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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



479
Anon., 4 Ezra, 9.38


nanWhen I said these things in my heart, I lifted up my eyes and saw a woman on my right, and behold, she was mourning and weeping with a loud voice, and was deeply grieved at heart, and her clothes were rent, and there were ashes on her head.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 37.29, 37.34, 44.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.29. וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 37.34. וַיִּקְרַע יַעֲקֹב שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם שַׂק בְּמָתְנָיו וַיִּתְאַבֵּל עַל־בְּנוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים׃ 44.13. וַיִּקְרְעוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם וַיַּעֲמֹס אִישׁ עַל־חֲמֹרוֹ וַיָּשֻׁבוּ הָעִירָה׃ 37.29. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes." 37.34. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days." 44.13. And they rent their clothes, and laded every man his ass, and returned to the city."
2. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.20, 42.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 1.20. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;" 42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes."
3. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.12. וַיָּרָץ אִישׁ־בִּנְיָמִן מֵהַמַּעֲרָכָה וַיָּבֹא שִׁלֹה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּמַדָּיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 4.12. And there ran a man of Binyamin out of the army, and came to Shilo the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.2, 1.11, 3.31, 13.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ בָּא מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבְגָדָיו קְרֻעִים וַאֲדָמָה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיְהִי בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל־דָּוִד וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 1.2. אַל־תַּגִּידוּ בְגַת אַל־תְּבַשְּׂרוּ בְּחוּצֹת אַשְׁקְלוֹן פֶּן־תִּשְׂמַחְנָה בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן־תַּעֲלֹזְנָה בְּנוֹת הָעֲרֵלִים׃ 1.11. וַיַּחֲזֵק דָּוִד בבגדו [בִּבְגָדָיו] וַיִּקְרָעֵם וְגַם כָּל־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 3.31. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ קִרְעוּ בִגְדֵיכֶם וְחִגְרוּ שַׂקִּים וְסִפְדוּ לִפְנֵי אַבְנֵר וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה׃ 13.19. וַתִּקַּח תָּמָר אֵפֶר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וּכְתֹנֶת הַפַּסִּים אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ קָרָעָה וַתָּשֶׂם יָדָהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ וְזָעָקָה׃ 1.2. it came to pass on the third day, that, behold, a man came out of the camp from Sha᾽ul, with his clothes rent, and earth upon his head: and so it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the earth, and bowed down." 1.11. Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him:" 3.31. And David said to Yo᾽av, and to all the people that were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn before Avner. And king David himself followed the bier." 13.19. And Tamar put ashes on her head, and tore her long sleeved garment that was on her, and laid her hand on her head, crying aloud as she went."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.6. וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיִּפֹּל עַל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה עַד־הָעֶרֶב הוּא וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם׃ 7.6. And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the evening, he and the elders of Israel; and they put dust upon their heads."
6. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 11.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.35. וַיְהִי כִרְאוֹתוֹ אוֹתָהּ וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲהָהּ בִּתִּי הַכְרֵעַ הִכְרַעְתִּנִי וְאַתְּ הָיִיתְ בְּעֹכְרָי וְאָנֹכִי פָּצִיתִי־פִי אֶל־יְהוָה וְלֹא אוּכַל לָשׁוּב׃ 11.35. And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou hast become the cause of trouble to me: for I have opened my mouth to the Lord, and I cannot go back."
7. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.7, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.7. זָנַח אֲדֹנָי מִזְבְּחוֹ נִאֵר מִקְדָּשׁוֹ הִסְגִּיר בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב חוֹמֹת אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ קוֹל נָתְנוּ בְּבֵית־יְהוָה כְּיוֹם מוֹעֵד׃ 2.7. The Lord hath cast off His altar, He hath abhorred His sanctuary, He hath given up into the hand of the enemy The walls of her palaces; They have made a noise in the house of the LORD, As in the day of a solemn assembly." 2.10. They sit upon the ground, and keep silence, The elders of the daughter of Zion; They have cast up dust upon their heads, They have girded themselves with sackcloth; The virgins of Jerusalem hang down Their heads to the ground."
8. Homer, Iliad, 18.23-18.24 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18.23. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. 18.24. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. So spake he, and a black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles, and with both his hands he took the dark dust
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 27.30 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.30. And shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, And shall cry bitterly, And shall cast up dust upon their heads, They shall roll themselves in the ashes;"
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 23.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.13. וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל־עַמּוּדוֹ בַּמָּבוֹא וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ וְתוֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַמְשׁוֹרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר וּמוֹדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־בְּגָדֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר׃ 23.13. and she looked, and, behold, the king stood on his platform at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets; the singers also [played] on instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said: ‘Treason, treason.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.3. וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה קָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶמְרְטָה מִשְּׂעַר רֹאשִׁי וּזְקָנִי וָאֵשְׁבָה מְשׁוֹמֵם׃ 9.3. And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled."
12. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה נֶאֶסְפוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְשַׂקִּים וַאֲדָמָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.1. וַתִּתֵּן אֹתֹת וּמֹפְתִים בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּבְכָל־עַם אַרְצוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתָּ כִּי הֵזִידוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַתַּעַשׂ־לְךָ שֵׁם כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 9.1. Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackcloth, and earth upon them."
13. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. I therefore, when I heard this, rent my garments, and said unto her: Woman, reverence God, and do not this evil deed, lest thou be destroyed; for know indeed that I will declare this thy device unto all men.
14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.14, 3.47, 11.71 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. And Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned greatly. 3.47. They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes. 11.71. Jonathan rent his garments and put dust on his head, and prayed.
15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 10.25, 14.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.25. As he drew near, Maccabeus and his men sprinkled dust upon their heads and girded their loins with sackcloth, in supplication to God.' 14.15. When the Jews heard of Nicanor's coming and the gathering of the Gentiles, they sprinkled dust upon their heads and prayed to him who established his own people for ever and always upholds his own heritage by manifesting himself.'
16. Septuagint, Judith, 4.11, 4.13-4.15, 9.1, 14.16, 14.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.13. So the Lord heard their prayers and looked upon their affliction; for the people fasted many days throughout Judea and in Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty. 4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments. 14.19. When the leaders of the Assyrian army heard this, they rent their tunics and were greatly dismayed, and their loud cries and shouts arose in the midst of the camp.
17. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.18. The virgins who had been enclosed in their chambers rushed out with their mothers, sprinkled their hair with dust, and filled the streets with groans and lamentations.
18. Anon., 2 Baruch, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.322 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.322. Whence we are not to wonder at what was then done, while to this very day the writings left by Moses have so great a force, that even those that hate us do confess, that he who established this settlement was God, and that it was by the means of Moses, and of his virtue; but as to these matters, let every one take them as he thinks fit.
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.316 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.316. at which the men of power were affrighted, together with the high priests, and rent their garments, and fell down before each of them, and besought them to leave off, and not to provoke Florus to some incurable procedure, besides what they had already suffered.
21. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. The blasphemer is punished only if he utters [the divine] name. Rabbi Joshua b. Korcha said: “The whole day [of the trial] the witnesses are examined by means of a substitute for the divine name:, ‘may Yose smite Yose.” When the trial was finished, the accused was not executed on this evidence, but all persons were removed [from court], and the chief witness was told, ‘State literally what you heard.’ Thereupon he did so, [using the divine name]. The judges then arose and tore their garments, which were not to be resewn. The second witness stated: “I too have heard thus” [but not uttering the divine name], and the third says: “I too heard thus.”"
22. New Testament, Acts, 14.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out
23. New Testament, Apocalypse, 18.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.19. They cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her great wealth!' For in one hour is she made desolate.
24. New Testament, Mark, 14.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses?
25. New Testament, Matthew, 26.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.63. But Jesus held his peace. The high priest answered him, "I adjure you by the living God, that you tell us whether you are the Christ, the Son of God.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26a. ואלו קרעין שאין מתאחין הקורע על אביו ועל אמו ועל רבו שלימדו תורה ועל נשיא ועל אב ב"ד ועל שמועות הרעות ועל ברכת השם ועל ספר תורה שנשרף ועל ערי יהודה ועל המקדש ועל ירושלים וקורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים,אביו ואמו ורבו שלימדו תורה מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ואלישע ראה והוא מצעק אבי אבי רכב ישראל ופרשיו אבי אבי זה אביו ואמו רכב ישראל ופרשיו זה רבו שלימדו תורה,מאי משמע כדמתרגם רב יוסף רבי רבי דטב להון לישראל בצלותיה מרתיכין ופרשין,ולא מתאחין מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ויחזק בבגדיו ויקרעם לשנים קרעים ממשמע שנאמר ויקרעם איני יודע שלשנים אלא מלמד שקרועים ועומדים לשנים לעולם,אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן אליהו חי הוא אמר ליה כיון דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ולא ראהו עוד לגבי דידיה כמת דמי,נשיא ואב בית דין ושמועות הרעות מנלן דכתיב (שמואל ב א, יא) ויחזק דוד בבגדיו ויקרעם וגם כל האנשים אשר אתו ויספדו ויבכו ויצומו עד הערב על שאול ועל יהונתן בנו ועל עם ה' ועל בית ישראל כי נפלו בחרב,שאול זה נשיא יהונתן זה אב ב"ד על עם ה' ועל בית ישראל אלו שמועות הרעות,א"ל רב בר שבא לרב כהנא ואימא עד דהוו כולהו א"ל על על הפסיק הענין,ומי קרעינן אשמועות הרעות והא אמרו ליה לשמואל קטל שבור מלכא תריסר אלפי יהודאי במזיגת קסרי ולא קרע לא אמרו אלא ברוב צבור וכמעשה שהיה,ומי קטל שבור מלכא יהודאי והא א"ל שבור מלכא לשמואל תיתי לי דלא קטלי יהודי מעולם התם אינהו גרמי לנפשייהו דא"ר אמי לקל יתירי דמזיגת קסרי פקע שורא דלודקיא,על ברכת השם מנלן דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, לז) ויבא אליקים בן חלקיה אשר על הבית ושבנא הסופר ויואח בן אסף המזכיר אל חזקיהו קרועי בגדים,ת"ר אחד השומע ואחד השומע מפי השומע חייב לקרוע והעדים אינן חייבין לקרוע שכבר קרעו בשעה ששמעו,בשעה ששמעו מאי הוי הא קא שמעי השתא לא ס"ד דכתיב (מלכים ב יט, א) ויהי כשמוע המלך חזקיהו ויקרע את בגדיו המלך קרע והם לא קרעו,ולא מתאחין מנלן אתיא קריעה קריעה,ספר תורה שנשרף מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו לו, כג) ויהי כקרא יהודי שלש דלתות וארבעה ויקרעה בתער הסופר והשלך אל האש אשר אל האח וגו' מאי שלש דלתות וארבעה,אמרו ליה ליהויקים כתב ירמיה ספר קינות אמר להו מה כתיב ביה (איכה א, א) איכה ישבה בדד אמר להו אנא מלכא א"ל (איכה א, ב) בכה תבכה בלילה אנא מלכא (איכה א, ג) גלתה יהודה מעוני אנא מלכא (איכה א, ד) דרכי ציון אבלות אנא מלכא,(איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש אמר להו מאן אמרה (איכה א, ה) כי ה' הוגה על רוב פשעיה מיד קדר כל אזכרות שבה ושרפן באש והיינו דכתיב (ירמיהו לו, כד) ולא פחדו ולא קרעו את בגדיהם מכלל דבעו למיקרע,אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי אימר משום שמועות הרעות א"ל שמועות רעות בההיא שעתא מי הוו,א"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא הרואה ספר תורה שנקרע חייב לקרוע שתי קריעות אחד על הגויל ואחד על הכתב שנאמר (ירמיהו לו, כז) אחרי שרוף המלך את המגלה ואת הדברים,רבי אבא ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי קמיה דרבי אבא בעא לאפנויי שקליה לטוטפתיה אחתיה אבי סדיא אתאי בת נעמיתא בעא למיבלעיה,אמר השתא איחייבין לי שתי קריעות א"ל מנא לך הא והא בדידי הוה עובדא ואתאי לקמיה דרב מתנה ולא הוה בידיה אתאי לקמיה דרב יהודה ואמר לי הכי אמר שמואל לא אמרו אלא בזרוע וכמעשה שהיה,ערי יהודה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו מא, ה) ויבאו אנשים משכם משילו ומשמרון שמונים איש מגולחי זקן וקרועי בגדים ומתגודדים ומנחה ולבונה בידם להביא בית ה' וגו',א"ר חלבו אמר עולא ביראה אמר ר' אלעזר הרואה ערי יהודה בחורבנן אומר (ישעיהו סד, ט) ערי קדשך היו מדבר וקורע ירושלים בחורבנה אומר (ישעיהו סד, ט) ציון מדבר היתה ירושלם שממה וקורע בית המקדש בחורבנו אומר (ישעיהו סד, י) בית קדשנו ותפארתנו אשר הללוך אבותינו היה לשריפת אש וכל מחמדינו היה לחרבה וקורע:,קורע על מקדש ומוסיף על ירושלים: ורמינהו אחד השומע ואחד הרואה כיון שהגיע לצופים קורע וקורע על מקדש בפני עצמו ועל ירושלים בפני עצמה,לא קשיא הא דפגע במקדש ברישא הא דפגע בירושלים ברישא,תנו רבנן וכולן רשאין לשוללן ולמוללן וללוקטן ולעשותן כמין סולמות אבל לא לאחותן,אמר רב חסדא 26a. bAnd these are the rentsof mourning bthat may never beproperly bmended: One who rendshis garments bforthe death bhis father, or for his mother, or for his teacher who taught him Torah, or forthe iNasi /i, or forthe bpresident of the court; or uponhearing bevil tidings; orhearing God’s bname being blessed,which is a euphemism for hearing God’s name being cursed; bor when a Torah scroll has been burned; or uponseeing bthe cities of Judeathat were destroyed bor thedestroyed bTemple or Jerusalemin ruins. This is the way one conducts himself when approaching Jerusalem when it lies in ruin: bHefirst brendshis garments bfor the Temple andthen bextendsthe rent bfor Jerusalem. /b,The Gemara elaborates upon the ihalakhotmentioned in this ibaraita /i: bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his clothing for bhis father, his mother, and his teacher who taught him Torah? As it is writtenwith regard to the prophet Elijah, when he ascended to Heaven in a tempest: b“And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and their horsemen”(II Kings 2:12). The Gemara interprets this verse as follows: b“My father, my father”; thiscomes to teach that one must rend his garments for the death of bhis father or mother. “The chariots of Israel and their horsemen”; thiscomes to include also bone’s teacher who taught him Torah. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheremay it bbe inferredthat this is referring to one’s teacher? The Gemara explains: bAsthe verse bwas translated by Rav Yosef: My teacher, my teacher, who was better forthe protection of the bJewish people with his prayers thanan army with bchariots and horsemen. /b, bAnd from where do wederive that these rents bare neverto be properly bmended? As it is written: “And he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces”(II Kings 2:12). bFrom the fact thatit bis stated: “And he rent them,” do I not know thathe rent them bin twopieces? bRather,when the verse adds that they were torn into two pieces, bit teaches that they must remain torn in twopieces bforever.Accordingly, this rent must never be properly mended., bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa:But isn’t bElijahstill balive?Why, then, did Elisha rend his garments for him? bHe said to him: Since it is written: “And he saw him no more”(II Kings 2:12), Elijah was bconsidered dead fromElisha’s perspective, and so Elisha rent his clothing for him.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his clothing for the death of the iNasiorthe bpresident of the court andupon hearing bevil tidings? As it is written,when David heard about the defeat of Israel and the death of Saul and his sons: b“Then David took hold of his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him: And they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Saul and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the sword”(II Samuel 1:11–12).,The Gemara explains how the aforementioned ihalakhotare derived from the verse: b“Saul”; this isa reference to the iNasi /i,as Saul was king of Israel. b“Jonathan”; this isa reference to the bpresident of the court. “For the people of the Lord, and for the house of the Israel”; these area reference to bevil tidings. /b, bRav bar Shaba said to Rav Kahana: Butperhaps you can bsaythat one need not rend his clothing buntil all thesecalamities occur together, and that rending clothing is performed only over a tragedy of this magnitude. bHe said to him:The repetition of the word “for”: b“ForSaul,” b“forJonathan,” and “for the people of the Lord” bdivides the matterand teaches that each individual misfortune is sufficient cause to rend one’s garments.,The Gemara asks: bBut do weactually brendour clothing upon hearing bevil tidings? But didn’t they say to Shmuel: King Shapur killed twelve thousand Jews in Mezigat Caesarea, andShmuel bdid not rendhis clothing?The Gemara answers: bThey saidthat one must rend his clothing upon hearing evil tidings bonlyin a case where the calamity involved bthe majority of the communityof Israel band resembles the incident that occurredwhen Saul was killed and the entire nation of Israel suffered defeat.,The Gemara tangentially asks: bDid King Shapurreally bkill Jews? But didn’t King Shapur say to Shmuel: I havea blessing bcoming to me, for I have never killed a Jew?The Gemara answers: King Shapur never instigated the killing of Jews; bthere,however, bthey brought it upon themselves, as Rabbi Ami saidin an exaggerated manner: bDue to the noise of theharp bstringsof bMezigat Caesarea, the walls of Laodicea were breached,for the residents of the city celebrated when they rebelled against King Shapur. Because they rebelled against him and threatened his rule, he was forced to kill them.,§ The Gemara continues its analysis of the ibaraita /i: bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments buponhearing God’s bname being blessed,i.e., cursed? bAs it is writtenwith regard to the blasphemous words said by Rab-shakeh: b“Then came Eliakim, son of Hilkiya, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, son of Asaph, the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent”(II Kings 18:37)., bThe Sages taughta ibaraitawith regard to this issue: Both bone whoactually bhearsthe curse band one who hears from the mouth ofthe one bwho heardthe curse bare obligated to rendtheir garments. bBut the witnesseswho testify against the person who uttered the blasphemy bare not obligated to rendtheir clothing when they testify as to what they heard bbecause they already renttheir clothing bwhen they heardthe curse the first time.,The Gemara asks: bWhatdifference bdoesit make that they rent their garments bwhen they heardthe curse the first time? bDidn’t they hearit again bnow?The Gemara rejects this argument: bThis will not enter your mind, as it is written: “And it came to pass, when King Hezekiah heard it, that he rent his clothes”(II Kings 19:1). This indicates that bthe king renthis garments, bbutthose who reported the blasphemy to him bdid not rendtheirs, as they had already rent their garments the first time., bAnd from where do wederive that these rents bmay not beproperly bmended? This is derivedby way of a verbal analogy between the verb brendingused here with regard to Hezekiah and the verb brendingused in the case of Elijah and Elisha.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments when ba Torah scroll has been burned? As it is written: “And it came to pass, that when Jehudi had read three or four leaves, he would cut it with a penknife, and cast it into the fire that was in the brazier”(Jeremiah 36:23). With regard to the verse itself the Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by b“three or four leaves,”and why did he cut the book only at that point?,The Gemara explains: bThey said to Jehoiakim: Jeremiah has written a book of Lamentationsover the future downfall and destruction of Jerusalem. bHe said to them: What is written in it?They read him the first verse: b“How does the city sit solitary”(Lamentations 1:1). bHe said to them: I am king,and this does not apply to me. bThey read himthe second verse: b“She weeps sore in the night”(Lamentations 1:2). He said to them: bI am king,and this does not apply to me. They read him the third verse: b“Judah is gone into exile due to affliction”(Lamentations 1:3). He said to them: bI am king.They read to him: b“The ways of Zion do mourn”(Lamentations 1:4). He said to them: bI am king.These are the four leaves, or verses, that he read first.,They read him an additional verse: b“Her adversaries have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), i.e., the reigning king will be removed from power. Once he heard this, bhe said to them: Who saidthis? They said to him: This is the continuation of the verse: b“For the Lord has afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions”(Lamentations 1:5). bImmediately, he cut out all the namesof God bfromthe book band burned them in fire. This is as it is written: “Yet they were not afraid, nor rent their garments,neither the king, nor any of his servants that heard all these words” (Jeremiah 36:24). bBy inference,this shows bthatthey bwere required to rendtheir clothing when they saw this., bRav Pappa said to Abaye:Perhaps you can bsaythat they should have rent their garments bdue to the evil tidingscontained in the scroll and not because of the destruction of the book? Abaye bsaid to him: Were they evil tidings at that time?This was a prophecy and not an account of current events., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who sees a Torah scroll that was torn is obligated to make two rents, one for the parchmentthat was damaged band one for the writing, as it is stated:“Then the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah, bafter the king had burned the scroll and the words”(Jeremiah 36:27). This implies that a separate rent must be made for each of them, both the parchment and the writing.,It was related that bRabbi Abba and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya were sitting before Rabbi Abba.Rabbi Abba bneeded to relieve himself. He removed his phylacteriesfrom his head and bplaced them on the cushionon which he was sitting. bAn ostrich came and wanted to swallowthe phylacteries., bHe said: Now,had it succeeded to swallow it, bI would have been obligated to make two rents. He said to him: From where do youderive bthis? There was an incident in which Iwas involved band I came before Rav Mattanaasking what to do, bbut he did not havean answer readily available. bIthen bcame before Rav Yehuda, and he said to me: Shmuel said as follows: They saidthat one is obligated to rend his clothing bonlywhen a Torah scroll or some other sacred book is torn bby force, and it resembles the incident that occurredwith Jehoiakim.,§ bFrom where do wederive that one must rend his garments upon seeing bthe cities of Judeain ruin? bAs it is written: “There came certain men from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, eighty people, their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring to the house of the Lord”(Jeremiah 41:5). This indicates that they rent their garments upon seeing the destruction., bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bUlla Bira’a saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: One who sees the cities of Judea in their desolation says: “Your sacred cities are become a wilderness”(Isaiah 64:9), bandthen brendshis garments. One who sees bJerusalem in its desolation says: “Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation”(Isaiah 64:9), bandthen brendshis garments. One who sees bthe Temple in its desolation says: “Our sacred and our beautiful house, where our fathers praised You, is burned with fire; and all our pleasant things are laid waste” ( /bIsaiah 64:10), bandthen brendshis garments.,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: bHefirst brendshis garments bfor the Temple andthen bextendsthe rent bfor Jerusalem. And they raise a contradictionfrom another ibaraitathat states: Both bone who hearsthat Jerusalem is in ruin band one who seesthe destruction, bonce he reachesMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i], rendshis garments. bAnd he rendshis garments bfor the Temple separately and for Jerusalem separately. /b,The Gemara answers: bThis is not difficult. This ibaraita /i, which states that instead of making a separate rent for Jerusalem one may extend the first rent that he had made for the Temple, is referring to the case where bone reached the Temple first,before seeing the rest of Jerusalem, and saw it in ruin. bThat ibaraita /i, which states that one must make separate rents for Jerusalem and for the Temple, is referring to the case where bone reached Jerusalem first,and only afterward the Temple.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bAnd all of theserents, bone may tack themtogether with loose stitches, band hem them, and gather them, and fix themwith imprecise bladder-likestitches. bBut one may not mend themwith precise stitches., bRav Ḥisda said: /b
27. Anon., 4 Ezra, 5.13, 5.20-5.22, 7.11-7.13, 9.23-9.26, 9.31-9.32, 9.37, 10.16-10.17, 10.19-10.27, 10.51-10.56, 11.39-11.46, 12.11, 12.32, 12.34, 12.36-12.38, 13.26, 13.30-13.50, 13.52-13.58

5.13. These are the signs which I am permitted to tell you, and if you pray again, and weep as you do now, and fast for seven days, you shall hear yet greater things than these. 5.20. So I fasted seven days, mourning and weeping, as Uriel the angel had commanded me. 5.21. And after seven days the thoughts of my heart were very grievous to me again. 5.22. Then my soul recovered the spirit of understanding, and I began once more to speak words in the presence of the Most High. 7.11. For I made the world for their sake, and when Adam transgressed my statutes, what had been made was judged. 7.12. And so the entrances of this world were made narrow and sorrowful and toilsome; they are few and evil, full of dangers and involved in great hardships. 7.13. But the entrances of the greater world are broad and safe, and really yield the fruit of immortality. 9.23. But if you will let seven days more pass -- do not fast during them, however; 9.24. but go into a field of flowers where no house has been built, and eat only of the flowers of the field, and taste no meat and drink no wine, but eat only flowers 9.25. and pray to the Most High continually -- then I will come and talk with you. 9.26. So I went, as he directed me, into the field which is called Ardat; and there I sat among the flowers and ate of the plants of the field, and the nourishment they afforded satisfied me. 9.31. For behold, I sow my law in you, and it shall bring forth fruit in you and you shall be glorified through it for ever.' 9.32. But though our fathers received the law, they did not keep it, and did not observe the statutes; yet the fruit of the law did not perish -- for it could not, because it was thine. 9.37. the law, however, does not perish but remains in its glory. 10.16. For if you acknowledge the decree of God to be just, you will receive your son back in due time, and will be praised among women. 10.17. Therefore go into the city to your husband. 10.19. So I spoke again to her, and said 10.20. Do not say that, but let yourself be persuaded because of the troubles of Zion, and be consoled because of the sorrow of Jerusalem. 10.21. For you see that our sanctuary has been laid waste, our altar thrown down, our temple destroyed; 10.22. our harp has been laid low, our song has been silenced, and our rejoicing has been ended; the light of our lampstand has been put out, the ark of our covet has been plundered, our holy things have been polluted, and the name by which we are called has been profaned; our free men have suffered abuse, our priests have been burned to death, our Levites have gone into captivity, our virgins have been defiled, and our wives have been ravished; our righteous men have been carried off, our little ones have been cast out, our young men have been enslaved and our strong men made powerless. 10.23. And, what is more than all, the seal of Zion -- for she has now lost the seal of her glory, and has been given over into the hands of those that hate us. 10.24. Therefore shake off your great sadness and lay aside your many sorrows, so that the Mighty One may be merciful to you again, and the Most High may give you rest, a relief from your troubles. 10.25. While I was talking to her, behold, her face suddenly shone exceedingly, and her countece flashed like lightning, so that I was too frightened to approach her, and my heart was terrified. While I was wondering what this meant 10.26. behold, she suddenly uttered a loud and fearful cry, so that the earth shook at the sound. 10.27. And I looked, and behold, the woman was no longer visible to me, but there was an established city, and a place of huge foundations showed itself. Then I was afraid, and cried with a loud voice and said 10.51. Therefore I told you to remain in the field where no house had been built 10.52. for I knew that the Most High would reveal these things to you. 10.53. Therefore I told you to go into the field where there was no foundation of any building 10.54. for no work of man's building could endure in a place where the city of the Most High was to be revealed. 10.55. Therefore do not be afraid, and do not let your heart be terrified; but go in and see the splendor and vastness of the building, as far as it is possible for your eyes to see it 10.56. and afterward you will hear as much as your ears can hear. 11.39. `Are you not the one that remains of the four beasts which I had made to reign in my world, so that the end of my times might come through them? 11.40. You, the fourth that has come, have conquered all the beasts that have gone before; and you have held sway over the world with much terror, and over all the earth with grievous oppression; and for so long you have dwelt on the earth with deceit. 11.41. And you have judged the earth, but not with truth; 11.42. for you have afflicted the meek and injured the peaceable; you have hated those who tell the truth, and have loved liars; you have destroyed the dwellings of those who brought forth fruit, and have laid low the walls of those who did you no harm. 11.43. And so your insolence has come up before the Most High, and your pride to the Mighty One. 11.44. And the Most High has looked upon his times, and behold, they are ended, and his ages are completed! 11.45. Therefore you will surely disappear, you eagle, and your terrifying wings, and your most evil little wings, and your malicious heads, and your most evil talons, and your whole worthless body 11.46. so that the whole earth, freed from your violence, may be refreshed and relieved, and may hope for the judgment and mercy of him who made it.' 12.11. The eagle which you saw coming up from the sea is the fourth kingdom which appeared in a vision to your brother Daniel. 12.32. this is the Messiah whom the Most High has kept until the end of days, who will arise from the posterity of David, and will come and speak to them; he will denounce them for their ungodliness and for their wickedness, and will cast up before them their contemptuous dealings. 12.34. But he will deliver in mercy the remt of my people, those who have been saved throughout my borders, and he will make them joyful until the end comes, the day of judgment, of which I spoke to you at the beginning. 12.36. And you alone were worthy to learn this secret of the Most High. 12.37. Therefore write all these things that you have seen in a book, and put it in a hidden place; 12.38. and you shall teach them to the wise among your people, whose hearts you know are able to comprehend and keep these secrets. 13.26. this is he whom the Most High has been keeping for many ages, who will himself deliver his creation; and he will direct those who are left. 13.30. And bewilderment of mind shall come over those who dwell on the earth. 13.31. And they shall plan to make war against one another, city against city, place against place, people against people, and kingdom against kingdom. 13.32. And when these things come to pass and the signs occur which I showed you before, then my Son will be revealed, whom you saw as a man coming up from the sea. 13.33. And when all the nations hear his voice, every man shall leave his own land and the warfare that they have against one another; 13.34. and an innumerable multitude shall be gathered together, as you saw, desiring to come and conquer him. 13.35. But he shall stand on the top of Mount Zion. 13.36. And Zion will come and be made manifest to all people, prepared and built, as you saw the mountain carved out without hands. 13.37. And he, my Son, will reprove the assembled nations for their ungodliness (this was symbolized by the storm) 13.38. and will reproach them to their face with their evil thoughts and the torments with which they are to be tortured (which were symbolized by the flames), and will destroy them without effort by the law (which was symbolized by the fire). 13.39. And as for your seeing him gather to himself another multitude that was peaceable 13.40. these are the ten tribes which were led away from their own land into captivity in the days of King Hoshea, whom Shalmaneser the king of the Assyrians led captive; he took them across the river, and they were taken into another land. 13.41. But they formed this plan for themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the nations and go to a more distant region, where mankind had never lived 13.42. that there at least they might keep their statutes which they had not kept in their own land. 13.43. And they went in by the narrow passages of the Euphrates river. 13.44. For at that time the Most High performed signs for them, and stopped the channels of the river until they had passed over. 13.45. Through that region there was a long way to go, a journey of a year and a half; and that country is called Arzareth. 13.46. Then they dwelt there until the last times; and now, when they are about to come again 13.47. the Most High will stop the channels of the river again, so that they may be able to pass over. Therefore you saw the multitude gathered together in peace. 13.48. But those who are left of your people, who are found within my holy borders, shall be saved. 13.49. Therefore when he destroys the multitude of the nations that are gathered together, he will defend the people who remain. 13.50. And then he will show them very many wonders. 13.52. He said to me, "Just as no one can explore or know what is in the depths of the sea, so no one on earth can see my Son or those who are with him, except in the time of his day. 13.53. This is the interpretation of the dream which you saw. And you alone have been enlightened about this 13.54. because you have forsaken your own ways and have applied yourself to mine, and have searched out my law; 13.55. for you have devoted your life to wisdom, and called understanding your mother. 13.56. Therefore I have shown you this, for there is a reward laid up with the Most High. And after three more days I will tell you other things, and explain weighty and wondrous matters to you. 13.57. Then I arose and walked in the field, giving great glory and praise to the Most High because of his wonders, which he did from time to time 13.58. and because he governs the times and whatever things come to pass in their seasons. And I stayed there three days.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, isaac, and jacob/patriarchs Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
angels Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169, 170
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
death Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 170, 232
destruction Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169, 170, 232
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
ethnic boundary making model, normative inversion van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 225
exile van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 225
ezra Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169, 170, 232
hate, divine Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
heavens Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 170
interpretation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 170
jerusalem van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 225
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169, 170
love, divine Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
love, power and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
perfectionism, path to perfection Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 232
perfectionism Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 232
prayer Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
revelation Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169, 170
roman empire van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 225
sin/sinner, sin, forgiveness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137
temple in jerusalem, altar of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 116
ten northern tribes van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 225
wilderness, liminal space Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169, 170
wisdom' Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 169
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 137