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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Anon., 4 Baruch, 8

nanAnd the day came in which the Lord brought the people out of Babylon.,And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Rise up -- you and the people -- and come to the Jordan and say to the people: Let anyone who desires the Lord forsake the works of Babylon., As for the men who took wives from them and the women who took husbands from them -- those who listen to you shall cross over, and you take them into Jerusalem; but those who do not listen to you, do not lead them there.,And Jeremiah spoke these words to the people, and they arose and cameto the Jordan to cross over.,As he told them the words that the Lord had spoken to him, half ofthose who had taken spouses from them did not wish to listen toJeremiah, but said to him: We will never forsake our wives, but we will bring them back with us into our city.,So they crossed the Jordan and came to Jerusalem.,And Jeremiah and Baruch and Abimelech stood up and said: No man joined with Babylonians shall enter this city!,And they said to one another: Let us arise and return to Babylon to our place --And they departed.,But while they were coming to Babylon, the Babylonians came out tomeet them, saying: You shall not enter our city, for you hated us and you left us secretly; therefore you cannot come in with us., For we have taken a solemn oath together in the name of our god to receive neither you nor your children, since you left us secretly.,And when they heard this, they returned and came to a desert placesome distance from Jerusalem and built a city for themselves andnamed it 'SAMARIA.',And Jeremiah sent to them, saying: Repent, for the angel of righteousness is coming and will lead you to your exalted place. 6

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

60 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 2.16-2.17, 5.59, 7.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.16. But in the time of Artaxerxes king of the Persians, Bishlam, Mithridates, Tabeel, Rehum, Beltethmus, Shimshai the scribe, and the rest of their associates, living in Samaria and other places, wrote him the following letter, against those who were living in Judea and Jerusalem: 2.17. To King Artaxerxes our lord, Your servants Rehum the recorder and Shimshai the scribe and the other judges of their council in Coelesyria and Phoenicia: 5.59. And the priests stood arrayed in their garments, with musical instruments and trumpets, and the Levites, the sons of Asaph, with cymbals 7.1. Then Sisinnes the governor of Coelesyria and Phoenicia, and Sathrabuzanes, and their associates, following the orders of King Darius
2. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 6.16, 7.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Septuagint, Baruch, 2.35 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you?
5. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 - None\n1 . . \n2 1 1 1 None\n3 10.2 10.2 10 2 \n4 18.15 18.15 18 15 \n5 2 2 2 None\n6 27.15 27.15 27 15 \n7 3 3 3 None\n8 5 5 5 None\n9 7.1 7.1 7 1 \n10 7.2 7.2 7 2 \n11 7.3 7.3 7 3 \n12 7.4 7.4 7 4 \n13 7.5 7.5 7 5 \n14 7.6 7.6 7 6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 14.17, 22.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.17. וַיֵּצֵא מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ אַחֲרֵי שׁוּבוֹ מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת־כְּדָרלָעֹמֶר וְאֶת־הַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ אֶל־עֵמֶק שָׁוֵה הוּא עֵמֶק הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 22.2. וַיֹּאמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְלֶךְ־לְךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ 22.2. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֻּגַּד לְאַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה גַם־הִוא בָּנִים לְנָחוֹר אָחִיךָ׃ 14.17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the vale of Shaveh—the same is the King’s Vale." 22.2. And He said: ‘Take now thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Job, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. הַמְשֵׁל וָפַחַד עִמּוֹ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו׃ 25.2. Dominion and fear are with Him; He maketh peace in His high places."
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.4, 20.26, 26.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 26.1. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃ 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine." 26.1. Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 24.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.16. נְאֻם שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וְיֹדֵעַ דַּעַת עֶלְיוֹן מַחֲזֵה שַׁדַּי יֶחֱזֶה נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם׃ 24.16. The saying of him who heareth the words of God, And knoweth the knowledge of the Most High, Who seeth the vision of the Almighty, Fallen down, yet with opened eyes:"
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 96.4-96.5, 137.3-137.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

96.4. כִּי גָדוֹל יְהוָה וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד נוֹרָא הוּא עַל־כָּל־אֱלֹהִים׃ 96.5. כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃ 137.3. כִּי שָׁם שְׁאֵלוּנוּ שׁוֹבֵינוּ דִּבְרֵי־שִׁיר וְתוֹלָלֵינוּ שִׂמְחָה שִׁירוּ לָנוּ מִשִּׁיר צִיּוֹן׃ 137.4. אֵיךְ נָשִׁיר אֶת־שִׁיר־יְהוָה עַל אַדְמַת נֵכָר׃ 96.4. For great is the LORD, and highly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods. ." 96.5. For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens." 137.3. For there they that led us captive asked of us words of song, And our tormentors asked of us mirth: ‘Sing us one of the songs of Zion.'" 137.4. How shall we sing the LORD’S song In a foreign land?"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 11.4-11.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.4. וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃ 11.4. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 11.4. For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father." 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.24-17.29, 17.38 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.24. וַיָּבֵא מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר מִבָּבֶל וּמִכּוּתָה וּמֵעַוָּא וּמֵחֲמָת וּסְפַרְוַיִם וַיֹּשֶׁב בְּעָרֵי שֹׁמְרוֹן תַּחַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּרְשׁוּ אֶת־שֹׁמְרוֹן וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּעָרֶיהָ׃ 17.25. וַיְהִי בִּתְחִלַּת שִׁבְתָּם שָׁם לֹא יָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּהֶם אֶת־הָאֲרָיוֹת וַיִּהְיוּ הֹרְגִים בָּהֶם׃ 17.26. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְמֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר לֵאמֹר הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִגְלִיתָ וַתּוֹשֶׁב בְּעָרֵי שֹׁמְרוֹן לֹא יָדְעוּ אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהֵי הָאָרֶץ וַיְשַׁלַּח־בָּם אֶת־הָאֲרָיוֹת וְהִנָּם מְמִיתִים אוֹתָם כַּאֲשֶׁר אֵינָם יֹדְעִים אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 17.27. וַיְצַו מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר לֵאמֹר הֹלִיכוּ שָׁמָּה אֶחָד מֵהַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר הִגְלִיתֶם מִשָּׁם וְיֵלְכוּ וְיֵשְׁבוּ שָׁם וְיֹרֵם אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 17.28. וַיָּבֹא אֶחָד מֵהַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר הִגְלוּ מִשֹּׁמְרוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּבֵית־אֵל וַיְהִי מוֹרֶה אֹתָם אֵיךְ יִירְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.29. וַיִּהְיוּ עֹשִׂים גּוֹי גּוֹי אֱלֹהָיו וַיַּנִּיחוּ בְּבֵית הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ הַשֹּׁמְרֹנִים גּוֹי גּוֹי בְּעָרֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הֵם יֹשְׁבִים שָׁם׃ 17.38. וְהַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַתִּי אִתְּכֶם לֹא תִשְׁכָּחוּ וְלֹא תִירְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 17.24. And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Avva, and from Hamath and Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel; and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof." 17.25. And so it was, at the beginning of their dwelling there, that they feared not the LORD; therefore the LORD sent lions among them, which killed some of them." 17.26. Wherefore they spoke to the king of Assyria, saying: ‘The nations which thou hast carried away, and placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the manner of the God of the land; therefore He hath sent lions among them, and, behold, they slay them, because they know not the manner of the God of the land.’" 17.27. Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying: ‘Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land.’" 17.28. So one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Beth-el, and taught them how they should fear the LORD." 17.29. Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt." 17.38. and the covet that I have made with you ye shall not forget; neither shall ye fear other gods;"
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 45.1, 59.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

45.1. הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה־תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה־תְּחִילִין׃ 45.1. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ׃ 59.21. וַאֲנִי זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָם אָמַר יְהוָה רוּחִי אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ וּדְבָרַי אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְּפִיךָ לֹא־יָמוּשׁוּ מִפִּיךָ וּמִפִּי זַרְעֲךָ וּמִפִּי זֶרַע זַרְעֲךָ אָמַר יְהוָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 45.1. Thus saith the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and that the gates may not be shut:" 59.21. And as for Me, this is My covet with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and My words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.5, 2.8, 2.11-2.12, 39.16-39.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.5. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מַה־מָּצְאוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בִּי עָוֶל כִּי רָחֲקוּ מֵעָלָי וַיֵּלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל וַיֶּהְבָּלוּ׃ 2.8. הַכֹּהֲנִים לֹא אָמְרוּ אַיֵּה יְהוָה וְתֹפְשֵׂי הַתּוֹרָה לֹא יְדָעוּנִי וְהָרֹעִים פָּשְׁעוּ בִי וְהַנְּבִיאִים נִבְּאוּ בַבַּעַל וְאַחֲרֵי לֹא־יוֹעִלוּ הָלָכוּ׃ 2.11. הַהֵימִיר גּוֹי אֱלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה לֹא אֱלֹהִים וְעַמִּי הֵמִיר כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּלוֹא יוֹעִיל׃ 2.12. שֹׁמּוּ שָׁמַיִם עַל־זֹאת וְשַׂעֲרוּ חָרְבוּ מְאֹד נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 39.16. הָלוֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לְעֶבֶד־מֶלֶךְ הַכּוּשִׁי לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי מבי [מֵבִיא] אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה וְהָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 39.17. וְהִצַּלְתִּיךָ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְלֹא תִנָּתֵן בְּיַד הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה יָגוֹר מִפְּנֵיהֶם׃ 39.18. כִּי מַלֵּט אֲמַלֶּטְךָ וּבַחֶרֶב לֹא תִפֹּל וְהָיְתָה לְךָ נַפְשְׁךָ לְשָׁלָל כִּי־בָטַחְתָּ בִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.5. Thus saith the LORD: What unrighteousness have your fathers found in Me, that they are gone far from Me, and have walked after things of nought, and are become nought?" 2.8. The priests said not: ‘Where is the LORD?’ And they that handle the law knew Me not, and the rulers transgressed against Me; the prophets also prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not profit." 2.11. Hath a nation changed its gods, which yet are no gods? But My people hath changed its glory For that which doth not profit." 2.12. Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this, and be horribly afraid, be ye exceeding amazed, saith the LORD." 39.16. ’Go, and speak to Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will bring My words upon this city for evil, and not for good; and they shall be accomplished before thee in that day." 39.17. But I will deliver thee in that day, saith the LORD; and thou shalt not be given into the hand of the men of whom thou art afraid." 39.18. For I will surely deliver thee, and thou shalt not fall by the sword, but thy life shall be for a prey unto thee; because thou hast put thy trust in Me, saith the LORD.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.14-24.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.14. וְעַתָּה יְראוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וְעִבְדוּ אֹתוֹ בְּתָמִים וּבֶאֱמֶת וְהָסִירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וּבְמִצְרַיִם וְעִבְדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 24.15. וְאִם רַע בְּעֵינֵיכֶם לַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה בַּחֲרוּ לָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־מִי תַעֲבֹדוּן אִם אֶת־אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר בעבר [מֵעֵבֶר] הַנָּהָר וְאִם אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בְּאַרְצָם וְאָנֹכִי וּבֵיתִי נַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 24.14. Now therefore fear the LORD, and serve Him in sincerity and in truth; and put away the gods which your fathers served beyond the River, and in Egypt; and serve ye the LORD." 24.15. And if it seem evil unto you to serve the LORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell; but as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD.’"
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.2. רַק לְמַעַן דַּעַת דֹּרוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְלַמְּדָם מִלְחָמָה רַק אֲשֶׁר־לְפָנִים לֹא יְדָעוּם׃ 3.2. וְאֵהוּד בָּא אֵלָיו וְהוּא־יֹשֵׁב בַּעֲלִיַּת הַמְּקֵרָה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵהוּד דְּבַר־אֱלֹהִים לִי אֵלֶיךָ וַיָּקָם מֵעַל הַכִּסֵּא׃ 3.2. only that the generations of the children of Yisra᾽el might know, to teach them war, at the least such as before knew nothing of those matters;"
17. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. מִמָּרוֹם שָׁלַח־אֵשׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַי וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה פָּרַשׂ רֶשֶׁת לְרַגְלַי הֱשִׁיבַנִי אָחוֹר נְתָנַנִי שֹׁמֵמָה כָּל־הַיּוֹם דָּוָה׃ 1.13. From above He has hurled fire into my bones, and it broke them; He has spread a net for my feet, He has turned me back, He has made me desolate [and] faint all day long. "
18. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 3.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיָּחֶל שְׁלֹמֹה לִבְנוֹת אֶת־בֵּית־יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִַם בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה אֲשֶׁר נִרְאָה לְדָוִיד אָבִיהוּ אֲשֶׁר הֵכִין בִּמְקוֹם דָּוִיד בְּגֹרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבוּסִי׃ 3.1. וַיַּעַשׂ בְּבֵית־קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים כְּרוּבִים שְׁנַיִם מַעֲשֵׂה צַעֲצֻעִים וַיְצַפּוּ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 3.1. Then Solomon began to build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem in mount Moriah, where [the LORD] appeared unto David his father; for which provision had been made in the Place of David, in the threshingfloor of Or the Jebusite."
19. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.31, 13.28-13.29 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.31. וּבְרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים לֹא־עֲשִׂיתָם כָּלָה וְלֹא עֲזַבְתָּם כִּי אֵל־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אָתָּה׃ 13.28. וּמִבְּנֵי יוֹיָדָע בֶּן־אֶלְיָשִׁיב הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל חָתָן לְסַנְבַלַּט הַחֹרֹנִי וָאַבְרִיחֵהוּ מֵעָלָי׃ 13.29. זָכְרָה לָהֶם אֱלֹהָי עַל גָּאֳלֵי הַכְּהֻנָּה וּבְרִית הַכְּהֻנָּה וְהַלְוִיִּם׃ 9.31. Nevertheless in Thy manifold mercies Thou didst not utterly consume them, nor forsake them; for Thou art a gracious and merciful God." 13.28. And one of the sons of Joiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, was son-in-law to Sanballat the Horonite; therefore I chased him from me." 13.29. Remember them, O my God, because they have defiled the priesthood, and the covet of the priesthood, and of the Levites."
20. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you?
21. Anon., 1 Enoch, 9.3, 10.16, 71.5, 95.5, 98.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.3. And now to you, the holy ones of heaven, the souls of men make their suit, saying, 'Bring our cause 10.16. they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore. 71.5. And he translated my spirit into the heaven of heavens, And I saw there as it were a structure built of crystals, And between those crystals tongues of living fire. 95.5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works. 98.5. And barrenness has not been given to the woman, But on account of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children. 98.5. the righteous; for ye shall have no hope of life. Woe to you who write down lying and godless words; for they write down their lies that men may hear them and act godlessly towards (their)
22. Anon., Jubilees, 30.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

30.5. And Simeon and Levi came unexpectedly to Shechem and executed judgment on all the men of Shechem, and slew all the men whom they found in it, and left not a single one remaining in it:
23. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Testament of Levi, 5.3, 7.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.3. Then the angel brought me down to the earth, and gave me a shield and a sword, and said to me: Execute vengeance on Shechem because of Dinah, thy sister, and I will be with thee because the Lord hath sent me. 7.2. For from this day forward shall Shechem be called a city of imbeciles; for as a man mocketh a fool, so did we mock them.
25. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.17. But when they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Judas, "How can we, few as we are, fight against so great and strong a multitude? And we are faint, for we have eaten nothing today.
26. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. One finds in the records that Jeremiah the prophet ordered those who were being deported to take some of the fire, as has been told,'
27. Septuagint, Judith, 2.24, 3.6, 6.17, 10.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

2.24. Then he followed the Euphrates and passed through Mesopotamia and destroyed all the hilltop cities along the brook Abron, as far as the sea. 3.6. Then he went down to the seacoast with his army and stationed garrisons in the hilltop cities and took picked men from them as his allies. 6.17. He answered and told them what had taken place at the council of Holofernes, and all that he had said in the presence of the Assyrian leaders, and all that Holofernes had said so boastfully against the house of Israel. 10.13. I am on my way to the presence of Holofernes the commander of your army, to give him a true report; and I will show him a way by which he can go and capture all the hill country without losing one of his men, captured or slain.
28. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews.
29. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 5.420-5.423 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

5.420. 420 Cyme's rough populace and shameless tribe 5.421. Having a sign, shall know for what they toiled. 5.422. And then, when they shall have bewailed their land 5.423. Reduced to ashes, by Eridanu
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.166. for a cloud, fashioned into the form of a vast pillar, went before the multitude by day, giving forth a light like that of the sun, but by night it displayed a fiery blaze, in order that the Hebrews might not wander on their journey, but might follow the guidance of their leader along the road, without any deviation. Perhaps, indeed, this was one of the ministers of the mighty King, an unseen messenger, a guide of the way enveloped in this cloud, whom it was not lawful for men to behold with the eyes of the body.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 278 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

278. And I am, as you know, a Jew; and Jerusalem is my country, in which there is erected the holy temple of the most high God. And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
32. Anon., 2 Baruch, 35.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 5.4, 41.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.4. Πέτρον, ὅς διὰ ζῆλον ἄδικον οὐχ ἕνα οὐδὲ δύο, ἀλλὰ πλείονας ὑπήνεγκεν πόνους καὶ οὕτω μαρτυρήσας ἐπορεύθη εἰς τὸν ὀφειλόμενον τόπον τῆς δόξης. 41.2. οὐ πανταχοῦ, ἀδελφοί, προσφέρονται θυσίαι ἐνδελεχισμοῦ ἢ εὐχῶν C reads proseuxw=n. ἢ περὶ ἁμαρτίας καὶ πλημμελείας, ἀλλ̓ ἢ ἐν Ἱερουσαλὴμ μόνῃ: κἀκεῖ δὲ οὐκ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ προσφέρεται, ἀλλ̓ ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ναοῦ πρὸς τὸ θυσιαστήριον, μωμοσκοπηθὲν τὸ προσφερόμενον διὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τῶν προειρημένων λειτουργῶν.
34. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.226, 9.279, 9.288-9.291, 10.184, 11.88-11.94, 11.114-11.117, 11.181-11.183, 11.302-11.347, 12.156, 12.257-12.264, 13.254-13.256, 18.30, 19.290, 20.134-20.136 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.226. Now the two servants went along with him two days; but on the third day, as soon as he saw the mountain, he left those servants that were with him till then in the plain, and, having his son alone with him, he came to the mountain. It was that mountain upon which king David afterwards built the temple. 9.279. and when he had removed these people out of this their land he transplanted other nations out of Cuthah, a place so called, (for there is [still] a river of that name in Persia,) into Samaria, and into the country of the Israelites. 9.288. 3. But now the Cutheans, who removed into Samaria, (for that is the name they have been called by to this time, because they were brought out of the country called Cuthah, which is a country of Persia, and there is a river of the same name in it,) each of them, according to their nations, which were in number five, brought their own gods into Samaria, and by worshipping them, as was the custom of their own countries, they provoked Almighty God to be angry and displeased at them 9.289. for a plague seized upon them, by which they were destroyed; and when they found no cure for their miseries, they learned by the oracle that they ought to worship Almighty God, as the method for their deliverance. So they sent ambassadors to the king of Assyria, and desired him to send them some of those priests of the Israelites whom he had taken captive. 9.291. And when they see the Jews in prosperity, they pretend that they are changed, and allied to them, and call them kinsmen, as though they were derived from Joseph, and had by that means an original alliance with them; but when they see them falling into a low condition, they say they are no way related to them, and that the Jews have no right to expect any kindness or marks of kindred from them, but they declare that they are sojourners, that come from other countries. But of these we shall have a more seasonable opportunity to discourse hereafter. 10.184. Now as to Shalmanezer, he removed the Israelites out of their country, and placed therein the nation of the Cutheans, who had formerly belonged to the inner parts of Persia and Media, but were then called Samaritans, by taking the name of the country to which they were removed; but the king of Babylon, who brought out the two tribes, placed no other nation in their country, by which means all Judea and Jerusalem, and the temple, continued to be a desert for seventy years; 11.88. 4. When the Cuthearts heard this, for the Samaritans have that appellation, they had indignation at it, and persuaded the nations of Syria to desire of the governors, in the same manner as they had done formerly in the days of Cyrus, and again in the days of Cambyses afterwards, to put a stop to the building of the temple, and to endeavor to delay and protract the Jews in their zeal about it. 11.89. Now at this time Sisinnes, the governor of Syria and Phoenicia, and Sathrabuzanes, with certain others, came up to Jerusalem, and asked the rulers of the Jews, by whose grant it was that they built the temple in this manner, since it was more like to a citadel than a temple? and for what reason it was that they built cloisters and walls, and those strong ones too, about the city? 11.91. but that because of their fathers’ impiety towards God, Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Babylonians and of the Chaldeans, took their city by force, and destroyed it, and pillaged the temple, and burnt it down, and transplanted the people whom he had made captives, and removed them to Babylon; 11.92. that Cyrus, who, after him, was king of Babylonia and Persia, wrote to them to build the temple, and committed the gifts and vessels, and whatsoever Nebuchadnezzar had carried out of it, to Zorobabel, and Mithridates the treasurer; and gave order to have them carried to Jerusalem, and to have them restored to their own temple, when it was built; 11.93. for he had sent to them to have that done speedily, and commanded Sanabassar to go up to Jerusalem, and to take care of the building of the temple; who, upon receiving that epistle from Cyrus, came, and immediately laid its foundations; “and although it hath been in building from that time to this, it hath not yet been finished, by reason of the malignity of our enemies. 11.94. If therefore you have a mind, and think it proper, write this account to Darius, that when he hath consulted the records of the kings, he may find that we have told you nothing that is false about this matter.” 11.114. 9. But the Samaritans, being evil and enviously disposed to the Jews, wrought them many mischiefs, by reliance on their riches, and by their pretense that they were allied to the Persians, on account that thence they came; 11.115. and whatsoever it was that they were enjoined to pay the Jews by the king’s order out of their tributes for the sacrifices, they would not pay it. They had also the governors favorable to them, and assisting them for that purpose; nor did they spare to hurt them, either by themselves or by others, as far as they were able. 11.116. So the Jews determined to send an embassage to king Darius, in favor of the people of Jerusalem, and in order to accuse the Samaritans. The ambassadors were Zorobabel, and four others of the rulers; 11.117. and as soon as the king knew from the ambassadors the accusations and complaints they brought against the Samaritans, he gave them an epistle to be carried to the governors and council of Samaria; the contents of which epistle were these: 11.181. But when Nehemiah saw that the city was thin of people, he exhorted the priests and the Levites that they would leave the country, and remove themselves to the city, and there continue; and he built them houses at his own expenses; 11.182. and he commanded that part of the people which were employed in cultivating the land to bring the tithes of their fruits to Jerusalem, that the priests and Levites having whereof they might live perpetually, might not leave the divine worship; who willingly hearkened to the constitutions of Nehemiah, by which means the city Jerusalem came to be fuller of people than it was before. 11.183. So when Nehemiah had done many other excellent things, and things worthy of commendation, in a glorious manner, he came to a great age, and then died. He was a man of a good and righteous disposition, and very ambitious to make his own nation happy; and he hath left the walls of Jerusalem as an eternal monument for himself. Now this was done in the days of Xerxes. 11.302. 2. Now when John had departed this life, his son Jaddua succeeded in the high priesthood. He had a brother, whose name was Manasseh. Now there was one Sanballat, who was sent by Darius, the last king [of Persia], into Samaria. He was a Cutheam by birth; of which stock were the Samaritans also. 11.303. This man knew that the city Jerusalem was a famous city, and that their kings had given a great deal of trouble to the Assyrians, and the people of Celesyria; so that he willingly gave his daughter, whose name was Nicaso, in marriage to Manasseh, as thinking this alliance by marriage would be a pledge and security that the nation of the Jews should continue their good-will to him. 11.304. 1. About this time it was that Philip, king of Macedon, was treacherously assaulted and slain at Egae by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, who was derived from the family of Oreste 11.305. and his son Alexander succeeded him in the kingdom; who, passing over the Hellespont, overcame the generals of Darius’s army in a battle fought at Granicum. So he marched over Lydia, and subdued Ionia, and overran Caria, and fell upon the places of Pamphylia, as has been related elsewhere. 11.306. 2. But the elders of Jerusalem being very uneasy that the brother of Jaddua the high priest, though married to a foreigner, should be a partner with him in the high priesthood, quarreled with him; 11.307. for they esteemed this man’s marriage a step to such as should be desirous of transgressing about the marriage of [strange] wives, and that this would be the beginning of a mutual society with foreigners 11.308. although the offense of some about marriages, and their having married wives that were not of their own country, had been an occasion of their former captivity, and of the miseries they then underwent; so they commanded Manasseh to divorce his wife, or not to approach the altar 11.309. the high priest himself joining with the people in their indignation against his brother, and driving him away from the altar. Whereupon Manasseh came to his father-in-law, Sanballat, and told him, that although he loved his daughter Nicaso, yet was he not willing to be deprived of his sacerdotal dignity on her account, which was the principal dignity in their nation, and always continued in the same family. 11.311. and he promised that he would do this with the approbation of Darius the king. Manasseh was elevated with these promises, and staid with Sanballat, upon a supposal that he should gain a high priesthood, as bestowed on him by Darius, for it happened that Sanballat was then in years. 11.312. But there was now a great disturbance among the people of Jerusalem, because many of those priests and Levites were entangled in such matches; for they all revolted to Manasseh, and Sanballat afforded them money, and divided among them land for tillage, and habitations also, and all this in order every way to gratify his son-in-law. 11.313. 3. About this time it was that Darius heard how Alexander had passed over the Hellespont, and had beaten his lieutets in the battle at Granicum, and was proceeding further; whereupon he gathered together an army of horse and foot, and determined that he would meet the Macedonians before they should assault and conquer all Asia. 11.314. So he passed over the river Euphrates, and came over Taurus, the Cilician mountain, and at Issus of Cilicia he waited for the enemy, as ready there to give him battle. 11.315. Upon which Sanballat was glad that Darius was come down; and told Manasseh that he would suddenly perform his promises to him, and this as soon as ever Darius should come back, after he had beaten his enemies; for not he only, but all those that were in Asia also, were persuaded that the Macedonians would not so much as come to a battle with the Persians, on account of their multitude. 11.316. But the event proved otherwise than they expected; for the king joined battle with the Macedonians, and was beaten, and lost a great part of his army. His mother also, and his wife and children, were taken captives, and he fled into Persia. 11.317. So Alexander came into Syria, and took Damascus; and when he had obtained Sidon, he besieged Tyre, when he sent an epistle to the Jewish high priest, to send him some auxiliaries, and to supply his army with provisions; and that what presents he formerly sent to Darius, he would now send to him, and choose the friendship of the Macedonians, and that he should never repent of so doing. 11.318. But the high priest answered the messengers, that he had given his oath to Darius not to bear arms against him; and he said that he would not transgress this while Darius was in the land of the living. Upon hearing this answer, Alexander was very angry; 11.319. and though he determined not to leave Tyre, which was just ready to be taken, yet as soon as he had taken it, he threatened that he would make an expedition against the Jewish high priest, and through him teach all men to whom they must keep their oaths. 11.321. 4. But Sanballat thought he had now gotten a proper opportunity to make his attempt, so he renounced Darius, and taking with him seven thousand of his own subjects, he came to Alexander; and finding him beginning the siege of Tyre, he said to him, that he delivered up to him these men, who came out of places under his dominion, and did gladly accept of him for his lord instead of Darius. 11.322. So when Alexander had received him kindly, Sanballat thereupon took courage, and spake to him about his present affair. He told him that he had a son-in-law, Manasseh, who was brother to the high priest Jaddua; and that there were many others of his own nation, now with him, that were desirous to have a temple in the places subject to him; 11.323. that it would be for the king’s advantage to have the strength of the Jews divided into two parts, lest when the nation is of one mind, and united, upon any attempt for innovation, it prove troublesome to kings, as it had formerly proved to the kings of Assyria. 11.324. Whereupon Alexander gave Sanballat leave so to do, who used the utmost diligence, and built the temple, and made Manasseh the priest, and deemed it a great reward that his daughter’s children should have that dignity; 11.325. but when the seven months of the siege of Tyre were over, and the two months of the siege of Gaza, Sanballat died. Now Alexander, when he had taken Gaza, made haste to go up to Jerusalem; 11.326. and Jaddua the high priest, when he heard that, was in an agony, and under terror, as not knowing how he should meet the Macedonians, since the king was displeased at his foregoing disobedience. He therefore ordained that the people should make supplications, and should join with him in offering sacrifice to God, whom he besought to protect that nation, and to deliver them from the perils that were coming upon them; 11.327. whereupon God warned him in a dream, which came upon him after he had offered sacrifice, that he should take courage, and adorn the city, and open the gates; that the rest should appear in white garments, but that he and the priests should meet the king in the habits proper to their order, without the dread of any ill consequences, which the providence of God would prevent. 11.328. Upon which, when he rose from his sleep, he greatly rejoiced, and declared to all the warning he had received from God. According to which dream he acted entirely, and so waited for the coming of the king. 11.329. 5. And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, which name, translated into Greek, signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple. 11.331. for Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his head, having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the high priest. 11.332. The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander, and encompass him about; whereupon the kings of Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alexander had done, and supposed him disordered in his mind. 11.333. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him how it came to pass that, when all others adored him, he should adore the high priest of the Jews? To whom he replied, “I did not adore him, but that God who hath honored him with his high priesthood; 11.334. for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea thither, for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians; 11.335. whence it is that, having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembering that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians, and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind.” 11.336. And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the high priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him, and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the high priest’s direction, and magnificently treated both the high priest and the priests. 11.337. And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; 11.338. whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they entreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. 11.339. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would enlist themselves in his army, on this condition, that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him, many were ready to accompany him in his wars. 11.341. for such is the disposition of the Samaritans, as we have already elsewhere declared, that when the Jews are in adversity, they deny that they are of kin to them, and then they confess the truth; but when they perceive that some good fortune hath befallen them, they immediately pretend to have communion with them, saying that they belong to them, and derive their genealogy from the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh. 11.342. Accordingly, they made their address to the king with splendor, and showed great alacrity in meeting him at a little distance from Jerusalem. And when Alexander had commended them, the Shechemites approached to him, taking with them the troops that Sanballat had sent him, and they desired that he would come to their city, and do honor to their temple also; 11.343. to whom he promised, that when he returned he would come to them. And when they petitioned that he would remit the tribute of the seventh year to them, because they did not sow thereon, he asked who they were that made such a petition; 11.344. and when they said that they were Hebrews, but had the name of Sidonians, living at Shechem, he asked them again whether they were Jews; and when they said they were not Jews, “It was to the Jews,” said he, “that I granted that privilege; however, when I return, and am thoroughly informed by you of this matter, I will do what I shall think proper.” And in this manner he took leave of the Shechenlites; 11.345. but ordered that the troops of Sanballat should follow him into Egypt, because there he designed to give them lands, which he did a little after in Thebais, when he ordered them to guard that country. 11.346. 7. Now when Alexander was dead, the government was parted among his successors, but the temple upon Mount Gerizzim remained. And if any one were accused by those of Jerusalem of having eaten things common or of having broken the Sabbath, or of any other crime of the like nature 11.347. he fled away to the Shechemites, and said that he was accused unjustly. About this time it was that Jaddua the high priest died, and Onias his son took the high priesthood. This was the state of the affairs of the people of Jerusalem at this time. 12.156. Now at this time the Samaritans were in a flourishing condition, and much distressed the Jews, cutting off parts of their land, and carrying off slaves. This happened when Onias was high priest; 12.257. 5. When the Samaritans saw the Jews under these sufferings, they no longer confessed that they were of their kindred, nor that the temple on Mount Gerizzim belonged to Almighty God. This was according to their nature, as we have already shown. And they now said that they were a colony of Medes and Persians; and indeed they were a colony of theirs. 12.258. So they sent ambassadors to Antiochus, and an epistle, whose contents are these: “To king Antiochus the god, Epiphanes, a memorial from the Sidonians, who live at Shechem. 12.259. Our forefathers, upon certain frequent plagues, and as following a certain ancient superstition, had a custom of observing that day which by the Jews is called the Sabbath. And when they had erected a temple at the mountain called Gerrizzim, though without a name, they offered upon it the proper sacrifices. 12.261. We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and Savior, to give order to Apollonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbance, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation, and from their customs; but let our temple, which at present hath no name at all be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. If this were once done, we should be no longer disturbed, but should be more intent on our own occupation with quietness, and so bring in a greater revenue to thee.” 12.262. When the Samaritans had petitioned for this, the king sent them back the following answer, in an epistle: “King Antiochus to Nicanor. The Sidonians, who live at Shechem, have sent me the memorial enclosed. 12.263. When therefore we were advising with our friends about it, the messengers sent by them represented to us that they are no way concerned with accusations which belong to the Jews, but choose to live after the customs of the Greeks. Accordingly, we declare them free from such accusations, and order that, agreeable to their petition, their temple be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius.” 12.264. He also sent the like epistle to Apollonius, the governor of that part of the country, in the forty-sixth year, and the eighteenth day of the month Hecatorabeom. 13.254. 1. But when Hyrcanus heard of the death of Antiochus, he presently made an expedition against the cities of Syria, hoping to find them destitute of fighting men, and of such as were able to defend them. 13.255. However, it was not till the sixth month that he took Medaba, and that not without the greatest distress of his army. After this he took Samega, and the neighboring places; and besides these, Shechem and Gerizzim, and the nation of the Cutheans 13.256. who dwelt at the temple which resembled that temple which was at Jerusalem, and which Alexander permitted Sanballat, the general of his army, to build for the sake of Manasseh, who was son-in-law to Jaddua the high priest, as we have formerly related; which temple was now deserted two hundred years after it was built. 20.134. 3. Now Cumanus, and the principal of the Samaritans, who were sent to Rome, had a day appointed them by the emperor whereon they were to have pleaded their cause about the quarrels they had one with another. 20.135. But now Caesar’s freed-men and his friends were very zealous on the behalf of Cumanus and the Samaritans; and they had prevailed over the Jews, unless Agrippa, junior, who was then at Rome, had seen the principal of the Jews hard set, and had earnestly entreated Agrippina, the emperor’s wife, to persuade her husband to hear the cause, so as was agreeable to his justice, and to condemn those to be punished who were really the authors of this revolt from the Roman government:— 20.136. whereupon Claudius was so well disposed beforehand, that when he had heard the cause, and found that the Samaritans had been the ringleaders in those mischievous doings, he gave order that those who came up to him should be slain, and that Cureanus should be banished. He also gave order that Celer the tribune should be carried back to Jerusalem, and should be drawn through the city in the sight of all the people, and then should be slain.
35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.232-2.233, 7.377 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.232. 3. After this there happened a fight between the Galileans and the Samaritans; it happened at a village called Geman, which is situated in the great plain of Samaria; where, as a great number of Jews were going up to Jerusalem to the feast [of tabernacles,] a certain Galilean was slain; 2.233. and besides, a vast number of people ran together out of Galilee, in order to fight with the Samaritans. But the principal men among them came to Cumanus, and besought him that, before the evil became incurable, he would come into Galilee, and bring the authors of this murder to punishment; for that there was no other way to make the multitude separate without coming to blows. However, Cumanus postponed their supplications to the other affairs he was then about, and sent the petitioners away without success. 7.377. ome unfortunate old men also lie upon the ashes of the temple, and a few women are there preserved alive by the enemy, for our bitter shame and reproach.
36. Mishnah, Eduyot, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.6. Rabbi Eliezer said: I have heard that when they were building the Temple [complex] they made curtains for the Temple and curtains for the Temple-courts; but in the case of the Temple they built from the outside, and in the case of the Temple-court they built from the inside. Rabbi Joshua said: I have heard that sacrifices may be offered even though there is no Temple, and that the most holy sacrifices may be eaten even though there are no curtains, and the less holy sacrifices and second tithes even though there is no wall [around Jerusalem]; because the first sanctification sanctified both for its own time and for the time to come."
37. Mishnah, Pesahim, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.6. How far does one recite it? Bet Shammai say: Until “As a joyous mother of children” (Psalm. But Bet Hillel say: Until “The flinty rock into a fountain of waters” (Psalm. And he concludes with [a formula of] redemption. Rabbi Tarfon says: “Who redeemed us and redeemed our fathers from Egypt”, but he did not conclude [with a blessing]. Rabbi Akiva says: “So may the Lord our God and the God of our fathers bring us to other appointed times and festivals which come towards us for peace, rejoicing in the rebuilding of Your city and glad in Your service, and there we will eat of the sacrifices and the pesahim” etc. until “Blessed are You who has redeemed Israel.”"
38. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.10-7.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife.
39. New Testament, Acts, 1.8, 8.4-8.25, 16.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 8.4. Therefore those who were scattered abroad went around preaching the word. 8.5. Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and proclaimed to them the Christ. 8.6. The multitudes listened with one accord to the things that were spoken by Philip, when they heard and saw the signs which he did. 8.7. For unclean spirits came out of many of those who had them. They came out, crying with a loud voice. Many who had been paralyzed and lame were healed. 8.8. There was great joy in that city. 8.9. But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one 8.10. to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God. 8.11. They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries. 8.12. But when they believed Philip preaching good news concerning the Kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. 8.13. Simon himself also believed. Being baptized, he continued with Philip. Seeing signs and great miracles done, he was amazed. 8.14. Now when the apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them 8.15. who, when they had come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit; 8.16. for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. 8.17. Then they laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. 8.18. Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands, he offered them money 8.19. saying, "Give me also this power, that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit. 8.20. But Peter said to him, "May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money! 8.21. You have neither part nor lot in this matter, for your heart isn't right before God. 8.22. Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 8.23. For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity. 8.24. Simon answered, "Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you have spoken come on me. 8.25. They therefore, when they had testified and spoken the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel to many villages of the Samaritans. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation!
40. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne.
41. New Testament, Galatians, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.19. Now the works of the fleshare obvious, which are: adultery, sexual immorality, uncleanness,lustfulness
42. New Testament, Romans, 11, 9-10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43. New Testament, John, 4.4-4.42, 6.63, 8.48, 14.3, 14.10, 17.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.4. He needed to pass through Samaria. 4.5. So he came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son, Joseph. 4.6. Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being tired from his journey, sat down by the well. It was about the sixth hour. 4.7. A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, "Give me a drink. 4.8. For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food. 4.9. The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, "How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 4.10. Jesus answered her, "If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, 'Give me a drink,' you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water. 4.11. The woman said to him, "Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. From where then have you that living water? 4.12. Are you greater than our father, Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself, as did his sons, and his cattle? 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.15. The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I don't get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw. 4.16. Jesus said to her, "Go, call your husband, and come here. 4.17. The woman answered, "I have no husband."Jesus said to her, "You said well, 'I have no husband,' 4.18. for you have had five husbands; and he whom you now have is not your husband. This you have said truly. 4.19. The woman said to him, "Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 4.20. Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you Jews say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship. 4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 4.25. The woman said to him, "I know that Messiah comes," (he who is called Christ). "When he has come, he will declare to us all things. 4.26. Jesus said to her, "I am he, the one who speaks to you. 4.27. At this, his disciples came. They marveled that he was speaking with a woman; yet no one said, "What are you looking for?" or, "Why do you speak with her? 4.28. So the woman left her water pot, and went away into the city, and said to the people 4.29. Come, see a man who told me everything that I did. Can this be the Christ? 4.30. They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 4.31. In the meanwhile, the disciples urged him, saying, "Rabbi, eat. 4.32. But he said to them, "I have food to eat that you don't know about. 4.33. The disciples therefore said one to another, "Has anyone brought him something to eat? 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 4.35. Don't you say, 'There are yet four months until the harvest?' Behold, I tell you, lift up your eyes, and look at the fields, that they are white for harvest already. 4.36. He who reaps receives wages, and gathers fruit to eternal life; that both he who sows and he who reaps may rejoice together. 4.37. For in this the saying is true, 'One sows, and another reaps.' 4.38. I sent you to reap that for which you haven't labored. Others have labored, and you have entered into their labor. 4.39. From that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the word of the woman, who testified, 'He told me everything that I did. 4.40. So when the Samaritans came to him, they begged him to stay with them. He stayed there two days. 4.41. Many more believed because of his word. 4.42. They said to the woman, "Now we believe, not because of your speaking; for we have heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 8.48. Then the Jews answered him, "Don't we say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon? 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 17.8. for the words which you have given me I have given to them, and they received them, and knew for sure that I came forth from you, and they have believed that you sent me.
44. New Testament, Luke, 2.14, 9.52-9.56, 10.25-10.37, 15.20, 16.22, 17.11-17.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Glory to God in the highest, On earth peace, good will toward men. 9.52. and sent messengers before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 9.53. They didn't receive him, because he was traveling with his face set towards Jerusalem. 9.54. When his disciples, James and John, saw this, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from the sky, and destroy them, just as Elijah did? 9.55. But he turned and rebuked them, "You don't know of what kind of spirit you are. 9.56. For the Son of Man didn't come to destroy men's lives, but to save them."They went to another village. 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 10.29. But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor? 10.30. Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 10.31. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 10.33. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion 10.34. came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10.35. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers? 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise. 15.20. He arose, and came to his father. But while he was still far off, his father saw him, and was moved with compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. 16.22. It happened that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels to Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried. 17.11. It happened as he was on his way to Jerusalem, that he was passing along the borders of Samaria and Galilee. 17.12. As he entered into a certain village, ten men who were lepers met him, who stood at a distance. 17.13. They lifted up their voices, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us! 17.14. When he saw them, he said to them, "Go and show yourselves to the priests." It happened that as they went, they were cleansed. 17.15. One of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, glorifying God with a loud voice. 17.16. He fell on his face at Jesus' feet, giving him thanks; and he was a Samaritan. 17.17. Jesus answered, "Weren't the ten cleansed? But where are the nine? 17.18. Were there none found who returned to give glory to God, except this stranger? 17.19. Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you.
45. New Testament, Mark, 10.1, 10.11-10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. He arose from there and came into the borders of Judea and beyond the Jordan. Multitudes came together to him again. As he usually did, he was again teaching them. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery.
46. New Testament, Matthew, 4.5, 7.24-7.27, 10.5-10.6, 27.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 7.24. Everyone therefore who hears these words of mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man, who built his house on a rock. 7.25. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it didn't fall, for it was founded on the rock. 7.26. Everyone who hears these words of mine, and doesn't do them will be like a foolish man, who built his house on the sand. 7.27. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it fell -- and great was its fall. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 27.43. He trusts in God. Let God deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, 'I am the Son of God.'
47. Tosefta, Berachot, 6.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.19. [A person] who was walking to separate Terumah (heave-offering) and Maaserot (tithes) says [the following Beracha (blessing) before he arrived to do the separation]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Shehigiyanu Lazman Hazeh (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has brought us to this time). As he separates them he says [the following Beracha]: Baruch [Ata Hashem Eloheinu Melech Haolam] Asher Kideshanu Bemitzvotav Vetzivanu Lehafrish Terumah Umaasrot (Blessed are You Hashem, our God, King of the world, Who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us to separate Terumah and Maaserot). When does he say the Beracha on them (i.e. Terumah and Maaserot)? At the time that he separates them."
48. Tosefta, Terumot, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. קשיא דרבי מאיר אדרבי מאיר תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי מאיר,קשיא דרבי אליעזר אדרבי אליעזר,תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי אליעזר ואיבעית אימא רישא לאו רבי אליעזר היא:,עד סוף האשמורה:,מאי קסבר רבי אליעזר אי קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד ארבע שעות ואי קסבר ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד שלש שעות,לעולם קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה והא קא משמע לן דאיכא משמרות ברקיע ואיכא משמרות בארעא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי שנאמר ה' ממרום ישאג וממעון קדשו יתן קולו שאוג ישאג על נוהו,וסימן לדבר משמרה ראשונה חמור נוער שניה כלבים צועקים שלישית תינוק יונק משדי אמו ואשה מספרת עם בעלה.,מאי קא חשיב רבי אליעזר אי תחלת משמרות קא חשיב תחלת משמרה ראשונה סימנא למה לי אורתא הוא אי סוף משמרות קא חשיב סוף משמרה אחרונה למה לי סימנא יממא הוא,אלא חשיב סוף משמרה ראשונה ותחלת משמרה אחרונה ואמצעית דאמצעיתא ואיבעית אימא כולהו סוף משמרות קא חשיב וכי תימא אחרונה לא צריך,למאי נפקא מינה למיקרי קריאת שמע למאן דגני בבית אפל ולא ידע זמן קריאת שמע אימת כיון דאשה מספרת עם בעלה ותינוק יונק משדי אמו ליקום וליקרי.,אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל משמיה דרב ג' משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי ואומר אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין אומות העולם:,תניא אמר רבי יוסי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך ונכנסתי לחורבה אחת מחורבות ירושלים להתפלל בא אליהו זכור לטוב ושמר לי על הפתח (והמתין לי) עד שסיימתי תפלתי לאחר שסיימתי תפלתי אמר לי שלום עליך רבי ואמרתי לו שלום עליך רבי ומורי ואמר לי בני מפני מה נכנסת לחורבה זו אמרתי לו להתפלל ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל בדרך ואמרתי לו מתיירא הייתי שמא יפסיקו בי עוברי דרכים ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל תפלה קצרה,באותה שעה למדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נכנסין לחורבה ולמדתי שמתפללין בדרך ולמדתי שהמתפלל בדרך מתפלל תפלה קצרה,ואמר לי בני מה קול שמעת בחורבה זו ואמרתי לו שמעתי בת קול שמנהמת כיונה ואומרת אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין האומות ואמר לי חייך וחיי ראשך לא שעה זו בלבד אומרת כך אלא בכל יום ויום שלש פעמים אומרת כך ולא זו בלבד אלא בשעה שישראל נכנסין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות ועונין יהא שמיה הגדול מבורך הקדוש ברוך הוא מנענע ראשו ואומר אשרי המלך שמקלסין אותו בביתו כך מה לו לאב שהגלה את בניו ואוי להם לבנים שגלו מעל שולחן אביהם:,תנו רבנן מפני שלשה דברים אין נכנסין לחורבה מפני חשד מפני המפולת ומפני המזיקין. מפני חשד ותיפוק ליה משום מפולת 3a. The previous baraita cited Rabbi Meir’s opinion that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the priests immerse before partaking of their iteruma /i. In the iTosefta /i, it was taught that Rabbi Meir holds that one begins to recite iShemafrom when people enter to eat their meal on Shabbat eve. One opinion of bRabbi Meirseems to bcontradictanother opinion of bRabbi Meir /b. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Meir’sopinion.,So too, the opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the mishna bcontradictsthe opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the ibaraita /i. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, while in the ibaraita /i, he states that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.,The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion. Either btwo itanna’imexpressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion, bor if you wish, sayinstead that bthe first clauseof the mishna, according to which we begin to recite iShemawhen the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, bis notactually bRabbi Eliezer’sopinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.,In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening iShema buntil the end of the first watch.These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time ( iTosefot HaRosh /i)?, bWhat does Rabbi Eliezeractually bhold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him sayexplicitly that one recites the evening iShema buntil the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him sayexplicitly buntil the third hour. /b,The Gemara responds: bActually,Rabbi Eliezer bholds that the night consists of three watches,and he employs this particular language of watches bin order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth;just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lionin pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, bas it is stated: “The Lord roars [ iyishag /i] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily[ishaog yishag/b] bover His dwelling place,He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth” (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root ishin-alef-gimmelin this verse correspond to the three watches of the night., bAnd signs ofthe transition between each of bthesewatches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In bthe first watch, the donkey brays;in bthe second, dogs bark;and in bthe thirdpeople begin to rise, ba baby nurses from its mother’s breast and a wife converses with her husband. /b,With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara asks: bWhat did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? Ifhe benumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It iswhen beveningbegins; an additional sign is superfluous. bIf he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It iswhen bdaybegins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.,The Gemara answers: bRather, he enumeratedthe signs for bthe end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch,both of which require a sign, as well as bthe middle of the middlewatch. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bHe enumerated the ends of allof the watches. bAnd if you saythat a sign indicating the end of the bfinalwatch bis unnecessarybecause it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful., bWhat is the practical ramificationof this sign? It is relevant bto one who recites iShema bwhile lying in a dark house,who cannot see the dawn and bwho does not know when the time for reciting iShema /iarrives. That person is provided with a sign that bwhen a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother’s breast,the final watch of the night has ended and bhe must rise and recite iShema /i., bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion,because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches ( iTosefot HaRosh /i), band says: “Woe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.” /b,Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I enteredthe bruinsof an old, abandoned building bamong the ruins of Jerusalemin order bto pray.I noticed that bElijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished prayingand exited the ruin, Elijah bsaid to me,deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: bGreetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. AndElijah bsaid to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him:In order bto pray. AndElijah bsaid to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him:I was unable to pray along the road, because bI was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelersand would be unable to focus. Elijah bsaid to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayerinstituted for just such circumstances.,Rabbi Yosei concluded: bAt that time,from that brief exchange, bI learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learnedthat one need not enter a building to pray, but bhe may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayerso that he may maintain his focus., bAndafter this introduction, Elijah bsaid to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin? br bI responded: I heard a Heavenly voice,like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), bcooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.br bAndElijah bsaid to me:By byour life and by your head, not onlydid that voice bcry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover,any time that God’s greatness is evoked, such as bwhen Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answersin the ikaddishprayer, bMay His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house.When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: bHowgreat is the pain of bthe father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father’s table,as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut)., bThe Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicionof prostitution, bbecausethe ruin is liable to bcollapse,and bbecause of demons.Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason bbecause of suspicionnecessary? bLet this ihalakha bbe derived because of collapse. /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. דמדליא ובסים אוירא,ההוא יומא דנח נפשיה דרבי גזרו רבנן תעניתא ובעו רחמי ואמרי כל מאן דאמר נח נפשיה דר' ידקר בחרב,סליקא אמתיה דרבי לאיגרא אמרה עליוני' מבקשין את רבי והתחתוני' מבקשין את רבי יהי רצון שיכופו תחתונים את העליונים כיון דחזאי כמה זימני דעייל לבית הכסא וחלץ תפילין ומנח להו וקמצטער אמרה יהי רצון שיכופו עליונים את התחתונים,ולא הוו שתקי רבנן מלמיבעי רחמי שקלה כוזא שדייא מאיגרא [לארעא] אישתיקו מרחמי ונח נפשיה דרבי,אמרו ליה רבנן לבר קפרא זיל עיין אזל אשכחיה דנח נפשיה קרעיה ללבושיה ואהדריה לקרעיה לאחוריה פתח ואמר אראלים ומצוקים אחזו בארון הקדש נצחו אראלים את המצוקים ונשבה ארון הקדש אמרו ליה נח נפשיה אמר להו אתון קאמריתו ואנא לא קאמינא,בשעת פטירתו של רבי זקף עשר אצבעותיו כלפי מעלה אמר רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שיגעתי בעשר אצבעותי בתורה ולא נהניתי אפילו באצבע קטנה יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא שלום במנוחתי יצתה ב"ק ואמרה (ישעיהו נז, ב) יבא שלום ינוחו על משכבותם,על משכבך מיבעי ליה מסייע ליה לר' חייא בר גמדא דאמר רבי חייא בר גמדא אמר ר' יוסי בן שאול בשעה שהצדיק נפטר מן העולם אומרים מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע צדיק פלוני בא אומר להם יבואו צדיקים ויצאו לקראתו ואומרים לו יבא בשלום ינוחו על משכבותם,אמר ר' אלעזר בשעה שהצדיק נפטר מן העולם שלש כיתות של מלאכי השרת יוצאות לקראתו אחת אומרת לו בא בשלום ואחת אומרת הולך נכחו ואחת אומרת לו יבא שלום ינוחו על משכבותם בשעה שהרשע נאבד מן העולם שלש כיתות של מלאכי חבלה יוצאות לקראתו אחת אומרת (ישעיהו מח, כב) אין שלום אמר ה' לרשעים ואחת אומרת לו (ישעיהו נ, יא) למעצבה ישכב ואחת אומרת לו (יחזקאל לב, יט) רדה והשכבה את ערלים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כל זמן שהיא בבית אביה גובה כתובתה לעולם כל זמן שהיא בבית בעלה גובה כתובתה עד עשרים וחמש שנים שיש בכ"ה שנים שתעשה טובה כנגד כתובתה דברי ר' מאיר שאמר משום רשב"ג,וחכ"א כל זמן שהיא בבית בעלה גובה כתובתה לעולם כל זמן שהיא בבית אביה גובה כתובתה עד עשרים וחמש שנים,מתה יורשיה מזכירין כתובתה עד עשרים וחמש שנים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף ענייה שבישראל עד עשרים וחמש שנים ומרתא בת בייתוס עד עשרים וחמש שנים,אמר ליה לפום גמלא שיחנא,איבעיא להו לרבי מאיר מהו שתשלש תיקו:,וחכמים אומרים כל זמן: אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף אתאי קודם שקיעת החמה גובה כתובתה לאחר שקיעת החמה לא גביא בההיא פורתא אחילתא,אמר ליה אין כל מדת חכמים כן היא בארבעים סאה טובל בארבעים סאה חסר קורטוב אינו יכול לטבול בהן,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב העיד רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לפני רבי שאמר משום אביו לא שנו אלא שאין שטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידיה אבל שטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידיה גובה כתובתה לעולם ורבי אלעזר אמר אפילו שטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידיה אינה גובה אלא עד עשרים וחמש שנים,מתיב רב ששת ב"ח גובה שלא בהזכרה היכי דמי אי דלא נקט שטרא במאי גבי אלא דנקיט שטרא וב"ח הוא דלאו בר אחולי הוא הא אלמנה אחילתא,הוא מותיב לה והוא מפרק לה לעולם דלא נקיט שטרא והכא במאי עסקינן כשחייב מודה,והאמר ר' אלעא שונין גרושה הרי היא כבעל חוב היכי דמי אי דלא נקיטא כתובה במאי גביא אלא לאו דנקיטא כתובה וגרושה היא דלאו בת אחולי היא הא אלמנה אחילתא,הכא נמי כשחייב מודה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק תני רב יהודה בר קזא במתניתא דבי בר קזא תבעה כתובתה 104a. bwhich issituated at a bhighaltitude bandwhose bair is scented. /b,§ It is related that bon the day that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied, the Sages decreed a fast, and begged fordivine bmercyso that he would not die. bAnd they said: Anyone who says that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bhas died will be stabbed with a sword. /b, bThe maidservant of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bascended to the roofand bsaid: The upperrealms bare requestingthe presence of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, band the lowerrealms bare requestingthe presence of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi. bMay it bethe bwillof God bthat the lowerworlds bshould imposetheir will bupon the upperworlds. However, bwhen she saw how many times he would enter the bathroom and removehis bphylacteries,and then exit band put themback bon, andhow bhe was sufferingwith his intestinal disease, bshe said: May it bethe bwillof God bthat the upperworlds bshould imposetheir will bupon the lowerworlds., bAnd the Sages,meanwhile, bwould not be silent,i.e., they would not refrain, bfrom begging for mercyso that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would not die. So bshe took a jug [ ikuza /i]and bthrew it from the roof to the ground.Due to the sudden noise, the Sages bweremomentarily bsilentand refrained bfrombegging for bmercy, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied. /b, bThe Sages said to bar Kappara: Go and ascertainthe condition of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. bHe wentand bfound thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad died. He tore his clothing and reversedthem so that bthe tearwould be bbehind himand not be noticed. When he returned to the Sages bhe openedhis remarks band said:The bangels [ ierelim /i] and righteousmortals [ imetzukim /i] both bclutched the sacred ark. The angels triumphedover bthe righteous, and the sacred ark was captured. They said to him:Has bhe died? He said to them: You have said it and I did not say it,as it had been decided that no one should say that he died.,It is further related: bAt the time of the death of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bhe raised his ten fingers toward Heavenand bsaidin prayer: bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that I toiled with my ten fingers in the Torah, and I have not derived any benefitfrom the world beven withmy bsmall finger. May it be Your will that there be peace in my repose. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “He enters in peace, they rest in their beds”(Isaiah 57:2).,The Gemara asks: Why does it say: “They rest in their beds,” in the plural? bIt should havesaid: bIn your bed,in the singular, as the beginning of the verse is phrased in the singular. The Gemara notes: This bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda. As Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saidthat bRabbi Yosei ben Shaul said: At the time when a righteous individual departs from the world, the ministering angels say before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, the righteousindividual bso-and-so is coming.The Holy One, Blessed be He, then bsays to them: The righteous should comeforth band they should go out toward him. Andthe righteous bsay tothe newly deceased individual: bHe enters in peace,and subsequently, the righteous brest in their beds. /b, bRabbi Elazar said: At the time when a righteous individual departs from the world, three contingents of ministering angels go out toward him. One says to him: Enter in peace; and one saysto him: Each one bthat walks in his uprightness; and one says to him: He enters in peace, they rest in their beds. At the time when a wicked person perishes from the world, three contingents of angels of destruction go out toward him. One saysto him: b“There is no peace, says the Lord concerning the wicked”(Isaiah 48:22); band one says to him: “You shall lie down in sorrow”(Isaiah 50:11); band one says to him: “Go down, and be laid with the uncircumcised”(Ezekiel 32:19)., strongMISHNA: /strong bAs long asa widow bisliving bin the house of her fatherand is being supported by her husband’s heirs, bshe may always collectpayment of bher marriage contract,even after many years. bAs long as she isliving bin the house of her husband, she may collectpayment of bher marriage contract until twenty-five yearslater, at which point she may no longer collect the payment. This is bbecause there isenough time bin twenty-five years for her to do favorsand give to others, thereby spending the resources of the orphans, until what she has spent bequalsthe value of bher marriage contract.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir, who saidit bin the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b, bAnd the Rabbis saythe opposite: bAs long as she isresiding bin the house of her husband she may always collectpayment of bher marriage contract,since during this time the heirs are caring for her and she is therefore embarrassed to sue them for payment of her marriage contract. However, bas long as she is in the house of her father she may collectpayment of bher marriage contract until twenty-five yearslater, and if by then she has not sued for it, it is assumed that she has waived her rights to it.,If bshe died, her heirs mention her marriage contractup buntil twenty-five yearslater., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna stated that according to Rabbi Meir, over a period of twenty-five years a woman will spend a sum equal to her marriage contract from the resources of the orphans. bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:Is it true that bthe poorestwoman bamong the Jewish people,whose marriage contract is of minimal value, will not spend this amount buntil twenty-five yearshave passed, band Marta bat Baitos,who was very wealthy and whose marriage contract was worth a huge sum, will also spend a sum equal to her marriage contract bwithin twenty-five years? /b, bHe said to him: According to the camel is the load,i.e., a wealthy woman, whose marriage contract is of greater value, will spend more money over a particular period of time than a poor woman, whose marriage contract is of lesser value., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bAccording to Rabbi Meir,the amount of benefit she gains is determined by the years that have passed. If so, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bshe dividesthe value of her marriage contract in accordance with the number of years that have gone by, such that if some of the twenty-five years passed, she forfeits the proportionate value of her marriage contract? No answer was found for this dilemma, and the Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,§ We learned in the mishna: bAnd the Rabbis say: As long asshe is in her husband’s house she may collect payment of her marriage contract at any time, but while she is in her father’s house she may collect it only within twenty-five years. bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:If bshe came before the setting of the sunat the end of the twenty-five-year period, bshe collectspayment of bher marriage contract,but if she came bafter the setting of the sun she may not collectit? bIn that slightperiod of time bdid she waiveher rights to the payment of her marriage contract?, bHe said to him: Yes. All the measures of the Sagesthat prescribe specific parameters or sizes bare suchthat if one oversteps the fixed limits, he has not accomplished anything as far as the ihalakhais considered. Consequently, bina ritual bath containing bforty ise’a /iof water, bone may immerseand become ritually pure. However, bina ritual bath containing bforty ise’alessone ikortov /i,a small amount, bhe is unable to immerse thereinand become ritually pure., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, testified before RabbiYehuda HaNasi and bsaid in the name of his father,Rabbi Yosei: bThey taughtall of the above bonlyin a case where bshe does not have a marriage contract in her possession,such as in a locale where the custom is not to write a marriage contract, bbutin a situation bwhere she does have a marriage contract in her possession, she may collectpayment of bher marriage contract forever. And Rabbi Elazar said: Even if she has a marriage contract in her possession, shestill bcollectspayment of her marriage contract bonly within twenty-five yearsafter the death of her husband., bRav Sheshet raised an objectionagainst the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, based upon the iTosefta( iKetubot12:3): bA creditor may collectthe money he is owed even after a long time has passed bwithouthis having bmentionedthe debt. The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstances? If he does not hold the documentthat records the debt, bwith what is he collectingthe debt? bRather,it must be that bhe does hold the document.It can be inferred that even so, it is specifically ba creditor, whoit could be assumed bis not oneto have bforgivenhis debt, who may continue to collect the debt after a long period of time. bBut a widowis presumed to have bwaivedher rights to the payment of her marriage contract even if she has the marriage contract in her possession. This conclusion contradicts the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei.,The Gemara states that Rav Sheshet braised the objection and he resolved it: Actually,the case in the iToseftais where the creditor bdoes not hold a documentthat records the debt, bandthe reason he may collect the debt is because bhere we are dealing witha case bwhere the debtor admitsthat he owes the creditor money. Consequently, it cannot be proven from this case that a widow who has a marriage contract in her possession is unable to collect its payment.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Ela say:The Sages bteachin a ibaraita /i: bA divorcée is like a creditorand may collect her marriage contract after a long period of time even if she has not made mention of it during the course of that time? The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstances? If she does not hold a marriage contractin her possession, bwith what is she collectingpayment? bRather, is it notthat bshe holds a marriage contractin her possession, band it is a divorcéewho may collect under these circumstances, bas she is not onewho could be assumed to have bwaivedthe rights to the payment owed to her, as she does not maintain a relationship with the family that would prompt her to waive the rights to her claims? bBut a widowis likely to bwaivethe rights to her claim, even though she is in possession of a contract.,The Gemara answers: bHere too,the case is one bwhere the debtor,i.e., the husband, badmitsto owing the divorcée payment for her marriage contract, although she does not have the marriage contract in her possession., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Rav Yehuda bar Kaza teaches in a ibaraitaof the schoolof bbar Kaza:If the widow bdemandedpayment of bher marriage contract, /b
51. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. מורד במלכות הוא ולא צריך למידייניה אמרה לו עדיין שאול קיים ולא יצא טבעך בעולם אמר לה (שמואל א כה, לג) ברוך טעמך וברוכה את אשר כליתני [היום הזה] מבא בדמים,דמים תרתי משמע אלא מלמד שגילתה את שוקה והלך לאורה ג' פרסאות אמר לה השמיעי לי אמרה לו (שמואל א כה, לא) לא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה זאת מכלל דאיכא אחריתי ומאי ניהו מעשה דבת שבע ומסקנא הכי הואי,(שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים כי הוות מיפטרא מיניה אמרה ליה (שמואל א כה, לא) והטיב ה' לאדוני וזכרת את אמתך,אמר רב נחמן היינו דאמרי אינשי איתתא בהדי שותא פילכא איכא דאמרי שפיל ואזיל בר אווזא ועינוהי מיטייפי,חולדה דכתיב (מלכים ב כב, יד) וילך חלקיהו הכהן ואחיקם ועכבור וגו' ובמקום דקאי ירמיה היכי מתנביא איהי אמרי בי רב משמיה דרב חולדה קרובת ירמיה היתה ולא הוה מקפיד עליה,ויאשיה גופיה היכי שביק ירמיה ומשדר לגבה אמרי דבי רבי שילא מפני שהנשים רחמניות הן,ר' יוחנן אמר ירמיה לא הוה התם שהלך להחזיר עשרת השבטים ומנלן דאהדור דכתיב (יחזקאל ז, יג) כי המוכר אל הממכר לא ישוב אפשר יובל בטל ונביא מתנבא עליו שיבטל אלא מלמד שירמיה החזירן,ויאשיהו בן אמון מלך עליהן דכתיב (מלכים ב כג, יז) ויאמר מה הציון הלז אשר אני רואה ויאמרו אליו אנשי העיר הקבר איש האלהים אשר בא מיהודה ויקרא את הדברים האלה אשר עשית על המזבח בבית אל וכי מה טיבו של יאשיהו על המזבח בבית אל אלא מלמד שיאשיהו מלך עליהן רב נחמן אמר מהכא (הושע ו, יא) גם יהודה שת קציר לך בשובי שבות עמי,אסתר דכתיב (אסתר ה, א) ויהי ביום השלישי ותלבש אסתר מלכות בגדי מלכות מיבעי ליה אלא שלבשתה רוח הקדש כתיב הכא ותלבש וכתיב התם (דברי הימים א יב, יט) ורוח לבשה את עמשי וגו',אמר רב נחמן לא יאה יהירותא לנשי תרתי נשי יהירן הויין וסניין שמייהו חדא שמה זיבורתא וחדא שמה כרכושתא זיבורתא כתיב בה (שופטים ד, ו) ותשלח ותקרא לברק ואילו איהי לא אזלה לגביה כרכושתא כתיב בה (מלכים ב כב, טו) אמרו לאיש ולא אמרה אמרו למלך,אמר רב נחמן חולדה מבני בניו של יהושע היתה כתיב הכא (מלכים ב כב, יד) בן חרחס וכתיב התם (שופטים ב,ט) בתמנת חרס,איתיביה רב עינא סבא לרב נחמן שמונה נביאים והם כהנים יצאו מרחב הזונה ואלו הן נריה ברוך ושריה מחסיה ירמיה חלקיה חנמאל ושלום רבי יהודה אומר אף חולדה הנביאה מבני בניה של רחב הזונה היתה כתיב הכא בן תקוה (מלכים ב כב, יד) וכתיב התם (יהושע ב, יח) את תקות חוט השני,אמר ליה עינא סבא ואמרי לה פתיא אוכמא מיני ומינך תסתיים שמעתא דאיגיירא ונסבה יהושע ומי הוו ליה זרעא ליהושע והכתיב (דברי הימים א ז, כז) נון בנו יהושע בנו בני לא הוו ליה בנתן הוו ליה 14b. Nabal, your husband, bis a rebel against the throne,as David had already been anointed as king by the prophet Samuel, and Nabal refused his orders. bAndtherefore bthere is no need to try him,as a rebel is not accorded the ordinary prescriptions governing judicial proceedings. Abigail bsaid to him:You lack the authority to act in this manner, as bSaul is still alive.He is the king in actual practice, and byour seal [ itivakha /i] has notyet bspread across the world,i.e., your kingship is not yet known to all. Therefore, you are not authorized to try someone for rebelling against the monarchy. David accepted her words and bsaid to her:“And bblessed be your discretion and blessed be you who have kept me this day from coming to bloodguiltiness [ idamim /i]”(I Samuel 25:33).,The Gemara asks: The plural term idamim /i,literally, bloods, bindicates two.Why did David not use the singular term idam /i? bRather, this teaches thatAbigail brevealed her thigh,and he lusted after her, band he went three parasangs by the fireof his desire for her, and bsaid to her: Listen to me,i.e., listen to me and allow me to be intimate with you. Abigail then bsaid to him: “Let this not be a stumbling block for you”(I Samuel 25:31). bBy inference,from the word b“this,”it can be understood that bthere is someone elsewho will in fact be a stumbling block for him, band what isthis referring to? bThe incident involving Bathsheba. And in the end this is what was,as indeed he stumbled with Bathsheba. This demonstrates that Abigail was a prophetess, as she knew that this would occur. This also explains why David blessed Abigail for keeping him from being responsible for two incidents involving blood that day: Abigail’s menstrual blood and the shedding of Nabal’s blood.,Apropos Abigail, the Gemara explains additional details in the story. Abigail said to David: b“Yet the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bond of lifewith the Lord your God” (I Samuel 25:29), and bwhen she parted from him she said to him: “And when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, and you shall remember your handmaid”(I Samuel 25:31)., bRav Naḥman saidthat bthisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: While a woman is engaged in conversationshe also holds bthe spindle,i.e., while a woman is engaged in one activity she is already taking steps with regard to another. Abigail came to David in order to save her husband Nabal, but at the same time she indicates that if her husband dies, David should remember her and marry her. And indeed, after Nabal’s death David took Abigail for his wife. bSome saythat Rav Naḥman referred to a different saying: bThe goose stoopsits head bas it goesalong, bbut its eyes look on from afarto find what it is looking for. So too, Abigail acted in similar fashion., bHuldahwas a prophetess, bas it is written: “So Hilkiah the priest and Ahikam and Achborand Shaphan and Asaiah went to Huldah the prophetess” (II Kings 22:14) as emissaries of King Josiah. The Gemara asks: bBut if Jeremiah was found there, how could she prophesy?Out of respect for Jeremiah, who was her superior, it would have been fitting that she not prophesy in his presence. The Sages of bthe school of Rav say in the name of Rav: Huldah was aclose brelative of Jeremiah, and he did not object to herprophesying in his presence.,The Gemara asks: bBut how could Josiah himself ignore Jeremiah and sendemissaries btoHuldah? The Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Sheila say: Because women aremore bcompassionate,and he hoped that what she would tell them would not be overly harsh., bRabbi Yoḥa saida different answer: bJeremiah was not thereat the time, because bhe went to bring back the ten tribesfrom their exile. bAnd from where do we derive that he brought them back? As it is written: “For the seller shall not return to that which he has sold”(Ezekiel 7:13), i.e., Ezekiel prophesied that in the future the Jubilee Year would no longer be in effect. Now bis it possible that the Jubilee hadalready been bannulled?The ihalakhotof the Jubilee Year apply only when all of the tribes of Israel are settled in their respective places, which could not have happened since the exile of the ten tribes more than a century earlier, bbut the prophet is prophesying that it will ceaseonly in the future. bRather, this teaches that Jeremiah brought backthe ten tribes from their exile., bAnd Josiah the son of Amon ruled over theten tribes, bas it is written: “Then he said: What monument is that which I see? And the men of the city told him, It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and proclaimed these things that you have done against the altar of Bethel”(II Kings 23:17). bNow what connection did Josiah,king of Judea, bhave with the altar at Bethel,a city in the kingdom of Israel? bRather, this teaches that Josiah ruled over theten tribes of Israel. bRav Naḥman said:Proof that the tribes returned may be adduced bfromthe verse bhere: “Also, O Judah, there is a harvest appointed for you, when I would return the captivity of My people”(Hosea 6:11), which indicates that they returned to their places., bEstherwas also a prophetess, bas it is written: “And it came to pass on the third day that Esther clothed herself in royalty”(Esther 5:1). bIt should have said:Esther clothed herself in broyal garments. Rather,this alludes to the fact bthat she clothed herself with a divinespirit of binspiration. It is written here: “And she clothed herself,” and it is written elsewhere: “And the spirit clothed Amasai”(I Chronicles 12:19). Just as there the reference is to being enclothed by a spirit, so too Esther was enclothed by a spirit of divine inspiration.,An additional point is mentioned with regard to the prophetesses. bRav Naḥman said: Haughtiness is not befitting a woman.And a proof to this is that bthere were two haughty women, whose names wereidentical to the names of bloathsomecreatures. bOne,Deborah, bwas called a hornet,as her Hebrew name, Devorah, means hornet; band one,Huldah, bwas called a marten,as her name is the Hebrew term for that creature. From where is it known that they were haughty? bWith regard toDeborah, bthe hornet, it is written: “And she sent and called Barak”(Judges 4:6), bbut she herself did not go to him.And bwith regard toHuldah, bthe marten, it is written: “Say to the manthat sent you to me” (II Kings 22:15), bbut she did not say: Say to the king. /b,Furthermore, bRav Naḥman said: Huldah was a descendant of Joshua.An allusion to this bis written here:“Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shallum, the son of Tikvah, bthe son of Harhas [ iḥarḥas /i]”(II Kings 22:14), band it says elsewherewith regard to Joshua: “And they buried him in the border of his inheritance bin Timnath-heres [ iḥeres /i]”(Judges 2:9), therefore intimating that there is a certain connection between them., bRav Eina the Elder raised an objectionfrom a ibaraita bto Rav Naḥman’steaching. The ibaraitaindicates that Huldah was in fact a descendant of Rahab, and seemingly not of Joshua: bEight prophets, who werealso bpriests, descended from Rahab the prostitute, and they are: Neriah;his son bBaruch; Seraiah; Mahseiah; Jeremiah;his father, bHilkiah;Jeremiah’s cousin bHanamel; andHanamel’s father, bShallum. Rabbi Yehuda said: So too, Huldah the prophetess was a descendant of Rahab the prostitute,as bit is written herewith regard to Huldah: b“The son of Tikvah,” and it is written elsewherein reference to Rahab’s escape from the destruction of Jericho: b“This cord of [ itikvat /i] scarlet thread”(Joshua 2:18).,Rav Naḥman responded to Eina the Elder and bsaid to him: Eina the Elder, and some saythat he said to him: bBlackened pot,i.e., my colleague in Torah, who has toiled and blackened his face in Torah study, bfrom me and from you the matter may be concluded,i.e., the explanation lies in a combination of our two statements. bForRahab bconverted and married Joshua,and therefore Huldah descended from both Joshua and Rahab. The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut did Joshua have any descendants? But isn’t it writtenin the genealogical list of the tribe of Ephraim: b“Nun his son, Joshua his son”(I Chronicles 7:27)? The listing does not continue any further, implying that Joshua had no sons. The Gemara answers: Indeed, bhe did not have sons,but bhe did have daughters. /b
52. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 13 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.16.4-30.16.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

54. Anon., 4 Ezra, 2.10-2.11, 7.26, 7.133, 10.54

2.10. Thus says the Lord to Ezra: "Tell my people that I will give them the kingdom of Jerusalem, which I was going to give to Israel. 2.11. Moreover, I will take back to myself their glory, and will give to these others the everlasting habitations, which I had prepared for Israel. 7.26. For behold, the time will come, when the signs which I have foretold to you will come to pass, that the city which now is not seen shall appear, and the land which now is hidden shall be disclosed. 10.54. for no work of man's building could endure in a place where the city of the Most High was to be revealed.
55. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.8-3.11, 3.14, 4.11, 5.21, 6.8, 6.14, 6.22, 7.25-7.26, 8.1-8.8, 9.2-9.5, 9.16-9.17

3.8. And Jeremiah said: Behold, Lord, now we know that you are delivering the city into the hands of its enemies, and they will take the people away to Babylon. What do you want me to do with the holy vessels of the temple service? 3.10. And the Lord said to him: Take them and consign them to the earth, saying: Hear, Earth, the voice of your creator who formed you in the abundance of waters, who sealed you with seven seals for seven epochs, and after this you will receive your ornaments (?) -- 3.11. Guard the vessels of the temple service until the gathering of the beloved. 3.14. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Send him to the vineyard of Agrippa, and I will hide him in the shadow of the mountain until I cause the people to return to the city. 4.11. When he had said this, Baruch departed from the city, weeping andsaying: Grieving because of you, Jerusalem, I went out from you. 5.21. Even if the heavenly torrents had descended on them, there has not yet been time for them to go into Babylon! 6.8. Look at this basket of figs -- for behold, they are 66 years old and have not become shrivelled or rotten, but they are dripping milk. 6.14. What shall we do, and how shall we send this report to Jeremiah in Babylon? 6.22. And he sent his angel to me, and he told me these words which I send to you. 7.25. For you have been found righteous before God, and he did not let you come here, lest you see the affliction which has come upon the people at the hands of the Babylonians. 7.26. For it is like a father with an only son, who is given over for punishment; and those who see his father and console him cover his face, lest he see how his son is being punished, and be even more ravaged by grief. 8.1. And the day came in which the Lord brought the people out of Babylon. 8.2. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Rise up -- you and the people -- and come to the Jordan and say to the people: Let anyone who desires the Lord forsake the works of Babylon. 8.3. As for the men who took wives from them and the women who took husbands from them -- those who listen to you shall cross over, and you take them into Jerusalem; but those who do not listen to you, do not lead them there. 8.4. And Jeremiah spoke these words to the people, and they arose and cameto the Jordan to cross over. 8.5. As he told them the words that the Lord had spoken to him, half ofthose who had taken spouses from them did not wish to listen toJeremiah, but said to him: We will never forsake our wives, but we will bring them back with us into our city. 8.6. So they crossed the Jordan and came to Jerusalem. 8.7. And Jeremiah and Baruch and Abimelech stood up and said: No man joined with Babylonians shall enter this city! 8.8. And they said to one another: Let us arise and return to Babylon to our place --And they departed. 9.2. But on the tenth, Jeremiah alone offered sacrifice. 9.3. And he prayed a prayer, saying: Holy, holy, holy, fragrant aroma of the living trees, true light that enlightens me until I ascend to you; 9.4. For your mercy, I beg you -- for the sweet voice of the two seraphim, I beg -- for another fragrant aroma. 9.5. And may Michael, archangel of righteousness, who opens the gates to the righteous, be my guardian (?) until he causes the righteous to enter. 9.16. And the tree of life planted in the midst of paradise will cause all the unfruitful trees to bear fruit, and will grow and sprout forth. 9.17. And the trees that had sprouted and became haughty and said:"We have supplied our power (?) to the air," he will cause them to wither, with the grandeur of their branches, and he will cause them to be judged -- that firmly rooted tree!
56. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 13

57. Anon., Hebrew Apocalypse of Elijah, 5.2-5.5

58. Anon., History of The Rechabites, 14.4

59. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.5

60. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 11

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 31, 41, 42, 95, 108
2 maccabees, mark, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 41
3 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95
abimelech/ebed-melech, sleep of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 32, 35, 95, 158, 180, 317, 373, 383, 389, 399, 404
abraham, isaac, and jacob/patriarchs, abraham, testament of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 66
abraham, isaac, and jacob/patriarchs Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 33, 35, 374
agrippa ii Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 93
alexander the great Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 169, 170
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95, 108, 180, 291, 377, 389
apocalypse/apocalyptic Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95
apostles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 33
archangel, commands of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 23, 291
archangel, righteous/righteousness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 377, 389, 391
archangel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 389
ezra Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 167
garizim (mount) Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 168, 169, 170
intermarriage Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171
jaddus Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 169, 170
jerusalem Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 169, 170
josephus Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 169, 170, 171
leontopolis Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 170
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 14, 15, 23, 58, 95, 168, 291, 305, 306, 317, 378
life after death Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 391
liturgical expressions/elements Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 28
marriage Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 23, 306, 370, 374, 375, 376, 379
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah, matthew, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 31, 41
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 401
michael Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 389
midrash Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 41
miracle Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 95
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 93, 306, 373, 374, 377, 378, 381, 383, 389, 446
nebuchadnezzar/king of the chaldeans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 35, 108, 373, 378
nehemiah Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 167
new exodus Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 374, 378
nisan Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 14
noah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
noahs flood Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
obedience and disobedience Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 23, 31, 93, 95, 305, 374, 377, 379, 381, 383, 389
paralipomena jeremiae Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172
parallelism/repetition Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 28, 168, 180, 291, 385
persia Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 373, 375, 376
pharisees Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 66
philo Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 66
post-70 setting of 4 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 16, 31, 58, 66, 95, 404
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 35, 42, 93, 180, 399
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 373, 377, 404
pseudo-philo Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13
rabbis Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 168
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95, 375, 376, 377, 389, 446
rest (eschatological) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11
resurrection Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 14, 66, 158, 291
reward Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 375, 376
rewritten bible/scripture Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 389
romans/roman empire/rome Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 66, 370, 392
sacrifice Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 16, 32, 404
sadducees Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 66, 377
samaria/samaritans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 14, 15, 23, 31, 32, 33, 41, 58, 291, 305, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 383, 385, 387, 389, 391, 392, 399
samaritans Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172
sanballat' Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 170
sanballat Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 169
septuagint/septuagintism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 41, 108
seraphim Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 401
short recension of 4 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 306, 378, 379
sickness Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 370
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 42, 93, 108, 180, 399
sinlessness Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 95
sitting (posture) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 168
sixty-six years Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 13, 14, 404
son of god Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 399
stewards, faithful and unfaithful Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 93
stoning Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 16, 28, 33, 401, 446
supercessionism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 23, 32, 33, 66, 399
symbolism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 11, 23, 392
temple in jerusalem, altar of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 404
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 108, 158, 392
temple in jerusalem, heavenly counterpart Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 404
temple in jerusalem, instruments, vessels, furnishings in Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 16, 32, 158, 180, 404
temple in jerusalem, keys of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 180, 404
temple in jerusalem, rebuilding/restoration of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 158, 180, 373, 404
temple in jerusalem Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 35, 58, 373, 399, 404
theodore psalter Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32
torah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 66, 168, 305, 446
trees, living Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 401
trisagion Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 401
trumpets Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 180
wilderness/desert Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 93, 370, 381, 387, 446
yom kippur Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 14
zedekiah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 158
zion Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35