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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



479
Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.21-3.22


nanFor the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him.


nanThus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.16-2.17, 8.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 8.21. וַיָּרַח יְהוָה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־לִבּוֹ לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃ 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 8.21. And the LORD smelled the sweet savour; and the LORD said in His heart: ‘I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done."
2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 19.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.9. וַיָּקָם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּשָּׁעַר וּלְכָל־הָעָם הִגִּידוּ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בַּשַּׁעַר וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל נָס אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו׃ 19.9. Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told all the people, saying, Behold, the king sits in the gate. And all the people came before the king: for Yisra᾽el had fled every man to his tent."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 11.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.8. וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ וְלֹא־הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם וַיֵּלְכוּ אִישׁ בִּשְׁרִירוּת לִבָּם הָרָע וָאָבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית־הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתִי לַעֲשׂוֹת וְלֹא עָשׂוּ׃ 11.8. Yet they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked every one in the stubbornness of their evil heart; therefore I brought upon them all the words of this covet, which I commanded them to do, but they did them not.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh."
5. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1-6.2, 12.1-12.2, 21.5, 21.9, 27.2, 33.3, 80.1-80.8, 90.41 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 6.2. them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men 12.1. Before these things Enoch was hidden, and no one of the children of men knew where he wa 12.2. hidden, and where he abode, and what had become of him. And his activities had to do with the Watchers, and his days were with the holy ones. 21.5. I said: 'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: 'Enoch, why 21.9. fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!' Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'Enoch, why hast thou such fear and affright' And 27.2. accursed valley between' Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: 'This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever: Here shall all the accursed be gathered together who utter with their lips against the Lord unseemly words and of His glory speak hard things. Here shall they be gathered together, and here 33.3. I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their 80.1. And in those days the angel Uriel answered and said to me: ' Behold, I have shown thee everything, Enoch, and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldst see this sun and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the heaven and all those who turn them, their tasks and times and departures. 80.2. And in the days of the sinners the years shall be shortened, And their seed shall be tardy on their lands and fields, And all things on the earth shall alter, And shall not appear in their time: And the rain shall be kept back And the heaven shall withhold (it). 80.3. And in those times the fruits of the earth shall be backward, And shall not grow in their time, And the fruits of the trees shall be withheld in their time. 80.4. And the moon shall alter her order, And not appear at her time. 80.5. [And in those days the sun shall be seen and he shall journey in the evening on the extremity of the great chariot in the west] And shall shine more brightly than accords with the order of light. 80.6. And many chiefs of the stars shall transgress the order (prescribed). And these shall alter their orbits and tasks, And not appear at the seasons prescribed to them. 80.7. And the whole order of the stars shall be concealed from the sinners, And the thoughts of those on the earth shall err concerning them, [And they shall be altered from all their ways], Yea, they shall err and take them to be gods. 80.8. And evil shall be multiplied upon them, And punishment shall come upon them So as to destroy all.' 90.41. gave Him glory. Then I wept with a great weeping and my tears stayed not till I could no longer endure it: when I saw, they flowed on account of what I had seen; for everything shall come and
6. Anon., Jubilees, 4.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.30. And he was taken from amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honour
7. Anon., Testament of Levi, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.3. And when I was feeding the flocks in Abel-Maul, the spirit of understanding of the Lord came upon me, and I saw all men corrupting their way, and that unrighteousness had built for itself walls, and lawlessness sat upon towers.
8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.3, 10.2-10.3, 10.8-10.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.3. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הֲיָדַעְתָּ לָמָּה־בָּאתִי אֵלֶיךָ וְעַתָּה אָשׁוּב לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־שַׂר פָּרָס וַאֲנִי יוֹצֵא וְהִנֵּה שַׂר־יָוָן בָּא׃ 10.2. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל הָיִיתִי מִתְאַבֵּל שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.3. לֶחֶם חֲמֻדוֹת לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּבָשָׂר וָיַיִן לֹא־בָא אֶל־פִּי וְסוֹךְ לֹא־סָכְתִּי עַד־מְלֹאת שְׁלֹשֶׁת שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃ 10.8. וַאֲנִי נִשְׁאַרְתִּי לְבַדִּי וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאָה הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר־בִּי כֹּח וְהוֹדִי נֶהְפַּךְ עָלַי לְמַשְׁחִית וְלֹא עָצַרְתִּי כֹּחַ׃ 10.9. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־קוֹל דְּבָרָיו וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי נִרְדָּם עַל־פָּנַי וּפָנַי אָרְצָה׃ 9.3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes." 10.2. In those days I Daniel was mourning three whole weeks." 10.3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled." 10.8. So that I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me; for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength." 10.9. Yet heard I the voice of his words; and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I fallen into a deep sleep on my face, with my face toward the ground."
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.14, 15.17, 25.24, 33.14-33.15, 37.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other. 37.3. O evil imagination, why were you formed to cover the land with deceit? 37.3. for overeating brings sickness,and gluttony leads to nausea.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 12.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12.10. But judging them little by little thou gavest them a chance to repent,though thou wast not unaware that their origin was evil and their wickedness inborn,and that their way of thinking would never change.
12. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.227-2.232 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

2.227. And they all watch at all times and expect 2.228. With sleepless eyes. For it will be at dawn 2.229. Or eve or midday; but he sure shall come 2.230. 230 And it shall be as I say, it shall be 2.231. To them that sleep, that from the starry heaven 2.232. The stars at midday will to all appear
13. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Anon., 2 Baruch, 5.7, 12.5, 20.6, 21.1, 47.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 13.3, 28.4, 40.6, 43.1 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16. Mishnah, Avot, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the right way to which a man should cleave? Rabbi Eliezer said, a good eye; Rabbi Joshua said, a good companion; Rabbi Yose said, a good neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, foresight. Rabbi Elazar said, a good heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the evil way which a man should shun? Rabbi Eliezer said, an evil eye; Rabbi Joshua said, an evil companion; Rabbi Yose said, an evil neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, one who borrows and does not repay for he that borrows from man is as one who borrows from God, blessed be He, as it is said, “the wicked borrow and do not repay, but the righteous deal graciously and give” (Psalms 37:21). Rabbi Elazar said, an evil heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included."
17. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.13, 15.21-15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.13. But now faith, hope, and love remain-- these three. The greatest of these is love. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.29. Or else what will they do whoare baptized for the dead? If the dead aren't raised at all, why thenare they baptized for the dead? 15.30. Why do we also stand injeopardy every hour? 15.31. I affirm, by the boasting in you which Ihave in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. 15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die. 15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.35. But someone will say, "Howare the dead raised?" and, "With what kind of body do they come? 15.36. You foolish one, that which you yourself sow is not made aliveunless it dies. 15.37. That which you sow, you don't sow the body thatwill be, but a bare grain, maybe of wheat, or of some other kind. 15.38. But God gives it a body even as it pleased him, and to eachseed a body of its own. 15.39. All flesh is not the same flesh, butthere is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish,and another of birds. 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.41. There is one glory of the sun, another gloryof the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs fromanother star in glory. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory. 15.55. Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory? 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord.
18. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war.
19. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them.
20. New Testament, Galatians, 5.16-5.25, 6.7-6.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh. 5.17. For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and theSpirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one other, that youmay not do the things that you desire. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law. 5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness 5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God. 5.22. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience,kindness, goodness, faithfulness 5.23. gentleness, and self-control.Against such things there is no law. 5.24. Those who belong to Christhave crucified the flesh with its passions and lusts. 5.25. If we liveby the Spirit, let's also walk by the Spirit. 6.7. Don't be deceived. God is notmocked, for whatever a man sows, that will he also reap. 6.8. For hewho sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption. But hewho sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life.
21. New Testament, Philippians, 2.5-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
22. New Testament, Romans, 5.12, 8.3-8.14, 8.18-8.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.4. that the ordice of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.7. because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. 8.8. Those who are in the flesh can't please God. 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are children of God. 8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified.
23. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 3.36.1-3.36.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 9.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.7. רַבִּי נַחְמָן בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, הִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זֶה יֵצֶר טוֹב. וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זֶה יֵצֶר רָע. וְכִי יֵצֶר הָרָע טוֹב מְאֹד, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי יֵצֶר הָרָע לֹא בָּנָה אָדָם בַּיִת, וְלֹא נָשָׂא אִשָּׁה, וְלֹא הוֹלִיד, וְלֹא נָשָׂא וְנָתַן. וְכֵן שְׁלֹמֹה אוֹמֵר (קהלת ד, ד): כִּי הִיא קִנְאַת אִישׁ מֵרֵעֵהוּ. 9.7. Rabbi Nahman said in Rabbi Samuel's name: 'Behold, it was good' refers to the Good Desire; 'And behold, it was very good' refers to the Evil Desire. (It only says 'very good' after man was created with both the good and bad inclinations, in all other cases it only says 'and God saw that it was good') Can then the Evil Desire be very good? That would be extraordinary! But without the Evil Desire, however, no man would build a house, take a wife and beget children; and thus said Solomon: 'Again, I considered all labour and all excelling in work, that it is a man's rivalry with his neighbour.' (Ecclesiastes 4:4). \n"
25. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 2.17, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את וגו' ואומר (משלי ז, ג) קשרם על אצבעותיך כתבם על לוח לבך ואומר (תהלים קכז, ד) כחצים ביד גבור כן בני הנעורים ואומר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים ואומר (תהלים מה, ו) חציך שנונים עמים תחתיך יפלו ואומר (תהלים קכז, ה) אשרי הגבר אשר מלא את אשפתו מהם לא יבושו כי ידברו את אויבים בשער,מאי את אויבים בשער אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אפי' האב ובנו הרב ותלמידו שעוסקין בתורה בשער אחד נעשים אויבים זה את זה ואינם זזים משם עד שנעשים אוהבים זה את זה שנאמר (במדבר כא, יד) את והב בסופה אל תקרי בסופה אלא בסופה,ת"ר (דברים יא, יח) ושמתם סם תם נמשלה תורה כסם חיים משל לאדם שהכה את בנו מכה גדולה והניח לו רטיה על מכתו ואמר לו בני כל זמן שהרטיה זו על מכתך אכול מה שהנאתך ושתה מה שהנאתך ורחוץ בין בחמין בין בצונן ואין אתה מתיירא ואם אתה מעבירה הרי היא מעלה נומי,כך הקב"ה אמר להם לישראל בני בראתי יצר הרע ובראתי לו תורה תבלין ואם אתם עוסקים בתורה אין אתם נמסרים בידו שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) הלא אם תטיב שאת,ואם אין אתם עוסקין בתורה אתם נמסרים בידו שנא' לפתח חטאת רובץ ולא עוד אלא שכל משאו ומתנו בך שנאמר ואליך תשוקתו ואם אתה רוצה אתה מושל בו שנאמר ואתה תמשל בו,ת"ר קשה יצר הרע שאפילו יוצרו קראו רע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע מנעוריו אמר רב יצחק יצרו של אדם מתחדש עליו בכל יום שנאמר (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום,ואמר ר"ש בן לוי יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש המיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר אלהים לא יעזבנו בידו,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל בני אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח ואם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע אם אבן הוא נימוח שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים ואומר (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים,להשיאו אשה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו כט, ו) קחו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות וקחו לבניכם נשים ואת בנותיכם תנו לאנשים,בשלמא בנו בידו אלא בתו בידו היא הכי קאמר להו ניתן לה מידי ולבשייה ונכסייה כי היכי דקפצו עלה אינשי,ללמדו אומנות מנלן אמר חזקיה דאמר קרא (קהלת ט, ט) ראה חיים עם אשה אשר אהבת אם אשה ממש היא כשם שחייב להשיאו אשה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות אם תורה היא כשם שחייב ללמדו תורה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות,ויש אומרים אף להשיטו בנהר מאי טעמא חיותיה הוא,רבי יהודה אומר כל שאינו מלמדו אומנות מלמדו ליסטות ליסטות ס"ד אלא כאילו מלמדו ליסטות,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאגמריה עיסקא,כל מצות האב על הבן וכו' מאי כל מצות האב על הבן אילימא כל מצותא דמיחייב אבא למיעבד לבריה נשים חייבות והתניא האב חייב בבנו למולו ולפדותו אביו אין אמו לא,אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר כל מצות האב המוטלת על הבן לעשות לאביו אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבין תנינא להא דת"ר איש אין לי אלא איש אשה מנין כשהוא אומר תיראו הרי כאן שנים,א"כ מה ת"ל איש איש סיפק בידו לעשות אשה אין סיפק בידה לעשות מפני שרשות אחרים עליה אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב נתגרשה שניהם שוים,ת"ר נאמר (שמות כ, יב) כבד את אביך ואת אמך ונאמר (משלי ג, ט) כבד את ה' מהונך השוה הכתוב כבוד אב ואם לכבוד המקום,נאמר (ויקרא יט, ג) איש אמו ואביו תיראו ונאמר (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא ואותו תעבוד השוה הכתוב מוראת אב ואם למוראת המקום,נאמר (שמות כא, יז) מקלל אביו ואמו מות יומת ונאמר (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו השוה הכתוב ברכת אב ואם לברכת המקום אבל בהכאה ודאי אי אפשר,וכן בדין ששלשתן שותפין בו ת"ר שלשה שותפין הן באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו בזמן שאדם מכבד את אביו ואת אמו אמר הקב"ה מעלה אני עליהם כאילו דרתי ביניהם וכבדוני,תניא רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שבן מכבד את אמו יותר מאביו מפני 30b. b“Say to wisdom: You are my sister,and call understanding your kinswoman” (Proverbs 7:4), which indicates that one should be as knowledgeable in the Torah as in the identity of his sister. bAnd it states: “Bind them upon your fingers, you shall write them upon the tablet of your heart”(Proverbs 7:3). bAnd it states: “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of one’s youth”(Psalms 127:4). bAnd it states: “Sharp arrows of the mighty”(Psalms 120:4). bAnd it states: “Your arrows are sharp, the peoples fall under you”(Psalms 45:6). bAnd it states: “Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them; they shall not be put to shame when they speak with their enemies in the gate”(Psalms 127:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“enemies in the gate”with regard to Torah study? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Even a father and his son,or ba rabbi and his student, who are engaged in Torahtogether bin one gate become enemies with each otherdue to the intensity of their studies. bBut they do not leave there until they love each other, as it is statedin the verse discussing the places the Jewish people engaged in battle in the wilderness: “Therefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord, bVahev in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i],and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14). The word “ ivahev /i” is interpreted as related to the word for love, iahava /i. Additionally, bdo not readthis as b“in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i]”; rather,read it as b“at its end [ ibesofa /i],”i.e., at the conclusion of their dispute they are beloved to each other., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall place [ ivesamtem /i]these words of Mine in your hearts” (Deuteronomy 11:18). Read this as though it stated isam tam /i, a perfect elixir. The Torah is compared to an elixir of life.There is ba parable thatillustrates this: bA person hit his son with a strong blow and placed a bandage on his wound. And he said to him: My son, as long as this bandage is on your woundand is healing you, beat what you enjoy and drink what you enjoy, and bathe in either hot water or cold water, and you do not need to be afraid,as it will heal your wound. bBut if you take it off,the wound bwill become gangrenous. /b, bSotoo bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: My children, I created an evil inclination,which is the wound, band I created Torah as its antidote. If you are engaged in Torahstudy byou will not be given over into the handof the evil inclination, bas it is stated: “If you do well, shall it not be lifted up?”(Genesis 4:7). One who engages in Torah study lifts himself above the evil inclination., bAnd if you do not engage in Torahstudy, byou are given over to its power, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the door”(Genesis 4:7). bMoreover, allof the evil inclination’s bdeliberationswill be bconcerning you, as it is statedin the same verse: b“And to you is its desire.” And if you wish you shall rule over it, as it is statedin the conclusion of the verse: b“But you may rule over it”(Genesis 4:7)., bThe Sages taught:So bdifficult is the evil inclination that even its Creator calls it evil, as it is stated: “For the inclination of a man’s heart is evil from his youth”(Genesis 8:21). bRav Yitzḥak says: A person’sevil binclination renews itself to him every day, as it is stated:“And that every inclination of the thoughts in his heart was bonly evil all day [ ikol hayyom /i]”(Genesis 6:5). “ iKol hayyom /i” can also be understood as: Every day., bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Levi says: A person’s inclination overpowers him every day, and seeks to kill him, as it is stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to slay him”(Psalms 37:32). bAnd if notfor the fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, assistseach person in battling his evil inclination, bhe could notovercome bit, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand”(Psalms 37:33).,A Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: My son, if this wretched one,the evil inclination, bencounters you, pull it into the study hall,i.e., go and study Torah. bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt, and if it is ironit will bbreak, as it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Is not My word like fire, says the Lord, and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?”(Jeremiah 23:29). Just as a stone shatters a hammer, so too one can overcome his evil inclination, which is as strong as iron, through Torah study. With regard to the second part of the statement: bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt,this is bas it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), band it states: “The water wears the stones”(Job 14:19), indicating that water is stronger than stone.,§ The ibaraita(29a) teaches that a father is commanded bto marryhis son to ba woman.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this matter? bAs it is written: “Take wives and bear sons and daughters, and take wives for your sons and give your daughters to men”(Jeremiah 29:6).,The Gemara analyzes this verse: bGrantedwith regard to bhis son,this is bin his power,i.e., he can instruct him to marry a woman, as a man is the active agent in a marriage. bButwith regard to bhis daughter, isthis bin his power?She must wait for a man to marry her. The Gemara answers: bThis is whatJeremiah was bsaying to themin the aforementioned verse: Her father should bgive her somethingfor her dowry, band he should dress and cover herwith suitable clothing bso that men will leap tomarry bher. /b,§ The ibaraitafurther states that a father is commanded bto teachhis son ba trade.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bḤizkiyya said: As the verse states: “Enjoy life with the wife whom you love”(Ecclesiastes 9:9). bIfthis verse is interpreted literally, and bitis referring to ban actual woman,then one can derive as follows: bJust asa father bis obligated to marryhis son bto a woman, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade,as indicated by the term: Life. bAnd ifthe wife mentioned in this verse is allegorical, and bit is the Torah,then one should explain the verse in the following manner: bJust as he is obligated to teach him Torah, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade. /b,§ The ibaraitaadds: bAnd some saythat a father is balsoobligated bto teachhis son bto swim in a river.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIt isnecessary for bhis life,i.e., this is potentially a lifesaving skill.,§ The ibaraitafurther teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: Anyfather bwho does not teachhis son ba trade teaches him banditry.The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he actually teaches him bbanditry? Rather,the ibaraitameans that it is bas though he taught him banditry. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand that of Rabbi Yehuda? Both state that a father must teach his son a trade. The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween themin a case bwherethe father bteaches himto engage in bbusiness.According to the first itannathis is sufficient, whereas Rabbi Yehuda maintains that he must teach him an actual trade.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to ball mitzvot of a father with regard to his son,both men and women are obligated to perform them. The Gemara inquires: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAll mitzvot of a father with regard to his son? If we saythat this is referring to ball of the mitzvot that a father is required to perform for his son,are bwomen obligatedin these? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him?This indicates that bhis father, yes,he is obligated to do these, but bhis mother, no,she is not obligated to perform these mitzvot for her son., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to beach mitzvafor bthe father that is incumbent upon the son to perform for his father, both men and women are obligatedin them. The Gemara comments: bWealready blearned this, as the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse: b“A manshall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3). bI havederived bonlythat ba manis obligated in this mitzva; bfrom wheredo I derive that ba womanis also obligated? bWhen it saysin the same verse: b“A man shall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that bthere are twothat are obligated bhere,both a man and a woman., bIf so,that both of them are obligated, bwhatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Man”?In the case of ba man,it is bin his power to performthis mitzva; whereas with regard to ba woman,it is bnotalways bin her power to performthis mitzva, bbecause she is under the authority of anotherperson, i.e., her husband. As she is obligated to her husband to maintain her household, she is not always able to find time for her parents. bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav says:Consequently, if a woman bis divorced,then bboth of them,a daughter and a son, are bequalwith regard to honoring and fearing their father and mother., bThe Sages taughtthat bit is stated: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11), band it is stated: “Honor the Lord with your wealth”(Proverbs 3:9). In this manner, bthe verse equates the honor of one’s father and mother to the honor of the Omnipresent,as the term “honor” is used in both cases.,Similarly, bit is stated: “A man shall fear his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), band it is stated: “You shall fear the Lord your God and Him you shall serve”(Deuteronomy 6:13). bThe verse equates the fear of one’s father and mother to the fear of the Omnipresent. /b,Likewise, bit is stated: “He who curses his father or his mother shall be put to death”(Exodus 21:17), band it is stated: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin”(Leviticus 24:15). bThe verse equates the blessing,a euphemism for cursing, bofone’s bfather and mother to the blessing of the Omnipresent. But with regard to striking,i.e., with regard to the ihalakhathat one who strikes his father or mother is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment, bit is certainly not possibleto say the same concerning the Holy One, Blessed be He., bAnd sotoo, the equating of one’s attitude toward his parents to his attitude toward God is ba logical derivation, as the three of them are partners in hiscreation. As bthe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe forming of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He,who provides the soul, band his father and his mother. When a person honors his father and mother, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I ascribecredit bto them as if I dwelt between them and they honor Meas well., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son honors his mother more thanhe honors bhis father, because /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. תוקפו של בועז ענוותנותו של פלטי בן ליש כדאמרן,אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כט) רבות בנות עשו חיל ואת עלית על כולנה רבות בנות עשו חיל זה יוסף ובועז ואת עלית על כולנה זה פלטי בן ליש,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, ל) שקר החן והבל היופי שקר החן זה יוסף והבל היופי זה בועז יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה פלטי בן ליש,דבר אחר שקר החן זה דורו של משה והבל היופי זה דורו של יהושע יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה דורו של חזקיה,דבר אחר שקר החן זה דורו של משה ויהושע והבל היופי זה דורו של חזקיה יראת ה' היא תתהלל זה דורו של ר' יהודה ברבי אילעאי אמרו עליו על רבי יהודה ברבי אילעאי שהיו ששה תלמידים מתכסין בטלית אחת ועוסקין בתורה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מת לו מת אינו יוצא מפתח פלטרין שלו רבי יהודה אומר אם רוצה לצאת אחר המיטה יוצא שכן מצינו בדוד שיצא אחר מיטתו של אבנר שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לא) והמלך דוד הולך אחר המיטה א"ל לא היה הדבר אלא לפייס את העם וכשמברין אותו כל העם מסובין על הארץ והוא מיסב על הדרגש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן מקום שנהגו נשים לצאת אחר המיטה יוצאות לפני המיטה יוצאות ר' יהודה אומר לעולם נשים לפני המיטה יוצאות שכן מצינו בדוד שיצא אחר מיטתו של אבנר שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לא) והמלך דוד הולך אחר המיטה,אמרו לו לא היה הדבר אלא לפייס את העם ונתפייסו שהיה דוד יוצא מבין האנשים ונכנס לבין הנשים ויצא מבין הנשים ונכנס לבין האנשים שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, לז) וידעו כל העם וכל ישראל כי לא היתה מהמלך להמית את אבנר,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ג, לה) ויבא כל העם להברות את דוד כתיב להכרות וקרינן להברות בתחלה להכרותו ולבסוף להברותו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מפני מה נענש אבנר מפני שהיה לו למחות בשאול ולא מיחה ר' יצחק אמר מיחה ולא נענה ושניהן מקרא אחד דרשו (שמואל ב ג, לג) ויקונן המלך אל אבנר ויאמר הכמות נבל ימות אבנר ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים הוגשו,מאן דאמר לא מיחה הכי קאמר ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים הוגשו מאי טעמא לא מחית (שמואל ב ג, לד) כנפול לפני בני עולה נפלת ומ"ד מיחה ולא נענה איתמהויי מתמה הכמות נבל ימות ידיך לא אסורות ורגליך לא לנחשתים מכדי מחויי מחית מ"ט כנפול לפני בני עולה נפלת,למאן דאמר מיחה מ"ט איענש א"ר נחמן (ברבי) יצחק ששהא מלכות בית דוד שתי שנים ומחצה:,וכשמברין אותו כו': מאי דרגש אמר עולא ערסא דגדא א"ל רבנן לעולא מי איכא מידי דעד האידנא לא אותביניה והשתא מותבינן ליה,מתקיף לה רבא מאי קושיא דילמא מידי דהוה אאכילה ושתיה דעד האידנא לא אכילניה ולא אשקיניה השתא קא מוכלינן ליה וקא משקינן ליה אלא אי קשיא הא קשיא דרגש אינו צריך לכפותו אלא זוקפו ואי ס"ד ערסא דגדא אמאי אינו צריך לכפותו והתניא הכופה את מטתו לא מטתו בלבד הוא כופה אלא כל מטות שיש לו בתוך ביתו הוא כופה,מאי קושיא דילמא מידי דהוה אמטה מיוחדת לכלים דקתני אם היתה מיוחדת לכלים אינו צריך לכפותה אלא אי קשיא הא קשיא רשב"ג אומר דרגש מתיר קרביטין והוא נופל מאיליו ואי סלקא דעתך ערסא דגדא קרביטין מי אית ליה,אלא כי אתא רבין אמר אמר לי ההוא מרבנן ורב תחליפא שמיה דהוה שכיח בשוקא דגילדאי ואמר ליה מאי דרגש ערסא דצלא א"ר ירמיה א"ר יוחנן דרגש 20a. bBoaz’s poweris the bhumility of Palti, son of Laish, as we said,for he conquered his desire not only for one night, as Boaz did, but for many nights, bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Many daughters have done valiantly, but you excel above them all”(Proverbs 31:29)? b“Many daughters have done valiantly”; thisis a reference to bJoseph and Boaz. “But you excel above them all”; thisis a reference to bPalti, son of Laish,who exceeded Joseph and Boaz in restraint, as discussed above., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain,but a woman who fears the Lord, she shall be praised” (Proverbs 31:30). b“Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bJoseph. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bBoaz. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bPalti, son of Laish,who did not sin with Michal. Although the behavior of Joseph and Boaz is commendable, it is “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of Palti ben Laish., bAlternatively: “Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Moses. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Joshua. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Hezekiah.Although the studying of Torah during the generations of Moses and Joshua was commendable, it was “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of the generation of Hezekiah, during which the people studied Torah assiduously, despite the suffering caused by of war and foreign rule., bAlternatively: “Grace is deceitful”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Moses and Joshua. “And beauty is vain”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Hezekiah. “Who fears the Lord, she shall be praised”; thisis a reference to bthe generation of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai,who lived after the decrees of Hadrian, when the people were impoverished and oppressed. bIt was said about Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai, that sixof his bstudents would cover themselves with one garment,due to their poverty, bandnevertheless they would bengage in Torahstudy. Although the studying of Torah during the generations of Moses, Joshua, and Hezekiah was commendable, it was “deceitful” and “vain” relative to that of the people in the generation of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ilai, who studied Torah despite their hardships., strongMISHNA: /strong If a relative bofthe king bdies, he does not emerge from the entrance of his palace [ ipalterin /i],as it does not befit one of his stature to accompany the deceased. bRabbi Yehuda says: If he wishes to follow the bier, he followsit, bas that is what we foundwith regard btoKing bDavid, who followed the bier of Abner. As it is stated: “And King David followed the bier”(II Samuel 3:31). The Sages bsaid toRabbi Yehuda: bThe matter was only to appease the people,so that they should not suspect David of ordering Abner’s death. bAnd whenthe people bcomfortthe king with the meal of comfort, ball the people recline on the ground, and he reclines on the idargash /i. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In ba place where women were accustomed to follow the bier, they would followit, and the men would walk in front of the bier, and if the women were accustomed to walk bin front of the bier, they would goin front of it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Women always go in front of the bier, as that is what we found with regard toKing bDavid, who followed the bier of Abner, as it is stated: “And King David followed the bier,”and presumably David did not go among the women.,The Sages bsaid to him: The matter was only to appease the people, and they were appeased. As David would go out from among the men and go in among the women, and went out from among the women and went in among the men, as it is stated: “So all the people and all Israel understoodthat day bthat it was not from the king to slay Abner,son of Ner” (II Samuel 3:37)., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And all the people came to comfort David”(II Samuel 3:35)? bIt is written: “To destroy [ ilehakhrot /i],” and we read: “To comfort [ ilehavrot /i],”meaning, bin the beginningthey wanted bto destroy him,as they suspected him of ordering Abner’s assassination, band ultimately,when they saw that he was truly mourning, they decided bto comfort him. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: For whatreason bwas Abner punishedby being killed? It is bbecause he should have protested to Saulabout the killing of the priests of Nob (see I Samuel 22:17–19), bbut he did not protest. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He did protest,so that is not the reason for his death, bbut he was not answered. And both ofthese Sages binterpreted one verse: “And the king lamented for Abner, and said: Should Abner die as a churl dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters;as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall” (II Samuel 3:33–34).,The Gemara explains how each Sage understands the verse: bThe one who says he did not protestexplains that bthisis what the verse bis saying:As b“your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters,” what is the reason you did not protestagainst Saul? Therefore, since you could have protested but did not, then b“as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall.” And the one who says he protested and was not answeredexplains that this is what the verse is saying: David bwondered: “ShouldAbner bdie as a churl dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters,” since you protestedat the right time. Since that is the case, bwhat is the reasonthat b“as a man falls before the children of iniquity, so did you fall”? /b,The Gemara asks: bAccording to the one who saysthat Abner bprotested, what is the reason he was punishedwith this death? bRav Naḥman, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says:It is bbecause he delayed the kingdom of the house of David two and a half years,by supporting the kingdom of Ish-bosheth, the son of Saul, for this period of time.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd when they comfortthe king with the meal of comfort, he reclines on the idargash /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatis ba idargash /i? Ulla says: A bed of fortune,which would be designated in houses for decoration and for good fortune, and no one would sit on it. bThe Sages said to Ulla: Is there anythingwhich buntil now we did not authorize one to siton, bbut now,in his time of mourning, bwe seat himon it?, bRava objects to thisquestion: bWhat is the difficultyin this? bPerhapssitting on the idargashis bjust as it is with eating and drinking. As until now, we did not feed him nor give him drink,but bnow,in his time of mourning, bwe feed him and give him drink,in the meal of comfort. bRather, ifit bis difficult, this iswhat is bdifficult,as it is taught in a ibaraita /i: Concerning ba idargash /i,the mourner bis not required to overturn itduring mourning. bRather, he stands it upon its side. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that this is ba bed of fortune, why is he not required to overturn it? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who overturns his bedduring mourning, bnot only does he overturns hisown bbed, but rather he overturns all the beds he has in his house? /b,The Gemara responds: bWhat is the difficultyin this? bPerhapsthe lack of requirement to overturn the idargashis bjust as it is with a bedthat is bdesignated forthe storage of bgarments,and not for sleeping, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf it was designated forthe storage of bgarmentsand not for people to lie down on, bhe is not required to overturn it. Rather, ifit bis difficult, this iswhat is bdifficult,as it is taught in a ibaraita /i: bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:One is not required to overturn ba idargash /i.Rather, the mourner bloosens the straps [ ikarvitin /i] and it falls on its own. And if it enters your mindto say that this is ba bed of fortune, doessuch a bed bhave straps? /b, bRather, when Ravin came he said: One of the Sages said to me, and Rav Taḥlifais bhis name, that he was often in the market of the leather workers, and he said to him: Whatis the meaning of idargash /i? A leather bed. Rabbi Yirmeya saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:The difference between a bed and a idargashis this: bA idargash/b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
29. Augustine, The City of God, 14 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Anon., 2 Enoch, 1.2, 30.16

31. Anon., 3 Baruch, 1.1-1.3

32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.1-3.20, 3.22-3.36, 4.1-4.10, 4.21, 4.23-4.24, 4.28-4.32, 4.36-4.37, 5.13-5.15, 5.21, 5.31, 6.35, 6.45-6.46, 6.53-6.59, 7.11-7.14, 7.48, 7.62-7.74, 7.116-7.131, 8.4-8.14, 8.44-8.45, 9.28-9.29, 9.31-9.32, 10.29-10.30, 12.10, 13.57, 14.27-14.36

3.1. In the thirtieth year after the destruction of our city, I Salathiel, who am also called Ezra, was in Babylon. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my heart 3.2. because I saw the desolation of Zion and the wealth of those who lived in Babylon. 3.3. My spirit was greatly agitated, and I began to speak anxious words to the Most High, and said 3.4. O sovereign Lord, didst thou not speak at the beginning when thou didst form the earth -- and that without help -- and didst command the dust 3.5. and it gave thee Adam, a lifeless body? Yet he was the workmanship of thy hands, and thou didst breathe into him the breath of life, and he was made alive in thy presence. 3.6. And thou didst lead him into the garden which thy right hand had planted before the earth appeared. 3.7. And thou didst lay upon him one commandment of thine; but he transgressed it, and immediately thou didst appoint death for him and for his descendants. From him there sprang nations and tribes, peoples and clans without number. 3.8. And every nation walked after its own will and did ungodly things before thee and scorned thee, and thou didst not hinder them. 3.9. But again, in its time thou didst bring the flood upon the inhabitants of the world and destroy them. 3.10. And the same fate befell them: as death came upon Adam, so the flood upon them. 3.11. But thou didst leave one of them, Noah with his household, and all the righteous who have descended from him. 3.12. When those who dwelt on earth began to multiply, they produced children and peoples and many nations, and again they began to be more ungodly than were their ancestors. 3.13. And when they were committing iniquity before thee, thou didst choose for thyself one of them, whose name was Abraham; 3.14. and thou didst love him, and to him only didst thou reveal the end of the times, secretly by night. 3.15. Thou didst make with him an everlasting covet, and promise him that thou wouldst never forsake his descendants; and thou gavest to him Isaac, and to Isaac thou gavest Jacob and Esau. 3.16. And thou didst set apart Jacob for thyself, but Esau thou didst reject; and Jacob became a great multitude. 3.17. And when thou didst lead his descendants out of Egypt, thou didst bring them to Mount Sinai. 3.18. Thou didst bend down the heavens and shake the earth, and move the world, and make the depths to tremble, and trouble the times. 3.19. And thy glory passed through the four gates of fire and earthquake and wind and ice, to give the law to the descendants of Jacob, and thy commandment to the posterity of Israel. 3.20. Yet thou didst not take away from them their evil heart, so that thy law might bring forth fruit in them. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.23. So the times passed and the years were completed, and thou didst raise up for thyself a servant, named David. 3.24. And thou didst command him to build a city for thy name, and in it to offer thee oblations from what is thine. 3.25. This was done for many years; but the inhabitants of the city transgressed 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 3.27. So thou didst deliver the city into the hands of thy enemies. 3.28. Then I said in my heart, Are the deeds of those who inhabit Babylon any better? Is that why she has gained dominion over Zion? 3.29. For when I came here I saw ungodly deeds without number, and my soul has seen many sinners during these thirty years. And my heart failed me 3.30. for I have seen how thou dost endure those who sin, and hast spared those who act wickedly, and hast destroyed thy people, and hast preserved thy enemies 3.31. and hast not shown to any one how thy way may be comprehended. Are the deeds of Babylon better than those of Zion? 3.32. Or has another nation known thee besides Israel? Or what tribes have so believed thy covets as these tribes of Jacob? 3.33. Yet their reward has not appeared and their labor has borne no fruit. For I have traveled widely among the nations and have seen that they abound in wealth, though they are unmindful of thy commandments. 3.34. Now therefore weigh in a balance our iniquities and those of the inhabitants of the world; and so it will be found which way the turn of the scale will incline. 3.35. When have the inhabitants of the earth not sinned in thy sight? Or what nation has kept thy commandments so well? 3.36. Thou mayest indeed find individual men who have kept thy commandments, but nations thou wilt not find. 4.1. Then the angel that had been sent to me, whose name was Uriel, answered 4.2. and said to me, "Your understanding has utterly failed regarding this world, and do you think you can comprehend the way of the Most High? 4.3. Then I said, "Yes, my lord." And he replied to me, "I have been sent to show you three ways, and to put before you three problems. 4.4. If you can solve one of them for me, I also will show you the way you desire to see, and will teach you why the heart is evil. 4.5. I said, "Speak on, my lord." And he said to me, "Go, weigh for me the weight of fire, or measure for me a measure of wind, or call back for me the day that is past. 4.6. I answered and said, "Who of those that have been born can do this, that you ask me concerning these things? 4.7. And he said to me, "If I had asked you, `How many dwellings are in the heart of the sea, or how many streams are at the source of the deep, or how many streams are above the firmament, or which are the exits of hell, or which are the entrances of paradise?' 4.8. Perhaps you would have said to me, `I never went down into the deep, nor as yet into hell, neither did I ever ascend into heaven.' 4.9. But now I have asked you only about fire and wind and the day, things through which you have passed and without which you cannot exist, and you have given me no answer about them! 4.10. And he said to me, "You cannot understand the things with which you have grown up; 4.21. For as the land is assigned to the forest and the sea to its waves, so also those who dwell upon earth can understand only what is on the earth, and he who is above the heavens can understand what is above the height of the heavens. 4.23. For I did not wish to inquire about the ways above, but about those things which we daily experience: why Israel has been given over to the Gentiles as a reproach; why the people whom you loved has been given over to godless tribes, and the law of our fathers has been made of no effect and the written covets no longer exist; 4.24. and why we pass from the world like locusts, and our life is like a mist, and we are not worthy to obtain mercy. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 4.36. And Jeremiel the archangel answered them and said, `When the number of those like yourselves is completed; for he has weighed the age in the balance 4.37. and measured the times by measure, and numbered the times by number; and he will not move or arouse them until that measure is fulfilled.' 5.13. These are the signs which I am permitted to tell you, and if you pray again, and weep as you do now, and fast for seven days, you shall hear yet greater things than these. 5.14. Then I awoke, and my body shuddered violently, and my soul was so troubled that it fainted. 5.15. But the angel who had come and talked with me held me and strengthened me and set me on my feet. 5.21. And after seven days the thoughts of my heart were very grievous to me again. 5.31. When I had spoken these words, the angel who had come to me on a previous night was sent to me 6.35. Now after this I wept again and fasted seven days as before, in order to complete the three weeks as I had been told. 6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 7.11. For I made the world for their sake, and when Adam transgressed my statutes, what had been made was judged. 7.12. And so the entrances of this world were made narrow and sorrowful and toilsome; they are few and evil, full of dangers and involved in great hardships. 7.13. But the entrances of the greater world are broad and safe, and really yield the fruit of immortality. 7.14. Therefore unless the living pass through the difficult and vain experiences, they can never receive those things that have been reserved for them. 7.48. For an evil heart has grown up in us, which has alienated us from God, and has brought us into corruption and the ways of death, and has shown us the paths of perdition and removed us far from life -- and that not just a few of us but almost all who have been created! 7.62. I replied and said, "O earth, what have you brought forth, if the mind is made out of the dust like the other created things! 7.63. For it would have been better if the dust itself had not been born, so that the mind might not have been made from it. 7.64. But now the mind grows with us, and therefore we are tormented, because we perish and know it. 7.65. Let the human race lament, but let the beasts of the field be glad; let all who have been born lament, but let the four-footed beasts and the flocks rejoice! 7.66. For it is much better with them than with us; for they do not look for a judgment, nor do they know of any torment or salvation promised to them after death. 7.67. For what does it profit us that we shall be preserved alive but cruelly tormented? 7.68. For all who have been born are involved in iniquities, and are full of sins and burdened with transgressions. 7.69. And if we were not to come into judgment after death, perhaps it would have been better for us. 7.70. He answered me and said, "When the Most High made the world and Adam and all who have come from him, he first prepared the judgment and the things that pertain to the judgment. 7.71. And now understand from your own words, for you have said that the mind grows with us. 7.72. For this reason, therefore, those who dwell on earth shall be tormented, because though they had understanding they committed iniquity, and though they received the commandments they did not keep them, and though they obtained the law they dealt unfaithfully with what they received. 7.73. What, then, will they have to say in the judgment, or how will they answer in the last times? 7.74. For how long the time is that the Most High has been patient with those who inhabit the world, and not for their sake, but because of the times which he has foreordained! 8.4. I answered and said, "Then drink your fill of understanding, O my soul, and drink wisdom, O my heart! 8.5. For not of your own will did you come into the world, and against your will you depart, for you have been given only a short time to live. 8.6. O Lord who are over us, grant to thy servant that we may pray before thee, and give us seed for our heart and cultivation of our understanding so that fruit may be produced, by which every mortal who bears the likeness of a human being may be able to live. 8.7. For thou alone dost exist, and we are a work of thy hands, as thou hast declared. 8.8. And because thou dost give life to the body which is now fashioned in the womb, and dost furnish it with members, what thou hast created is preserved in fire and water, and for nine months the womb which thou has formed endures thy creation which has been created in it. 8.9. But that which keeps and that which is kept shall both be kept by thy keeping. And when the womb gives up again what has been created in it 8.10. thou hast commanded that from the members themselves (that is, from the breasts) milk should be supplied which is the fruit of the breasts 8.11. so that what has been fashioned may be nourished for a time; and afterwards thou wilt guide him in thy mercy. 8.12. Thou hast brought him up in thy righteousness, and instructed him in thy law, and reproved him in thy wisdom. 8.13. Thou wilt take away his life, for he is thy creation; and thou wilt make him live, for he is thy work. 8.14. If then thou wilt suddenly and quickly destroy him who with so great labor was fashioned by thy command, to what purpose was he made? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation. 9.28. And my mouth was opened, and I began to speak before the Most High, and said 9.29. O Lord, thou didst show thyself among us, to our fathers in the wilderness when they came out from Egypt and when they came into the untrodden and unfruitful wilderness; 9.31. For behold, I sow my law in you, and it shall bring forth fruit in you and you shall be glorified through it for ever.' 9.32. But though our fathers received the law, they did not keep it, and did not observe the statutes; yet the fruit of the law did not perish -- for it could not, because it was thine. 10.29. As I was speaking these words, behold, the angel who had come to me at first came to me, and he looked upon me; 10.30. and behold, I lay there like a corpse and I was deprived of my understanding. Then he grasped my right hand and strengthened me and set me on my feet, and said to me 12.10. He said to me, "This is the interpretation of this vision which you have seen: 13.57. Then I arose and walked in the field, giving great glory and praise to the Most High because of his wonders, which he did from time to time 14.27. Then I went as he commanded me, and I gathered all the people together, and said 14.28. Hear these words, O Israel 14.29. At first our fathers dwelt as aliens in Egypt, and they were delivered from there 14.30. and received the law of life, which they did not keep, which you also have transgressed after them. 14.31. Then land was given to you for a possession in the land of Zion; but you and your fathers committed iniquity and did not keep the ways which the Most High commanded you. 14.32. And because he is a righteous judge, in due time he took from you what he had given. 14.33. And now you are here, and your brethren are farther in the interior. 14.34. If you, then, will rule over your minds and discipline your hearts, you shall be kept alive, and after death you shall obtain mercy. 14.35. For after death the judgment will come, when we shall live again; and then the names of the righteous will become manifest, and the deeds of the ungodly will be disclosed. 14.36. But let no one come to me now, and let no one seek me for forty days.
33. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 9.7, 12.1-12.2

34. Anon., Ascension of Isaiah, 2.9-2.10



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam, heart of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
adam, sin of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
adam Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52, 101
adam and eve Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
adamdialogues of 4 ezra Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 249
angelic descent, and origins of evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52, 101
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
aristotle Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
asc (altered state of consciousness) Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 123
auerbach, erich Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
augustine Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
book of the watchers, polysemy of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
burial, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
calendar, calendrical issues Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452, 969
christ Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
church Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66; Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126
darkness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126
day, seven Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 472
determinism Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 227
deuteronomistic theology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 227
dream, vision Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
dream Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
eden Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
emotion Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
enoch Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
enochic literature, authority of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
entrance Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 472
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
evil, pre-rabbinic jewish approaches to Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
evil inclination Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
ezra, vision of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
fate Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126
flesh (as negative force) deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115
flood, as protological precedent to eschaton Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
fourth ezra, and rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 184
fourth ezra, terminology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 184
fruit, immortality, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 472
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 452, 472
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52, 101
genesis, and etiologies of sin and evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
god, merciful Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
god Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
heart, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
heart, and yetzer Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 184
heart, evil, synonyms for Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 184
heart, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 452, 472
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 452, 472
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
historiography/chronography Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 480
homilies, based on the previous verse Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 184
homilies, jointly on two verses Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 180
immortality Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 472
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 472
jerusalem Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
jews/jewish Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
jews and gentiles, in the church deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52, 101
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52, 101
loss of strength Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
midrash Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
moral Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
opponents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 227
oppression Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 472
passions deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115
persia Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 123
plutarch Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
prayer Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
primordial Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
prophecy Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
punishment Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
qumran community, enochic texts and traditions in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
reading Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
responsibility, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
restoration, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
restoration Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
revelation Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
salvation Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 66
satan, messenger of god Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 184
satan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
second temple jewish Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
seeds, evil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452, 472
seeing Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
self Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
shame Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126
sin, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
sin, doctrine of original Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
sin, human Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 472
sin, sins deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 115
sinner Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 472
son Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
speech Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
spirits Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 123
stoic Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
suffering Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 227
temptation Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52, 101
theodicy Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 227
torah, and enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
torah, authority of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 52
torah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 452, 472
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 452
trembling Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
typology, greek terms for' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
uriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 126, 472, 969
varro Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
virtue Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
vision, ezra, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
vision Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 123; Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 66
visionary Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 123
visions Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 480
washing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
watchers Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125
weeping Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 125