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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Anon., 4 Baruch, 5

nanBut Abimelech took the figs in the burning heat; and coming upon atree, he sat under its shade to rest a bit.,And leaning his head on the basket of figs, he fell asleep and sleptfor 66 years; and he was not awakened from his slumber.,And afterward, when he awoke from his sleep, he said: I slept sweetly for a little while, but my head is heavy because I did not get enough sleep.,Then he uncovered the basket of figs and found them dripping milk.,And he said: I would like to sleep a little longer, because my head is heavy. But I am afraid that I might fall asleep and be late in awakening and my father Jeremiah would think badly of me; for if he were not in a hurry, he would not have sent me today at daybreak., So I will get up, and proceed in the burning heat; for isn't there heat, isn't there toil every day?,So he got up and took the basket of figs and placed it on hisshoulders, and he entered into Jerusalem and did not recognizeit -- neither his own house, nor the place -- nor did he find his ownfamily or any of his acquaintances.,And he said: The Lord be blessed, for a great trance has come over me today!, This is not the city Jerusalem -- and I have lost my way because I came by the mountain road when I arose from my sleep; and since my head was heavy because I did not get enough sleep, I lost my way., It will seem incredible to Jeremiah that I lost my way!,And he departed from the city; and as he searched he saw thelandmarks of the city, and he said: Indeed, this is the city; I lost my way.,And again he returned to the city and searched, and found no one ofhis own people; and he said: The Lord be blessed, for a great trance has come over me!,And again he departed from the city, and he stayed there grieving,not knowing where he should go., And he put down the basket, saying: I will sit here until the Lord takes this trance from me.,And as he sat, he saw an old man coming from the field; and Abimelechsaid to him: I say to you, old man, what city is this?,And he said to him: It is Jerusalem.,And Abimelech said to him: Where is Jeremiah the priest, and Baruch the secretary, and all the people of this city, for I could not find them?,And the old man said to him: Are you not from this city, seeing that you remember Jeremiah today, because you are asking about him after such a long time?, For Jeremiah is in Babylon with the people; for they were taken captive by king Nebuchadnezzar, and Jeremiah is with them to preach the good news to them and to teach them the word.,As soon as Abimelech heard this from the old man, he said: If you were not an old man, and if it were not for the fact that it is not lawful for a man to upbraid one older than himself, I would laugh at you and say that you are out of your mind -- since you say that the people have been taken captive into Babylon., Even if the heavenly torrents had descended on them, there has not yet been time for them to go into Babylon!, For how much time has passed since my father Jeremiah sent me to the estate of Agrippa to bring a few figs, so that I might give them to the sick among the people?, And I went and got them, and when I came to a certain tree in the burning heat, I sat to rest a little; and I leaned my head on the basket and fell asleep., And when I awoke I uncovered the basket of figs, supposing that I was late; and I found the figs dripping milk, just as I had collected them., But you claim that the people have been taken captive into Babylon., But that you might know, take the figs and see!,And he uncovered the basket of figs for the old man, and he saw themdripping milk.,And when the old man saw them, he said: O my son, you are a righteous man, and God did not want you to see the desolation of the city, so he brought this trance upon you., For behold it is 66 years today since the people were taken captive into Babylon., But that you might learn, my son, that what I tell you is true -- look into the field and see that the ripening of the crops has not appeared., And notice that the figs are not in season, and be enlightened.,Then Abimelech cried out in a loud voice, saying: I bless you, God of heaven and earth, the Rest of the souls of the righteous in every place!,Then he said to the old man: What month is this?,And he said: Nisan (which is Abib).,And taking some of figs, he gave them to the old man and said to him: May God illumine your way to the city above, Jerusalem. 6

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

75 results
1. Septuagint, Baruch, 1.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Tobit, 8.10, 9.6, 13.16 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.10. with the thought, "Perhaps he too will die. 9.6. In the morning they both got up early and came to the wedding feast. And Gabael blessed Tobias and his wife. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.9-12.10, 25.19, 26.1, 26.5-26.9, 32.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.9. כִּי לֹא־בָּאתֶם עַד־עָתָּה אֶל־הַמְּנוּחָה וְאֶל־הַנַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃ 26.1. וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ׃ 26.1. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הֵבֵאתִי אֶת־רֵאשִׁית פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לִּי יְהוָה וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 12.9. for ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the LORD your God giveth thee." 12.10. But when ye go over the Jordan, and dwell in the land which the LORD your God causeth you to inherit, and He giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety;" 25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget." 26.1. And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and dost possess it, and dwell therein;" 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage." 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey." 32.20. And He said: ‘I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end shall be; For they are a very froward generation, Children in whom is no faithfulness."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.23, 24.16-24.17, 25.9, 25.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.23. וְעָבַר יְהוָה לִנְגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְרָאָה אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְעַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וּפָסַח יְהוָה עַל־הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית לָבֹא אֶל־בָּתֵּיכֶם לִנְגֹּף׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁכֹּן כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי וַיְכַסֵּהוּ הֶעָנָן שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִתּוֹךְ הֶעָנָן׃ 24.17. וּמַרְאֵה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה כְּאֵשׁ אֹכֶלֶת בְּרֹאשׁ הָהָר לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ אֵת תַּבְנִית הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֵת תַּבְנִית כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 12.23. For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." 24.16. And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; and the seventh day He called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud." 24.17. And the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel." 25.9. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so shall ye make it." 25.40. And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount."
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.9, 21.11, 22.19, 24.10, 25.23, 28.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 21.11. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּעֵינֵי אַבְרָהָם עַל אוֹדֹת בְּנוֹ׃ 22.19. וַיָּשָׁב אַבְרָהָם אֶל־נְעָרָיו וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ יַחְדָּו אֶל־בְּאֵר שָׁבַע וַיֵּשֶׁב אַבְרָהָם בִּבְאֵר שָׁבַע׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 28.16. וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃ 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 21.11. And the thing was very grievous in Abraham’s sight on account of his son." 22.19. So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beer- sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba." 24.10. And the servant took ten camels, of the camels of his master, and departed; having all goodly things of his master’s in his hand; and he arose, and went to Aram-naharaim, unto the city of Nahor." 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 28.16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 14.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.12. וְאִישׁ שָׁכַב וְלֹא־יָקוּם עַד־בִּלְתִּי שָׁמַיִם לֹא יָקִיצוּ וְלֹא־יֵעֹרוּ מִשְּׁנָתָם׃ 14.12. So man lieth down and riseth not; Till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, Nor be roused out of their sleep."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 4.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. וַיְמַן יְהוָה־אֱלֹהִים קִיקָיוֹן וַיַּעַל מֵעַל לְיוֹנָה לִהְיוֹת צֵל עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ לְהַצִּיל לוֹ מֵרָעָתוֹ וַיִּשְׂמַח יוֹנָה עַל־הַקִּיקָיוֹן שִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה׃ 4.6. And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his evil. So Jonah was exceeding glad because of the gourd."
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 12.5, 21.19, 21.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.5. וְאִם־נְקֵבָה תֵלֵד וְטָמְאָה שְׁבֻעַיִם כְּנִדָּתָהּ וְשִׁשִּׁים יוֹם וְשֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב עַל־דְּמֵי טָהֳרָה׃ 21.19. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה בוֹ שֶׁבֶר רָגֶל אוֹ שֶׁבֶר יָד׃ 21.21. כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה מוּם בּוֹ אֵת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב׃ 12.5. But if she bear a maid-child, then she shall be unclean two weeks, as in her impurity; and she shall continue in the blood of purification threescore and six days." 21.19. or a man that is broken-footed, or broken-handed," 21.21. no man of the seed of Aaron the priest, that hath a blemish, shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the LORD made by fire; he hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.31. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.31. And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting."
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 6.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.23. כִּי נֵר מִצְוָה וְתוֹרָה אוֹר וְדֶרֶךְ חַיִּים תּוֹכְחוֹת מוּסָר׃ 6.23. For the commandment is a lamp, and the teaching is light, And reproofs of instruction are the way of life;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 74.19, 95.11, 122.3, 126.1, 132.14, 137.3-137.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

74.19. אַל־תִּתֵּן לְחַיַּת נֶפֶשׁ תּוֹרֶךָ חַיַּת עֲנִיֶּיךָ אַל־תִּשְׁכַּח לָנֶצַח׃ 95.11. אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי אִם־יְבֹאוּן אֶל־מְנוּחָתִי׃ 122.3. יְרוּשָׁלִַם הַבְּנוּיָה כְּעִיר שֶׁחֻבְּרָה־לָּהּ יַחְדָּו׃ 126.1. שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת בְּשׁוּב יְהוָה אֶת־שִׁיבַת צִיּוֹן הָיִינוּ כְּחֹלְמִים׃ 132.14. זֹאת־מְנוּחָתִי עֲדֵי־עַד פֹּה־אֵשֵׁב כִּי אִוִּתִיהָ׃ 137.3. כִּי שָׁם שְׁאֵלוּנוּ שׁוֹבֵינוּ דִּבְרֵי־שִׁיר וְתוֹלָלֵינוּ שִׂמְחָה שִׁירוּ לָנוּ מִשִּׁיר צִיּוֹן׃ 137.4. אֵיךְ נָשִׁיר אֶת־שִׁיר־יְהוָה עַל אַדְמַת נֵכָר׃ 74.19. O deliver not the soul of Thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast; Forget not the life of Thy poor for ever." 95.11. Wherefore I swore in My wrath, That they should not enter into My arest.'" 122.3. Jerusalem, that art builded as a city that is compact together;" 126.1. A Song of Ascents. When the LORD brought back those that returned to Zion, We were like unto them that dream." 132.14. 'This is My resting-place for ever; Here will I dwell; for I have desired it." 137.3. For there they that led us captive asked of us words of song, And our tormentors asked of us mirth: ‘Sing us one of the songs of Zion.'" 137.4. How shall we sing the LORD’S song In a foreign land?"
12. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹה וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ׃ 4.2. וְעַמִּינָדָב הוֹלִיד אֶת־נַחְשׁוֹן וְנַחְשׁוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־שַׂלְמָה׃ 4.2. And he took ten men of the elders of the city, and said: ‘Sit ye down here.’ And they sat down."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 4.25, 8.56, 21.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.56. בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַן מְנוּחָה לְעַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר לֹא־נָפַל דָּבָר אֶחָד מִכֹּל דְּבָרוֹ הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 21.6. וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלֶיהָ כִּי־אֲדַבֵּר אֶל־נָבוֹת הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִי וָאֹמַר לוֹ תְּנָה־לִּי אֶת־כַּרְמְךָ בְּכֶסֶף אוֹ אִם־חָפֵץ אַתָּה אֶתְּנָה־לְךָ כֶרֶם תַּחְתָּיו וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא־אֶתֵּן לְךָ אֶת־כַּרְמִי׃ 8.56. ’Blessed be the LORD, that hath given rest unto His people Israel, according to all that He promised; there hath not failed one word of all His good promise, which He promised by the hand of Moses His servant." 21.6. And he said unto her: ‘Because I spoke unto Naboth the Jezreelite, and said unto him: Give me thy vineyard for money; or else, if it please thee, I will give thee another vineyard for it; and he answered: I will not give thee my vineyard.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 7.3, 24.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.3. וְאַרְבָּעָה אֲנָשִׁים הָיוּ מְצֹרָעִים פֶּתַח הַשָּׁעַר וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ מָה אֲנַחְנוּ יֹשְׁבִים פֹּה עַד־מָתְנוּ׃ 24.1. בָּעֵת הַהִיא עלה [עָלוּ] עַבְדֵי נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל יְרוּשָׁלִָם וַתָּבֹא הָעִיר בַּמָּצוֹר׃ 24.1. בְּיָמָיו עָלָה נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיְהִי־לוֹ יְהוֹיָקִים עֶבֶד שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וַיָּשָׁב וַיִּמְרָד־בּוֹ׃ 7.3. Now there were four leprous men at the entrance of the gate; and they said one to another: ‘Why sit we here until we die?" 24.1. In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years; then he turned and rebelled against him."
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’"
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.11, 6.16, 21.7, 24.1, 24.4-24.7, 25.1, 31.26, 39.15-39.18, 43.5-43.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. הַהֵימִיר גּוֹי אֱלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה לֹא אֱלֹהִים וְעַמִּי הֵמִיר כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּלוֹא יוֹעִיל׃ 6.16. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עִמְדוּ עַל־דְּרָכִים וּרְאוּ וְשַׁאֲלוּ לִנְתִבוֹת עוֹלָם אֵי־זֶה דֶרֶךְ הַטּוֹב וּלְכוּ־בָהּ וּמִצְאוּ מַרְגּוֹעַ לְנַפְשְׁכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא נֵלֵךְ׃ 21.7. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־צִדְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְאֶת־הָעָם וְאֶת־הַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת מִן־הַדֶּבֶר מִן־הַחֶרֶב וּמִן־הָרָעָב בְּיַד נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וּבְיַד אֹיְבֵיהֶם וּבְיַד מְבַקְשֵׁי נַפְשָׁם וְהִכָּם לְפִי־חֶרֶב לֹא־יָחוּס עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַחְמֹל וְלֹא יְרַחֵם׃ 24.1. וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי בָם אֶת־הַחֶרֶב אֶת־הָרָעָב וְאֶת־הַדָּבֶר עַד־תֻּמָּם מֵעַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָהֶם וְלַאֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 24.1. הִרְאַנִי יְהוָה וְהִנֵּה שְׁנֵי דּוּדָאֵי תְאֵנִים מוּעָדִים לִפְנֵי הֵיכַל יְהוָה אַחֲרֵי הַגְלוֹת נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל אֶת־יְכָנְיָהוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־הֶחָרָשׁ וְאֶת־הַמַּסְגֵּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיְבִאֵם בָּבֶל׃ 24.4. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 24.5. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּתְּאֵנִים הַטֹּבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה כֵּן־אַכִּיר אֶת־גָּלוּת יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר שִׁלַּחְתִּי מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים לְטוֹבָה׃ 24.6. וְשַׂמְתִּי עֵינִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְטוֹבָה וַהֲשִׁבֹתִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּבְנִיתִים וְלֹא אֶהֱרֹס וּנְטַעְתִּים וְלֹא אֶתּוֹשׁ׃ 24.7. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב לָדַעַת אֹתִי כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה וְהָיוּ־לִי לְעָם וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים כִּי־יָשֻׁבוּ אֵלַי בְּכָל־לִבָּם׃ 25.1. וְהַאֲבַדְתִּי מֵהֶם קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל רֵחַיִם וְאוֹר נֵר׃ 25.1. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה עַל־יִרְמְיָהוּ עַל־כָּל־עַם יְהוּדָה בַּשָּׁנָה הָרְבִעִית לִיהוֹיָקִים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הִיא הַשָּׁנָה הָרִאשֹׁנִית לִנְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 31.26. עַל־זֹאת הֱקִיצֹתִי וָאֶרְאֶה וּשְׁנָתִי עָרְבָה לִּי׃ 39.15. וְאֶל־יִרְמְיָהוּ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה בִּהְיֹתוֹ עָצוּר בַּחֲצַר הַמַּטָּרָה לֵאמֹר׃ 39.16. הָלוֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לְעֶבֶד־מֶלֶךְ הַכּוּשִׁי לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי מבי [מֵבִיא] אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֶל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה וְהָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 39.17. וְהִצַּלְתִּיךָ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְלֹא תִנָּתֵן בְּיַד הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה יָגוֹר מִפְּנֵיהֶם׃ 39.18. כִּי מַלֵּט אֲמַלֶּטְךָ וּבַחֶרֶב לֹא תִפֹּל וְהָיְתָה לְךָ נַפְשְׁךָ לְשָׁלָל כִּי־בָטַחְתָּ בִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 43.5. וַיִּקַּח יוֹחָנָן בֶּן־קָרֵחַ וְכָל־שָׂרֵי הַחֲיָלִים אֵת כָּל־שְׁאֵרִית יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁבוּ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר נִדְּחוּ־שָׁם לָגוּר בְּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה׃ 43.6. אֶת־הַגְּבָרִים וְאֶת־הַנָּשִׁים וְאֶת־הַטַּף וְאֶת־בְּנוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֵת כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר הִנִּיחַ נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב־טַבָּחִים אֶת־גְּדַלְיָהוּ בֶּן־אֲחִיקָם בֶּן־שָׁפָן וְאֵת יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא וְאֶת־בָּרוּךְ בֶּן־נֵרִיָּהוּ׃ 43.7. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם כִּי לֹא שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־תַּחְפַּנְחֵס׃ 2.11. Hath a nation changed its gods, which yet are no gods? But My people hath changed its glory For that which doth not profit." 6.16. Thus saith the LORD: Stand ye in the ways and see, And ask for the old paths, Where is the good way, and walk therein, And ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said: ‘We will not walk therein.’" 21.7. And afterward, saith the LORD, I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, and the people, and such as are left in this city from the pestilence, from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of those that seek their life; and he shall smite them with the edge of the sword; he shall not spare them, neither have pity, nor have compassion." 24.1. The LORD showed me, and behold two baskets of figs set before the temple of the LORD; after that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, and the princes of Judah, with the craftsmen and smiths, from Jerusalem, and had brought them to Babylon." 24.4. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 24.5. ’Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Like these good figs, so will I regard the captives of Judah, whom I have sent out of this place into the land of the Chaldeans, for good." 24.6. And I will set Mine eyes upon them for good, and I will bring them back to this land; and I will build them, and not pull them down; and I will plant them, and not pluck them up." 24.7. And I will give them a heart to know Me, that I am the LORD; and they shall be My people, and I will be their God; for they shall return unto Me with their whole heart." 25.1. The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, that was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon;" 31.26. Upon this I awaked, and beheld; And my sleep was sweet unto me." 39.15. Now the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah, while he was shut up in the court of the guard, saying:" 39.16. ’Go, and speak to Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will bring My words upon this city for evil, and not for good; and they shall be accomplished before thee in that day." 39.17. But I will deliver thee in that day, saith the LORD; and thou shalt not be given into the hand of the men of whom thou art afraid." 39.18. For I will surely deliver thee, and thou shalt not fall by the sword, but thy life shall be for a prey unto thee; because thou hast put thy trust in Me, saith the LORD.’" 43.5. But Joha the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the remt of Judah, that were returned from all the nations whither they had been driven to sojourn in the land of Judah:" 43.6. the men, and the women, and the children, and the king’s daughters, and every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah;" 43.7. and they came into the land of Egypt; for they hearkened not to the voice of the LORD; and they came even to Tahpanhes."
17. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.13, 5.13, 18.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. זָכוֹר אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מֵנִיחַ לָכֶם וְנָתַן לָכֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת׃ 5.13. וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ׃ 18.8. וַיָּקֻמוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּלֵכוּ וַיְצַו יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־הַהֹלְכִים לִכְתֹּב אֶת־הָאָרֶץ לֵאמֹר לְכוּ וְהִתְהַלְּכוּ בָאָרֶץ וְכִתְבוּ אוֹתָהּ וְשׁוּבוּ אֵלַי וּפֹה אַשְׁלִיךְ לָכֶם גּוֹרָל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּשִׁלֹה׃ 1.13. ’Remember the word which Moses the servant of the LORD commanded, you, saying: The LORD your God giveth you rest, and will give you this land." 5.13. And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him: ‘Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?’ ." 18.8. And the men arose, and went; and Joshua charged them that went to describe the land, saying: ‘Go and walk through the land, and describe it, and come back to me, and I will cast lots for you here before the LORD in Shiloh.’"
18. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.7, 5.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.7. זָכְרָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם יְמֵי עָנְיָהּ וּמְרוּדֶיהָ כֹּל מַחֲמֻדֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ מִימֵי קֶדֶם בִּנְפֹל עַמָּהּ בְּיַד־צָר וְאֵין עוֹזֵר לָהּ רָאוּהָ צָרִים שָׂחֲקוּ עַל מִשְׁבַּתֶּהָ׃ 5.12. שָׂרִים בְּיָדָם נִתְלוּ פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים לֹא נֶהְדָּרוּ׃ 1.7. Jerusalem recalls the days of her poverty and her miseries, [and] all her precious things that were from days of old; when her people fell into the hand of the adversary, and there was none to help her; the enemies gazed, gloating on her desolation. " 5.12. Princes are hanged up by their hand; The faces of elders are not honoured."
19. Homer, Iliad, 2.2 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.2. /Now all the other gods and men, lords of chariots, slumbered the whole night through, but Zeus was not holden of sweet sleep, for he was pondering in his heart how he might do honour to Achilles and lay many low beside the ships of the Achaeans. And this plan seemed to his mind the best
20. Homer, Odyssey, 18.199 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

21. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 45.6-45.7, 48.15-48.20 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

45.6. וַאֲחֻזַּת הָעִיר תִּתְּנוּ חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים רֹחַב וְאֹרֶךְ חֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף לְעֻמַּת תְּרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל יִהְיֶה׃ 45.7. וְלַנָּשִׂיא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה לִתְרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְלַאֲחֻזַּת הָעִיר אֶל־פְּנֵי תְרוּמַת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־פְּנֵי אֲחֻזַּת הָעִיר מִפְּאַת־יָם יָמָּה וּמִפְּאַת־קֵדְמָה קָדִימָה וְאֹרֶךְ לְעֻמּוֹת אַחַד הַחֲלָקִים מִגְּבוּל יָם אֶל־גְּבוּל קָדִימָה׃ 48.15. וַחֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים הַנּוֹתָר בָּרֹחַב עַל־פְּנֵי חֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף חֹל־הוּא לָעִיר לְמוֹשָׁב וּלְמִגְרָשׁ וְהָיְתָה הָעִיר בתוכה [בְּתוֹכוֹ׃] 48.16. וְאֵלֶּה מִדּוֹתֶיהָ פְּאַת צָפוֹן חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבַּעַת אֲלָפִים וּפְאַת־נֶגֶב חֲמֵשׁ חמש מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבַּעַת אֲלָפִים וּמִפְּאַת קָדִים חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבַּעַת אֲלָפִים וּפְאַת־יָמָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבַּעַת אֲלָפִים׃ 48.17. וְהָיָה מִגְרָשׁ לָעִיר צָפוֹנָה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתַיִם וְנֶגְבָּה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם וְקָדִימָה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתַיִם וְיָמָּה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם׃ 48.18. וְהַנּוֹתָר בָּאֹרֶךְ לְעֻמַּת תְּרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים קָדִימָה וַעֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים יָמָּה וְהָיָה לְעֻמַּת תְּרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְהָיְתָה תבואתה [תְבוּאָתוֹ] לְלֶחֶם לְעֹבְדֵי הָעִיר׃ 48.19. וְהָעֹבֵד הָעִיר יַעַבְדוּהוּ מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 45.6. And ye shall appoint the possession of the city five thousand broad, and five and twenty thousand long, side by side with the offering of the holy portion; it shall be for the whole house of Israel." 45.7. And for the prince, on the one side and on the other side of the holy offering and of the possession of the city, in front of the holy offering and in front of the possession of the city, on the west side westward, and on the east side eastward; and in length answerable unto one of the portions, from the west border unto the east border" 48.15. And the five thousand that are left in the breadth, in front of the five and twenty thousand, shall be for common use, for the city, for dwelling and for open land; and the city shall be in the midst thereof." 48.16. And these shall be the measures thereof: the north side four thousand and five hundred, and the south side four thousand and five hundred, and on the east side four thousand and five hundred, and the west side four thousand and five hundred." 48.17. And the city shall have open land: toward the north two hundred and fifty, and toward the south two hundred and fifty, and toward the east two hundred and fifty, and toward the west two hundred and fifty." 48.18. And the residue in the length, answerable unto the holy offering, shall be ten thousand eastward, and ten thousand westward; and it shall be answerable unto the holy offering; and the increase thereof shall be for food unto them that serve the city." 48.19. And they that serve the city, out of all the tribes of Israel, shall till it." 48.20. All the offering shall be five and twenty thousand by five and twenty thousand; ye shall set apart the holy offering foursquare, with the possession of the city."
22. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.21, 36.6 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.21. וַיִּוָּעַץ אֶל־הָעָם וַיַּעֲמֵד מְשֹׁרֲרִים לַיהוָה וּמְהַלְלִים לְהַדְרַת־קֹדֶשׁ בְּצֵאת לִפְנֵי הֶחָלוּץ וְאֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 36.6. עָלָיו עָלָה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיַּאַסְרֵהוּ בַּנְחֻשְׁתַּיִם לְהֹלִיכוֹ בָּבֶלָה׃ 20.21. And when he had taken counsel with the people, he appointed them that should sing unto the LORD, and praise in the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army, and say: ‘Give thanks unto the LORD, for His mercy endureth for ever.’" 36.6. Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to Babylon."
23. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.10. In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall ye call every man his neighbour under the vine and under the fig-tree."
24. Aristotle, Physics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

25. Septuagint, Tobit, 8.10, 9.6, 13.16 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.10. with the thought, "Perhaps he too will die. 9.6. In the morning they both got up early and came to the wedding feast. And Gabael blessed Tobias and his wife. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold.
26. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.2, 13.6-13.8, 38.2, 39.4-39.5, 39.9, 39.12-39.14, 45.3, 83.2, 90.29, 91.1, 102.4 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which i 13.6. eyes to heaven for shame of their sins for which they had been condemned. Then I wrote out their petition, and the prayer in regard to their spirits and their deeds individually and in regard to their 13.7. requests that they should have forgiveness and length. And I went off and sat down at the waters of Dan, in the land of Dan, to the south of the west of Hermon: I read their petition till I fell 13.8. asleep. And behold a dream came to me, and visions fell down upon me, and I saw visions of chastisement, and a voice came bidding (me) I to tell it to the sons of heaven, and reprimand them. 38.2. And when the Righteous One shall appear before the eyes of the righteous, Whose elect works hang upon the Lord of Spirits, And light shall appear to the righteous and the elect who dwell on the earth,Where then will be the dwelling of the sinners,And where the resting-place of those who have denied the Lord of Spirits It had been good for them if they had not been born. 39.4. And there I saw another vision, the dwelling-places of the holy, And the resting-places of the righteous. 39.5. Here mine eyes saw their dwellings with His righteous angels, And their resting-places with the holy.And they petitioned and interceded and prayed for the children of men, And righteousness flowed before them as water,And mercy like dew upon the earth: Thus it is amongst them for ever and ever. 39.9. In those days I praised and extolled the name of the Lord of Spirits with blessings and praises, because He hath destined me for blessing and glory according to the good pleasure of the Lord of ' 39.12. generation unto generation. Those who sleep not bless Thee: they stand before Thy glory and bless, praise, and extol, saying: 'Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Spirits: He filleth the earth with spirits.' And here my eyes saw all those who sleep not: they stand before Him and bless and say: 'Blessed be Thou, and blessed be the name of the Lord for ever and ever.' And my face was changed; for I could no longer behold. 45.3. On that day Mine Elect One shall sit on the throne of glory And shall try their works, And their places of rest shall be innumerable.And their souls shall grow strong within them when they see Mine Elect Ones, And those who have called upon My glorious name: 83.2. them before thee. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the one was quite unlike the other: the first when I was learning to write: the second before I took thy mother, (when) I saw a terrible 90.29. it off and laid it in a place in the south of the land. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place of the first which had beer folded up: all its pillars were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first, the old one which He had taken away, and all the sheep were within it. 91.1. And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy brothers And gather together to me all the sons of thy mother; For the word calls me, And the spirit is poured out upon me, That I may show you everything That shall befall you for ever.' 91.1. And the righteous shall arise from their sleep, And wisdom shall arise and be given unto them. 102.4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness.
27. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Testament of Levi, 18.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.9. And in his priesthood the Gentiles shall be multiplied in knowledge upon the earth, And enlightened through the grace of the Lord: In his priesthood shall sin come to an end, And the lawless shall cease to do evil. [And the just shall rest in him.]
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, 5Q15, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Genesis Apocryphon, 19.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.17-2.20, 4.31, 9.1-9.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.17. אֱדַיִן דָּנִיֵּאל לְבַיְתֵהּ אֲזַל וְלַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה חַבְרוֹהִי מִלְּתָא הוֹדַע׃ 2.18. וְרַחֲמִין לְמִבְעֵא מִן־קֳדָם אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא עַל־רָזָה דְּנָה דִּי לָא יְהֹבְדוּן דָּנִיֵּאל וְחַבְרוֹהִי עִם־שְׁאָר חַכִּימֵי בָבֶל׃ 2.19. אֱדַיִן לְדָנִיֵּאל בְּחֶזְוָא דִי־לֵילְיָא רָזָה גֲלִי אֱדַיִן דָּנִיֵּאל בָּרִךְ לֶאֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא׃ 4.31. וְלִקְצָת יוֹמַיָּה אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר עַיְנַי לִשְׁמַיָּא נִטְלֵת וּמַנְדְּעִי עֲלַי יְתוּב ולעליא [וּלְעִלָּאָה] בָּרְכֵת וּלְחַי עָלְמָא שַׁבְּחֵת וְהַדְּרֵת דִּי שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ עִם־דָּר וְדָר׃ 9.1. וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּתוֹרֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לְפָנֵינוּ בְּיַד עֲבָדָיו הַנְּבִיאִים׃ 9.1. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ בֶּן־אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ מִזֶּרַע מָדָי אֲשֶׁר הָמְלַךְ עַל מַלְכוּת כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 9.2. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְמָלְכוֹ אֲנִי דָּנִיֵּאל בִּינֹתִי בַּסְּפָרִים מִסְפַּר הַשָּׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמִיָה הַנָּבִיא לְמַלֹּאות לְחָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 9.2. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וּמִתְוַדֶּה חַטָּאתִי וְחַטַּאת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַפִּיל תְּחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי עַל הַר־קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהָי׃ 9.3. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃ 9.4. וָאֶתְפַּלְלָה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהַי וָאֶתְוַדֶּה וָאֹמְרָה אָנָּא אֲדֹנָי הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 9.5. חָטָאנוּ וְעָוִינוּ והרשענו [הִרְשַׁעְנוּ] וּמָרָדְנוּ וְסוֹר מִמִּצְוֺתֶךָ וּמִמִּשְׁפָּטֶיךָ׃ 9.6. וְלֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶל־עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ בְּשִׁמְךָ אֶל־מְלָכֵינוּ שָׂרֵינוּ וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ וְאֶל כָּל־עַם הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.7. לְךָ אֲדֹנָי הַצְּדָקָה וְלָנוּ בֹּשֶׁת הַפָּנִים כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה וּלְיוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּלְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַקְּרֹבִים וְהָרְחֹקִים בְּכָל־הָאֲרָצוֹת אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתָּם שָׁם בְּמַעֲלָם אֲשֶׁר מָעֲלוּ־בָךְ׃ 9.8. יְהוָה לָנוּ בֹּשֶׁת הַפָּנִים לִמְלָכֵינוּ לְשָׂרֵינוּ וְלַאֲבֹתֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ לָךְ׃ 9.9. לַאדֹנָי אֱלֹהֵינוּ הָרַחֲמִים וְהַסְּלִחוֹת כִּי מָרַדְנוּ בּוֹ׃ 9.11. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָבְרוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְסוֹר לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמוֹעַ בְּקֹלֶךָ וַתִּתַּךְ עָלֵינוּ הָאָלָה וְהַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר כְּתוּבָה בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי חָטָאנוּ לוֹ׃ 9.12. וַיָּקֶם אֶת־דבריו [דְּבָרוֹ ] אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עָלֵינוּ וְעַל שֹׁפְטֵינוּ אֲשֶׁר שְׁפָטוּנוּ לְהָבִיא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה גְדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נֶעֶשְׂתָה תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶעֶשְׂתָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 9.13. כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בָּאָה עָלֵינוּ וְלֹא־חִלִּינוּ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָשׁוּב מֵעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתֶּךָ׃ 2.17. Then Daniel went to his house, and made the thing known to Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, his companions;" 2.18. that they might ask mercy of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his companions should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon." 2.19. Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel in a vision of the night. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven." 2.20. Daniel spoke and said: Blessed be the name of God From everlasting even unto everlasting; For wisdom and might are His;" 4.31. ‘And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the Most High, and I praised and honoured Him that liveth for ever; For His dominion is an everlasting dominion, And His kingdom from generation to generation;" 9.1. In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;" 9.2. in the first year of his reign I Daniel meditated in the books, over the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years." 9.3. And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes." 9.4. And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made confession, and said: ‘O Lord, the great and awful God, who keepest covet and mercy with them that love Thee and keep Thy commandments," 9.5. we have sinned, and have dealt iniquitously, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, and have turned aside from Thy commandments and from Thine ordices;" 9.6. neither have we hearkened unto Thy servants the prophets, that spoke in Thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land." 9.7. Unto Thee, O Lord, belongeth righteousness, but unto us confusion of face, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither Thou hast driven them, because they dealt treacherously with Thee." 9.8. O LORD, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against Thee." 9.9. To the Lord our God belong compassions and forgivenesses; for we have rebelled against Him;" 9.10. neither have we hearkened to the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in His laws, which He set before us by His servants the prophets. ." 9.11. Yea, all Israel have transgressed Thy law, and have turned aside, so as not to hearken to Thy voice; and so there hath been poured out upon us the curse and the oath that is written in the Law of Moses the servant of God; for we have sinned against Him." 9.12. And He hath confirmed His word, which He spoke against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil; so that under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem." 9.13. As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us; yet have we not entreated the favour of the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and have discernment in Thy truth."
33. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.25, 14.12, 16.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.25. Israel mourned deeply in every community 14.12. Each man sat under his vine and his fig tree,and there was none to make them afraid. 16.5. Early in the morning they arose and marched into the plain, and behold, a large force of infantry and horsemen was coming to meet them; and a stream lay between them.
34. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.8. He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, 'No.'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.'
35. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.10, 3.1, 4.7, 9.8, 18.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.10. Let us oppress the righteous poor man;let us not spare the widow nor regard the gray hairs of the aged. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 4.7. But the righteous man, though he die early, will be at rest. 9.8. Thou hast given command to build a temple on thy holy mountain,and an altar in the city of thy habitation,a copy of the holy tent which thou didst prepare from the beginning. 18.4. For their enemies deserved to be deprived of light and imprisoned in darkness,those who had kept thy sons imprisoned,through whom the imperishable light of the law was to be given to the world.
36. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 17.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.5. The moon in heaven, with the stars, does not stand so august as you, who, after lighting the way of your star-like seven sons to piety, stand in honor before God and are firmly set in heaven with them.
37. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.1-3.7, 3.697, 5.51, 5.420-5.427 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.1. O THOU high-thundering blessed heavenly One 3.2. Who hast set in their place the cherubim 3.3. I, who have uttered what is all too true 3.4. Entreat thee, let me have a little rest; 3.5. 5 For my heart has grown weary from within. 3.6. But why again leaps my heart, and my soul 3.7. With a whip smitten from within constrained 3.697. Honor the All-Father's name, and let it not 5.51. By one another. Then a great destroyer 5.420. 420 Cyme's rough populace and shameless tribe 5.421. Having a sign, shall know for what they toiled. 5.422. And then, when they shall have bewailed their land 5.423. Reduced to ashes, by Eridanu 5.424. Shall Lesbos be forever overthrown. 5.425. 425 Alas, Corcyra, city beautiful 5.426. Alas for thee, cease from thy revelry. 5.427. Thou also, Hierapolis, sole land
38. Anon., 2 Baruch, 4.1-4.6, 5.5, 5.7, 6.2, 12.5, 21.1, 73.1, 77.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 41.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41.2. οὐ πανταχοῦ, ἀδελφοί, προσφέρονται θυσίαι ἐνδελεχισμοῦ ἢ εὐχῶν C reads proseuxw=n. ἢ περὶ ἁμαρτίας καὶ πλημμελείας, ἀλλ̓ ἢ ἐν Ἱερουσαλὴμ μόνῃ: κἀκεῖ δὲ οὐκ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ προσφέρεται, ἀλλ̓ ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ναοῦ πρὸς τὸ θυσιαστήριον, μωμοσκοπηθὲν τὸ προσφερόμενον διὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τῶν προειρημένων λειτουργῶν.
40. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. καὶ γινώσκετε, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι ἡ ἐπιδημία ἡ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ τῆς σαρκὸς ταύτης μικρά ἐστιν καὶ ὀλιγοχρόνιος, ἡ δὲ ἐπαγγελία τοῦ Χριστοῦ μεγάλη καὶ θαυμαστή ἐστιν, καὶ ἀνάπαυσις τῆς μελλούσης βασιλείας καὶ ζωῆς αἰωνίου.
41. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.186 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.186. 1. But now Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, took some of the most noble of the Jews that were children, and the kinsmen of Zedekiah their king, such as were remarkable for the beauty of their bodies, and the comeliness of their counteces, and delivered them into the hands of tutors, and to the improvement to be made by them. He also made some of them to be eunuchs;
42. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.187 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.187. one of whom (Hecateus says) was Hezekiah, the high priest of the Jews; a man of about sixty-six years of age, and in great dignity among his own people. He was a very sensible man, and could speak very movingly, and was very skilful in the management of affairs, if any other man ever were so;
43. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
44. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
45. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. In like manner, wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; so that, even if any don't obey the Word, they may be won by the behavior of their wives without a word;
46. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 7.12-7.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband.
47. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything.
48. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.8, 6.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. I desire therefore that the men in every place pray, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting. 6.11. But you, man of God, flee these things, and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, and gentleness.
49. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.14, 12.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

50. New Testament, Acts, 8.27, 9.11, 10.10, 10.20, 22.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.27. He arose and went. Behold, there was a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship. 9.11. The Lord said to him, "Arise, and go to the street which is called Straight, and inquire in the house of Judas for one named Saul, a man of Tarsus. For behold, he is praying 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.20. But arise, get down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them. 22.10. I said, 'What shall I do, Lord?' The Lord said to me, 'Arise, and go into Damascus. There you will be told about all things which are appointed for you to do.'
51. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.12, 7.2, 7.9, 8.3, 13.8, 20.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 8.3. Another angel came and stood over the altar, having a golden censer. Much incense was given to him, that he should add it to the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar which was before the throne. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed. 20.8. and he will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to the war; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.
52. New Testament, James, 2.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead?
53. New Testament, Galatians, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all.
54. New Testament, Hebrews, 4.10, 12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.10. For he who has entered into his rest has himself also rested from his works, as God did from his. 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels
55. New Testament, Romans, 2.1, 15.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things. 15.10. Again he says, "Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people.
56. New Testament, Titus, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons.
57. New Testament, John, 1.48, 11.11, 12.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.48. Nathanael said to him, "How do you know me?"Jesus answered him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you. 11.11. He said these things, and after that, he said to them, "Our friend, Lazarus, has fallen asleep, but I am going so that I may awake him out of sleep. 12.35. Jesus therefore said to them, "Yet a little while the light is with you. Walk while you have the light, that darkness doesn't overtake you. He who walks in the darkness doesn't know where he is going.
58. New Testament, Luke, 1.11, 1.39, 1.68, 9.17, 15.18, 17.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 1.39. Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah 1.68. Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, For he has visited and worked redemption for his people; 9.17. They ate, and were all filled. They gathered up twelve baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 15.18. I will get up and go to my father, and will tell him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. 17.19. Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you.
59. New Testament, Mark, 5.42, 6.43, 14.32, 14.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.42. Immediately the young lady rose up, and walked, for she was twelve years old. They were amazed with great amazement. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 14.32. They came to a place which was named Gethsemane. He said to his disciples, "Sit here, while I pray. 14.40. Again he returned, and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy, and they didn't know what to answer him.
60. New Testament, Matthew, 8.4, 11.25-11.30, 14.20, 15.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.4. Jesus said to him, "See that you tell nobody, but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 11.26. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 11.27. All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows the Son, except the Father; neither does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and he to whom the Son desires to reveal him. 11.28. Come to me, all you who labor and are heavily burdened, and I will give you rest. 11.29. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls. 11.30. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. 14.20. They all ate, and were filled. They took up twelve baskets full of that which remained left over from the broken pieces. 15.28. Then Jesus answered her, "Woman, great is your faith! Be it done to you even as you desire." And her daughter was healed from that hour.
61. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.175 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

62. Anon., The Acts of John, 113 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

113. O thou who hast kept me until this hour for thyself and untouched by union with a woman: who when in my youth I desired to marry didst appear unto me and say to me: John I have need of thee: who didst prepare for me also a sickness of the body: who when for the third time I would marry didst forthwith prevent me, and then at the third hour of the day saidst unto me on the sea: John, if thou hadst not been mine, I would have suffered thee to marry: who for two years didst blind me (or afflict mine eyes), and grant me to mourn and entreat thee: who in the third year didst open the eyes of my mind and also grant me my visible eyes: who when I saw clearly didst ordain that it should be grievous to me to look upon a woman: who didst save me from the temporal fantasy and lead me unto that which endureth always: who didst rid me of the foul madness that is in the flesh: who didst take me from the bitter death and establish me on thee alone: who didst muzzle the secret disease of my soul and cut off the open deed: who didst afflict and banish him that raised tumult in me: who didst make my love of thee spotless: who didst make my joining unto thee perfect and unbroken: who didst give me undoubting faith in thee, who didst order and make clear my inclination toward thee: thou who givest unto every man the due reward of his works, who didst put into my soul that I should have no possession save thee only: for what is more precious than thee? Now therefore Lord, whereas I have accomplished the dispensation wherewith I was entrusted, account thou me worthy of thy rest, and grant me that end in thee which is salvation unspeakable and unutterable.
63. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

64. Anon., Acts of John, 113 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

113. O thou who hast kept me until this hour for thyself and untouched by union with a woman: who when in my youth I desired to marry didst appear unto me and say to me: John I have need of thee: who didst prepare for me also a sickness of the body: who when for the third time I would marry didst forthwith prevent me, and then at the third hour of the day saidst unto me on the sea: John, if thou hadst not been mine, I would have suffered thee to marry: who for two years didst blind me (or afflict mine eyes), and grant me to mourn and entreat thee: who in the third year didst open the eyes of my mind and also grant me my visible eyes: who when I saw clearly didst ordain that it should be grievous to me to look upon a woman: who didst save me from the temporal fantasy and lead me unto that which endureth always: who didst rid me of the foul madness that is in the flesh: who didst take me from the bitter death and establish me on thee alone: who didst muzzle the secret disease of my soul and cut off the open deed: who didst afflict and banish him that raised tumult in me: who didst make my love of thee spotless: who didst make my joining unto thee perfect and unbroken: who didst give me undoubting faith in thee, who didst order and make clear my inclination toward thee: thou who givest unto every man the due reward of his works, who didst put into my soul that I should have no possession save thee only: for what is more precious than thee? Now therefore Lord, whereas I have accomplished the dispensation wherewith I was entrusted, account thou me worthy of thy rest, and grant me that end in thee which is salvation unspeakable and unutterable.
65. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.16.1, 5.30.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

66. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.14.4. In front of this temple, where is also the statue of Triptolemus, is a bronze bull being led as it were to sacrifice, and there is a sitting figure of Epimenides of Cnossus fl. c. 600 B.C., who they say entered a cave in the country and slept. And the sleep did not leave him before the fortieth year, and afterwards he wrote verses and purified Athens and other cities. But Thales who stayed the plague for the Lacedaemonians was not related to Epimenides in any way, and belonged to a different city. The latter was from Cnossus, but Thales was from Gortyn, according to Polymnastus of Colophon, who com posed a poem about him for the Lacedaemonians.
67. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי יוחנן השכים ונפל פסוק לתוך פיו הרי זה נבואה קטנה תנו רבנן שלשה מלכים הם הרואה דוד בחלום יצפה לחסידות שלמה יצפה לחכמה אחאב ידאג מן הפורענות,ג' נביאים הם הרואה ספר מלכים יצפה לגדולה יחזקאל יצפה לחכמה ישעיה יצפה לנחמה ירמיה ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים גדולים הם הרואה ספר תהלים יצפה לחסידות משלי יצפה לחכמה איוב ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה כתובים קטנים הם הרואה שיר השירים בחלום יצפה לחסידות קהלת יצפה לחכמה קינות ידאג מן הפורענות הרואה מגלת אסתר נס נעשה לו,שלשה חכמים הם הרואה רבי בחלום יצפה לחכמה ראב"ע יצפה לעשירות רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע ידאג מן הפורענות,שלשה תלמידי חכמים הם הרואה בן עזאי בחלום יצפה לחסידות בן זומא יצפה לחכמה אחר ידאג מן הפורענות,כל מיני חיות יפות לחלום חוץ מן הפיל והקוף והקפוד והאמר מר הרואה פיל בחלום פלא נעשה לו לא קשיא הא דמסרג הא דלא מסרג,כל מיני מתכת יפין לחלום חוץ ממר פסל וקרדום והני מילי דחזנהו בקתייהו כל מיני פירות יפין לחלום חוץ מפגי תמרה כל מיני ירקות יפין לחלום חוץ מראשי לפתות והאמר רב לא איעתרי עד דחזאי ראשי לפתות כי חזא בכנייהו חזא כל מיני צבעונין יפין לחלום חוץ מן התכלת כל מיני עופות יפין לחלום חוץ מן קריא וקפופא וקורפראי:,[הגו"ף הגו"ף מעי"ן משיבי"ן ומרחיבי"ן סימן]:,ג' נכנסין לגוף ואין הגוף נהנה מהן גודגדניות וכפניות ופגי תמרה שלשה אין נכנסין לגוף והגוף נהנה מהן אלו הן רחיצה וסיכה ותשמיש שלשה מעין העולם הבא אלו הן שבת שמש ותשמיש,תשמיש דמאי אילימא תשמיש המטה הא מכחש כחיש אלא תשמיש נקבים,שלשה משיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן קול ומראה וריח שלשה מרחיבין דעתו של אדם אלו הן דירה נאה ואשה נאה וכלים נאים:,[חמש"ה ושש"ה ועשר"ה סימן]: חמשה אחד מששים אלו הן אש דבש ושבת ושינה וחלום אש אחד מששים לגיהנם דבש אחד מששים למן שבת אחד מששים לעולם הבא שינה אחד מששים למיתה חלום אחד מששים לנבואה,ששה דברים סימן יפה לחולה אלו הן עטוש זיעה שלשול קרי ושינה וחלום עטוש דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עטישותיו תהל אור זיעה דכתיב (בראשית ג, יט) בזעת אפיך תאכל לחם שלשול דכתיב (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח ולא ימות לשחת קרי דכתיב (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים שינה דכתיב (איוב ג, יג) ישנתי אז ינוח לי חלום דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני והחייני,ששה דברים מרפאין את החולה מחליו ורפואתו רפואה אלו הן כרוב ותרדין וסיסין יבשין וקיבה והרת ויותרת הכבד וי"א אף דגים קטנים ולא עוד אלא שדגים קטנים מפרין ומברין כל גופו של אדם,עשרה דברים מחזירין את החולה לחליו וחליו קשה אלו הן האוכל בשר שור בשר שמן בשר צלי בשר צפרים וביצה צלויה ותגלחת ושחלים והחלב והגבינה והמרחץ וי"א אף אגוזים וי"א אף קשואים,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קשואים מפני שהן קשים לגוף כחרבות איני והכתיב (בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים וא"ר יהודה אמר רב אלו אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסק משלחנם לא צנון ולא חזרת ולא קשואין לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים,לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי,ת"ר מת בבית שלום בבית אכל ושתה בבית סימן יפה לבית נטל כלים מן הבית סימן רע לבית תרגמא רב פפא במסאנא וסנדלא כל דשקיל שכבא מעלי בר ממסאנא וסנדלא כל דיהיב שכבא מעלי בר מעפרא וחרדלא:,מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת גלולים: תנו רבנן הרואה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו מקום שנעקרה ממנו עבודת כוכבים אומר ברוך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו וכשם שנעקרה ממקום זה כן תעקר מכל מקומות ישראל והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך ובח"ל אין צריך לומר והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך מפני שרובה עובדי כוכבים רשב"א אומר אף בחוץ לארץ צריך לומר כן מפני שעתידים להתגייר שנאמר (צפניה ג, ט) אז אהפוך אל עמים שפה ברורה,דרש רב המנונא הרואה בבל הרשעה צריך לברך חמש ברכות ראה בבל אומר ברוך שהחריב בבל הרשעה ראה ביתו של נבוכדנצר אומר ברוך שהחריב ביתו של נבוכדנצר הרשע ראה גוב של אריות או כבשן האש אומר ברוך שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה ראה מרקוליס אומר ברוך שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו ראה מקום שנוטלין ממנו עפר אומר ברוך אומר ועושה גוזר ומקיים,רבא כי הוה חזי חמרי דשקלי עפרא טריף להו ידא על גבייהו ואמר רהוטו צדיקי למעבד רעותא דמרייכו מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מטי לבבל הוה שקיל עפרא בסודריה ושדי לברא לקיים מה שנא' (ישעיהו יד, כג) וטאטאתיה במטאטא השמד אמר רב אשי אנא הא דרב המנונא לא שמיע לי אלא מדעתאי בריכתינהו לכולהו 57b. bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who awakenedin the morning and ba verseimmediately bfalls into his mouth,it is ba minor prophecy. The Sages taught: There are three kingswhose appearance in a dream is significant. bOne who sees David in a dream should expect piety;one who sees bSolomon should expect wisdom;and one who sees bAhab should be concerned about calamity. /b,There are also bthree books of Prophetswhose appearance in a dream is meaningful: bOne who sees the book of Kings should anticipate greatness,royalty; one who sees the book of bEzekiel should anticipate wisdom,as the configuration of the Divine Chariot is described therein; one who sees the book of bIsaiah should anticipate consolation;and one who sees the book of bJeremiah should be concerned about calamity,because Jeremiah prophesied extensively of impending calamity.,Similarly, there are bthree greatbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream has particular significance: bOne who sees the book of Psalms should anticipate piety;one who sees the book of bProverbs should anticipate wisdom;one who sees the book of bJob should be concerned about calamity. /b, bThere arealso bthree minorbooks of bWritingswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Song of Songs in a dream should anticipate piety,as it describes God’s love for Israel; one who sees bEcclesiastes should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bLamentations should be concerned about calamity;and bone who sees the scroll of Esther,it is a sign that ba miracle will be performed on his behalf. /b, bThere are three Sageswhose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees RabbiYehuda HaNasi bin a dream should anticipate wisdom;one who sees bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya should anticipate wealth,as he was particularly wealthy; and one who sees bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha should be concerned about calamity,as he was one of the ten martyrs executed by the Romans.,There are bthree Torah scholarswho, despite their greatness in Torah, were never given the title Rabbi, and whose appearance in a dream is significant: bOne who sees Ben Azzai in a dream should anticipate piety;one who sees bBen Zoma should anticipate wisdom;and one who sees iAḥer /i,Elisha ben Avuya, bshould be concerned about calamity,as he strayed from the path of righteousness.,The Gemara says: bAll types of animals are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for an elephant, a monkey and a long-tailed ape.The Gemara asks: bDidn’t the Master say: A miracle will be performed for one who sees an elephant in a dream?The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement that a vision of an elephant is a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is saddled,while bthisstatement that it is not a good omen refers to a case bwhere it is not saddled. /b,Similarly, the Gemara says: bAll types of metalutensils bare auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for a hoe, a chisel, and an axe,as these are instruments of destruction. The Gemara notes that bthis appliesspecifically bwhen they are seen on their handles.On a similar note, the Gemara says: bAll kinds of fruit are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for unripe dates. All kinds of vegetables are auspicioussigns bfor a dream except for turnip heads.The Gemara challenges: bDidn’t Rav say: I did not become wealthy until I saw turnip headsin my dream? Apparently turnip heads are a good omen. The Gemara responds: bWhen Rav sawthem, bhe saw them on their stems;if one sees turnip heads already picked, it is a bad omen. Similarly, ball kinds of colors are auspicioussigns bfor a dream, except for sky-blue [ itekhelet /i]. All kinds of birds are auspicioussigns in a dream bexcept for an eagle-owl, and an owl, and a ikurferai, /iall of which are nocturnal and have strange and frightening appearances.,The words: bThe body, the body, microcosm, ease,and bcomfortare bmnemonicsfor matters that the Gemara will discuss, each of which represents a list with shared qualities, similar to the lists cited above.,The Gemara says: bThreefood items benter the bodyyet bthe body does not benefit from them: Cherries, bad dates, and unripe dates.In contrast: bThreematters bdo not enter the bodyyet bthe body benefits from them, and they are: Washing, anointing, and usage [ itashmish /i],commonly used as a euphemism for conjugal relations. bThreematters bare microcosms of the World-to-Come, and they are: Sabbath, the sun and usage. /b,The Gemara asks: bUsage of whatbenefits the body and is a microcosm of the World-to-Come? bIf you saythat it refers to bconjugal relations, doesn’t that weakenthe body? bRather,it refers to busage of his orifices,relieving oneself., bThreematters bease one’s mind, and they are: Voice, sight, and smell,when they are pleasant and aesthetic. bThreematters bgive a person comfort, and they are: A beautiful abode, a beautiful wife, and beautiful vessels. /b,The numbers bfive, six, and ten are mnemonicsfor the categories to follow. The Gemara says: There are bfivematters in our world which are bone-sixtiethof their most extreme manifestations. bThey are: Fire, honey, Shabbat, sleep, and a dream.The Gemara elaborates: Our bfireis bone-sixtieth ofthe fire of bGehenna; honey is one-sixtieth of manna; Shabbat is one-sixtieth of the World-to-Come; sleep is one-sixtieth of death;and ba dream is one-sixtieth of prophecy. /b,Similarly: bSix matters are good omens for the sick: Sneezing, sweating, diarrhea, a seminal emission, sleep, and a dream.These are all alluded to in Scripture: bSneezing, as it is written: “His sneezes flash forth light”(Job 41:10), indicating that by means of a sneeze one comes to see the light of the world. bSweat, as it is written: “In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread”(Genesis 3:19). bDiarrhea, as it is written: “He that is bent down shall speedily be loosed; and he shall not go down dying into the pit”(Isaiah 51:14). bA seminal emission, as it is written: “That he might see his seed, prolong his days”(Isaiah 53:10). bSleep, as it is written: “I should have slept; then had I been at rest”(Job 3:13). bA dream, as it is written: “Wherefore You recover me [ ivataḥalimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16); ivataḥalimeniis interpreted as etymologically similar to iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly: bSix matters cure a sick person from his illness, and their cure isan effective bcure. They are: Cabbage, beets, dried foley,a medicinal plant, bthe stomach, the placenta, and the diaphragmof an animal. bSome saythat bsmall fishalso possess these qualities. bFurthermore, small fish cause one’s entire body to flourish and become healthy. /b,In contrast, bthere are ten matters thatcause a sick person who has recovered to suffer a brelapse of his illness, and his illness iseven more bsevere, and they are:Eating box meat,eating bfatty meatin general, eating broasted meat,eating bpoultry,eating ba roasted egg, shaving,eating bcress,drinking bmilk,eating bcheese, andbathing in a bbathhouse. And some sayeating bnuts, and some say eveneating bcucumbers. /b,It was btaughtin the bschool of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ ikishu’im /i]? Because they are as harmful [ ikashim /i] to the body as swords.The Gemara asks: bIs that really so? Is it not written: “And the Lord said unto her: Two nations [ igoyim /i] are in your womb”(Genesis 25:23) and the Gemara says: bDo not readit as igoyim /i, ratherread it as igayim /i, proud ones. And Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:This verse was fulfilled in bthesetwo great individuals who descended from Rebecca: bAntoninus and RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwhose tables,because of their wealth, bnever lacked for radish, lettuce or cucumbers, neither in summer nor in the rainy season.Apparently, cucumbers are good and are even a delicacy of kings.,The Gemara resolves: This is bnot difficult. Thisthat says they are harmful to the body refers bto large ones,while bthisthat says they were always served on the table of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus refers bto small ones. /b,With regard to dreams, bthe Sages taught:One who dreams that he sees ba corpse in his house,it is a sign of bpeace in his house.If the corpse bate and drank in the house, it is good omen for the house.If the corpse bremoved vessels from the house,it bis a bad omen for the house,as it suggests that the corpse is taking someone from the house with him. bRav Pappa explainedthis only if the dream was bwith regard to a shoe and a sandal,as that indicates that someone from the house is going to embark on a long journey. As the Sages said: bEverythingthat ba corpse takesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept a shoe and a sandal; everything that a corpse givesin a dream is a bgoodomen bexcept dust and mustard,which looks like dust, as they portend burial.,We learned in the mishna that one who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicatedshould recite the blessing: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. On this topic bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bOne who seesthe idol called bMercury [ iMarkulis /i] recites: Blessed…who has shown patience to those who violate His will,as each day new rocks would be thrown upon the pile constructed in Mercury’ honor ( iTosafot /i). One who sees ba place from which idolatry was eradicated should recite: Blessed…Who eradicated idolatry from our land. And just as it was eradicated from this place, so too may it be eradicated from all places of Israel, and restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You. Outside of EretzYisrael, bone need not recite: And restore the hearts of their worshippers to worship You, since it is predomitly populated by gentiles. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even outside of EretzYisrael bone is required to recite thatformula bbecausein the end of days all nations bwill convert, as it is stated: “For then will I turn to the peoples a pure language,that they may all call upon the Name of the Lord, to serve Him with one consent” (Zephaniah 3:9).,The Gemara goes on to discuss special blessings instituted by the Sages to be recited upon seeing extraordinary sights. bRav Hamnuna taught: One who sees the wicked Babylonia must recite five blessings.The Gemara elaborates: br bOne who sawthe ruins of bBabylonia, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the wicked Babylonia.br bOne who sawthe ruins of bNebuchadnezzar’s house, recites: Blessed…Who destroyed the house of wicked Nebuchadnezzar.br bOne who saw the lion’s deninto which Daniel was thrown (see Daniel ch. 6) bor the furnaceinto which Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bwere thrown(see Daniel ch. 3), brecites: Blessed…Who performed miracles for our ancestors in this place.br bOne who saw Mercury, recites: Blessed…Who has shown patience to those who violate His will.br bOne who saw a place from which earth is taken,as over the generations earth was taken from certain places and used as fertilizer or for construction in the surrounding areas, brecites: Blessed…Who speaks and acts, decrees and fulfills. /b,The Gemara relates that bwhen Rava would see donkeys carrying earthfrom Babylonia, bhe would slap their backs with his hand and sayto them: bRun, righteous ones, and fulfill the will of your Master. When Mar, son of Ravina, would arrive in Babylonia he would take earth in his kerchief and throw it outside, to fulfill that which is said: “And I will sweep it with the broom of destruction”(Isaiah 14:23). bRav Ashi said: I never heard thestatement of bRav Hamnuna,that one who sees Babylonia the wicked must recite five blessings. bHowever, based on my independent reasoning, I recited all of the blessings. /b
68. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
69. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. יכשל בו דאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב בשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שהוסיף יעקב ליוסף משאר אחיו נתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים אמר רבי בנימן בר יפת רמז רמז לו שעתיד בן לצאת ממנו שיצא מלפני המלך בחמשה לבושי מלכות שנאמר ומרדכי יצא בלבוש מלכות תכלת וגו',(בראשית מה, יד) ויפול על צוארי בנימן אחיו כמה צוארין הוו ליה לבנימין אמר רבי אלעזר בכה על שני מקדשים שעתידין להיות בחלקו של בנימין ועתידין ליחרב ובנימין בכה על צואריו בכה על משכן שילה שעתיד להיות בחלקו של יוסף ועתיד ליחרב,(בראשית מה, יב) והנה עיניכם רואות ועיני אחי בנימין אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם כשם שאין בלבי על בנימין אחי שלא היה במכירתי כך אין בלבי עליכם כי פי המדבר אליכם כפי כן לבי,(בראשית מה, כג) ולאביו שלח כזאת עשרה חמורים נושאים מטוב מצרים מאי מטוב מצרים אמר ר' בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר שלח לו יין [ישן] שדעת זקנים נוחה הימנו,(בראשית נ, יח) וילכו גם אחיו ויפלו לפניו אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר היינו דאמרי אינשי תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,תעלא מאי בצירותיה מאחווה אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר (בראשית מז, לא) וישתחו ישראל על ראש המטה אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,(בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שאמר להם דברים שמתקבלין על הלב ומה עשרה נרות לא יכלו לכבות נר אחד נר אחד היאך יכול לכבות עשרה נרות,(אסתר ח, טז) ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששון ויקר אמר רב יהודה אורה זו תורה וכן הוא אומר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור שמחה זה יום טוב וכן הוא אומר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך ששון זו מילה וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קסב) שש אנכי על אמרתך,ויקר אלו תפלין וכן הוא אומר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפלין שבראש,ואת פרשנדתא וגו' עשרת בני המן אמר רב אדא דמן יפו עשרת בני המן ועשרת צריך לממרינהו בנשימה אחת מאי טעמא כולהו בהדי הדדי נפקו נשמתייהו אמר רבי יוחנן ויו דויזתא צריך למימתחה בזקיפא כמורדיא דלברות מאי טעמא כולהו בחד זקיפא אזדקיפו,אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח על גבי לבינה ולבינה על גבי אריח,חוץ משירה זו ומלכי כנען שאריח על גבי אריח ולבינה על גבי לבינה מ"ט שלא תהא תקומה למפלתן,ויאמר המלך לאסתר המלכה בשושן הבירה הרגו היהודים אמר רבי אבהו מלמד שבא מלאך וסטרו על פיו,ובבאה לפני המלך אמר עם הספר אמר אמרה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי יוחנן אמרה לו יאמר בפה מה שכתוב בספר,דברי שלום ואמת אמר רבי תנחום ואמרי לה אמר רבי אסי מלמד שצריכה שרטוט כאמיתה של תורה,ומאמר אסתר קיים מאמר אסתר אין דברי הצומות לא אמר רבי יוחנן דברי הצומות ומאמר אסתר קיים (את ימי) הפורים האלה,כי מרדכי היהודי משנה למלך אחשורוש וגדול ליהודים ורצוי לרוב אחיו לרוב אחיו ולא לכל אחיו מלמד שפירשו ממנו מקצת סנהדרין,אמר רב יוסף גדול ת"ת יותר מהצלת נפשות דמעיקרא חשיב ליה למרדכי בתר ד' ולבסוף בתר חמשה מעיקרא כתיב (עזרא ב, ב) אשר באו עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה שריה רעליה מרדכי בלשן ולבסוף כתיב (נחמיה ז, ז) הבאים עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה עזריה רעמיה נחמני מרדכי בלשן,אמר רב ואיתימא רב שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מבנין בית המקדש שכל זמן שברוך בן נריה קיים לא הניחו עזרא ועלה,אמר רבה אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מכבוד אב ואם שכל אותן שנים שהיה יעקב אבינו בבית עבר לא נענש דאמר מר 16b. bhehimself bshould stumbleby showing favoritism to Benjamin? bAs Rava bar Meḥaseyya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: Due tothe weight of btwo sela of fine wool that Jacobgave to Joseph, which he badded towhat he gave bJoseph beyondwhat he gave bthe rest of his brothers,as he made him his special coat, bthe story progressed and our forefathers went down to Egypt.How then could Joseph have displayed similar favoritism toward Benjamin? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said: Hewas not showing favoritism. Rather, he bintimated to him that a descendant was destined to issue from him who would go out from the presence of the kingwearing bfive royal garments, as it is stated: “And Mordecai went forthfrom the presence of the king bin royal apparel of sky blueand white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a wrap of fine linen and purple” (Esther 8:15).,The Gemara elaborates on certain elements in the story of Joseph and his brothers. The verse states with regard to Joseph: b“And he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck [ itzavarei/b] and wept” (Genesis 45:14). The wording of the verse gives rise to a question, as the word itzavareiis plural, meaning necks: bHow many necks did Benjamin have,such that the verse should use the plural itzavareirather than the singular itzavar /i? bRabbi Elazar said:This intimates bthatJoseph bcried over the two Temples that were destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Benjamin and were destined to be destroyed.The same verse continues: b“And Benjamin wept on his neck”(Genesis 45:14); bhe cried over the tabernacle of Shiloh that was destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Joseph and was destined to be destroyed. /b,The verse states: b“And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin”(Genesis 45:12). bRabbi Elazar said:Joseph bsaid tohis brothers as follows: bJust as Icertainly bharbor noresentment bin my heart toward my brother Benjamin, for he was noteven bpresent when I was sold, so too, I harbor noresentment btoward you.The verse continues: b“That it is my mouth [ iki fi /i] that speaks to you”(Genesis 45:12), i.e., bAs my mouth [ ikefi /i] is, so is my heart. /b,The verse states: b“And to his father he sent after this manner ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt”(Genesis 45:23). The Gemara asks: bWhat are “the good things of Egypt”that are mentioned but not specified here? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: He sent him aged wine, which the elderly find pleasing. /b,Following Jacob’s death, it states concerning Joseph: b“And his brothers even went and fell down before him”(Genesis 50:18). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,i.e., if a fox is appointed king, one must bow down before and submit oneself to it.,The Gemara expresses astonishment at the use of this parable: Are you calling Joseph ba fox? What, was he inferior to his brotherssuch that in relation to them you call him a fox? bRather, if such a statement was stated, it was stated as follows,not in connection with this verse, but rather in connection with a different verse. The verse states: b“And Israel bowed himself upon the head of the bed”(Genesis 47:31). With regard to this, bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,as Jacob had to bow down before his son Joseph, who had reached greatness.,It says with regard to Joseph’s remarks to his brothers: b“And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts”(Genesis 50:21). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that he spoke to them words that are acceptable to the heart,and alleviated their fears. This is what he said: bIf ten lights could not put out one light,as all of you were unable to do me harm, bhow can one light put out ten lights? /b,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the Megilla. The verse states: b“The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor”(Esther 8:16). bRav Yehuda said: “Light”; thisis referring to the bTorahthat they once again studied. bAnd similarly it says: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light”(Proverbs 6:23). b“Gladness” [ isimḥa /i]; thisis referring to bthe Festivalsthat they once again observed. bAnd similarly it says: “And you shall be glad [ ivesamakhta /i] on your Festival”(Deuteronomy 16:14). b“Joy” [ isasson /i]; thisis referring to bcircumcision,as they once again circumcised their sons. bAnd similarly it says: “I rejoice [ isas /i] at Your word”(Psalms 119:162), which the Sages understood as referring to David’s rejoicing over the mitzva of circumcision., b“Honor”; this isreferring to bphylacteries,which they once again donned. bAnd similarly it says: “And all peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord; and they will be afraid of you”(Deuteronomy 28:10). bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great said: Thisis referring to bthe phylacteries worn on the head.Haman had banned the fulfillment of all the mitzvot mentioned, but upon Haman’s demise the Jews returned to their observance.,The verse states: “And in Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men. bAnd Parshandatha… /band Vaizatha, bthe ten sons of Haman”(Esther 9:6–10). bRav Adda from Jaffa said:When reading the Megilla, the names of bthe ten sons of Haman andthe word b“ten” must be said in one breath. What is the reasonfor this? It is that btheir souls all departed together. Rabbi Yoḥa said:The letter ivavinthe name b“Vaizatha”is a lengthened ivavand bmust be elongated as a pole, like a steering oar of a ship [ iliberot /i]. What is the reasonfor this? To indicate that bthey were all hanged on one pole. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saidthat bRabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Allof bthe songsin the Bible bare writtenin the form of ba half brick arranged upon a whole brick and a whole brick arranged upon a half brick,i.e., each line of the song is divided into a stitch of text, referred to as a half brick, which is separated by a blank space, referred to as a whole brick, from the concluding stitch of that line of text.,The next line of the song inverts the sequence. bThis is the principle for all songs in the Bible exceptfor bthis song,referring to the list of Haman’s sons, bandthe song listing bthe kings of Canaanwho were defeated by Joshua. These two songs are written in the form of ba half brick arranged upon a half brick and a whole brick arranged upon a whole brick,i.e., one stitch of text over another, and one blank space over another. bWhat is the reasonthat these two songs are written in this anomalous fashion? bSo that they should never rise from their downfall.Just as a wall that is built in this manner will not stand, so too, these individuals should have no resurgence.,The verse states: b“And the king said to Esther the queen: The Jews have slainand destroyed five hundred men bin Shushan the capital,and also the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition and it shall be granted to you; and what more do you request, and it shall be done” (Esther 9:12). bRabbi Abbahu said: This teaches that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth,so that he was unable to finish what he was saying; he started with a complaint about what the Jews were doing, but ended on an entirely different note.,The verse states: b“But when she came before the king, he said with a letter”(Esther 9:25). Why does it say: b“He said”? It should have said: “She said,”as it was Esther who changed the decree. bRabbi Yoḥa said: She said toAhasuerus: bLet it be said byword of bmouth,indicating that bthat which is written in the lettershould also be ordered verbally.,With regard to what is stated: b“Words of peace and truth”(Esther 9:30), bRabbi Tanḥum said, and some saythat bRabbi Asisaid: This bteaches thata Megilla scroll brequires scoring,i.e., that the lines for the text must be scored onto the parchment, bas the Torah itself,i.e., as is done in a Torah scroll.,The verses say: “The matters of the fasts and their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmedthese matters of Purim” (Esther 9:31–32). The Gemara asks: Should we say that b“the decree of Esther” indeedconfirmed these matters of Purim, but b“the matters of the fasts”did bnot?But didn’t the fasts also contribute to the miracle? bRabbi Yoḥa said:These two verses, b“The matters of the fastsand their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim,”should be read as one.,The verse states: b“For Mordecai the Jew was second to the king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the majority of his brethren”(Esther 10:3). The Gemara comments: The verse indicates that Mordecai was accepted only b“By the majority of his brethren,” but not by all his brethren.This bteaches that somemembers bof the Sanhedrin parted from him,because he occupied himself with community needs, and was therefore compelled to neglect his Torah study. They felt that this was a mistake and that he should have remained active on the Sanhedrin., bRav Yosef said: Studying Torah is greater than saving lives, as initially,when listing the Jewish leaders who came to Eretz Yisrael, bMordecai was mentioned after fourother people, bbut at the endhe was listed bafter five.This is taken to indicate that his involvement in governmental affairs instead of in Torah study lowered his stature one notch. The Gemara proves this: bAt first it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Ezra 2:2); bbut in the endin a later list bit is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahmani, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Nehemiah 7:7)., bRav said, and some saythat bRav Shmuel bar Martasaid: bStudying Torah is greaterand more important bthan building the Temple.A proof of this is that bfor as long as Baruch ben Neriah was alivein Babylonia, bEzra,who was his disciple, bdid not leave him and go upto Eretz Yisrael to build the Temple., bRabba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta said: Studying Torah isgreater and bmoreimportant bthan honoring one’s father and mother,and a proof of this is bthat for all those years that our father Jacob spent in the house of Eberand studied Torah there bhe was not punishedfor having neglected to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents. bAs the Master said: /b
70. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.109 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.109. 10. EPIMEDESEpimenides, according to Theopompus and many other writers, was the son of Phaestius; some, however, make him the son of Dosiadas, others of Agesarchus. He was a native of Cnossos in Crete, though from wearing his hair long he did not look like a Cretan. One day he was sent into the country by his father to look for a stray sheep, and at noon he turned aside out of the way, and went to sleep in a cave, where he slept for fifty-seven years. After this he got up and went in search of the sheep, thinking he had been asleep only a short time. And when he could not find it, he came to the farm, and found everything changed and another owner in possession. Then he went back to the town in utter perplexity; and there, on entering his own house, he fell in with people who wanted to know who he was. At length he found his younger brother, now an old man, and learnt the truth from him.
71. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.16.4-30.16.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

72. Anon., 4 Ezra, 1.24, 4.35, 7.26, 7.36, 7.38, 7.85, 7.91, 7.95, 7.99, 8.52, 10.25-10.29, 10.42, 10.44, 10.54, 13.36

1.24. What shall I do to you, O Jacob? You would not obey me, O Judah. I will turn to other nations and will give them my name, that they may keep my statutes. 4.35. Did not the souls of the righteous in their chambers ask about these matters, saying, `How long are we to remain here? And when will come the harvest of our reward? 7.26. For behold, the time will come, when the signs which I have foretold to you will come to pass, that the city which now is not seen shall appear, and the land which now is hidden shall be disclosed. 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.38. Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments!' Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment -- 7.85. The fifth way, they shall see how the habitations of the others are guarded by angels in profound quiet. 7.91. First of all, they shall see with great joy the glory of him who receives them, for they shall have rest in seven orders. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.99. This is the order of the souls of the righteous, as henceforth is announced; and the aforesaid are the ways of torment which those who would not give heed shall suffer hereafter. 8.52. because it is for you that paradise is opened, the tree of life is planted, the age to come is prepared, plenty is provided, a city is built, rest is appointed, goodness is established and wisdom perfected beforehand. 10.25. While I was talking to her, behold, her face suddenly shone exceedingly, and her countece flashed like lightning, so that I was too frightened to approach her, and my heart was terrified. While I was wondering what this meant 10.26. behold, she suddenly uttered a loud and fearful cry, so that the earth shook at the sound. 10.27. And I looked, and behold, the woman was no longer visible to me, but there was an established city, and a place of huge foundations showed itself. Then I was afraid, and cried with a loud voice and said 10.28. Where is the angel Uriel, who came to me at first? For it was he who brought me into this overpowering bewilderment; my end has become corruption, and my prayer a reproach. 10.29. As I was speaking these words, behold, the angel who had come to me at first came to me, and he looked upon me; 10.42. but you do not now see the form of a woman, but an established city has appeared to you -- 10.44. This woman whom you saw, whom you now behold as an established city, is Zion. 10.54. for no work of man's building could endure in a place where the city of the Most High was to be revealed. 13.36. And Zion will come and be made manifest to all people, prepared and built, as you saw the mountain carved out without hands.
73. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 12.1-12.2

74. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.4, 3.8-3.11, 3.14, 4.11, 5.21, 6.1-6.2, 6.7-6.16, 6.22, 7.22-7.29, 8.1, 8.5, 9.4-9.5, 9.16-9.17

3.4. And Jeremiah besought the angels, saying: I beseech you, do not destroy the city yet, until I say something to the Lord. 3.8. And Jeremiah said: Behold, Lord, now we know that you are delivering the city into the hands of its enemies, and they will take the people away to Babylon. What do you want me to do with the holy vessels of the temple service? 3.10. And the Lord said to him: Take them and consign them to the earth, saying: Hear, Earth, the voice of your creator who formed you in the abundance of waters, who sealed you with seven seals for seven epochs, and after this you will receive your ornaments (?) -- 3.11. Guard the vessels of the temple service until the gathering of the beloved. 3.14. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Send him to the vineyard of Agrippa, and I will hide him in the shadow of the mountain until I cause the people to return to the city. 4.11. When he had said this, Baruch departed from the city, weeping andsaying: Grieving because of you, Jerusalem, I went out from you. 5.21. Even if the heavenly torrents had descended on them, there has not yet been time for them to go into Babylon! 6.1. After this, Abimelech went out of the city and prayed to the Lord. 6.2. And behold, an angel of the Lord came and took him by the right handand brought him back to where Baruch was sitting, and he found him ina tomb. 6.7. Revive in your tabernacle, in your virginal faith, and believe that you will live! 6.8. Look at this basket of figs -- for behold, they are 66 years old and have not become shrivelled or rotten, but they are dripping milk. 6.9. So it will be with you, my flesh, if you do what is commanded you by the angel of righteousness. 6.10. He who preserved the basket of figs, the same will again preserve you by his power. 6.11. When Baruch had said this, he said to Abimelech: Stand up and let us pray that the Lord may make known to us how we shall be able to send to Jeremiah in Babylon the report about the shelter provided for you on the way. 6.12. And Baruch prayed, saying: Lord God, our strength is the elect light which comes forth from your mouth. 6.13. We beseech and beg of your goodness -- you whose great name no one is able to know -- hear the voice of your servants and let knowledge come into our hearts. 6.13. These, then, are the words which the Lord, the God of Israel, spoke, who led us out of Egypt, out of the great furnace: Because you did not keep my ordices, but your heart was lifted up, and you were haughty before me, in anger and wrath I delivered you to the furnace in Babylon. 6.14. What shall we do, and how shall we send this report to Jeremiah in Babylon? 6.15. And while Baruch was still praying, behold an angel of the Lord cameand said all these words to Baruch: Agent of the light, do not be anxious about how you will send to Jeremiah; for an eagle is coming to you at the hour of light tomorrow, and you will direct him to Jeremiah. 6.16. Therefore, write in a letter: Say to the children of Israel: Let the stranger who comes among you be set apart and let 15 days go by; and after this I will lead you into your city, says the Lord. 6.22. And he sent his angel to me, and he told me these words which I send to you. 7.22. And when the people heard it, they wept and put dust on their heads,and they said to Jeremiah: Deliver us and tell us what to do that we may once again enter our city. 7.23. And Jeremiah answered and said to them: Do whatever you heard from the letter, and the Lord will lead us into our city. 7.24. And Jeremiah wrote a letter to Baruch, saying thus: My beloved son, do not be negligent in your prayers, beseeching God on our behalf, that he might direct our way until we come out of the jurisdiction of this lawless king. 7.25. For you have been found righteous before God, and he did not let you come here, lest you see the affliction which has come upon the people at the hands of the Babylonians. 7.26. For it is like a father with an only son, who is given over for punishment; and those who see his father and console him cover his face, lest he see how his son is being punished, and be even more ravaged by grief. 7.27. For thus God took pity on you and did not let you enter Babylon lest you see the affliction of the people. 7.28. For since we came here, grief has not left us, for 66 years today. 7.29. For many times when I went out I found some of the people hung up by king Nebuchadnezzar, crying and saying:"Have mercy on us, God-ZAR! 8.1. And the day came in which the Lord brought the people out of Babylon. 8.5. As he told them the words that the Lord had spoken to him, half ofthose who had taken spouses from them did not wish to listen toJeremiah, but said to him: We will never forsake our wives, but we will bring them back with us into our city. 9.4. For your mercy, I beg you -- for the sweet voice of the two seraphim, I beg -- for another fragrant aroma. 9.5. And may Michael, archangel of righteousness, who opens the gates to the righteous, be my guardian (?) until he causes the righteous to enter. 9.16. And the tree of life planted in the midst of paradise will cause all the unfruitful trees to bear fruit, and will grow and sprout forth. 9.17. And the trees that had sprouted and became haughty and said:"We have supplied our power (?) to the air," he will cause them to wither, with the grandeur of their branches, and he will cause them to be judged -- that firmly rooted tree!
75. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.9, 15.7

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 95
3 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95, 217
abimelech/ebed-melech, grief of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 237
abimelech/ebed-melech, sleep of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 30, 48, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 220, 221, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 251, 253, 255, 256
abimelech/ebed-melech, trance/ecstasy of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 48, 237, 247
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 14, 15, 32, 35, 95, 131, 173, 176, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 217, 219, 220, 221, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 233, 235, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 247, 249, 251, 253, 255, 263, 420
abimelech Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 253, 254
abraham, isaac, and jacob/patriarchs Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
aelia captiolina Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 221
agrippa ii, agrippa, vineyard/estate of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 131, 173, 231
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95, 131, 228, 243, 256, 263
apocalypse/apocalyptic Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95
apostles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 241
archangel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 255
armenian translation of 4 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 173
asc (altered state of consciousness) Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 95
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 14, 15, 95, 215, 226, 263, 343
life after death Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 253, 255, 256
light Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 48, 255, 263
liturgical expressions/elements, long-sleepers, legends of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 213, 215, 217, 219, 220
liturgical expressions/elements, luke, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 231
long-sleepers Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 253, 254
martyrdom and ascension of isaiah, matthew, gospel of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 221
michael Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 255, 256
miracle Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95, 237, 245, 263, 343
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 229, 255, 343
nebuchadnezzar/king of the chaldeans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 48, 219, 241
new exodus Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 176
nisan Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 14, 205, 209, 249
noah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
noahs flood Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
obedience and disobedience Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95
paralipomena jeremiae' Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 253
paralipomena jeremiae Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 254
parallelism/repetition Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 173, 210, 211, 231, 235, 245, 247, 263
pharaoh Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 229
post-70 setting of 4 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 30, 95, 226, 256
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 35, 48, 255, 263, 420
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 204, 223, 226, 239
pseudepigraphy ix Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 95
pseudo-philo Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 95
rest (eschatological) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251, 253, 256
resurrection Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 14, 215, 256, 263, 343
reward Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 263
rewritten bible/scripture Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 251, 253, 255, 256
sacrifice Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 32, 233, 420
samaria/samaritans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 14, 15, 32
second temple (judaism) Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 95
semitisms Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 227, 239
septuagint/septuagintism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35
seven sleepers of ephesus Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 215, 223
short recension of 4 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 243
sickness Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 173, 223, 226, 231
sin/sinner Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 131
sinlessness Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 95
sitting (posture) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 30, 210, 213, 223, 237
sixty-six years Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 13, 14, 48, 226, 227, 231, 245
supercessionism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32
symbolism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 173, 223, 226
temple in jerusalem, altar of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 255, 256
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 131, 213, 219, 233
temple in jerusalem, instruments, vessels, furnishings in Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 15, 32, 131
temple in jerusalem, keys of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32
temple in jerusalem Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 30, 32, 35, 223, 237, 251, 255
theodore psalter Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32
three days Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 343
tomb Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 30, 233, 237
torah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 32, 227, 255
vision Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 95
visionary Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 95
wilderness/desert Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 176, 343
yom kippur Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 14
zion Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 35, 219, 255