda /i]and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, bshould focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the iAmidaprayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. bCorresponding to what were these eighteenblessings instituted? When the iShemoneh Esrehwas instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?, bRabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s namethat King bDavid saidin the psalm: b“Give unto the Lord, O you sons of might”(Psalms 29). bRav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in iShema /i. Rabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spinebeneath the ribs.,Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion based the iAmidaprayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:In those blessings where one is required to bow, bone who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude. /b,Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, bUlla said:Until bhe can see a small coin [ iissar /i],on the ground before him bopposite his heart(Rav Hai Gaon). bRabbi Ḥanina said:There is room for leniency; bonce he moves his headforward, bhe need notbow any further. bRava said: But thatapplies only if bhe is exerting himselfwhen doing so, band he appears like one who is bowing.However, if he is able, he should bow further.,Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are bthese eighteenblessings? bThey are nineteen. /b, bRabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics,which curses informers, bwas instituted in Yavneand is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: bCorresponding to what wasthis nineteenth blessing binstituted? /b, bRabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani,who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing bcorresponds toa reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: b“The God of glory thunders” ( /bPsalms 29:3). bAccording to Rav Yosef,who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in iShema /i, the additional blessing bcorresponds tothe word bone that is in iShema /i.Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. bAccording towhat bRabbi Tanḥumsaid that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said,that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing bcorresponds to the small vertebra that isat the bottom bof the spine. /b,In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: bThe Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arrangedthe beighteen blessings,already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, bbefore Rabban Gamliel,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin, bin order in Yavne.Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. bRabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics,a blessing directed against the Sadducees? bShmuel HaKatan,who was one of the most pious men of that generation, bstood and instituted it. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe next year,when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, bhe forgotthat blessing
21. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.34. Celsus would also have us to offer first-fruits to demons. But we would offer them to Him who said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth. And to Him to whom we offer first-fruits we also send up our prayers, having a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, and we hold fast this profession as long as we live; for we find God and His only-begotten Son, manifested to us in Jesus, to be gracious and kind to us. And if we would wish to have besides a great number of beings who shall ever prove friendly to us, we are taught that thousand thousands stood before Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand ministered unto Him. And these, regarding all as their relations and friends who imitate their piety towards God, and in prayer call upon Him with sincerity, work along with them for their salvation, appear unto them, deem it their office and duty to attend to them, and as if by common agreement they visit with all manner of kindness and deliverance those who pray to God, to whom they themselves also pray: For they are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for those who shall be heirs of salvation. Let the learned Greeks say that the human soul at its birth is placed under the charge of demons: Jesus has taught us not to despise even the little ones in His Church, saying, Their angels do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven. And the prophet says, The angel of the Lord encamps round about them that fear Him, and delivers them. We do not, then, deny that there are many demons upon earth, but we maintain that they exist and exercise power among the wicked, as a punishment of their wickedness. But they have no power over those who have put on the whole armour of God, who have received strength to withstand the wiles of the devil, and who are ever engaged in contests with them, knowing that we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
agape Alikin (2009) 109
agathonice Lieu (2004) 164
altars Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
apostles,and liturgies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
apostles Vinzent (2013) 76
apostolic fathers,generally Esler (2000) 513
banquets Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
baptism,and conversion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
baptism,before council of nicaea Esler (2000) 480
baptism,third century Esler (2000) 480
baptism Cadwallader (2016) 232; Vinzent (2013) 76
birth Vinzent (2013) 76
bishop Alikin (2009) 32
bishops,as choir leader Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
bishops Vinzent (2013) 76
blessings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
blood Vinzent (2013) 76
body of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
bread,as food Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
bread,as species of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
bread,blessing of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
bread Vinzent (2013) 76
catechumenate,before council of nicaea Esler (2000) 480
celebration Vinzent (2013) 76
cena Alikin (2009) 32
churches,liturgy Levine (2005) 560, 561
clement,second Esler (2000) 513
covenant,new Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
covenant Vinzent (2013) 76
creator Vinzent (2013) 76
cross Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404; Vinzent (2013) 76
deacons Vinzent (2013) 76
death,of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
diakonoi Esler (2000) 513
didache Esler (2000) 513
eighteen benedictions Esler (2000) 99
emmaus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
encounter Vinzent (2013) 76
episcopoi Esler (2000) 513
eschatology Vinzent (2013) 76
eucharist,before nicaea Esler (2000) 480, 482
eucharist,eucharistic,community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12, 404
eucharist,liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51, 404
eucharist,new testament period Esler (2000) 480
eucharist,sacrifice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
eucharist,second-century rome Esler (2000) 480, 482
eucharist,space Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
eucharist Lieu (2004) 164; Vinzent (2013) 76
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
first day of the week Vinzent (2013) 76
fish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
food Lieu (2004) 164
greek Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
harmony (συμφωνία),harmonization,musical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
holy of holies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
hymn Alikin (2009) 32
immortality Vinzent (2013) 76
isaac,binding of (akedah) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
jerusalem,earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
jews,prayer Esler (2000) 99
john chrysostom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
judgement Vinzent (2013) 76
just Vinzent (2013) 76
law Vinzent (2013) 76
liturgical,readings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
liturgical,traditions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
liturgical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
liturgy,origins of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51, 404
lords day Vinzent (2013) 76
lords prayer Vinzent (2013) 76
lords supper Alikin (2009) 109; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
martyrdom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
mary Vinzent (2013) 76
meal,agape Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
meal,eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
meal,jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
meal,liturgical,religious,ritual,sacred Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51, 404
meals Lieu (2004) 164
metaphor Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12, 404
midrash,and piyyut Levine (2005) 561
mount,moriah Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
narrative,audience Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
nomina sacra Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
old greek bible version Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
paul,acts of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
peter Vinzent (2013) 76
power Vinzent (2013) 76
prayer,christian Levine (2005) 560, 561
prayereucharistic Alikin (2009) 109
prayers,eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
prayers,meal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
prayers,thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
prayers Vinzent (2013) 76
prophet Alikin (2009) 32
prophets Vinzent (2013) 76
psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
rabbis Vinzent (2013) 76
rhetoric Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
rome Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12; Vinzent (2013) 76
sacred,meals Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
sacrifice,animal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
sacrifice,christs Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
sacrifice,eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
sacrifice,of isaac Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404
salvation Vinzent (2013) 76
sanctus Levine (2005) 560
scribal practices Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
septuagint Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
singing,of psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
synagogues,liturgy Esler (2000) 99
tertullian Cadwallader (2016) 232
textual criticism Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
thecla Cadwallader (2016) 232
traditions,jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51
traditions,matthean Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12
twelve Vinzent (2013) 76
valentinians Vinzent (2013) 76
wine Alikin (2009) 109; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 51, 404
women,church leadership Cadwallader (2016) 232
women,priesthood' Cadwallader (2016) 232
women Vinzent (2013) 76
worship,before council of nicaea Esler (2000) 480, 482
θυμιατήριον Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404