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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



811
Anon., Didache, 9


nanNow concerning the Thanksgiving (Eucharist), thus give thanks. First, concerning the cup: We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of David Your servant, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. And concerning the broken bread: We thank You, our Father, for the life and knowledge which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let Your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Your kingdom; for Yours is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ forever. But let no one eat or drink of your Thanksgiving (Eucharist), but they who have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, Give not that which is holy to the dogs. Matthew 7:6


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.10, 9.4, 10.5, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.4. אַל־תֹּאמַר בִּלְבָבְךָ בַּהֲדֹף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם מִלְּפָנֶיךָ לֵאמֹר בְּצִדְקָתִי הֱבִיאַנִי יְהוָה לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּבְרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 10.5. וָאֵפֶן וָאֵרֵד מִן־הָהָר וָאָשִׂם אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת בָּאָרוֹן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוַּנִי יְהוָה׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 9.4. Speak not thou in thy heart, after that the LORD thy God hath thrust them out from before thee, saying: ‘For my righteousness the LORD hath brought me in to possess this land’; whereas for the wickedness of these nations the LORD doth drive them out from before thee." 10.5. And I turned and came down from the mount, and put the tables in the ark which I had made; and there they are, as the LORD commanded me.—" 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 10.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.1. גֶּפֶן בּוֹקֵק יִשְׂרָאֵל פְּרִי יְשַׁוֶּה־לּוֹ כְּרֹב לְפִרְיוֹ הִרְבָּה לַמִּזְבְּחוֹת כְּטוֹב לְאַרְצוֹ הֵיטִיבוּ מַצֵּבוֹת׃ 10.1. בְּאַוָּתִי וְאֶסֳּרֵם וְאֻסְּפוּ עֲלֵיהֶם עַמִּים בְּאָסְרָם לִשְׁתֵּי עינתם [עוֹנֹתָם׃] 10.1. Israel was a luxuriant vine, Which put forth fruit freely: As his fruit increased, He increased his altars; The more goodly his land was, The more goodly were his pillars."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 80.7, 80.11, 80.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

80.7. תְּשִׂימֵנוּ מָדוֹן לִשְׁכֵנֵינוּ וְאֹיְבֵינוּ יִלְעֲגוּ־לָמוֹ׃ 80.11. כָּסּוּ הָרִים צִלָּהּ וַעֲנָפֶיהָ אַרְזֵי־אֵל׃ 80.19. וְלֹא־נָסוֹג מִמֶּךָּ תְּחַיֵּנוּ וּבְשִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא׃ 80.7. Thou makest us a strife unto our neighbours; And our enemies mock as they please." 80.11. The mountains were covered with the shadow of it, And the mighty cedars with the boughs thereof." 80.19. So shall we not turn back from Thee; Quicken Thou us, and we will call upon Thy name."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.2, 56.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.2. הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2. וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 56.8. נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מְקַבֵּץ נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹד אֲקַבֵּץ עָלָיו לְנִקְבָּצָיו׃ 5.2. And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. ." 56.8. Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.21, 39.37 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.21. וְאָנֹכִי נְטַעְתִּיךְ שֹׂרֵק כֻּלֹּה זֶרַע אֱמֶת וְאֵיךְ נֶהְפַּכְתְּ לִי סוּרֵי הַגֶּפֶן נָכְרִיָּה׃ 2.21. Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, Wholly a right seed; How then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto Me?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 19.10-19.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.11. וַיִּהְיוּ־לָהּ מַטּוֹת עֹז אֶל־שִׁבְטֵי מֹשְׁלִים וַתִּגְבַּהּ קוֹמָתוֹ עַל־בֵּין עֲבֹתִים וַיֵּרָא בְגָבְהוֹ בְּרֹב דָּלִיֹּתָיו׃ 19.12. וַתֻּתַּשׁ בְּחֵמָה לָאָרֶץ הֻשְׁלָכָה וְרוּחַ הַקָּדִים הוֹבִישׁ פִּרְיָהּ הִתְפָּרְקוּ וְיָבֵשׁוּ מַטֵּה עֻזָּהּ אֵשׁ אֲכָלָתְהוּ׃ 19.13. וְעַתָּה שְׁתוּלָה בַמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ צִיָּה וְצָמָא׃ 19.14. וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִמַּטֵּה בַדֶּיהָ פִּרְיָהּ אָכָלָה וְלֹא־הָיָה בָהּ מַטֵּה־עֹז שֵׁבֶט לִמְשׁוֹל קִינָה הִיא וַתְּהִי לְקִינָה׃ 19.10. Thy mother was like a vine, in thy likeness, Planted by the waters; She was fruitful and full of branches By reason of many waters." 19.11. And she had strong rods To be sceptres for them that bore rule; And her stature was exalted Among the thick branches, And she was seen in her height With the multitude of her tendrils." 19.12. But she was plucked up in fury, She was cast down to the ground, And the east wind dried up her fruit; Her strong rods were broken off and withered, The fire consumed her." 19.13. And now she is planted in the wilderness, In a dry and thirsty ground." 19.14. And fire is gone out of the rod of her branches, It hath devoured her fruit, So that there is in her no strong rod To be a sceptre to rule.’ This is a lamentation, and it was for a lamentation."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 16.36 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.36. בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעֹלָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן וְהַלֵּל לַיהוָה׃ 16.36. Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, From everlasting even to everlasting. And all the people said: ‘Amen, ‘and praised the LORD."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground."
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 51.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

51.12. for thou didst save me from destruction and rescue me from an evil plight. Therefore I will give thanks to thee and praise thee,and I will bless the name of the Lord.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 51.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.3. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled.
13. Anon., Didache, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 4.1-4.2, 6.1-6.3, 7.1, 7.4, 8.1-8.2, 9.1-9.5, 10.1-10.7, 11.1-11.3, 11.7, 12.4, 13.2, 14.1, 15.1, 15.3-15.4, 16.3, 16.7-16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
14. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 8.3, 59.3-59.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.3. Μετανοήσατε, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνομίας ὑμῶν: εἶπον τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῦ λαοῦ μου. Ἐὰν ὦσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἐὰν ὦσιν πυρρότεραι κόκκου καὶ μελανώτεραι σάκκου, καὶ ἐπιστραφῆτε πρός με ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας καὶ εἴπητε: Πάτερ: ἐπακούσομαι ὑμῶν ὡς λαοῦ ἁγίου. 59.3. ... ἐλπίζειν There appears to be a lucuna in the Greek : Lightfoot supplies *do\s h\mi=n, ku/rie. ἐπὶ τὸ ἀρχεγόνον πάσης κτίσεως ὄνομά σου, Eph 1, 18 ἀνοίξας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ Is. 57, 15 γινώσκειν σε τὸν μόνον ὕψιστον ἐν ὑψίστοις, Is. 13, 11 Ps. 32, 10 ἅγιον ἐν ἀγίοις ἀναπαυόμενον. τὸν ταπεινοῦντα ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων, τὸν διαλύοντα λογισμοὺς Job 5, 11 ἐθνῶν, τὸν ποιοῦντα ταπεινοὺς εἰς ὕψος καὶ τοὺς I Sam, 2, 7; cf. Luke 1, 53 ὑψηλοὺς ταπεινοῦντα, τὸν πλουτίζοντα καὶ πτωχίζοντα, τὸν ἀποκτείνοντα καὶ ζῆν ποιοῦντα, kai\ sw/zonta appears to be inserted before kai\ zh=n by SL, but is omitted by CK. Deut. 32, 39; cf. I Sam. 2,6; 11 Kings 5, 7 μόνον εὑρέτην eu)erge/thn ( "benefactor" ) C, "creator" K; the text is doubiful but eu(re/thn (LS) seems more likely to be implied by K than eu)erge/thn, and is therefore slightly more probable. πνευμάτων καὶ θεὸν πάσης σαρκός: τὸν ἐπιβλέποντα ἐν τοῖς ἀβύσσοις, τὸν ἐπόπτην Num. 16, 22; 27, 16 ἀνθρωπίνων ἔργων, τὸν τῶν κινδυνευόντων Dan, 3, 31 (*wulg. 3, 55); cf. Sirach 16, 18. 19 Judith 9, 11 βοηθόν, τὸν τῶν ἀπηλπισμένων σωτῆρα, τὸν παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστην καὶ ἐπίσκοπον: τὸν πληθύνοντα ἔθνη ἐπὶ γῆς καὶ ἐκ πάντων ἐκλεξάμενον τοὺς ἀγαπῶντάς σε διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ ἠγαπημένου παιδός σου, δἰ οὗ ἡμᾶς ἐπαίδευσας, Ps. 118, 114; cf, Judith 9, 11 ἡγίασας, ἐτίμησας: 59.4. ἀξιοῦμέν σε, δέσποτα, βοηθὸν γενέσθαι καὶ ἀντιλήπτορα ἡμῶν. τοὺς ἐν θλίψει ἡμῶν σῶσον, τοὺς ταπεινοὺς ἐλέησον, τοὺς πεπτωκότας ἔγειρον, τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπιφάνηθι, τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς ἴασαι, τοὺς πλανωμένους τοῦ λαοῦ σου ἐπίστρεψον: χόρτασον τοὺς πεινῶντας, λύτρωσαι τοὺς δεσμίους ἡμῶν, ἐξανάστησον τοὺς ἀσθενοῦντας, παρακάλεσον τοὺς ὀλιγοψυχοῦντας: I Kings 3, 60; II Kings 19, 19; Ezek. 86, 23 Ps. 78, 13; 94, 7; 99, 8 γνώτωσάν σε ἅπαντα τὰ ἔθνη. ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ θεὸς μόνος καὶ Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ὁ παῖς σου καὶ ἡμεῖς λαός σου καὶ πρόβατα τῆς νομῆς σου.
15. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.2. especially if the Lord should reveal aught to me. Assemble yourselves together in common, every one of you severally, man by man, in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ, who after the flesh was of David's race, who is Son of Man and Son of God, to the end that ye may obey the bishop and presbytery without distraction of mind; breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality and the antidote that we should not die but live for ever in Jesus Christ.
17. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Berachot, 6.6, 6.8, 7.3-7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.6. If [those at the table] are sitting upright, each one blesses for himself. If they are reclining, one blesses for them all. If wine came during the meal, each one says a blessing for himself. If after the meal, one blesses for them all. The same one says [the blessing] over the incense, even though the incense is not brought until after the meal." 6.8. If one has eaten grapes, figs or pomegranates he blesses after them three blessings, the words of Rabban Gamaliel. The sages say: one blessing which includes three. Rabbi Akiva says: even if one ate only boiled vegetables and that is his meal, he says after it the three blessings. If one drinks water to quench his thirst, he says “By Whose word all things exist.” Rabbi Tarfon says: “Who creates many living things and their requirements.”" 7.3. How do they invite [one another to recite the Birkat Hamazon]?If there are three, he [the one saying Birkat Hamazon] says, “Let us bless [Him of whose food we have eaten].” If there are three and him he says, “Bless [Him of whose food we have eaten]” If there are ten, he says, “Let us bless our God [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are ten and he says, “Bless.” It is the same whether there are ten or ten myriads (ten ten thousands). If there are a hundred he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God [of whose food we have eaten]. If there are a hundred and him he says, “Bless.” If there are a thousand he says “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are a thousand and him he says “Bless.” If there are ten thousand he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” If there are ten thousand and him he says, “Bless.” Corresponding to his blessing the others answer after him, “Blessed be the Lord our God the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: According to the number of the congregation, they bless, as it says, “In assemblies bless God, the Lord, O you who are from the fountain of Israel.” Rabbi Akiba said: What do we find in the synagogue? Whether there are many or few the he says, “Bless the Lord your God.” Rabbi Ishmael says: “Bless the Lord your God who is blessed.”" 7.4. Three persons who have eaten together may not separate [to recite Birkat Hamazon]. Similarly four and similarly five. Six may separate, up until ten. And ten may not separate until there are twenty." 7.5. Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine [for a zimun], but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless."
21. Mishnah, Pesahim, 10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.16-10.17, 11.17-11.34, 14.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread. 11.17. But in giving you this command, I don't praise you, that youcome together not for the better but for the worse. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.19. For there also mustbe factions among you, that those who are approved may be revealedamong you. 11.20. When therefore you assemble yourselves together, itis not possible to eat the Lord's supper. 11.21. For in your eatingeach one takes his own supper before others. One is hungry, and anotheris drunken. 11.22. What, don't you have houses to eat and to drink in?Or do you despise God's assembly, and put them to shame who don't have?What shall I tell you? Shall I praise you? In this I don't praise you. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord. 11.28. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of thebread, and drink of the cup. 11.29. For he who eats and drinks in anunworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, if he doesn'tdiscern the Lord's body. 11.30. For this cause many among you are weakand sickly, and not a few sleep. 11.31. For if we discerned ourselves,we wouldn't be judged. 11.32. But when we are judged, we are punishedby the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world. 11.33. Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait one foranother. 11.34. But if anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, lestyour coming together be for judgment. The rest I will set in orderwhenever I come. 14.16. Otherwise if you blesswith the spirit, how will he who fills the place of the unlearned saythe "Amen" at your giving of thanks, seeing he doesn't know what yousay?
23. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
24. New Testament, Acts, 2.38, 2.42, 2.46, 4.25, 8.16, 20.7, 20.11, 27.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.42. They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart 4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? 8.16. for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. 20.11. When he had gone up, and had broken bread, and eaten, and had talked with them a long while, even until break of day, he departed. 27.35. When he had said this, and had taken bread, he gave thanks to God in the presence of all, and he broke it, and began to eat.
25. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.18, 5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father;
26. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.14, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!
27. New Testament, Hebrews, 6.1-6.2, 11.8, 11.10, 13.13-13.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Therefore leaving the doctrine of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection -- not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God 6.2. of the teaching of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. 11.8. By faith, Abraham, when he was called, obeyed to go out to the place which he was to receive for an inheritance. He went out, not knowing where he went. 11.10. For he looked for the city which has the foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 13.13. Let us therefore go forth to him outside of the camp, bearing his reproach. 13.14. For we don't have here an enduring city, but we seek that which is to come. 13.15. Through him, then, let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to his name.
28. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons:
29. New Testament, Romans, 1.8, 8.15, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of you, that your faith is proclaimed throughout the whole world. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father! 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service.
30. New Testament, John, 13.1-13.2, 15.16, 16.23-16.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.1. Now before the feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that his time had come that he would depart from this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. 13.2. After supper, the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him 15.16. You didn't choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 16.23. In that day you will ask me no questions. Most assuredly I tell you, whatever you may ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. 16.24. Until now, you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be made full.
31. New Testament, Luke, 1.69, 10.7, 22.14-22.20, 24.13-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.69. And has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.17. He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves 22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
32. New Testament, Mark, 6.41, 8.6-8.7, 9.5, 14.22-14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 8.6. He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground, and he took the seven loaves. Having given thanks, he broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve, and they served the multitude. 8.7. They had a few small fish. Having blessed them, he said to serve these also. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 14.26. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 6.1-6.18, 7.6, 10.5-10.6, 10.10, 11.25, 12.31, 26.26-26.29, 28.16, 28.18-28.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 7.6. Don't give that which is holy to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 12.31. Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body. 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them. 28.18. Jesus came to them and spoke to them, saying, "All authority has been given to me in heaven and on earth. 28.19. Go, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit 28.20. teaching them to observe all things which I commanded you. Behold, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Amen.
34. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.6. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. "
35. Justin, First Apology, 14.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tertullian, Apology, 39.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Tertullian, On Baptism, 20, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. But they whose office it is, know that baptism is not rashly to be administered. Give to every one who begs you, has a reference of its own, appertaining especially to almsgiving. On the contrary, this precept is rather to be looked at carefully: Give not the holy thing to the dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine; Matthew 7:6 and, Lay not hands easily on any; share not other men's sins. If Philip so easily baptized the chamberlain, let us reflect that a manifest and conspicuous evidence that the Lord deemed him worthy had been interposed. Acts 8:26-40 The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle, nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer's sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture, was thus suitably discovered - to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain's chariot. The Scripture which he was reading falls in opportunely with his faith: Philip, being requested, is taken to sit beside him; the Lord is pointed out; faith lingers not; water needs no waiting for; the work is completed, and the apostle snatched away. But Paul too was, in fact, 'speedily' baptized: for Simon, his host, speedily recognized him to be an appointed vessel of election. God's approbation sends sure premonitory tokens before it; every petition may both deceive and be deceived. And so, according to the circumstances and disposition, and even age, of each individual, the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary - if (baptism itself) is not so necessary - that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, Forbid them not to come unto me. Let them come, then, while they are growing up; let them come while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; let them become Christians when they have become able to know Christ. Why does the innocent period of life hasten to the remission of sins? More caution will be exercised in worldly matters: so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine! Let them know how to ask for salvation, that you may seem (at least) to have given to him that asks. For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred - in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom - until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence. If any understand the weighty import of baptism, they will fear its reception more than its delay: sound faith is secure of salvation.
38. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. אין גזעו מחליף אף צדיק ח"ו אין גזעו מחליף לכך נאמר ארז אילו נאמר ארז ולא נאמר תמר הייתי אומר מה ארז אין עושה פירות אף צדיק ח"ו אין עושה פירות לכך נאמר תמר ונאמר ארז,וארז גזעו מחליף והתניא הלוקח אילן מחבירו לקוץ מגביהו מן הקרקע טפח וקוצץ בסדן השקמה שני טפחים בבתולת השקמה שלשה טפחים בקנים ובגפנים מן הפקק ולמעלה בדקלים ובארזים חופר למטה ומשריש לפי שאין גזעו מחליף,הכא במאי עסקינן בשאר מיני ארזים כדרבה בר הונא דאמר רבה בר הונא עשרה מיני ארזים הן שנאמר (ישעיהו מא, יט) אתן במדבר ארז שיטה והדס וגו',ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר שגזר שלש עשרה תעניות על הצבור ולא ירדו גשמים באחרונה התחילו הצבור לצאת אמר להם תקנתם קברים לעצמכם געו כל העם בבכיה וירדו גשמים,שוב מעשה בר' אליעזר שירד לפני התיבה ואמר עשרים וארבע ברכות ולא נענה ירד רבי עקיבא אחריו ואמר אבינו מלכנו אין לנו מלך אלא אתה אבינו מלכנו למענך רחם עלינו וירדו גשמים הוו מרנני רבנן יצתה בת קול ואמרה לא מפני שזה גדול מזה אלא שזה מעביר על מדותיו וזה אינו מעביר על מדותיו,ת"ר עד מתי יהו הגשמים יורדין והצבור פוסקין מתעניתם כמלא ברך המחרישה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים בחרבה טפח בבינונית טפחיים בעבודה שלשה טפחים,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אין לך טפח מלמעלה שאין תהום יוצא לקראתו שלשה טפחים והא תניא טפחיים לא קשיא כאן בעבודה כאן בשאינה עבודה,א"ר אלעזר כשמנסכין את המים בחג תהום אומר לחבירו אבע מימיך קול שני ריעים אני שומע שנאמר (תהלים מב, ח) תהום אל תהום קורא לקול צנוריך וגו',אמר רבה לדידי חזי לי האי רידיא דמי לעיגלא (תלתא) ופירסא שפוותיה וקיימא בין תהומא תתאה לתהומא עילאה לתהומא עילאה א"ל חשור מימיך לתהומא תתאה א"ל אבע מימיך שנא' (שיר השירים ב, יב) הנצנים נראו בארץ וגו':,היו מתענין וירדו גשמים קודם הנץ החמה כו': ת"ר היו מתענין וירדו להם גשמים קודם הנץ החמה לא ישלימו לאחר הנץ החמה ישלימו דברי ר' מאיר ר' יהודה אומר קודם חצות לא ישלימו לאחר חצות ישלימו,רבי יוסי אומר קודם ט' שעות לא ישלימו לאחר ט' שעות ישלימו שכן מצינו באחאב מלך ישראל שהתענה מתשע שעות ולמעלה שנאמר (מלכים א כא, כט) הראית כי נכנע אחאב וגו',ר' יהודה נשיאה גזר תעניתא וירדו להם גשמים לאחר הנץ החמה סבר לאשלומינהו א"ל רבי אמי קודם חצות ואחר חצות שנינו שמואל הקטן גזר תעניתא וירדו להם גשמים קודם הנץ החמה כסבורין העם לומר שבחו של צבור הוא,אמר להם אמשול לכם [משל] למה הדבר דומה לעבד שמבקש פרס מרבו אמר להם תנו לו ואל אשמע קולו,שוב שמואל הקטן גזר תעניתא וירדו להם גשמים לאחר שקיעת החמה כסבורים העם לומר שבחו של צבור הוא אמר להם שמואל לא שבח של צבור הוא אלא אמשול לכם משל למה הדבר דומה לעבד שמבקש פרס מרבו ואמר להם המתינו לו עד שיתמקמק ויצטער ואחר כך תנו לו,ולשמואל הקטן שבחו של צבור היכי דמי אמר משיב הרוח ונשב זיקא אמר מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא:,מעשה וגזרו תענית בלוד כו': ונימא הלל מעיקרא אביי ורבא דאמרי תרווייהו לפי שאין אומרים הלל 25b. bits shoots do not replenishthemselves when its stump is cut down, bso too, Heaven forbid,with regard to ba righteous person, his shoots will not replenishthemselves, i.e., he will be unable to recover from misfortune. bTherefore, it is stated “cedar”in the verse. Just as the cedar grows new shoots after its stump is cut down, so too, a righteous individual will thrive again. Conversely, bwere it stated “cedar” and were it not stated “palm tree,” I would saythat bjust asin the case of ba cedar, it does not produce fruit, so too, a righteous man, God forbid, does not produce fruit,i.e., he will have no reward in the World-to-Come. bTherefore, it is stated “palm tree” and it isalso bstated “cedar.” /b,§ The Gemara asks: bAnddo ba cedar’s shootsreally breplenishthemselves? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who bought a tree from another to chopit down for wood, without acquiring total ownership of the tree, he must blifthis ax ba handbreadth and chopthere, so as to allow the tree to grow back? However, bina case where he purchased ba large sycamore,he must leave btwo handbreadths. Inthe case of ban untrimmed sycamore,he must leave bthree handbreadths. Ina situation where one bbought reeds or grapevines,he may chop only bfrom thefirst bknot and above. Inthe case of bpalms or cedars,one may bdig down and uprootit, bas its shootswill bnot replenishthemselves. This ibaraitaindicates that cedars will not grow new shoots after they have been cut down.,The Gemara answers: bWith what are we dealing here? With other species of cedars.This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabba bar Huna, as Rabba bar Huna said: There are ten species of cedars, as it is stated: “I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia tree and myrtleand the oil tree; I will set in the desert cypress, the plane tree and the larch together” (Isaiah 41:19). The seven species mentioned in this verse are all called cedars, as are three additional species., bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving Rabbi Eliezer, who decreeda complete cycle of bthirteen fasts upon the congregation, but rain did not fall. Atthe end of bthe lastfast, bthe congregation began to exitthe synagogue. bHe said to them: Have you prepared graves for yourselves?If rain does not fall, we will all die of hunger. bAll the people burst into tears, and rain fell. /b,There was banother incident involvingRabbi Eliezer, bwho descendedto serve as prayer leader bbefore the arkon a fast day. bAnd he recited twenty-four blessings, but he was not answered. Rabbi Akiva descended before the arkafter him band said: Our Father, our King, we have no king otherthan bYou. Our Father, our King, for Your sake, have mercy on us. And rainimmediately bfell. The Sages were whisperingamong themselves that Rabbi Akiva was answered while his teacher, Rabbi Eliezer, was not. bA Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bnot because thisSage, Rabbi Akiva, bis greater than that one,Rabbi Eliezer, bbut that this one is forgiving, and that one is not forgiving.God responded to Rabbi Akiva’s forgiving nature in kind by sending rain.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bHow much rain must fall for the community to cease their fastfor rain? If the rain penetrates the soil bby the fulldepth of the blade of ba plowuntil the spot where it bbends,they may cease fasting; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis saya different measurement: If the earth is completely bdry,the soil must become moist to the depth of a single bhandbreadth.For baveragesoil, they must wait until the moisture reaches a depth of btwo handbreadths.If it is bworkedsoil, i.e., soil that has been plowed, the moisture must reach to a depth of bthree handbreadths. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: There is no handbreadthof rain bfrom above toward whichthe water of bthe deep does not rise three handbreadths.The Gemara raises an objection: bBut isn’t it taughtin another ibaraitathat the water of the deep rises btwo handbreadths?The Gemara explains: This is bnot difficult. Here,in first ibaraita /i, it is referring bto workedland, which water penetrates faster, whereas bthere,in the second ibaraita /i, it is referring bto unworkedland, which water does not penetrate as easily, and therefore the water of the deep rises only two handbreadths., bRabbi Elazar said: When the waterlibation bwas poured during the festivalof iSukkot /i, these waters of the bdeep say to the otherwaters of the deep: bLet your water flow, as I hear the voices of twoof our bfriends,the wine libation and the water libation, which are both poured on the altar. bAs it is stated: “Deep calls to deep at the sound of your channels,all Your waves and Your billows are gone over me” (Psalms 42:8), i.e., the upper waters of the deep call to the lower waters of the deep when they hear the sound of the libations., bRabba said: I have seen thisangel in charge of water, bRidya, in the form of a calf whose lips were parted, standing between the lowerwaters of the bdeep and the upperwaters of the bdeep. To the upperwaters of the bdeep, he said: Distill your waterand let it rain. bTo the lowerwaters of the bdeep, he said: Let your water flowfrom below, bas it is stated: “The flowers appear on the earth;the time of the singing has come, and the voice of the turtledove [ itur /i] is heard in our land” (Song of Songs 2:12). The appearance of flowers in this verse alludes to the libations, as both the blooming of flowers and pouring of these libations are annual events. The time of the singing is referring to the singing of the Festival. Finally, the term iturin Aramaic can also mean an ox; in this context, it is interpreted as a reference to the angel Ridya.,§ The mishna teaches: If bthey were fastingfor rain band rain fell for them before sunrise,they need not complete their fast until the evening. bThe Sages taught:If bthey were fastingfor rain band rain fell for them before sunrise,they need bnot completetheir fast, as the obligation to fast does not come into effect until sunrise. However, if rain fell bafter sunrise, theymust bcompletetheir fast. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:If rain fell bbefore midday,they need bnot completetheir fast; however, if it rains bafter midday, theymust bcompletetheir fast.,Rabbi Yosei says: If rain falls bbefore the ninth hour,three hours into the afternoon, they need bnot completetheir fast; if it rains bafter the ninth hourof the day, they must bcompletetheir fast, bas we found with regard to Ahab, king of Israel, who fasted from the ninth hour and onward,as it bis stated:“And it came to pass, when Ahab heard these words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly. And the word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite saying: bDo you see how Ahab humbles himself before Me?”(I Kings 21:27–29). According to tradition, this occurred in the ninth hour., bRabbi Yehuda Nesia decreed a fast, and rain fell for them after sunrise. He thought to completethe fast, but bRabbi Ami said to himthat bwe learned: Before noon and after noon,i.e., the ihalakhais in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. bShmuel HaKatan decreed a fast, and rain fell for them before sunrise. The people thought to say:This bisa sign of bthe praiseworthiness of the community,as we merited rainfall even before we prayed., bHe said to them: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? Toa situation where there is ba slave who requests a reward from his master,either food or livelihood, bandthe master bsays tohis ministers: bGive himwhat he asks for band let me not hear his voice,as I would rather not have to listen to him. Here, too, evidently God has no desire to hear our prayers., bAgain,on another occasion, bShmuel HaKatan decreed a fast, and rain fell for them after sunset.Based on his previous response, bthe people thought to say:This bisa sign of bthe praiseworthiness of the community,as God listened to our prayers all day. bShmuelHaKatan bsaid to them: It is nota sign of bthe praiseworthiness of the community. Rather, I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? Toa situation where there is ba slave who requests a reward from his master, andthe master bsays tohis ministers: bWait until he pines away and suffers, and afterward giveit bto him.Here too, the delay is not to the congregation’s credit.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, baccording tothe opinion of bShmuel HaKatan,what is considered bthe praiseworthiness of the community; what are the circumstancesin which approval is shown from Heaven? The Gemara explains: When the prayer leader brecites: He Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blows;and when bhe recites:And bthe rain fall, and rain falls. /b,The mishna teaches: bAn incidentoccurred in bwhichthe court bdecreed a fast in Lod,and when rain fell they ate and drank, and afterward they recited ihallel /i. The Gemara asks: bAnd let us recite ihallelat the outset,without delay. Why did they first go home and eat? bAbaye and Rava both said: Because one recites ihallel/b
39. Cyprian, The Lapsed, 25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Cyprian, Letters, 64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

44. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.34. Celsus would also have us to offer first-fruits to demons. But we would offer them to Him who said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth. And to Him to whom we offer first-fruits we also send up our prayers, having a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, and we hold fast this profession as long as we live; for we find God and His only-begotten Son, manifested to us in Jesus, to be gracious and kind to us. And if we would wish to have besides a great number of beings who shall ever prove friendly to us, we are taught that thousand thousands stood before Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand ministered unto Him. And these, regarding all as their relations and friends who imitate their piety towards God, and in prayer call upon Him with sincerity, work along with them for their salvation, appear unto them, deem it their office and duty to attend to them, and as if by common agreement they visit with all manner of kindness and deliverance those who pray to God, to whom they themselves also pray: For they are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for those who shall be heirs of salvation. Let the learned Greeks say that the human soul at its birth is placed under the charge of demons: Jesus has taught us not to despise even the little ones in His Church, saying, Their angels do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven. And the prophet says, The angel of the Lord encamps round about them that fear Him, and delivers them. We do not, then, deny that there are many demons upon earth, but we maintain that they exist and exercise power among the wicked, as a punishment of their wickedness. But they have no power over those who have put on the whole armour of God, who have received strength to withstand the wiles of the devil, and who are ever engaged in contests with them, knowing that we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
45. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 1.22, 13.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

46. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 2.57, 7.34, 8.11 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

47. Epiphanius, Panarion, 49.1.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

48. Philastrius of Brescia, Diversarum Hereseon Liber, 49 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253, 254
abortion Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
abraham Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
acts of the apostles (apocryphal) Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 72
agape Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109; Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198
agapemeals Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 72
agapê König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123
agathonice Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164
altars Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
amen Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 235
amidah Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249, 253
andrew, apostle Geljon and Vos, Rituals in Early Christianity: New Perspectives on Tradition and Transformation (2020) 91
anthropological approaches to eating and drinking König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123
apolytrosis Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
apostles, and liturgies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
apostles Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
aramaic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
augustine Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
author of the refutation of all heresies Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
banquets Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
baptism, and conversion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
baptism, baptismal formula Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 239
baptism, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism, in extremis Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
baptism, infant/child Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
baptism, third century Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
baptism Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 74, 75, 85; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 239, 240, 261; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
berakhot Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238
birkat ha-mazon Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
birkath ha-mazon Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 249, 262
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
bishop Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
bishops, as choir leader Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
bishops, gnostic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
bishops Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
blessings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
body of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
boundaries Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 75
bread, as food Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
bread, as species of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
bread, blessing of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
bread König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
catechumenate, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
catechumens Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 237
celebration Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
cena Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
chosen people Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 247, 254, 262
christianity, early, feasting practices König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123, 126
christianity, early, relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 126
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
churches, liturgy Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 560, 561
circumcision Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 261
clement, second Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
clement of alexandria Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
covenant, new Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
cross Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
cuming g.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
david/davidic king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247, 254, 262
deacons Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
death, of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
diakonoi Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
didache Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513; Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113, 127; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 72, 74, 75, 85, 87, 88, 102; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262
dietary laws Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 75
doresse j. and lanne e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
doxology Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 238; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 262
emmaus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262
episcopoi Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 513
eschatology Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
ethnicity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249
eucharist, before nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480, 482
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 239, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262
eucharist, eucharistic, community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12, 404
eucharist, liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
eucharist, new testament period Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480
eucharist, sacrifice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
eucharist, second-century rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480, 482
eucharist, space Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
eucharist, sunday Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198
eucharist/s, bread-and-cheese Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
eucharist/s, bread-and-water/wineless Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
eucharist/s Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
eucharist Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123, 126; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 72, 85, 87; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
eucharistic prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
exhortations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
fast Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87
fasting Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 239, 240, 261; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
fasts/fasti Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
fish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
food Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164
forms of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 210, 211
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
gentile christianity Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 75
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 237, 240, 249, 254, 261, 262
gentiles Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
gnosis/gnosticism/gnostic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 254
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 239, 246, 247, 253, 254, 262
god as king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253
greek Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
group solidarity Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 74
harmony (συμφωνία), harmonization, musical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
hebrews, letter to the Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
hippolytus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
historiola Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
holy of holies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
holy spirit Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253, 261
hymn Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
hypocrites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 261, 262
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
identity, (in)group identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249
identity, christian identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
identity, gnostic identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253, 254, 261, 262
identity, jewish identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249, 261
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 235, 236, 237, 238, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262
immortality Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
infanticide Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
irenaeus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
isaac, binding of (akedah) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
israel/israelites Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 240, 246, 247, 249, 261, 262
jerusalem, earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
jerusalem Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
jesus König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 126; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 236, 237
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 237, 246, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262
jewish liturgy Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85
john chrysostom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
joseph and aseneth König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 126
judaism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 237, 249, 253, 261, 262
judgement Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
kashrut Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 75
kedushah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 247, 249, 262
last supper König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123, 126; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 74
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
liturgical, readings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
liturgical, traditions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
liturgical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
liturgy, origins of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
lords day Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
lords prayer Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 239, 246, 247, 249, 253, 254, 261, 262; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109, 123, 233, 234; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
maranatha Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254, 262
marcosians Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
martyrdom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
matthew, gospel of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 240
matthew Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 87
meal, agape Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
meal, common Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 235, 236, 238, 239, 240
meal, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
meal, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
meal, liturgical, religious, ritual, sacred Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
meals Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 164
metaphor Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12, 404
midrash, and piyyut Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 561
montanism, sub-sects Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
mount, moriah Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
music Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 211
mussaf prayer for rosh hashana Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
nag hammadi Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 254
narrative, audience Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
narrative (common) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
nomina sacra Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
novelty (charge of ) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
obedience Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247
old greek bible version Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
old testament Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 247, 261
pagan/gentile prayer/prayer practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 262
papyri Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
passover Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 123; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 126
paul, acts of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
paul Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 74, 75, 102
people of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 249, 254, 261
pepouzans/pepouzia Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
persuasion, peter, first letter of Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 102
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 87
pleroma Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
polluted sacraments/cursed mysteries xxxi Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
prayer, christian Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 560, 561
prayer/praying, pre-baptismal prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 239
prayer Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 88
prayereucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109, 231, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238
prayernon-eucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 231
prayers, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
prayers, meal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
prayers, thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
prayers Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
priscillians (montanist) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
promised land Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247, 249, 262
prophet Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 32
prophets/prophetic Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238, 239, 247, 261
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
quintillia Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
revelations Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 231
rhetoric Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
rituals Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10, 261
rome Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
sabbath Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
sacred, meals Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
sacrifice, animal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice, christs Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice, eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice, of isaac Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404
sacrifice Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 75
sacrificial food Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 75
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
sanctus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 560
scribal practices Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
second temple period/judaism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
septuagint Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
sermon on the mount Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 240, 261
shema Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 203; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
shemoneh esreh/ eighteen benedictions Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 261
shemoneh esreh Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 88
singing, of psalms Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
sons/children of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 247, 254
spiritual food and drink Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 239, 254, 262
strack-billerbeck Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198, 203
sunday Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238
symposium Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 231
tattoo Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 358
teacher, criteria for assessment Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 127
teacher, διδάσκαλος Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 127
textual criticism Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
thanksgiving Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
torah Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113
traditions, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51
traditions, matthean Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 12
turner, victor Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 74
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
two ways, the Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 113, 127
two ways, teaching of Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 237, 239, 240, 261
two ways (tractate of) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
valentinus/valentinians Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 10
werner e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 211
wine' König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 123
wine Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 109; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 51, 404
women Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 76
words for prayer, εὐχαριστέω/ εὐχαριστία Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 254
worship, before council of nicaea Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 480, 482
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 198, 203, 210, 211
worship, day of worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238
worship, early christian worship Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 253
worship Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 238
zwei-wege-lehre Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 784
θυμιατήριον Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 404