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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



811
Anon., Didache, 8.1
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.1, 12.8-12.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 2.8-2.14, 5.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.8. קוֹל דּוֹדִי הִנֵּה־זֶה בָּא מְדַלֵּג עַל־הֶהָרִים מְקַפֵּץ עַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת׃ 2.9. דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים הִנֵּה־זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחֲלֹּנוֹת מֵצִיץ מִן־הַחֲרַכִּים׃ 2.11. כִּי־הִנֵּה הסתו [הַסְּתָיו] עָבָר הַגֶּשֶׁם חָלַף הָלַךְ לוֹ׃ 2.12. הַנִּצָּנִים נִרְאוּ בָאָרֶץ עֵת הַזָּמִיר הִגִּיעַ וְקוֹל הַתּוֹר נִשְׁמַע בְּאַרְצֵנוּ׃ 2.13. הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר נָתְנוּ רֵיחַ קוּמִי לכי [לָךְ] רַעְיָתִי יָפָתִי וּלְכִי־לָךְ׃ 2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃ 5.2. אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃ 2.8. Hark! my beloved! behold, he cometh, Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills. 2.9. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he standeth behind our wall, He looketh in through the windows, He peereth through the lattice. 2.10. My beloved spoke, and said unto me: ‘Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.11. For, lo, the winter is past, The rain is over and gone; 2.12. The flowers appear on the earth; The time of singing is come, And the voice of the turtle is heard in our land; 2.13. The fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, And the vines in blossom give forth their fragrance. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.11, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.14. וְאָרוּר נוֹכֵל וְיֵשׁ בְּעֶדְרוֹ זָכָר וְנֹדֵר וְזֹבֵחַ מָשְׁחָת לַאדֹנָי כִּי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל אָנִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּשְׁמִי נוֹרָא בַגּוֹיִם׃ 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.14. But cursed be he that dealeth craftily, Whereas he hath in his flock a male, And voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a blemished thing; For I am a great King, Saith the LORD of hosts, And My name is feared among the nations."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 55.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

55.18. עֶרֶב וָבֹקֶר וְצָהֳרַיִם אָשִׂיחָה וְאֶהֱמֶה וַיִּשְׁמַע קוֹלִי׃ 55.18. Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I complain, and moan; And He hath heard my voice."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.12. וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב עַל־שָׁאוּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל־עַם יְהוָה וְעַל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃ 1.12. and they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Sha᾽ul, and for Yehonatan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Yisra᾽el; because they were fallen by the sword."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 33.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

33.11. קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל אֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ מְבִאִים תּוֹדָה בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שְׁבוּת־הָאָרֶץ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 33.11. the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say: ‘Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, for the LORD is good, for His mercy endureth for ever’, even of them that bring offerings of thanksgiving into the house of the LORD. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 20.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.26. וַיַּעֲלוּ כָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָל־הָעָם וַיָּבֹאוּ בֵית־אֵל וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַד־הָעָרֶב וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 20.26. Then all the children of Yisra᾽el, and all the people, went up, and came to the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the Lord, and fasted that day until evening, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the Lord."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.1, 12.8-12.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 6.23-6.38, 50.10, 50.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.23. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covet that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 6.24. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covet every year. 6.25. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah-twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years:... 6.26. and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. 6.27. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.20-3.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime."
15. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 19-21, 18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Anon., Didache, 1, 1.1-6.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2, 2.2, 3, 3.1, 4, 4.2, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7, 7.1, 7.1-10.7, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 8, 8.2, 8.3, 9, 9.1, 9.1-10.7, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 10, 10.2, 10.3, 10.5, 10.6, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 12, 12.5, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 14, 14.1, 14.3, 15, 15.3, 15.4, 16.7, 16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1. There are two ways, one of life and one of death; but a great difference between the two ways. The way of life, then, is this: First, you shall love God who made you; second, your neighbour as yourself; and all things whatsoever you would should not occur to you, do not also do to another. And of these sayings the teaching is this: Bless those who curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for those who persecute you. For what reward is there, if you love those who love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall not have an enemy. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If someone gives you a blow upon your right cheek, turn to him the other also, and you shall be perfect. If someone impresses you for one mile, go with him two. If someone takes away your cloak, give him also your coat. If someone takes from you what is yours, ask it not back, for indeed you are not able. Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back; for the Father wills that to all should be given of our own blessings (free gifts). Happy is he that gives according to the commandment; for he is guiltless. Woe to him that receives; for if one having need receives, he is guiltless; but he that receives not having need, shall pay the penalty, why he received and for what, and, coming into straits (confinement), he shall be examined concerning the things which he has done, and he shall not escape thence until he pay back the last farthing. Matthew 5:26 But also now concerning this, it has been said, Let your alms sweat in your hands, until you know to whom you should give.
17. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour."
19. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.3, 3.6, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. What is considered a large town? One which has in it ten idle men. One that has fewer is considered a village. In respect of these they said that they should be moved up but not postponed. But with regard to the bringing the wood for the priests, the [fast of] Tisha B’Av, the hagigah, and assembling the people they postpone [until after Shabbat] and they do not move them up. Although they said that they should be moved up but not postponed, it is permissible to mourn, to fast, and to distribute gifts to the poor [on these earlier days]. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? In a place where people gather on Mondays and Thursdays, but in places where people do not gather on Mondays and Thursdays, the Megillah is read only on its proper day." 3.6. On Hanukkah they read the section of the princes (Numbers. On Purim, “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8). On Rosh Hodesh, “And on the first of your months” (Numbers 28:11). On Maamadot, the account of the creation (Genesis 1:1-2:3). On fast days, the blessings and curses (Leviticus 26:3 ff and Deuteronomy. They do not interrupt while reading the curses, but rather one reads them all. On Monday and Thursday and on Shabbat at minhah they read according to the regular order and this does not count as part of the reading [for the succeeding Shabbat]. As it says, “And Moshe declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44) it is their mitzvah that each should be read in its appropriate time." 4.1. He who reads the Megillah may either stand or sit. Whether one read it or two read it [together] they [those listening] have fulfilled their obligation. In places where it is the custom to say a blessing, they say the blessing, and where it is not the custom they do not say the blessing. On Mondays and Thursdays and on Shabbat at minhah, three read from the torah, they do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it."
21. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
22. Mishnah, Taanit, 1.6, 2.9, 3.1, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. If these passed and there was no answer, the court decrees three more fasts on the community. They may eat and drink [only] while it is still day; they may not work, bathe, anoint themselves with oil, wear shoes, or have marital, relations. And the bathhouses are closed. If these passed and there was no answer the court decrees upon the community a further seven, making a total of thirteen. These are greater than the first, for on these they blast the shofar and they lock the shops. On Mondays the shutters [of the shops] are opened a little when it gets dark, but on Thursdays they are permitted [the whole day] because of the Shabbat." 2.9. They do not decree upon the community a fast to begin on a Thursday in order not to cause a rise in the market prices. Rather the first three fasts are held [in this order], Monday, Thursday, and Monday; the second three, Thursday, Monday, and Thursday. Rabbi Yose says: just as the first three [fasts] should not begin on a Thursday so too neither the second [three] nor the last [seven]." 3.1. The order of public fasts mentioned above is enacted because of [lack of] the first rain, but if the crops have undergone [an unusual] change they sound a blast immediately. Similarly, if the rain has stopped for forty days between one rainfall and the next, they sound a blast immediately, because it is a plague of drought." 4.3. The men of the maamad fasted on four days of that week, from Monday to Thursday; they did not fast on Friday out of respect for Shabbat or on Sunday in order not to switch from the rest and delight [of Shabbat] to weariness and fasting and [thereby] die. On Sunday [they read], “In the beginning,” and, “Let there be a firmament;” On Monday, “Let there be a firmament,” and, “Let the waters be gathered together;” On Tuesday, “Let the waters be gathered together,” and, “Let there be lights;” On Wednesday, “Let there be lights,” and, “Let the waters swarm;” On Thursday, “Let the waters swarm,” and, “Let the earth bring forth;” On Friday, “Let the earth bring forth,” and, “And the heavens [and the earth] were completed.” For a long section two people read and for a short section one person. [This is how they would read] at Shacharit and Mussaf. And at minhah they assemble and read the section by heart, as they recite the Shema. On Friday at minhah they did not assemble out of respect for Shabbat."
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.6, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 12.3. Therefore Imake known to you that no man speaking by God's Spirit says, "Jesus isaccursed." No one can say, "Jesus is Lord," but by the Holy Spirit.
24. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.1-2.8, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. I exhort therefore, first of all, that petitions, prayers, intercessions, and givings of thanks, be made for all men: 2.2. for kings and all who are in high places; that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and reverence. 2.3. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior; 2.4. who desires all people to be saved and come to full knowledge of the truth. 2.5. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus 2.6. who gave himself as a ransom for all; the testimony in its own times; 2.7. to which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle (I am telling the truth in Christ, not lying), a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth. 2.8. I desire therefore that the men in every place pray, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting. 5.18. For the Scripture says, "You shall not muzzle the ox when it treads out the grain." And, "The laborer is worthy of his wages.
25. New Testament, 2 John, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. New Testament, Acts, 3.13-3.15, 10.28, 13.2-13.3, 15.29, 20.32 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.13. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his Servant Jesus, whom you delivered up, and denied before the face of Pilate, when he had determined to release him. 3.14. But you denied the Holy and Righteous One, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you 3.15. and killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, whereof we are witnesses. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 13.2. As they served the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, "Separate Barnabas and Saul for me, for the work to which I have called them. 13.3. Then, when they had fasted and prayed and laid their hands on them, they sent them away. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell. 20.32. Now, brothers, I entrust you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build up, and to give you the inheritance among all those who are sanctified.
27. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.15-2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. So you also have some who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans in the same way. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it. 2.18. To the angel of the assembly in Thyatira write: "The Son of God, who has his eyes like a flame of fire, and his feet are like burnished brass, says these things: 2.19. I know your works, your love, faith, service, patient endurance, and that your last works are more than the first. 2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols.
28. New Testament, Colossians, 2.11-2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. in whom you were also circumcised with a circumcision not made with hands, in the putting off of the body of the sins of the flesh, in the circumcision of Christ; 2.12. having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the working of God, who raised him from the dead. 2.13. You were dead through your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh. He made you alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses;
29. New Testament, Galatians, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy.
30. New Testament, Philippians, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only.
31. New Testament, John, 9.22, 12.42, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 18.3. Judas then, having taken a detachment of soldiers and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
32. New Testament, Luke, 1.41-1.45, 3.21, 8.11-8.12, 10.3-10.12, 11.1-11.8, 12.1-12.4, 14.12, 18.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.41. It happened, when Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, that the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. 1.42. She called out with a loud voice, and said, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! 1.43. Why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 1.44. For behold, when the voice of your greeting came into my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy! 1.45. Blessed is she who believed, for there will be a fulfillment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord! 3.21. Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened 8.11. Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God. 8.12. Those along the road are those who hear, then the devil comes, and takes away the word from their heart, that they may not believe and be saved. 10.3. Go your ways. Behold, I send you out as lambs among wolves. 10.4. Carry no purse, nor wallet, nor sandals. Greet no one on the way. 10.5. Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 10.6. If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 10.7. Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 10.8. Into whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat the things that are set before you. 10.9. Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.10. But into whatever city you enter, and they don't receive you, go out into the streets of it and say 10.11. 'Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that the Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10.12. I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples. 11.2. He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, May your name be kept holy. May your kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 11.3. Give us day by day our daily bread. 11.4. Forgive us our sins, For we ourselves also forgive everyone who is indebted to us. Bring us not into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one.' 11.5. He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread 11.6. for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 11.7. and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed. I can't get up and give it to you'? 11.8. I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 12.1. Meanwhile, when a multitude of many thousands had gathered together, so much so that they trampled on each other, he began to tell his disciples first of all, "Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 12.2. But there is nothing covered up, that will not be revealed, nor hidden, that will not be known. 12.3. Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light. What you have spoken in the ear in the inner chambers will be proclaimed on the housetops. 12.4. I tell you, my friends, don't be afraid of those who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. 14.12. He also said to the one who had invited him, "When you make a dinner or a supper, don't call your friends, nor your brothers, nor your kinsmen, nor rich neighbors, or perhaps they might also return the favor, and pay you back. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.'
33. New Testament, Mark, 2.18-2.22, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast? 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.
34. New Testament, Matthew, 5.18, 5.20, 5.32, 5.41, 5.47, 6.1-6.18, 7.6, 8.3, 9.14, 10.7-10.16, 11.29-11.30, 12.31, 13.52, 15.7, 18.17, 19.9, 22.18, 23.1, 23.7-23.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 7.6. Don't give that which is holy to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. 8.3. Jesus stretched out his hand, and touched him, saying, "I want to. Be made clean." Immediately his leprosy was cleansed. 9.14. Then John's disciples came to him, saying, "Why do we and the Pharisees fast often, but your disciples don't fast? 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.9. Don't take any gold, nor silver, nor brass in your money belts. 10.10. Take no bag for your journey, neither two coats, nor shoes, nor staff: for the laborer is worthy of his food. 10.11. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. 10.12. As you enter into the household, greet it. 10.13. If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it isn't worthy, let your peace return to you. 10.14. Whoever doesn't receive you, nor hear your words, as you go out out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 10.16. Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. 11.29. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls. 11.30. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. 12.31. Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 13.52. He said to them, "Therefore, every scribe who has been made a disciple in the Kingdom of Heaven is like a man who is a householder, who brings out of his treasure new and old things. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 22.18. But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, "Why do you test me, you hypocrites? 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.8. But don't you be called 'Rabbi,' for one is your teacher, the Christ, and all of you are brothers. 23.9. Call no man on the earth your father, for one is your Father, he who is in heaven. 23.10. Neither be called masters, for one is your master, the Christ. 23.11. But he who is greatest among you will be your servant. 23.12. Whoever will exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever will humble himself will be exalted. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.24. You blind guides, who strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel! 23.25. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous 23.30. and say, 'If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we wouldn't have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.' 23.31. Therefore you testify to yourselves that you are sons of those who killed the prophets. 23.32. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers.
35. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. ...The evening prayer [of Shmoneh Esreh] does not have a set time. Rebbi Elazar Bar Yossi says, “[A person should pray the evening Shmoneh Esreh] with the closing of the gates [of the Bet Hamikdash (Temple)].” Rebbi Elazar Bar Yossi said, “My father [always] prayed [the evening Shmoneh Esreh] with the closing of the gates [of the Bet Hamikdash].” [A person] who prays the Mussaf prayer [of Shmoneh Esreh] either after the morning Tamid [sacrifice] has been brought or before the morning Tamid [sacrifice] has been brought, has fulfilled his obligation [of praying the morning Shmoneh Esreh on time.]"
36. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 9.28.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Justin, First Apology, 14.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.18.2, 5.18.4, 5.18.11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.18.2. His actions and his teaching show who this new teacher is. This is he who taught the dissolution of marriage; who made laws for fasting; who named Pepuza and Tymion, small towns in Phrygia, Jerusalem, wishing to gather people to them from all directions; who appointed collectors of money; who contrived the receiving of gifts under the name of offerings; who provided salaries for those who preached his doctrine, that its teaching might prevail through gluttony. 5.18.4. Afterwards he says: Does not all Scripture seem to you to forbid a prophet to receive gifts and money? When therefore I see the prophetess receiving gold and silver and costly garments, how can I avoid reproving her? 5.18.11. Again, in another part of his work he speaks as follows of the prophets of whom they boast:If they deny that their prophets have received gifts, let them acknowledge this: that if they are convicted of receiving them, they are not prophets. And we will bring a multitude of proofs of this. But it is necessary that all the fruits of a prophet should be examined. Tell me, does a prophet dye his hair? Does a prophet stain his eyelids? Does a prophet delight in adornment? Does a prophet play with tables and dice? Does a prophet lend on usury? Let them confess whether these things are lawful or not; but I will show that they have been done by them.
40. Nag Hammadi, The Sentences of Sextus, 240 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 11.28.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

42. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 5

43. Golden Verses (Pseudo-Pythagoras), Carmen Aurem, 11, 9-10

44. Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus Omnes Haereses, 1.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abortion Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
adam, see first man adda(n) Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
akiba, rabbi Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
alms(giving) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 293
alms Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
angels Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
anointing/anointed Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
apollonius (anti-montanist) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 103
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
asceticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
ascetics, pre-constantine' König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 128
astrology Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
babble / babbling Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
baptism, of jesus Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
baptism, of john Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
baptism/baptize, daily Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
baptism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 162; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 522
basil of ancyra Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
basil of caesarea Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
birkath ha-mazon Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
birth narratives Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
blessings, for a meal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
boundaries Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
calendar (lunar, solar) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 293, 523
celibacy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
christian, texts Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
christianity, early, feasting practices König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 128
christianity, early, relationship between early christian and jewish feasting and feasting literature König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 128
christianity, early history Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147
christians Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
christology, christological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
circumcision Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
community prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292
compassion Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236
covenant, covenantal Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147
cyprian, martyr Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
david/davidic king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
didache, and baptism Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 252
didache, manuscripts Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 256
didache, structure Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 251
didache, use of luke Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 251
didache Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 26, 27; Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15, 16, 236; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243, 260; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
didache tradition Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
dietary renunciation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
dio chrysostom Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
doxology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
editing (process) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 292
elazar ben arakh Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
enkrateia Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
ephesians Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243, 260
epiphanius, and the seven schools model Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293, 523
ethnicity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
eucharist Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 162; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
exception clause Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
fast Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15, 16; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87
fasting Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20, 243; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 262, 266, 293, 522, 523
fasting dosithean, jewish Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
fate Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 293, 522, 523
galen Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
gamaliel (gamliel) the elder, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 293
gamaliel (gamliel) the younger, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
genesis, legitimation of herods rule in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
gentile Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
gentile christians / gentile churches Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
gentiles Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
gluttony Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
god, as father Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
god as father Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243
gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
gospel, of matthew Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236
hairesis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 27
harmony (συμφωνία), harmonization, scribal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
herod the great, as messiah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
herodians, use of term, in epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293
historical tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 522, 523
hypocrisy/hypocrites Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16, 236
hypocrites Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243, 260
hypocrites (pharisees) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 293, 522, 523
hypocrites (ὑποκριταί) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
identity, identity marker Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243
identity, social identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
identity Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20, 243, 260
ignatius of antioch, on terminology for heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 27
in-group Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
james (brother of jesus) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
jesus (christ) (see also yeshu) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
jesus of nazareth Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
jewish-christian tradition, custom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293, 523
jewish christianity, literary productions Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147
jewish christianity Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 26, 27
jewish christians, jewish-christian Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
jewish law/legal schools, and christian writing Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
jewish law/legal schools, and the hakhamim (sages) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
jewish law/legal schools, epiphanius seven schools Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
jewish liturgy Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85
jewish prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
john (the baptist) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 262, 266, 523
john the baptist Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
judaism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
justin martyr, 2 apology Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 144
kingdom of god/gods kingdom Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
kingdom of heaven Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292
kyrios Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243
latin Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
law, in the didache Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147
liturgical, ἀμήν Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
lord, the, lords prayer Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
lords prayer, function of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
lords prayer, practice of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
lords prayer, reception (history) of the Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236
lords prayer Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20, 243, 260; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 266, 292, 293, 522, 523
love, double-love precept Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
luke Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
manuscripts Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
marriage Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
matthaean church, community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
matthew, gospel of, portrayal of pharisees in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
matthew, gospel of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 147
matthew Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 87
meal, common Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
meal, prayers at Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
mercy Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
mithras Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 162
moderation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
monday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 523
montanus Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 103
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
new testament Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
old latin bible Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
opponents Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
othering Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
others Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 260
pagan / pagans / pagan religion Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
passover Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 162
paul, farewell of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
paul, letters of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293, 523
perushim, pharisees as Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
pharisaic tradition/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293
pharisees, and celibacy Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
pharisees, and josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
pharisees, in epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
pharisees Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 87; Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
piety, deeds of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
piety, trilogy of pious actions →alms, fast, prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
piety Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
polemic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
polycarp Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236
prayer Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16, 236; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
prayer gestures/postures, lifting up hands Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20
prayers, meal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
prayers Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
presbyter Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236
procreationism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
prophetess, prophetesses Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 103
pseudo-clementines Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
pseudo-prophecy/pseudoprophets Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 103
pythagoreans Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
quartodeciman Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 162
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
rabbi (title) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
rabbinic tradition/literature, midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 266
reader (ἀναγνώστης, ἀναγινώσκων), designated Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
renunciation Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
resurrection Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
ritual, practice of Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15
ritual Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 15, 16; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 522
rituals Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 20, 260
sabbath Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 243, 260
sacrifice Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), in epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185
scribes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 185; Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 115
self-restraint Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
sermon on the mount Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 293
sexual desire, and overeating Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
sexual desire Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
sexual immorality Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292, 293
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 292
shepherd of hermas Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 103
short prayer Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 262, 266
sitz im leben Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
sleep, deprivation Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
speech, apostolic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
spirit/spirits Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
strabo Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
sunday (festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 523
synoptic, tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245, 293, 523
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266
textual Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
textual criticism Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
thursday (fastday) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 523
tradition, liturgical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
tradition, topical Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
traditions, oral Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
two ways (tractate of) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 522
verbosity Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 245
virginity Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
virtue Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 236; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 91
vulgate Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 63
war Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly,, The Lord’s Prayer (2022) 16
wednesday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 266, 293, 523
worship Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 85, 87
yohanan ben zakkai, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 245
zeus Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
zodiac Williams, Williams, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis: Book I: (Sects 1-46) (2009) 43
χριστέμπορος Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 26, 27