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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



484
Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 17
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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse."
4. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 1.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. עַל־כֵּן עֲלֵיכֶם כָּלְאוּ שָמַיִם מִטָּל וְהָאָרֶץ כָּלְאָה יְבוּלָהּ׃ 1.1. בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשִּׁשִּׁי בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה בְּיַד־חַגַּי הַנָּבִיא אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל פַּחַת יְהוּדָה וְאֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל לֵאמֹר׃ 1.1. In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, saying:
5. New Testament, Acts, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service.
6. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 305 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

8. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, 4.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66b. שחתן פוסק הוא פוסק פחות חומש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן אין צריך לומר ראשון תלמיד חכם ושני עם הארץ אלא אפילו ראשון עם הארץ ושני תלמיד חכם יכול לומר לאחיך הייתי רוצה ליתן לך אי אפשי ליתן:,פסקה להכניס לו אלף דינר כו': היינו רישא תנא שומא רבה וקתני שומא זוטא תנא שומא דידיה וקתני שומא דידה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פסקה להכניס לו כספים סלעה נעשה ששה דינרין החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינרים לקופה לכל מנה ומנה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הכל כמנהג המדינה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היינו פוסק כנגדם חמשה עשר מנה,תנא עסקא רבה ותנא עסקא זוטא וצריכא דאי תנא עסקא רבה דנפיש רווחא אבל עסקא זוטא דזוטר רווחא אימא לא צריכא ואי אשמעינן עסקא זוטא דזוטר זיונא אבל עסקא רבה דנפיש זיונא אימא לא צריכא:,החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינר לקופה: מאי קופה אמר רב אשי קופה של בשמים ואמר רב אשי לא נאמרו דברים הללו אלא בירושלים,בעי רב אשי במנה הנישום או במנה המתקבל,את"ל מנה המתקבל יום ראשון או כל יום ויום את"ל כל יום ויום שבת ראשונה או כל שבת ושבת את"ל כל שבת ושבת חדש ראשון או כל חדש וחדש את"ל כל חדש וחדש שנה ראשונה או כל שנה ושנה תיקו,א"ר יהודה אמר רב מעשה בבתו של נקדימון בן גוריון שפסקו לה חכמים ארבע מאות זהובים לקופה של בשמים לבו ביום אמרה להם כך תפסקו לבנותיכם וענו אחריה אמן:,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה יוצא מירושלים והיו תלמידיו מהלכין אחריו ראה ריבה אחת שהיתה מלקטת שעורים מבין גללי בהמתן של ערביים כיון שראתה אותו נתעטפה בשערה ועמדה לפניו,אמרה לו רבי פרנסני אמר לה בתי מי את אמרה לו בת נקדימון בן גוריון אני אמר לה בתי ממון של בית אביך היכן הלך אמרה לו רבי לא כדין מתלין מתלא בירושלים מלח ממון חסר ואמרי לה חסד ושל בית חמיך היכן הוא אמרה לו בא זה ואיבד את זה,אמרה לו רבי זכור אתה כשחתמת על כתובתי אמר להן לתלמידיו זכור אני כשחתמתי על כתובתה של זו והייתי קורא בה אלף אלפים דינרי זהב מבית אביה חוץ משל חמיה בכה רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ישראל בזמן שעושין רצונו של מקום אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהם ובזמן שאין עושין רצונו של מקום מוסרן ביד אומה שפלה ולא ביד אומה שפלה אלא ביד בהמתן של אומה שפלה,ונקדימון בן גוריון לא עבד צדקה והתניא אמרו עליו על נקדימון בן גוריון כשהיה יוצא מביתו לבית המדרש כלי מילת היו 66b. the bson-in-law pledgesaccording to the amount of the dowry that the bride brings, bhe pledges one-fifth lessin the marriage contract, which is the actual value of the property., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a ibaraitato expand upon the mishna’s statement that the father is not required to give the second son-in-law the gift that he promised the first son-in-law, as follows. bThe Sages taught: Needless to say,this ruling applies when the bfirstis ba Torah scholar andthe bsecondis ban ignoramus,since the father-in-law has a reason to refuse to give the second a dowry like the first. bBut evenif the bfirstis ban ignoramus andthe bsecondis ba Torah scholar,the father-in-law bmay say: To your brother, I wanted to givethis dowry, but bto you I do not want to giveit, since the obligation incurred was to a specific individual.,The mishna discusses the relationship between the value of the dowry the bride brings in and the amount of money the groom records in the marriage contract, and various examples are illustrated, e.g., if the woman bpledged to bring him one thousanddinars. The Gemara asks: bTheselatter examples in the mishna bare the same as the first clause of the mishna,and they all illustrate the same ficial conditions. Why was it not sufficient to mention only the case of the thousand dinars? The Gemara explains: The itanna bteachesabout ba large appraisalof her substantial property, band healso bteachesabout ba small appraisalin a case where she has minimal property, to illustrate that there is no halakhic difference between them. Similarly, the itanna bteachesabout the husband’s own bappraisalof how to assess how much she must provide, band healso bteachesabout the wife’s own initial bappraisalthat she did and the corresponding amount that he must write., strongMISHNA: /strong If bshe pledged to bring him moneyand not articles to serve as a dowry, bher isela /i,i.e., four dinars, bbecomes sixdinars with respect to the husband’s obligation in the marriage contract. This follows the standard outlined in the previous mishna: The groom increases his obligation by one half since he will profit from this money. Additionally, the bgroom accepts upon himselfto give btendinars bto the accountfor her needs, bfor each and every hundred dinarsthat she brings. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everythingis bin accordance with the regional custom. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the first clause, that her iselabecomes six dinars, the Gemara asks: bThis isidentical to that which was taught in the previous mishna, that if she brings one thousand dinars in her dowry, bhe pledges against them fifteen hundred dinars.Why does the mishna cite another example to demonstrate the same principle?,The Gemara responds: The itanna btaughtabout blargeinvestment bcapitaland btaughtabout bsmallinvestment bcapital. Andit is bnecessaryto relate to both situations, bbecause if he taughtonly the case of blarge capital, whichhas babundant profit,you might think that only then does the husband add one-half. bHowever,for bsmall capital, whichhas bsmall profit,you could bsaythat this is bnotthe case. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto also state the principle in this mishna. bAndconversely, bifthe itannahad btaught usonly about bsmall capital,then you might think that bbecauseit has blittle expense,one must add a half. bHowever,with regard to blarge capital,for bwhichthere is babundant expense,you could bsaythat the husband need bnotadd as much. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto state both cases to teach that the husband adds one-half to the sum in any case.,The mishna states that the bson-in-law accepts upon himselfto give bten dinars to the account.The Gemara asks: bWhatis this baccount? Rav Ashi said:It is ban accountfor expenses bof perfumesand cosmetics. bAnd Rav Ashi said: This statement was said onlyfor women bin Jerusalem,where the women are accustomed to using an abundance of perfume.,According to the mishna, the husband must give ten dinars for each and every hundred dinars that she brings. bRav Ashi raises a dilemma:Does this speak bofeach bhundred dinars that are appraisedin her dowry, bor ofeach bhundred dinars that are acceptedby the husband in the marriage contract, which is the appraisal reduced by one-fifth?, bIf you saythat the mishna speaks of each bhundred dinars that is accepted,is the intent that he gives a one-time sum only on the bfirst day oron beach day? If you saythat he gives it bevery day,does he give it only the bfirst weekof marriage bor each week? If you sayhe gives it beach week,does he give it only the bfirst month or each month? If you sayhe gives it beach month,does he give it only the bfirst yearof marriage bor each year?The Gemara does not determine how the calculation must be rendered and with what frequency the husband is required to provide for her cosmetics, and the dilemmas bshall standunresolved.,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:There was ban incident involvingthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. When the Sages designated for her four hundred goldcoins bfor her account of perfumes,from her late husband’s estate, bforuse bon that same day, sheblessed them and bsaid to them: Thisis how byoushould also bpledge for yourown bdaughters, and they answered after her: Amen. /b,Apropos the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon, the Gemara relates what later became of her: bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. When he was riding on a donkey and leaving Jerusalem, and his students were walking after himto learn from him, bhe saw a certain young woman who was gathering barley from among the dung of the animals of Arabs.She was so poor that she subsisted on the undigested barley within the dung. bWhen she saw him, she wrapped herself in her hair,as she had nothing else with which to cover herself, and bstood before him. /b, bShe said to him: My teacher, sustain me.He did not recognize her, so bhe said to her: My daughter, who are you? She said to him: I amthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. He said to her: My daughter, the money of your father’s household, where didit bgo?How did you become so poor? bShe said to him: My teacher, is it notthat they bsay such a proverb in Jerusalem: Salt for money is lacking [ iḥaser /i]?There is nothing with which to preserve it and prevent it from being lost. bAnd some saythe proverb asserts that bkindness [ iḥesed /i]is salt for money, i.e., using money for acts of kindness preserves it. He continued to ask her: bAndthe money bof your father-in-law’s house,which was used properly, for benevolent acts, bwhere is it? She said to him: This one came and destroyed that one;all the money was combined, and it was all lost together., bShe said to him: My teacher,do byou remember when you signed on my marriage contract? He said to his students: I remember that when I signed on the marriage contract of thiswoman, band I read in it,it listed ba thousand thousands,i.e., one million bgold dinarsas a dowry bfrom her father’s house, aside from thatwhich was promised her bfrom her father-in-law. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai cried and said: How fortunate are you, Israel,for bwhenIsrael bperforms the will ofthe bOmnipresent, no nation or tonguecan brule over them; and whenIsrael bdoes not perform the will of the Omnipresent, He delivers them into the hand of a lowly nation. Notonly are they delivered binto the hand of a lowly nation, but even into the hand of the animals of a lowly nation,as in the pitiful instance of Nakdimon’s daughter.,The recorded incident implies that Nakdimon lost all of his wealth after having failed to use it for acts of kindness. The Gemara asks: bAnd did not Nakdimon ben Guryon perform charity? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Nakdimon ben Guryonthat bwhen he would leave his hometo go bto the study hall,there were bfine woolen garmentshis attendants bwould /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69a. With regard to bone who says to hispregt Canaanite bmaidservant: You are hereby a free woman but your offspringshall remain ba slave, the offspring isemancipated blike her.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. And the Rabbis say:The master’s bstatement is upheld, because it is stated: “The wife and her children shall be her master’s”(Exodus 21:4).,The Gemara expresses surprise at this ruling: bWhat is thebiblical bderivationhere? How do the Rabbis learn from here that the child of an emancipated maidservant remains a slave in this case? bRava said:The proof from the verse beginning with: “The wife and her children,” is not the source of the opinion of the Rabbis. Rather, this is referring btothe statement bof Rabbi Yosei HaGelili,who claims that the children follow their mother, as indicated by this verse. Consequently, if she is emancipated, her offspring do not retain the status of slaves., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Tarfon says: iMamzerimcan be purified,so that their offspring will not be imamzerim /i. bHow so?With regard to ba imamzerwho marrieda Canaanite bmaidservant,their boffspring is a slave.If his master subsequently bemancipates him,that bson is foundto be ba freeman,rather than a imamzer /i. bRabbi Eliezer says:This method is not effective, as bthisson bis a imamzerslave. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Did bRabbi Tarfon statehis ihalakha bab initio/i b,i.e., a imamzeris permitted to marry a maidservant, bordid bhe stateit only bafter the fact,but he does not permit a imamzerto marry a maidservant iab initio /i? The Gemara answers: bComeand bhearproof from a ibaraita /i: The other Sages bsaid to Rabbi Tarfon: You havethereby bpurified the maleoffspring of a imamzer /i, bbut you have not purified the femalechildren of imamzerim /i, as your solution does not apply to them.,The Gemara explains the apparent proof from this ibaraita /i. bAnd if you saythat Rabbi Tarfon bstatedhis ihalakha bab initio/i and permitted a imamzerto marry a Canaanite maidservant, ba imamzeretshould alsobe allowed to bmarrya Canaanite bslaveand her child can then be emancipated as well. The Gemara answers: bA slave has no lineage.Even if she were to marry a slave, their child would not be considered his, but would be a Jewish imamzerlike her. Consequently, this source provides no proof with regard to the Gemara’s question.,The Gemara further suggests: bComeand bhear, as Rabbi Simlai’s host was a imamzer /i, andRabbi Simlai bsaid to him: Had Ifound out about your status bearlier,before you married and had children, bI would have purified your sonsby advising you to marry a Canaanite maidservant, as suggested by Rabbi Tarfon. The Gemara explains the proof: bGranted, if you saythat Rabbi Tarfon spoke iab initio /i,it is bwellthat Rabbi Simlai would suggest this. bBut if you saythat he meant only that this method is effective bafter the fact, what wasthe advice that Rabbi Simlai would have given his host?,The Gemara answers bthatRabbi Simlai would have badvised him by saying: Go steal, and be sold as a Hebrew slave,which would mean you could marry a Canaanite maidservant and your offspring would be slaves. The Gemara asks: bBut in the days of Rabbi Simlai, wasthe ihalakhaof ba Hebrew slaveobserved in practice? bBut didn’t the Master say:The ihalakhaof ba Hebrew slave is practiced only when the JubileeYear bis practiced,and Rabbi Simlai lived many years after the observance of the Jubilee Year ceased. bRather, isn’t itcorrect to bconclude fromit that bRabbi Tarfon spoke iab initio /i,i.e., it is permitted for a imamzerto marry a Canaanite maidservant? The Gemara affirms: Indeed, bconclude fromthe ibaraitathat this is the case. bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Tarfon. /b,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Eliezer says: Thisson bis a imamzerslave. Rabbi Elazar said: What is the reason of Rabbi Eliezer? As the verse stateswith regard to a imamzer /i: “Even to the tenth generation none bof hisshall enter the assembly of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 23:3), which indicates that in the case of the child of a imamzerand a Canaanite maidservant, one bfollows hisparent with the bflawedlineage, and the child is a imamzer /i.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbis,i.e., Rabbi Tarfon, respond to this claim? Rabbi Tarfon maintains bthatthis verse is referring bto a Jewof unflawed lineage bwho married a imamzeret /i.It might benter your mind to saythat as bit is written: “By their families, by their fathers’ houses”(Numbers 4:2), the child should follow his father’s lineage rather than that of his mother. Therefore, the term b“of his”in the previously cited verse bcomes to exclude himfrom his father’s lineage, as it indicates that his lineage follows his mother when she is a imamzeret /i., bAndhow does bRabbi Eliezerrespond to this claim? Is it bnotthe case that beven thoughthe Torah bwrote: “By their families, by their fathers’ houses,”nevertheless, the term b“of his” comes and excludes him? Here too, although it is written: “The wife and her children shall be her master’s”(Exodus 21:4), from which it is derived that the child of a Canaanite maidservant is like her, nevertheless the term b“of his” comes and excludes him. Andhow do bthe Rabbis,Rabbi Tarfon, respond to this claim? They say: bAny offspring in the womb of a Canaanite maidservant is considered like the offspring in an animal’s womb.Consequently, her children do not inherit the father’s status, even if his is the flawed lineage.,, strongMISHNA: /strong There were btencategories of blineage,with varying restrictions on marriage, among the Jews who bascended from Babyloniato Eretz Yisrael with Ezra before the building of the Second Temple. They are as follows: bPriests; Levites; Israelites; priests disqualified due to flawed lineage [ iḥalalim /i]; converts, and emancipated slaves; imamzerim /i; Gibeonites,i.e., the descendants of the Gibeonites who converted in the time of Joshua; bchildren of unknown paternity [ ishetuki /i]; and foundlings. /b,The mishna proceeds to detail their ihalakhot /i: With regard to bpriests, Levites, and Israelites,it is bpermittedfor men and women in these categories bto marry one another.With regard to bLeviteswho are not priests, bIsraelites, iḥalalim /i, converts, and emancipated slaves,it is bpermittedfor men and women in these categories bto marry one another. /b,With regard to bconverts, and emancipated slaves, imamzerim /i, and Gibeonites, children of unknown paternity [ ishetuki /i], and foundlings,it is bpermittedfor ball ofthe men and women in these categories bto marry one another. And these arethe last two categories: bA ishetuki /iis banyperson bwho knowsthe identity of bhis mother but does not knowthe identity of bhis father. A foundlingis banyone who was collected from the marketplace and doesn’t knowthe identity of his parents, bneitherthat of bhis father northat of bhis mother.These two categories are people whose status is uncertain; they may be imamzerim /i. bAbba Shaul would call a ishetuki /iby the label of ibeduki /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: There were btencategories of blineageamong the Jews who bascended from Babylonia.The Gemara asks: bWhy doesthe itanna bspecifically teachthe phrase: bAscended from Babylonia?Why was it important for the itannato specify their place of origin? bLet him teachthat they bwent to Eretz Yisrael.The Gemara answers: bHe teaches us a matter in passing, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And you shall arise and go up to the place that the Lord, your God, shall choose”(Deuteronomy 17:8). This bteaches that the Temple is higher than all of Eretz Yisrael,which is why the verse speaks of ascending from the cities of Eretz Yisrael to the Temple. bAndit teaches that bEretz Yisrael is higher than all of the lands. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, the Temple is higher than all of Eretz Yisrael. This isderived from bthat which is written: /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91b. בכורות נאות והושיב בו שני שומרים אחד חיגר ואחד סומא אמר לו חיגר לסומא בכורות נאות אני רואה בפרדס בא והרכיבני ונביאם לאכלם רכב חיגר על גבי סומא והביאום ואכלום,לימים בא בעל פרדס אמר להן בכורות נאות היכן הן אמר לו חיגר כלום יש לי רגלים להלך בהן אמר לו סומא כלום יש לי עינים לראות מה עשה הרכיב חיגר על גבי סומא ודן אותם כאחד,אף הקב"ה מביא נשמה וזורקה בגוף ודן אותם כאחד שנאמר (תהלים נ, ד) יקרא אל השמים מעל ואל הארץ לדין עמו יקרא אל השמים מעל זו נשמה ואל הארץ לדין עמו זה הגוף:,א"ל אנטונינוס לרבי מפני מה חמה יוצאה במזרח ושוקעת במערב א"ל אי הוה איפכא נמי הכי הוה אמרת לי א"ל הכי קאמינא לך מפני מה שוקעת במערב,א"ל כדי ליתן שלום לקונה שנאמר (נחמיה ט, ו) וצבא השמים לך משתחוים א"ל ותיתי עד פלגא דרקיע ותתן שלמא ותיעול משום פועלים ומשום עוברי דרכים,וא"ל אנטונינוס לרבי נשמה מאימתי ניתנה באדם משעת פקידה או משעת יצירה א"ל משעת יצירה א"ל אפשר חתיכה של בשר עומדת שלשה ימים בלא מלח ואינה מסרחת אלא משעת פקידה אמר רבי דבר זה למדני אנטונינוס ומקרא מסייעו שנאמר (איוב י, יב) ופקודתך שמרה רוחי,ואמר ליה אנטונינוס לרבי מאימתי יצה"ר שולט באדם משעת יצירה או משעת יציאה א"ל משעת יצירה א"ל א"כ בועט במעי אמו ויוצא אלא משעת יציאה אמר רבי דבר זה למדני אנטונינוס ומקרא מסייעו שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) לפתח חטאת רובץ,ר"ל רמי כתיב (ירמיהו לא, ח) בם עור ופסח הרה ויולדת יחדו וכתיב (ישעיהו לה, ו) אז ידלג כאיל פסח ותרון לשון אלם כי נבקעו במדבר מים ונחלים בערבה הא כיצד עומדין במומן ומתרפאין,עולא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כה, ח) בלע המות לנצח ומחה ה' דמעה מעל כל פנים וכתיב (ישעיהו סה, כ) כי הנער בן מאה שנה ימות לא יהיה משם עוד עול ימים לא קשיא כאן בישראל כאן בעובדי כוכבים ועובדי כוכבים מאי בעו התם הנך דכתיב בהו (ישעיהו סא, ה) ועמדו זרים ורעו צאנכם ובני נכר אכריכם וכורמיכם,רב חסדא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כד, כג) וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה כי מלך ה' צבאות וכתיב (ישעיהו ל, כו) והיה אור הלבנה כאור החמה ואור החמה יהיה שבעתים כאור שבעת הימים לא קשיא כאן לימות המשיח כאן לעוה"ב,ולשמואל דאמר אין בין העוה"ז לימות המשיח אלא שיעבוד גליות בלבד לא קשיא כאן במחנה צדיקים כאן במחנה שכינה,רבא רמי כתיב (דברים לב, לט) אני אמית ואחיה וכתיב (דברים לב, לט) מחצתי ואני ארפא אמר הקב"ה מה שאני ממית אני מחיה והדר מה שמחצתי ואני ארפא,ת"ר אני אמית ואחיה יכול שתהא מיתה באחד וחיים באחד כדרך שהעולם נוהג ת"ל מחצתי ואני ארפא מה מחיצה ורפואה באחד אף מיתה וחיים באחד מיכן תשובה לאומרין אין תחיית המתים מן התורה,תניא אמר רבי מאיר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות טו, א) אז ישיר משה ובני ישראל את השירה הזאת לה' שר לא נאמר אלא ישיר מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (יהושע ח, ל) אז יבנה יהושע מזבח לה' בנה לא נאמר אלא יבנה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,אלא מעתה (מלכים א יא, ז) אז יבנה שלמה במה לכמוש שקוץ מואב הכי נמי דיבנה אלא מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו בנה,א"ר יהושע בן לוי מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (תהלים פד, ה) אשרי יושבי ביתך עוד יהללוך סלה היללוך לא נאמר אלא יהללוך מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה וא"ר יהושע בן לוי כל האומר שירה בעוה"ז זוכה ואומרה לעולם הבא שנאמר אשרי יושבי ביתך עוד יהללוך סלה,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ח) קול צופיך נשאו קול יחדו ירננו וגו' ריננו לא נאמר אלא ירננו מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה וא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן עתידין כל הנביאים כולן אומרים שירה בקול אחד שנאמר קול צופיך נשאו קול יחדו ירננו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המונע הלכה מפי תלמיד כאילו גוזלו מנחלת אבותיו שנאמר (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה קהילת יעקב מורשה היא לכל ישראל מששת ימי בראשית אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא כל המונע הלכה מפי תלמיד אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמו מקללין אותו שנאמר (משלי יא, כו) מונע בר 91b. bfine first fruitsof a fig tree, band he stationed two guards inthe orchard, bone lame,who was unable to walk, band one blind.Neither was capable of reaching the fruit on the trees in the orchard without the assistance of the other. bThe lameperson bsaid to the blindperson: bI see fine first fruitsof a fig tree bin the orchard; come and place meupon your shoulders. I will guide you to the tree, band we will bringthe figs bto eat them. The lameperson brode uponthe shoulders of bthe blindperson band they broughtthe figs band ate them. /b, bSometimelater bthe owner of the orchard cameto the orchard. bHe said tothe guards: bThe fine first fruitsof a fig tree that were in the orchard, bwhere are they? The lameperson bsaid: Do I have any legs with whichI would be able bto walkand take the figs? bThe blindperson bsaid: Do I have any eyeswith which I would be able bto seethe way to the figs? bWhat didthe owner of the orchard bdo? He placed the lameperson buponthe shoulders of bthe blindperson just as they did when they stole the figs, band he judged them as one. /b, bSo too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings the soulon the day of judgment band casts itback binto the body,as they were when they sinned, band He judges them as one, as it is stated: “He calls to the heavens above and to the earth that He may judge His people”(Psalms 50:4). b“He calls to the heavens above”; this is the soul,which is heavenly. b“And to the earth that He may judge His people”; this is the body,which is earthly.,The Gemara relates another exchange. bAntoninos said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bFor whatreason bdoes the sun emerge in the east and set in the west?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: If it were the reverse, you would have also said that to me,as the sun must emerge from one direction and set in the other. Antoninos bsaid to him: This is what I am saying to you: For whatreason bdoesthe sun bset in the westand not occasionally deviate and set elsewhere?,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:The sun always sets in the west bin order to greet its Creator, as it is stated: “And the hosts of heaven worship You”(Nehemiah 9:6). Setting is a form of worship; it is as though the sun is bowing to God. The Divine Presence rests in the west, as is evident from the fact that the Holy of Holies in the Temple, in which the Ark, the resting place of the Divine Presence, is located in the west. Antoninos bsaid to him:If so, bletthe sun bcome until the midpoint of the sky,set slightly band greetits Creator, and return band enterits place of origin in the east and set there. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi answered him: The sun sets in the west bdue to workers and due to travelers,as, if the sun did not proceed from east to west with the light of day gradually waning, they would not know that it is time to return home or to find an inn., bAnd Antoninos said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bFrom when isthe bsoul placed in a person?Is it bfrom the moment of conception or from the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo, forty days after conception? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:It is bfrom the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo. Antoninos bsaid to him:That is inconceivable. Is it bpossiblethat ba piece of meatcould bstandfor even bthree days without saltas a preservative bandwould bnot rot?The embryo could not exist for forty days without a soul. bRather,the soul is placed in man bfrom the moment of conception. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Antoninos taught me this matter, andthere is ba versethat bsupports him, as it is stated: “And Your Providence [ ipekudatekha /i] has preserved my spirit”(Job 10:12) indicating that it is from the moment of conception [ ipekida /i] that the soul is preserved within a person., bAnd Antoninos said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bFrom when does the evil inclination dominate a person?Is it bfrom the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo bor from the moment of emergencefrom the womb? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:It is bfrom the moment ofthe bformationof the embryo. Antoninos bsaid to him: If so,the evil inclination would cause the fetus to bkick his mother’s innards and emergefrom the womb. bRather, the evil inclination dominates a person from the moment of emergencefrom the womb. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Antoninos taught me this matter, andthere is ba versethat bsupports him, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the entrance”(Genesis 4:7), indicating that it is from the moment of birth, when the newborn emerges from the entrance of his mother’s womb, that the evil inclination lurks.,§ bReish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses written with regard to the resurrection of the dead. bIt is written:“I will bring them from the north country and gather them from the ends of the earth, band with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and the woman giving birth together”(Jeremiah 31:7), indicating that at the end of days there will still be people with physical defects. bAnd it is written: “Then shall the lame man leap as a deer and the tongue of the mute sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert”(Isaiah 35:6), indicating that at the end of days there will be no people with physical defects. bHow so?When resurrected, the dead bwill arisestill afflicted bwith their defects, andthey bwillthen bbe healed. /b, bUlla raises a contradiction. It is written: “He will swallow death forever; and the LordGod bwill wipe tears from all faces”(Isaiah 25:8), indicating that death will no longer exist at the end of days. bAnd it is written: “There shall be no more an infant a few days old then…for the youngest shall die one hundred years old”(Isaiah 65:20). The Gemara answers that this contradiction is bnot difficult.The verse bhere,in Isaiah chapter 25, is written bwith regard to the Jewish people,who will live forever after resurrection; the verse bthere,in Isaiah chapter 65, is written bwith regard to gentiles,who will ultimately die after an extremely long life. The Gemara asks: bAnd what do gentiles seek,i.e., why will they merit to live, in bthatera? The Gemara answers that the verse is referring to bthosegentiles babout whom it is written: “And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and aliens shall be your plowmen and vinedressers”(Isaiah 61:5)., bRav Ḥisda raises a contradiction. It is written: “Then the moon shall be confounded and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts will reignin Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His elders shall be His glory” (Isaiah 24:23), indicating that the sun and the moon will no longer shine at the end of days. bAnd it is written: “And the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days”(Isaiah 30:26), indicating that the sun and the moon will exist then and they will shine more brightly. The Gemara answers that this is bnot difficult.The verse bhere,in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard bto the days of the Messiah,when the sun and moon will shine more brightly; the verse bthere,in Isaiah chapter 24, is written with regard bto the World-to-Come,when the only light will be the light of God.,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to Shmuel, who says: The difference between this world and the messianic era is only subjugation of the exiles,as during that era the Jewish people will be freed from that subjugation, how is the contradiction resolved? The Gemara answers that even according to Shmuel this contradiction is bnot difficult.The verse bhere,in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard to the light bin the camp of the righteous;the verse bthere,in Isaiah chapter 24, the verse is written with regard bto the camp of the Divine Presence,when the only light will be the light of God., bRava raises a contradiction. It is written: “I will kill and I will bring to life”(Deuteronomy 32:39), indicating that God is capable of reviving the dead. bAnd it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“I wounded and I will heal,”which indicates that God will only heal the wounded. Rather, it should be understood: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, is saying: What I kill, I bring to life,indicating that God revives the dead. bAnd then what I wounded, I will heal. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“I will kill and I will bring to life.”One bmighthave thought that it means bthat there will be deathfor boneperson band lifefor boneother bperson, in thetypical bmanner that the world operates.Therefore, bthe verse states: “I wounded and I will heal.” Just as wounding and healingtake place bin oneperson, bso too, death andbringing back to blifetake place bin oneperson. bFrom herethere is ba response tothose who bsaythat bthere is no resurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir said: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Then Moses and the children of Israel will sing this song to the Lord”(Exodus 15:1). It bis not stated: Sang,in the verse; brather,the term b“they will sing”is stated, indicating that Moses will come back to life and sing the song in the future. bFrom hereit is proved that bresurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. On a similar note, youcan bsay: “Then Joshua will build an altar to the LordGod of Israel on Mount Ebal” (Joshua 8:30). It bis not stated: Built,in the verse; brather,the term b“will build”is stated. bFrom here, resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. /b,The Gemara challenges: bIf that is so,then in the verse: b“Then Solomon will build an altar for Chemosh the abomination of Moab”(I Kings 11:7), does this balsomean that Solomon bwill buildin the future? Rather, the use of the future tense here should be understood differently. Solomon did not build an altar to the idol; brather,the use of the future tense teaches that bthe verse ascribes himblame bas though he built it,since he did not prevent his wives from doing so. Therefore, no proof for the resurrection of the dead may be cited from this verse., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Happy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah”(Psalms 84:5). It bis not stated: They praised you,in the verse; brather,the term b“they will praise you”is stated. bFrom here, resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who recites songto God bin this world is privileged and recites it in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Happy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah.” /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Your watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing,for they shall see eye to eye the Lord returning to Zion” (Isaiah 52:8). It bis not stated: They sang,in the verse; brather,the term “together bshall they sing”is stated. bFrom here resurrection of the deadis derived bfrom the Torah. And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: All the prophets are all destined to recite song in one voice, as it is stated: “Your watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing.” /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:With regard to banyone who withholds ihalakhafrombeing studied by bthe mouth of a studentwho seeks to study Torah, bit is as though he robs him of the inheritance of his ancestors, as it is stated: “Moses commanded us the Torah, an inheritance of the congregation of Jacob”(Deuteronomy 33:4), indicating that the Torah bis an inheritance for all of the Jewish people from the six days of Creation. Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saysthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida says:With regard to banyone who withholds ihalakhafrombeing studied by bthe mouth of a studentwho seeks to study Torah, beven fetuses in their mother’s womb curse him, as it is stated: “He who withholds ibar /i, /b
12. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 41 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

13. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 30 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

14. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 8.7

8.7. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לְהָשִׁיב אֶל מָרְדֳּכָי (אסתר ד, טו), אָמְרָה לוֹ לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, אֵלּוּ הֵן י"ג וְי"ד וְט"ו בְּנִיסָן. שָׁלַח לָהּ וַהֲרֵי בָּהֶם יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח, אָמְרָה לוֹ זָקֵן שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה הוּא פֶּסַח. מִיָּד שָׁמַע מָרְדֳּכַי וְהוֹדָה לִדְבָרֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיַּעֲבֹר מָרְדֳּכָי וַיַּעַשׂ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוְתָה עָלָיו אֶסְתֵּר. תַּמָּן אָמְרִין שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל פֶּסַח בְּתַעֲנִית. וְעַל אוֹתָהּ צָרָה וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמֶר גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לִפְנֵי כִסֵּא כְבוֹדֶךָ אֲדוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים כִּי לֹא מִגַּבְהוּת לֵב וּמֵרוּם עַיִן עָשִׂיתִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִשְׁתַּחֲוֵיתִי לְהָמָן, כִּי אִם מִיִּרְאָתְךָ פָּעַלְתִּי זֹאת, לְבִלְתִּי הִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת לוֹ, כִּי יָרֵאתִי מִפָּנֶיךָ לְבִלְתִּי תֵּת כְּבוֹדְךָ לְבָשָׂר וָדָם, וְלֹא רָצִיתִי לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת לְזוּלָתֶךָ, כִּי מִי אֲנִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא אֶשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְהָמָן עַל תְּשׁוּעַת עַמְךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּי לוֹחֵךְ הָיִיתִי מִנְעַל רַגְלָיו. וְעַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַצִּילֵנוּ נָא מִיָּדוֹ, וְיִפֹּל בַּשַּׁחַת אֲשֶׁר כָּרָה וְיִלָּכֵד בָּרֶשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר טָמַן לְרַגְלֵי חֲסִידֶיךָ, וְיֵדַע הַמַּרְגִּיז הַזֶּה כִּי לֹא שָׁכַחְתָּ הַהַבְטָחָה שֶׁהִבְטַחְתָּנוּ (ויקרא כו, מד): וְאַף גַּם זֹאת בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם לֹא מְאַסְתִּים וְלֹא גְּעַלְתִּים לְכַלֹּתָם לְהָפֵר בְּרִיתִי אִתָּם כִּי אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. מֶה עָשָׂה מָרְדֳּכַי, קִבֵּץ אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת וְעִנָּה אוֹתָם מִלֶּחֶם וּמַיִם, וְהִלְבִּישָׁן שָׂק וְהוֹשִׁיבָם בָּאֵפֶר, וְהָיוּ צוֹעֲקִים וּבוֹכִין וְעוֹסְקִין בַתּוֹרָה. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא הָיְתָה אֶסְתֵּר נִפְחֶדֶת מְאֹד מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר צָמְחָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, וַתִּפְשֹׁט בִּגְדֵּי מַלְכוּתָהּ וְאֶת תִּפְאַרְתָּהּ, וַתִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק, וַתִּפְרַע שְׂעַר רֹאשָׁהּ וַתְּמַלֵּא אוֹתוֹ עָפָר וָאֵפֶר, וַתְּעַנֶּה נַפְשָׁהּ בְּצוֹם, וַתִּפֹּל עַל פָּנֶיהָ לִפְנֵי ה' וַתִּתְפַּלֵל, וַתֹּאמַר, ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מָשַׁלְתָּ מִימֵי קֶדֶם, וּבָרָאתָ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, עֲזֹר נָא אֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁאַרְתִּי יְתוֹמָה בְּלִי אָב וָאֵם, וּמְשׁוּלָה לַעֲנִיָּה שׁוֹאֶלֶת מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, כֵּן אָנֹכִי שׁוֹאֶלֶת רַחֲמֶיךָ מֵחַלּוֹן לְחַלּוֹן בְּבֵית אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, וְעַתָּה ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָא לַאֲמָתְךָ הָעֲנִיָּה הַזֹּאת וְהַצִּילָה אֶת צֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ מִן הָאוֹיְבִים הָאֵלּוּ אֲשֶׁר קָמוּ עָלֵינוּ, כִּי אֵין לְךָ מַעֲצֹר לְהוֹשִׁיעַ בְּרַב אוֹ בִמְעָט. וְאַתָּה אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים עֲמֹד נָא לִימִין הַיְתוֹמָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר בְּחַסְדְּךָ בָטְחָה, וּתְנָה אוֹתִי לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה כִּי יְרֵאתִיו, וְהַשְׁפִּילֵהוּ לְפָנַי כִּי אַתָּה מַשְׁפִּיל גֵּאִים.
15. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.12



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 433
aramaic papyri (elephantine) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
aristeas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
babylonia, babylonians, accused of refusal to settle in palestine, role of synagogue in israel and, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
babylonian rabbis, sages, parallel to sophists, rhetors Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
boyarin, daniel Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 218
byzantine period, emperor Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
eliezer (or elazar), rabbi, ben shamua Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 88
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
hebrew (ethnonym) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
ioudaios Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
israel, role of synagogue in babylonia and, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
neusner, jacob' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 88
palestine, fluidity of class system Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
palestine, role of synagogue in babylonia and, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
persian empire/period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
plutarch Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
ptolemies Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
rhetors, paralleled in babylonian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
roman, period Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
rome, roman empire, social mobility in Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 433
sophists, paralleled in babylonian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
synagogues, role in babylonia, israel, distinguished Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 131
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
yehud (persian province) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150
zenon Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 150