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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



477
Anon., 3 Enoch, 13.1
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.20-23.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.21. הִשָּׁמֶר מִפָּנָיו וּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ אַל־תַּמֵּר בּוֹ כִּי לֹא יִשָּׂא לְפִשְׁעֲכֶם כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 23.22. כִּי אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ וְעָשִׂיתָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֲדַבֵּר וְאָיַבְתִּי אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְצַרְתִּי אֶת־צֹרְרֶיךָ׃ 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 23.21. Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him." 23.22. But if thou shalt indeed hearken unto his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries."
2. Anon., 1 Enoch, 69.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

69. And after this judgement they shall terrify and make them to tremble because they have shown this to those who dwell on the earth.",And behold the names of those angels [and these are their names: the first of them is Samjaza, the second Artaqifa, and the third Armen, the fourth Kokabel, the fifth Turael, the sixth Rumjal, the seventh Danjal, the eighth Neqael, the ninth Baraqel, the tenth Azazel, the eleventh Armaros, the twelfth Batarjal, the thirteenth Busasejal, the fourteenth Hael, the fifteenth Turel, and the sixteenth Simapesiel, the seventeenth Jetrel, the eighteenth Tumael, the nineteenth Turel,,the twentieth Rumael, the twenty-first Azazel. And these are the chiefs of their angels and their names, and their chief ones over hundreds and over fifties and over tens].,The name of the first Jeqon: that is, the one who led astray [all] the sons of God, and brought them,down to the earth, and led them astray through the daughters of men. And the second was named Asbeel: he imparted to the holy sons of God evil counsel, and led them astray so that they defiled,their bodies with the daughters of men. And the third was named Gadreel: he it is who showed the children of men all the blows of death, and he led astray Eve, and showed [the weapons of death to the sons of men] the shield and the coat of mail, and the sword for battle, and all the weapons,of death to the children of men. And from his hand they have proceeded against those who dwell",on the earth from that day and for evermore. And the fourth was named Penemue: he taught the",children of men the bitter and the sweet, and he taught them all the secrets of their wisdom. And he instructed mankind in writing with ink and paper, and thereby many sinned from eternity to,eternity and until this day. For men were not created for such a purpose, to give confirmation,to their good faith with pen and ink. For men were created exactly like the angels, to the intent that they should continue pure and righteous, and death, which destroys everything, could not have taken hold of them, but through this their knowledge they are perishing, and through this power,it is consuming me. And the fifth was named Kasdeja: this is he who showed the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits and demons, and the smitings of the embryo in the womb, that it may pass away, and [the smitings of the soul] the bites of the serpent, and the smitings,which befall through the noontide heat, the son of the serpent named Taba'et. And this is the task of Kasbeel, the chief of the oath which he showed to the holy ones when he dwelt high,above in glory, and its name is Biqa. This (angel) requested Michael to show him the hidden name, that he might enunciate it in the oath, so that those might quake before that name and oath who revealed all that was in secret to the children of men. And this is the power of this oath, for it is powerful and strong, and he placed this oath Akae in the hand of Michael.,And these are the secrets of this oath . . . And they are strong through his oath: And the heaven was suspended before the world was created, And for ever.,And through it the earth was founded upon the water, And from the secret recesses of the mountains come beautiful waters, From the creation of the world and unto eternity.,And through that oath the sea was created, And as its foundation He set for it the sand against the time of (its) anger, And it dare not pass beyond it from the creation of the world unto eternity.,And through that oath are the depths made fast, And abide and stir not from their place from eternity to eternity.,And through that oath the sun and moon complete their course, And deviate not from their ordice from eternity to eternity.,And through that oath the stars complete their course, And He calls them by their names, And they answer Him from eternity to eternity.,[And in like manner the spirits of the water, and of the winds, and of all zephyrs, and (their) paths,from all the quarters of the winds. And there are preserved the voices of the thunder and the light of the lightnings: and there are preserved the chambers of the hail and the chambers of the",hoarfrost, and the chambers of the mist, and the chambers of the rain and the dew. And all these believe and give thanks before the Lord of Spirits, and glorify (Him) with all their power, and their food is in every act of thanksgiving: they thank and glorify and extol the name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever.],And this oath is mighty over them And through it [they are preserved and] their paths are preserved, And their course is not destroyed.,And there was great joy amongst them, And they blessed and glorified and extolled Because the name of that Son of Man had been revealed unto them.,And he sat on the throne of his glory, And the sum of judgement was given unto the Son of Man, And he caused the sinners to pass away and be destroyed from off the face of the earth, And those who have led the world astray.,With chains shall they be bound, And in their assemblage-place of destruction shall they be imprisoned, And all their works vanish from the face of the earth.,And from henceforth there shall be nothing corruptible; For that Son of Man has appeared, And has seated himself on the throne of his glory, And all evil shall pass away before his face, And the word of that Son of Man shall go forthAnd be strong before the Lord of Spirits.
3. Anon., Jubilees, 36.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.7. that He might multiply you and increase your seed as the stars of heaven in multitude, and establish you on the earth as the plant of righteousness which will not be rooted out unto all the generations for ever.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

51. and let every one in his turn say the same thing, for it is very becoming to every man who loves God to study such a song as this, but above all this world should sing it. For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine; and he regulates the nature of the heaven, and the periodical revolutions of the sun and moon, and the variations and harmonious movements of the other stars, ruling them according to law and justice; appointing, as their immediate superintendent, his own right reason, his first-born son, who is to receive the charge of this sacred company, as the lieutet of the great king; for it is said somewhere, "Behold, I am he! I will send my messenger before thy face, who shall keep thee in the Road.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 63, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. But the divine word which is above these does not come into any visible appearance, inasmuch as it is not like to any of the things that come under the external senses, but is itself an image of God, the most ancient of all the objects of intellect in the whole world, and that which is placed in the closest proximity to the only truly existing God, without any partition or distance being interposed between them: for it is said, "I will speak unto thee from above the mercyseat, in the midst, between the two Cherubim." So that the word is, as it were, the charioteer of the powers, and he who utters it is the rider, who directs the charioteer how to proceed with a view to the proper guidance of the universe.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.62, 1.68-1.69, 1.86, 1.228-1.229 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.62. Now place is considered in three ways: firstly, as a situation filled by a body; secondly, as a divine word which God himself has filled wholly and entirely with incorporeal powers; for says the scripture, "I have seen the place in which the God of Israel Stood," in which alone he permitted his prophet to perform sacrifice to him, forbidding him to do so in other places. For he is ordered to go up into the place which the Lord God shall choose, and there to sacrifice burnt offerings and sacrifices for salvation, and to bring other victims also without spot. 1.68. These things, then, being defined as a necessary preliminary, when the practiser of virtue comes to Charran, the outward sense, he does not "meet" the place, nor that place either which is filled by a mortal body; for all those who are born of the dust, and who occupy any place whatever, and who do of necessity fill some position, partake of that; nor the third and most excellent kind of place, of which it was scarcely possible for that man to form an idea who made his abode at the well which was entitled the "well of the oath," where the self-taught race, Isaac, abides, who never abandons his faith in God and his invisible comprehension of him, but who keeps to the intermediate divine word, which affords him the best suggestions, and teaches him everything which is suitable to the times. 1.69. For God, not condescending to come down to the external senses, sends his own words or angels for the sake of giving assistance to those who love virtue. But they attend like physicians to the disease of the soul, and apply themselves to heal them, offering sacred recommendations like sacred laws, and inviting men to practice the duties inculcated by them, and, like the trainers of wrestlers, implanting in their pupils strength, and power, and irresistible vigour. 1.86. For the word of God, when it reaches to our earthly constitution, assists and protects those who are akin to virtue, or whose inclinations lead them to virtue; so that it provides them with a complete refuge and salvation, but upon their enemies it sends irremediable overthrow and destruction. 1.228. A very glorious boast for the soul, that God should think fit to appear to and to converse with it. And do not pass by what is here said, but examine it accurately, and see whether there are really two Gods. For it is said: "I am the God who was seen by thee;" not in my place, but in the place of God, as if he meant of some other God. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.169-3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts; 3.170. for there are two kinds of states, the greater and the smaller. And the larger ones are called really cities; but the smaller ones are called houses. And the superintendence and management of these is allotted to the two sexes separately; the men having the government of the greater, which government is called a polity; and the women that of the smaller, which is called oeconomy. 3.171. Therefore let no woman busy herself about those things which are beyond the province of oeconomy, but let her cultivate solitude, and not be seen to be going about like a woman who walks the streets in the sight of other men, except when it is necessary for her to go to the temple, if she has any proper regard for herself; and even then let her not go at noon when the market is full, but after the greater part of the people have returned home; like a well-born woman, a real and true citizen, performing her vows and her sacrifices in tranquillity, so as to avert evils and to receive blessings. 3.172. But when men are abusing one another or fighting, for women to venture to run out under pretence of assisting or defending them, is a blameable action and one of no slight shamelessness, since even, in the times of war and of military expeditions, and of dangers to their whole native land, the law does not choose that they should be enrolled as its defenders; looking at what is becoming, which it thinks desirable to preserve unchangeable at all times and in all places, thinking that this very thing is of itself better than victory, or then freedom, or than any kind of success and prosperity. 3.173. Moreover, if any woman, hearing that her husband is being assaulted, being out of her affection for him carried away by love for her husband, should yield to the feelings which overpower her and rush forth to aid him, still let her not be so audacious as to behave like a man, outrunning the nature of a woman; {16}{#de 25:11.} but even while aiding him let her continue a woman. For it would be a very terrible thing if a woman, being desirous to deliver her husband from an insult, should expose herself to insult, by exhibiting human life as full of shamelessness and liable to great reproaches for her incurable boldness; 3.174. for shall a woman utter abuse in the marketplace and give vent to unlawful language? and if another man uses foul language, will not she stop her ears and run away? But as it is now, some women are advanced to such a pitch of shamelessness as not only, though they are women, to give vent to intemperate language and abuse among a crowd of men, but even to strike men and insult them, with hands practised rather in works of the loom and spinning than in blows and assaults, like competitors in the pancratium or wrestlers. And other things, indeed, may be tolerable, and what any one might easily bear, but that is a shocking thing if a woman were to proceed to such a degree of boldness as to seize hold of the genitals of one of the men quarrelling. 3.175. For let not such a woman be let go on the ground that she appears to have done this action in order to assist her own husband; but let her be impeached and suffer the punishment due to her excessive audacity, so that if she should ever be inclined to commit the same offence again she may not have an opportunity of doing so; and other women, also, who might be inclined to be precipitate, may be taught by fear to be moderate and to restrain themselves. And let the punishment be the cutting off of the hand which has touched what it ought not to have touched. 3.176. And it is fitting to praise those who have been the judges and managers of the gymnastic games, who have kept women from the spectacle, in order that they might not be thrown among naked men and so mar the approved coinage of their modesty, neglecting the ordices of nature, which she has appointed for each section of our race; for neither is it right for men to mix with women when they have laid aside their garments, but each of the sexes ought to avoid the sight of the other when they are naked, in accordance with the promptings of nature. 3.177. Well, then, of those things of which we are to abstain from the sight, are not the hands much more to be blamed for the touch? For the eyes, being wholly at freedom, are nevertheless often constrained so as to see things which they do not wish to see; but the hands are ranked among those parts which are completely under subjection, and obey our commands, and are subservient to us.XXXII. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
8. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

143. And know that this way is wisdom. For the mind being guided by wisdom, while the road is straight and level and easy, proceeds along it to the end; and the end of this road is the knowledge and understanding of God. But every companion of the flesh hates and repudiates, and endeavours to corrupt this way; for there is no one thing so much at variance with another, as knowledge is at variance with the pleasure of the flesh. Accordingly, the earthly Edom is always fighting with those who wish to proceed by this road
10. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;
11. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.10. Rabbi Yonah said in the name of Rabbi Levi: Why was the world created with a \"bet\"? Just as a bet is closed on all sides and open in the front, so you are not permitted to say, \"What is beneath? What is above? What came before? What will come after?\" Rather from the day the world was created and after. Bar Kappara said: \"You have but to inquire about bygone ages that came before you [ever since God created humanity on earth]\" (Deuteronomy 4:32). From the moment God created them you may speculate, however you may not speculate on what was before that. [\"From one end of Heaven to the other\"] on this you may speculate and investigate, but you may not speculate and investigate 0n what was before. Rabbi Yehudah ben Pazzi explained the Creation story according to Bar Kappara: Why was the world created with a \"bet\"? To teach you there are two worlds: this world and the world-to-come. Another interpretation: Why with a \"bet\"? Because it is an expression of \"blessing.\" And why not with an \"aleph\"? Because it is an expression of \"cursing.\" Another interpretation: Why not with an \"aleph\"? So as not to give an argument to the heretics, who would say 'how could the world endure since it was created with an expression of curse?' Rather, the Holy One of Blessing said: 'behold I create it with an expression of blessing, and hopefully it will endure.' Another interpretation: Why with a \"bet\"? The bet has two points, one on its top and one behind it, they say to the \"bet\": 'who created you?' and he points with his point on top, and says: 'the One Above created me'. 'And what is His name?' and he shows with his point of behind, and says 'Hashem is His name.' Said Rabbi Eleazar Bar Chanina in the name of Rabbi Acha: for 26 generations the \"aleph\" screamed 'injustice!' in front of the throne of the Holy One of Blessing, saying to Him: 'Master of the Universe! I am the first of the letters and You did not create the world with me!' The Holy One of Blessing said to her [the aleph]: the world and all what it contains were only created due to the merit of Torah, as it is written: \"Ad-nai set the earth with wisdom [with understanding He established the heaven]\" (Mishlei/Prov 3:19). Tomorrow I come to give Torah at Sinai and I am going to open at first instance only with you, as it says Anochi 'I am Ad-nai your God' (Exodus/Shemot 20:2). Rabbi Hoshaya says: Why is its name \"aleph\"? Because he agrees from the outset [aleph], as it says \" the word which He commanded to a thousand [eleph] generations.\""
12. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, 3.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

68b. איחננא ליה כפא לקומתיה מיניה איתבר ביה גרמא אמר היינו דכתיב (משלי כה, טו) ולשון רכה תשבר גרם,חזא סמיא דהוה קא טעי באורחא אסקיה לאורחיה חזא רויא דהוה קא טעי באורחא אסקיה לאורחיה חזא חדוותא דהוו קמחדי לה בכה שמעיה לההוא גברא דהוה קאמר לאושכפא עביד לי מסאני לשב שני אחיך חזא ההוא קסמא דהוה קסים אחיך,כי מטא להתם לא עיילוה לגביה דשלמה עד תלתא יומי יומא קמא אמר להו אמאי לא קא בעי לי מלכא לגביה א"ל אנסיה מישתיא שקל לבינתא אותיב אחברתה אתו אמרו ליה לשלמה אמר להו הכי אמר לכו הדור אשקיוה,למחר אמר להו ואמאי לא קא בעי לי מלכא לגביה אמרו ליה אנסיה מיכלא שקל לבינתא מחברתה אותבה אארעא אתו אמרו ליה לשלמה אמר להו הכי אמר לכו נגידו מיניה מיכליה,[לסוף] תלתא יומי עייל לקמיה שקל קניא ומשח ארבעה גרמידי ושדא קמיה א"ל מכדי כי מיית ההוא גברא לית ליה בהדין עלמא אלא ד' גרמידי השתא כבשתיה לכולי עלמא ולא שבעת עד דכבשת נמי לדידי,א"ל לא קא בעינא מינך מידי בעינא דאיבנייה לבית המקדש וקא מיבעי לי שמירא א"ל לדידי לא מסיר לי לשרא דימא מסיר ליה ולא יהיב ליה אלא לתרנגולא ברא דמהימן ליה אשבועתיה,ומאי עבד ביה ממטי ליה לטורי דלית בהו ישוב ומנח לה אשינא דטורא ופקע טורא ומנקיט מייתי ביזרני מאילני ושדי התם והוי ישוב והיינו דמתרגמינן נגר טורא,בדקו קינא דתרנגולא ברא דאית ליה בני וחפויה לקיניה זוגיתא חיורתי כי אתא בעי למיעל ולא מצי אזל אייתי שמירא ואותביה עלויה רמא ביה קלא שדייה שקליה אזל חנק נפשיה אשבועתיה,אמר ליה בניהו מאי טעמא כי חזיתיה לההוא סמיא דהוה קא טעי באורחא אסיקתיה לאורחיה אמר ליה מכרזי עליה ברקיעא דצדיק גמור הוא ומאן דעבד ליה ניחא נפשיה זכי לעלמא דאתי,ומאי טעמא כי חזיתיה לההוא רויא דקטעי באורחא אסיקתיה לאורחיה א"ל מכרזי עליה ברקיעא דרשע גמור הוא ועבדי ליה ניחא נפשיה כי היכי דליכליה לעלמא,מאי טעמא כי חזיתיה לההוא חדוותא בכית אמר ליה בעי מימת גברא בגו תלתין יומין ובעיא מינטר ליבם קטן תליסרי שנין,מאי טעמא כי שמעתיה לההוא גברא דאמר ליה לאושכפא עביד לי מסאני לשב שנין אחיכת אמר ליה ההוא שבעה יומי לית ליה מסאני לשב שנין בעי,מ"ט כי חזיתיה לההוא קסמא דהוה קסים אחיכת אמר ליה דהוה יתיב אבי גזא דמלכא לקסום מאי דאיכא תותיה,תרחיה גביה עד דבנייה לבית המקדש יומא חד הוה קאי לחודיה אמר ליה כתיב (במדבר כד, ח) כתועפות ראם לו ואמרינן כתועפות אלו מלאכי השרת ראם אלו השדים מאי רבותייכו מינן,א"ל שקול שושילתא מינאי והב לי עיזקתך ואחוי לך רבותאי שקליה לשושילתא מיניה ויהיב ליה עיזקתיה בלעיה אותביה לחד גפיה ברקיעא ולחד גפיה בארעא פתקיה ארבע מאה פרסי על ההיא שעתא אמר שלמה (קהלת א, ג) מה יתרון לאדם בכל עמלו שיעמול תחת השמש,(קהלת ב, י) וזה היה חלקי מכל עמלי מאי וזה רב ושמואל חד אמר מקלו וחד אמר גונדו היה מחזר על הפתחים כל היכא דמטא אמר (קהלת א, יב) אני קהלת הייתי מלך על ישראל בירושלים כי מטא גבי סנהדרין אמרו רבנן מכדי שוטה בחדא מילתא לא סריך מאי האי,אמרו ליה לבניהו קא בעי לך מלכא לגביה אמר להו לא שלחו להו למלכוותא קאתי מלכא לגבייכו שלחו להו אין קאתי שלחו להו בידקו בכרעיה שלחו להו במוקי קאתי,וקא תבע להו בנידותייהו וקא תבע לה נמי לבת שבע אימיה אתיוה לשלמה והבו ליה עזקתא ושושילתא דחקוק עליה שם כי עייל חזייה פרח,ואפילו הכי הוה ליה ביעתותא מיניה והיינו דכתיב (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות,רב ושמואל חד אמר מלך והדיוט וחד אמר מלך והדיוט ומלך,לדמא דרישא ליתי שורבינא ובינא ואסא דרא וזיתא וחילפא וחילפי דימא ויבלא ולישלוקינהו בהדי הדדי ולנטול תלת מאה כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא ותלת מאה כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא,ואי לא ליתי ורדא חיורא דקאי בחד דרא ולישלקיה ולינטול שיתין כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא ושיתין כסי אהאי גיסא דרישא,לצליחתא ליתי תרנגולא ברא ולישחטיה בזוזא חיורא אההוא גיסא דכייב ליה ונזדהר מדמיה דלא לסמינהו לעיניה וליתלייה בסיפא דבבא דכי עייל חייף ביה וכי נפיק חייף ביה 68b. and bshe begged himnot to knock down the house. bHe benthis body away bfrom her,to the other side, and bbroke one of his bones. He said: This is as it is written: “Soft speech can break a bone”(Proverbs 25:15).,Ashmedai bsaw a blind man who was lost on the roadand bhe brought him to thecorrect broad. He saw a drunk who was lost on the roadand bhe brought him to thecorrect broad. He saw the joyof a wedding celebration bin which they were celebrating,and bhe cried. He heard a certain man say to a shoemaker [ iushkafa /i]: Make me shoesthat will last bfor seven years,and bhe laughed. He saw a certain sorcerer performing magic,and bhe laughed. /b, bWhenAshmedai barrived there,in Jerusalem, bthey did not bring him before Solomon until three dayshad passed. On bthe first day he said to them: Why doesn’t the king want meto come bto him? They said to him:He drank too much and was bovercomeby bdrink.Ashmedai btook a brickand bplacedit bontop of banotherbrick. The servants bcame and told Solomonwhat he had done. Solomon interpreted the action and bsaid to them: This is what he said to youthrough this allusion: bReturnand bgivethe king more to bdrink. /b, bThe following dayAshmedai bsaid to them: And why doesn’t the king want meto come bto him? They said to him:He ate too much and was bovercomeby bfood.Ashmedai btook the brick off the otherbrick and bplaced it on the ground.The servants bcameand btold Solomonwhat Ashmedai had done. bHeinterpreted Ashmedai’s actions and bsaid to them: This is what he said to youthrough this allusion: bTake his food away from him. /b, bAt the end of three daysAshmedai bcame beforeSolomon. Ashmedai btook a reed and measured four cubits [ igarmidei /i], and threw it before him. He said toSolomon: bSee, when that man,Solomon, bdies, hewill bhave nothing in this world except the four cubitsof his grave. bNow you have conquered the entire world andyet byou are not satisfied until you also conquer me? /b,Solomon bsaid to him: I need nothing from you. I want to build the Temple and I need the ishamir /ifor this. Ashmedai bsaid to him:The ishamir bwas not given to me,but bit was given to theangelic bminister of the sea. And he gives it only to the wild rooster,also known as the idukhifator the hoopoe, bwhom he trusts bythe force of bhis oathto return it., bAnd what doesthe wild rooster bdo with it? He brings it to mountains that are notfit for bhabitation, and he placesthe ishamir bon the craggy rock and the mountain splits. And he takesand bbrings seeds of trees, throws them there, and it becomesfit for bhabitation. And this is why we interpretthe word idukhifatas ba cutter of mountains [ inaggar tura /i],i.e., the Aramaic translation of the word idukhifatin the Bible is inaggar tura /i, cutter of mountains., bThey investigatedand found bthe nest of a wild rooster in which there were chicks, and he covered its nest with translucent glass. Whenthe rooster bcame it wanted to enterthe nest bbut was unableto do so. bIt went and brought the ishamirand placed it on topto crack the glass. Solomon’s servant bthrew a clumpof dirt batthe rooster and the rooster bknocked overthe ishamir /i. The man btook itand the wild rooster bwentand bstrangled itself overthe fact that it had not kept bits oath,by not returning the ishamir /i.,Later, bBenayahu said toAshmedai: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you saw that blind man who was lost on the road you brought him to thecorrect broad?Ashmedai bsaid to him: They proclaim about him in heaven that he is a completely righteous man, and anyone who does good for his soul shall meritto enter bthe World-to-Come. /b,Then Benayahu asked: bAnd what is the reasonthat bwhen you saw the drunk man who was lost on the road you brought him to thecorrect broad?Ashmedai bsaid to him: They proclaim about him in heaven that he is a completely wicked man. And I did good for his soul so that he will consumehis reward in this bworldand not have any reward in the World-to-Come.,Benayahu continued and asked him: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you saw that joyof the wedding byou cried?Ashmedai bsaid to him:I knew that this bman will die within thirty days. Andhis wife bis required to wait for the iyavam /i,the husband’s brother, who is ba minor,to reach the age of bthirteen years,the age of majority, so that he can release her through iḥalitza /i, the ritual through which the iyavamfrees the iyevamaof her levirate bonds.,In addition, he asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you heard that man say to a shoemaker: Make me shoesthat will last bfor seven years, you laughed?Ashmedai bsaid to him: Thatman bdoes not have seven daysto live; bdoes he need shoesthat will last bfor seven years? /b,Benayahu then asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you saw that sorcerer performing magic you laughed?Ashmedai bsaid to him: Because he was sitting on the king’s treasury [ ibei gaza /i]. Let him use his magicto know bwhat there isburied bunderneath him. /b,Solomon bkeptAshmedai bwith him untilhe completed bbuilding the Temple. One day he stoodwith Ashmedai balone. He said toAshmedai: bIt is written: “For him like the lofty horns of the wild ox”(Numbers 24:8), bandthe Sages bsayin explanation of the verse: b“Like the lofty horns”; these are the ministering angels. “The wild ox”; these are the demons.In bwhatway bare you greater than us?Why does the verse praise your abilities and powers over those of human beings?,Ashmedai bsaid to him: Take the chainengraved with God’s name boff me and give me your ringwith God’s name engraved on it, band I will show you my strength.Solomon btook the chain off him and he gave him his ring.Ashmedai bswallowedthe ring and grew until bhe placed one wing in the heaven and one wing on the earth. He threwSolomon a distance of bfour hundred parasangs. With regard to that moment Solomon said: “What profit is there for a person through all of his toil under the sun?”(Ecclesiastes 1:3). With Solomon deposed from the throne, Ashmedai took his place.,With regard to the verse: b“And this was my portion from all of my toil”(Ecclesiastes 2:10), the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: b“And this”?This expression is always an allusion to an item that is actually in his hand or can be shown. bRav and Shmueldisagree with regard to the meaning of this phrase. bOne said:This is referring to Solomon’s bstaffthat remained in his hand. bAnd one said:This is referring to bhis cloak.Solomon bcirculated from door to doorcollecting charity, and bwherever he arrived he would say: “I, Ecclesiastes, was king over Israel in Jerusalem”(Ecclesiastes 1:12). bWhen hefinally barrived at the Sanhedrinin Jerusalem bthe sages said: Now, an imbecile does not fixate on one matterall of the time, so bwhat is thismatter? Is this man perhaps telling the truth that he is Solomon?,The sages bsaid to Benayahu: Does the king require youto be bwith him?Benayahu bsaid to them: No. They sent to the queensand asked: Does bthe king cometo be bwith you?The queens bsenta response bto them: Yes, he comes. They senta request btothe queens: bCheck his feetto see if they are human feet. The queens bsenta response btothe sages: bHealways bcomes in socks [ ibemokei /i],and it is not possible to see his feet.,The queens continued discussing the king’s behavior: bAnd he demandsof bthem,i.e., the queens, to engage in sexual inter-course bwhen they are menstruating. And he also demandsthat bBathsheba his motherengage in sexual intercourse with him. Once the Sanhedrin heard this they understood that this was an imposter and not actually Solomon. bThey brought Solomon, gave him a ring and the chain on which the nameof God bwas carved. WhenSolomon bentered,Ashmedai bsaw himand bfled. /b,The Gemara adds: bAnd even so,although Ashmedai fled, Solomon bwas fearful of him, and this is as it is written: “Behold the bed of Solomon surrounded by sixty strong men from the warriors of Israel. All of them holding swords and trained in war, each man with his sword on his thigh from fear in the nights”(Song of Songs 3:7–8)., bRav and Shmueldisagreed with regard to this story of Solomon. bOne said:He was ba king andafterward he became ba commoner,and never returned to his position as king. bAnd one said:He was ba king, andbecame ba commoner, and a king,as ultimately he returned to his throne and defeated Ashmedai.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion concerning the different remedies with which the chapter began: As a remedy bfora headache caused by excessive bblood in the head, let him bring cypress [ ishurvina /i], willow, fresh myrtle[iasa dara/b], bolive, poplar, sea willow, and cynodongrass band boil them together. And he should pour three hundred cupsof this liquid bon one side of his head and three hundred cups on this,the other bside of his head. /b, bAnd ifit is bnoteffective or he is unable to obtain all of these ingredients then blet him bring a white rose [ ivarda /i] that stands in one row,meaning that it was growing alone, band he should boil it. And he should pour sixty cups on this side ofhis bhead and sixty cups on this side ofhis bhead. /b,As a remedy bfor a migraine, let him bring a wild rooster and slaughter it using a silver dinar,so that the blood flows bover the sideof his head bthat hurts him. And he should be careful of its bloodso bas not to blind his eye. And he should hang it on the doorpostof his house, bso that when he enters he rubs against it and when he exits he rubs against it. /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. had the bleg ofthe letter ihehinthe term: b“The nation [ iha’am /i]”(Exodus 13:3), written in his phylacteries, bsevered by a perforation. He came beforehis son-in-law bRabbi Abbato clarify the ihalakha /i. Rabbi Abba bsaid to him: If there remains inthe leg that is attached to the roof of the letter bthe equivalent of the measure of a small letter,i.e., the letter iyod /i, it is bfit. But if not,it is bunfit. /b,The Gemara relates: bRami bar Tamrei, whowas bthe father-in-law of Rami bar Dikkulei,had the bleg ofthe letter ivavinthe term: b“Andthe Lord bslew [ ivayaharog /i]all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:15), written in his phylacteries, bsevered by a perforation. He came before Rabbi Zeirato clarify the ihalakha /i. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: Go bring a child who is neither wise nor stupid,but of average intelligence; bif he readsthe term as b“Andthe Lord bslew [ ivayaharog /i]”then it is bfit,as despite the perforation the letter is still seen as a ivav /i. But bif not,then it is as though the term bwere: Will be slain [ iyehareg /i],written without the letter ivav /i, bandit is bunfit. /b,§ bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: When Moses ascended on High, he found the Holy One, Blessed be He, sitting and tying crowns on the lettersof the Torah. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who is preventing Youfrom giving the Torah without these additions? God bsaid to him: There is a man who is destined to beborn bafter several generations, and Akiva ben Yosefis bhis name; he is destined to derive from each and every thornof these crowns bmoundsupon bmounds of ihalakhot /i.It is for his sake that the crowns must be added to the letters of the Torah.,Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, show him to me.God bsaid to him: Return behind you.Moses bwent and sat at the end of the eighth rowin Rabbi Akiva’s study hall band did not understand what they were saying.Moses’ bstrength waned,as he thought his Torah knowledge was deficient. bWhenRabbi Akiva barrived atthe discussion of bone matter, his students said to him: My teacher, from where do youderive this? Rabbi Akiva bsaid to them:It is ba ihalakha /itransmitted bto Moses from Sinai.When Moses heard this, bhis mind was put at ease,as this too was part of the Torah that he was to receive.,Moses breturned and came before the Holy One, Blessed be He,and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, You have a manas great bas this andyet bYoustill choose to bgive the Torah through me.Why? God bsaid to him: Be silent; this intention arose before Me.Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, You have shown meRabbi Akiva’s bTorah,now bshow me his reward.God bsaid to him: Returnto where you were. Moses bwent backand bsaw that they were weighingRabbi Akiva’s bflesh in a butcher shop [ ibemakkulin /i],as Rabbi Akiva was tortured to death by the Romans. Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, this is Torah and this is its reward?God bsaid to him: Be silent; this intention arose before Me. /b,§ The Gemara continues its discussion of the crowns on letters of the Torah: bRava says: Seven letters require three crowns [ iziyyunin /i], and they arethe letters ishin /i, iayin /i, itet /i, inun /i, izayin /i; igimmel /iand itzadi /i. Rav Ashi says: I have seen that the exacting scribes of the study hall of Rav would put a hump-like stroke on the roof ofthe letter iḥetand they would suspend theleft bleg ofthe letter iheh /i,i.e., they would ensure that it is not joined to the roof of the letter.,Rava explains: bThey would put a hump-like stroke on the roof ofthe letter iḥetas if tothereby bsay:The Holy One, Blessed be bHe, lives [ iḥai /i] in the heights of the universe. And they would suspend theleft bleg ofthe letter iheh /i, as Rabbi Yehuda Nesia asked Rabbi Ami: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Trust in the Lord forever, for in the Lord [ ibeYah /i] is God, an everlasting [ iolamim /i] Rock”(Isaiah 26:4)? Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: Anyone who puts their trust in the Holy One, Blessed be He,will have Him as bhis refuge in this world and in the World-to-Come.This is alluded to in the word “ iolamim /i,” which can also mean: Worlds.,Rabbi Yehuda Nesia bsaid toRabbi Ami: I was not asking about the literal meaning of the verse; bthis iswhat poses ba difficulty for me: What is differentabout that bwhich is written:“For bin the Lord [ ibeYah /i],” and it is not written:For bthe Lord [ iYah /i]? /b,Rav Ashi responded: It is bas Rabbi Yehuda bar Rabbi Elai taught:The verse “For in the Lord [ ibeYah /i] is God, an everlasting Rock [ iTzur olamim /i]” is understood as follows: The term “ iTzur olamim /i” can also mean Creator of worlds. bTheseletters iyodand ihehthat constitute the word iyahare referring to the btwo worlds that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created; one with [ ibe /i]the letter ihehand one with [ ibe /i]the letter iyod /i. And I do not know whether the World-to-Comewas created bwiththe letter iyodand this worldwas created bwiththe letter iheh /i,or bwhether this worldwas created bwiththe letter iyodand the World-to-Comewas created bwiththe letter iheh /i. /b, bWhenthe verse bstates: “These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created [ ibehibare’am /i]”(Genesis 2:4), bdo not readit as ibehibare’am /i,meaning: When they were created; brather,read it as ibeheh bera’am /i,meaning: He created them with the letter iheh /i. This verse demonstrates that the heaven and the earth, i.e., this world, were created with the letter iheh /i, and therefore the World-to-Come must have been created with the letter iyod /i., bAnd for whatreason bwas this world createdspecifically bwiththe letter iheh /i?It is bbecausethe letter iheh /i, bwhichis open on its bottom, has ba similarappearance bto a portico,which is open on one side. And it alludes to this world, bwhere anyone who wishes to leave may leave,i.e., every person has the ability to choose to do evil. bAnd what is the reasonthat the left bleg ofthe letter iheh bis suspended,i.e., is not joined to the roof of the letter? It is bbecause if one repents, he is broughtback binthrough the opening at the top.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not blet him enter through thatsame way that he left? The Gemara answers: That would bnot be effective,since one requires assistance from Heaven in order to repent, bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish. As Reish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? Concerning one who bcomesin order bto become pure, he is assistedfrom Heaven, as it is written: “But to the humble He gives grace.” Concerning one who bcomes to become impure, he is provided with an openingto do so. The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat the letter iheh bhas a crownon its roof? The Gemara answers: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Ifa sinner breturns,repenting for his sin, bI tiea crown bfor himfrom above.,The Gemara asks: bFor whatreason bwas the World-to-Come createdspecifically bwiththe letter iyod /i,the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet? The Gemara answers: It is bbecause the righteous ofthe world bareso bfew. And for whatreason is the left side of bthe top ofthe letter iyod bbentdownward? It is bbecause the righteous who are inthe World-to-Come bhang their headsin shame, bsince the actions of one are not similar to those of another.In the World-to-Come some of the righteous will be shown to be of greater stature than others.,§ bRav Yosef says: Rav states these two matters with regard to scrolls, andin each case a statement bis taughtin a ibaraitathat constitutes ba refutation of hisruling. bOneis bthat which Rav says: A Torah scroll that contains two errors on each and every column may be corrected,but if there are bthreeerrors on each and every column then it bshall be interred. /b, bAnda statement bis taughtin a ibaraitathat constitutes ba refutation of hisruling: A Torah scroll that contains bthreeerrors on every column bmay be corrected,but if there are bfourerrors on every column then it bshall be interred.A itanna btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIfthe Torah scroll bcontains one complete columnwith no errors, bit saves the entireTorah scroll, and it is permitted to correct the scroll rather than interring it. bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta says in the name of Rav: And thisis the ihalakhaonly bwhen the majority of the scroll is written properlyand is not full of errors., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: If that column contained three errors, whatis the ihalakha /i? Rav Yosef bsaid to him: Sincethe column itself bmay be corrected,it benables the correctionof the entire scroll. The Gemara adds: bAndwith regard to the ihalakhathat a Torah scroll may not be fixed if it is full of errors, bthis statementapplies when letters bare missingand must be added in the space between the lines. bButif there were bextraneousletters, bwe have noproblem bwith it,since they can easily be erased. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat a scroll with letters bmissingmay bnotbe corrected? bRav Kahana said: Because it would look speckledif one adds all of the missing letters in the spaces between the lines.,The Gemara relates: bAgra, the father-in-law of Rabbi Abba, hadmany bextraneousletters bin his scroll. He came before Rabbi Abbato clarify the ihalakha /i. Rabbi Abba bsaid to him: We saidthat one may not correct the scroll bonly ina case where the letters are bmissing. /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107b. בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב (שמואל ב ה, ה) בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו' והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב ש"מ נצטרע,אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך (תהלים פו, יז) עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שונאי ויבושו כי אתה ה' עזרתני ונחמתני א"ל בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך,בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר (תהלים כד, ז) שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה' עזוז וגבור ה' גבור מלחמה ונאמר (תהלים כד, ט) שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד וגו' ולא נענה,כיון שאמר (דברי הימים ב ו, מב) ה' אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקב"ה על אותו העון,גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל א"ר יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,וא"ד רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה [נא] המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) [צר],תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים [ולא כרבי יהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו ליש"ו בשתי ידים],גחזי דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) [ויפרץ] בו ויצר ככרים כסף וגו' ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל,אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא א"ל זיל טבול בירדן א"ל אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד,כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחא עילויה רישיה א"ל רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך עד עולם ויצא מלפניו מצורע כשלג: (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים פתח השער אמר ר' יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו,[הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי יהושע בן פרחיה מאי הוא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל רבי יהושע בן פרחיה ויש"ו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח לי' שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש ליכי אלכסנדרי' של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה,קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה,אתא לקמיה כמה זמנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר יש"ו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל:],תניא א"ר שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת,ת"ר ג' חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו [שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו וגו'],עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנא' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דור המבול אין להם חלק לעוה"ב ואין עומדין בדין שנא' (בראשית ו, ג) לא ידון רוחי באדם לעולם לא דין ולא רוח דור הפלגה אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנאמר (בראשית יא, ח) ויפץ ה' אותם משם על פני כל הארץ (וכתיב ומשם הפיצם) ויפץ ה' אותם בעוה"ז ומשם הפיצם ה' לעולם הבא אנשי סדום אין להם חלק לעולם הבא שנא' (בראשית יג, יג) ואנשי סדום רעים וחטאים לה' מאד רעים בעולם הזה וחטאים לעולם הבא אבל עומדין בדין,ר' נחמיה אומר אלו ואלו אין עומדין בדין שנאמר (תהלים א, ה) על כן לא יקומו 107b. bin Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years”(I Kings 2:11). bAnd it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six monthsand in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II Samuel 5:5). bAnd those six months,the prophet bdid not tallythem as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. bConclude from itthat there were six months that he was not considered king because he bwas afflicted with leprosy. /b,David bsaid before Himafter this: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for this sin.God said to him: bIt is forgiven for you.David requested: b“Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame”(Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God bsaid to him: In your lifetime I will not makeit bknownthat you were forgiven, bbut I will makeit bknown in the lifetime of your son, Solomon. /b,The Gemara explains: bWhen Solomon built the Templeand bsought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies,the bgates clung togetherand could not be opened. Solomon buttered twenty-four songsof praise, bandhis prayer bwas not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle”(Psalms 24:7–8). bAnd it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in.Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), band he was not answered. /b, bOnce he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant”(II Chronicles 6:42), bhe was immediately answered,and the gates opened (II Chronicles 7:1). bAt that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turneddark blike thecharred bbottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin,as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.,§ The mishna states that bGehazi,the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is bas it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus(see II Kings 8:7). bWhere did he go,and for what purpose? bRabbi Yoḥa says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent.Elisha bsaid to him: Repent.Gehazi bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b, bWhat did he dothat caused the masses to sin? bThere arethose bwho saythat bhe hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin,i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that bhe suspended it between heaven and earth,i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. bAnd there arethose bwho say: He engravedthe sacred bnameof God bon its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I amthe Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), band: “You shall not haveother gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before., bAnd there arethose bwho say:Gehazi bpushed the Sagesaway bfromcoming bbefore him,i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, bas it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us”(II Kings 6:1). It may be derived bby inference that until now they were not numerousand the place was not bcrampedfor them, as Gehazi would turn people away., bThe Sages taught: Always have the lefthand bdrivesinners baway and the right drawthem bnear,so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is bunlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two handsand caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, band unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands. /b,Elisha drove bGehaziaway, bas it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silverin two bags, with two changes of garments” (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: b“And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?”(II Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: bAnd didGehazi btake all that? It ismerely bsilver and garments that he took. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says:This was the incident involving Gehazi: bAt that moment, Elisha was sitting and teachingthe ihalakhotof the beightimpure bcreeping animals.Now bNaaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. WhenNaaman bcameto him, Elisha bsaid to him: Go immerse in the Jordan.Naaman bsaid to him: Are you mocking meby suggesting that this will cure me? bThosecompanions bwho were withNaaman bsaid to him: What is the difference to you? Go, tryit. Naaman bwent and immersed in the Jordan and was healed.Naaman bcameand bbrought toElisha ball thoseitems bthat he hadtaken with him from Aram, and Elisha bdid not agree to receivethem bfrom him. Gehazi took leave from before Elishaand bwentand btookfrom Naaman bwhat he took, andhe bdepositedthem., bWhenGehazi bcame, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown onGehazi’s bhead.Elisha bsaid to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to takeyour breward forstudying the matter of bthe eight creeping animals.Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: b“The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow”(II Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: b“And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate”(II Kings 7:3), bRabbi Yoḥa says:These were bGehazi and his three sons,as he and his descendants were cursed.,§ bWhat isthe incident involving bYehoshua ben Peraḥya?The Gemara relates: bWhen King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus,his student, bwent to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peacebetween King Yannai and the Sages, bShimon ben Shataḥ senta message btoYehoshua ben Peraḥya: bFrom me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate.The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.,Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, barose, came, and happenedto arrive at ba certain innon the way to Jerusalem. bThey treated him with great honor.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid: How beautiful is this inn.Jesus, his student, bsaid to him:But bmy teacher, the eyes ofthe innkeeper’s wife bare narrow [ iterutot /i].Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bsaid to him: Wicked one!Do byou involve yourself with regard to thatmatter, the appearance of a married woman? bHe produced four hundred ishofarotand ostracized him. /b,Jesus bcame beforeYehoshua ben Peraḥya bseveral timesand bsaid to him: Accept our,i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya btook no notice of him. One dayYehoshua ben Peraḥya bwas reciting iShema /iand Jesus bcame before himwith the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya bintended to accept hisrequest, and bsignaled him with his handto wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and bthought: He is driving me away. He wentand bstood a brickupright to serve as an idol band he bowed to it.Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then bsaid toJesus: bRepent.Jesus bsaid to him: Thisis the tradition that bI received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incitedJews to engage in idolatry, band led Israel astray.Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:With regard to the evil binclination,to ba child, andto ba woman, have the lefthand bdrivethem baway and the right drawthem bnear.Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness., bThe Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: Oneillness was due to the fact bthat he incited bears toattack and eat bchildren(see II Kings 2:24–25); band onewas due to the fact bthat he pushed Gehazi away with two handsand caused him to despair of atonement; band onewas the illness bfrom which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illnessfrom which he was to die” (II Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.,Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: bUntilthe time of bAbraham there was no aging,and the old and the young looked the same. bAnyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac,and banyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age”(Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. bUntilthe time of bJacob there was no weakness,i.e., illness. Jacob bprayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill”(Genesis 48:1). bUntilthe time of bElisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die”(II Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.,mishna The members of bthe generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgmentat the end of days, bas it is stated: “My soul shall not abide [ iyadon /i] in man forever”(Genesis 6:3); bneitherwill they stand in bjudgment [ idin /i] norshall their bsoulsbe restored to them. The members of bthe generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth”(Genesis 11:8), band it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter themupon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). b“And the Lord scattered them”indicates bin this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly”(Genesis 13:13). b“Wicked”indicates bin this world; “and sinners”indicates bfor the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgmentand they will be sentenced to eternal contempt., bRabbi Neḥemya says:Both bthese,the people of Sodom, band those,the members of the generation of the flood, bwill not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. ככתבו ובמדינה בכינויו במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו בלשון הקודש אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה,תניא אידך כה תברכו בעמידה אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים י, ח) לשרתו ולברך בשמו מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה ומשרת גופיה מנלן דכתיב (דברים יח, ה) לעמוד לשרת,תניא אידך כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים,קשיא ליה לר' יונתן אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים יח, ה) הוא ובניו כל הימים מקיש בניו לו מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים וכתיב כל הימים ואיתקש ברכה לשירות,ותניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי ת"ל (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי שמי המיוחד לי,יכול אף בגבולין כן נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן (דברים יב, ה) לשום את שמו שם מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה,רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (שמות כ, כא) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך בכל מקום ס"ד אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך בבית הבחירה שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה,תניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין ת"ל (במדבר ו, כג) אמור להם לכולהו,תניא אידך כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו,תניא אידך כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו,אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן שנא' אמור להם לשנים ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים שנאמר אמור להם אמירה 38a. bas it is writtenin the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, band in the countrythey use bits substitute nameof Lordship. bIn the country, the priests lift their handsso they are baligned with their shouldersduring the benediction. bAnd in the Templethey lift them babove their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate.Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The mitzva given to the priests: b“So you shall blessthe children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew. Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bin the sacred tongue, orperhaps it may be recited bin any language?The ibaraitaanswers: bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word “bless”: bJust as there,the blessings and curses were recited bin the sacred tongue,as stated above (33a), bso too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bin the sacred tongue. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit sayswith regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“Thus,”which means that it is not recited correctly bunless they recite it in thisexact blanguage,as it is written in the Torah., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means bwhile standing.Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bwhile standing, orperhaps it may bevenbe recited bwhile sitting? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless.” Just as there,the blessing was recited bwhile standing, so too here,the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bwhile standing. /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit saysin the verse: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord bto minister to Him and to bless in His name”(Deuteronomy 10:8). bJust asa priest bperforms theTemple bservice while standing, so too, he blesses while standing.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bhe performs the service itselfwhile standing? bAs it is written: “To stand to ministerin the name of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 18:5)., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means bwith lifted hands.Do byou saythat the priests must recite the benediction bwith lifted hands, orperhaps they may recite it bwithout lifted hands? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22). bJust as there,Aaron blessed the nation bwith lifted hands, so too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bwith lifted hands. /b,This ihalakhawas bdifficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: Ifthis ihalakhais derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: bJust as there,the bHigh Priestwas the one who recited the blessing, bandit was the bNew Moon, andthe offerings that were brought were ba communal service, so too here,the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the bHigh Priest, andon the bNew Moon, andwhen performing ba communal service? /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as bit sayswith regard to Aaron: “To stand to minister in the name of the Lord, bhim and his sons forever”(Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, bhis sons are juxtaposed with him. Just asAaron recited the Priestly Benediction bwith lifted hands, so too, his sonsrecite the benediction bwith lifted hands. Andfurthermore, bit is written “forever,”which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. bAndalthough the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the bbenediction is juxtaposed tothe Temple bservicein another verse: “To minister to Him and to bless in His name” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAnd it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the children of Israel”means the blessing should be recited bwith the ineffable name.Do byou saythat the Priestly Benediction must be recited bwith the ineffable name, orperhaps bit isrecited bwith only the substitute name, iAdonai /i? bThe verse states: “So shall they put My name”(Numbers 6:27), which means bMy name that is unique to Me. /b,One bmighthave thought that beven in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthisineffable name is used. bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So shall they put My name,” and it is stated there,with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: “The place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes bto put His name there”(Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that bjust as there,the expression “to put His name there” is referring to bthe Temple, so too here,the mitzva of “so shall they put My name” applies bin the Templeand not anywhere else., bRabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessaryto derive this ihalakhafrom the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. bIt saysin the verse: b“In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to youand bless you” (Exodus 20:20). Does it benter your mindthat this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed beverywhere? Rather, this versemust be interpreted by btransposition.It must be reordered and read as follows: bIn every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned.Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: bAnd where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple.Therefore, he derives: bThere, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned,but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the sons of Israel”(Numbers 6:23). bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhato bless bthe sons of Israel. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof blessing bconverts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse statesimmediately afterward: b“You shall say to them,”meaning bto all ofthe Jewish people., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bface-to-facewith the congregation. Do byou saythat the Benediction must be recited bface-to-face, orperhaps bit is onlyrecited with the bfacesof the priests bfacing the back of the necksof the congregation? bThe verse states: “You shall say to them,”face-to-face, blike a person who is talking to another. /b, bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means that the benediction must be recited bout loud. Or,perhaps, bis itrecited bonly in a whisper? The verse states: “You shall say to them,” like a person who is talking to another. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionwith regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are btwopriests, bhe calls: Priests, butwhen there is bonepriest bhe does not call: Priest, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”in plural, meaning btoa minimum of btwopriests. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: We have a traditionthat ba priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”which means that the bsaying /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

39b. חמצן עד יום מותו,אמר רבה בר (בר) שילא מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ד) אלהי פלטני מיד רשע מכף מעול וחומץ רבא אמר מהכא (ישעיהו א, יז) למדו היטב דרשו משפט אשרו חמוץ אשרו חמוץ ואל תאשרו חומץ,תנו רבנן אותה שנה שמת בה שמעון הצדיק אמר להם בשנה זו הוא מת אמרו לו מניין אתה יודע אמר להם בכל יום הכפורים היה מזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש לבנים ועטוף לבנים נכנס עמי ויצא עמי והיום נזדמן לי זקן אחד לבוש שחורים ועטוף שחורים נכנס עמי ולא יצא עמי אחר הרגל חלה שבעה ימים ומת,ונמנעו אחיו הכהנים מלברך בשם,ת"ר ארבעים שנה קודם חורבן הבית לא היה גורל עולה בימין ולא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין ולא היה נר מערבי דולק,והיו דלתות ההיכל נפתחות מאליהן עד שגער בהן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר לו היכל היכל מפני מה אתה מבעית עצמך יודע אני בך שסופך עתיד ליחרב וכבר נתנבא עליך זכריה בן עדוא (זכריה יא, א) פתח לבנון דלתיך ותאכל אש בארזיך,אמר רבי יצחק בן טבלאי למה נקרא שמו לבנון שמלבין עונותיהן של ישראל,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה למה נקרא שמו יער דכתיב (מלכים א י, יז) בית יער הלבנון לומר לך מה יער מלבלב אף בית המקדש מלבלב דאמר רב הושעיא בשעה שבנה שלמה בית המקדש נטע בו כל מיני מגדים של זהב והיו מוציאין פירות בזמניהן וכיון שהרוח מנשבת בהן היו נושרין פירותיהן שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו ומהן היתה פרנסה לכהונה,וכיון שנכנסו עובדי כוכבים להיכל יבשו שנאמר (נחום א, ד) ופרח לבנון אומלל ועתיד הקב"ה להחזירה לנו שנאמר (ישעיהו לה, ב) פרוח תפרח ותגל אף גילת ורנן כבוד הלבנון נתן לה,נתנן על שני השעירים תנו רבנן עשר פעמים מזכיר כהן גדול את השם בו ביום ג' בוידוי ראשון ושלשה בוידוי שני ושלשה בשעיר המשתלח ואחד בגורלות,וכבר אמר השם ונשמע קולו ביריחו אמר רבה בר בר חנה מירושלים ליריחו עשרה פרסאות,וציר דלתות ההיכל נשמע בשמונה תחומי שבת עזים שביריחו היו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת נשים שביריחו אינן צריכות להתבשם מריח קטורת כלה שבירושלים אינה צריכה להתקשט מריח קטורת,אמר רבי (יוסי בן דולגאי) עזים היו לאבא בהרי (מכמר) והיו מתעטשות מריח הקטורת אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד פעם אחת הלכתי לשילה והרחתי ריח קטורת מבין כותליה,אמר ר' ינאי עליית גורל מתוך קלפי מעכבת הנחה אינה מעכבת ורבי יוחנן אמר אף עלייה אינה מעכבת,אליבא דרבי יהודה דאמר דברים הנעשין בבגדי לבן מבחוץ לא מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא כי פליגי אליבא דר' נחמיה מ"ד מעכבא כר' נחמיה ומאן דאמר לא מעכבא הני מילי עבודה הגרלה לאו עבודה היא,איכא דאמרי,אליבא דרבי נחמיה דאמר מעכבא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דמעכבא,כי פליגי אליבא דר' יהודה מאן דאמר לא מעכבא כרבי יהודה ומאן דאמר מעכבא שאני הכא דתנא ביה קרא אשר עלה אשר עלה תרי זימני,מיתיבי מצוה להגריל ואם לא הגריל כשר,בשלמא להך לישנא דאמרת אליבא דרבי יהודה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דלא מעכבא הא מני רבי יהודה היא 39b. ba robber [ iḥamtzan /i] until the day of his death. /b, bRabba bar bar Sheila said: What is the versethat indicates that a iḥamtzanis a robber? The verse states: b“O, my God, rescue me out of the hand of wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and robbing man [ iḥometz /i]”(Psalms 71:4). bRava said: From here: “Learn to do well, seek justice, strengthen the robbed [ iḥamotz /i]”(Isaiah 1:17), which teaches that one should bstrengthen the robbed, but not strengthen the robber. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:During bthe year in which Shimon HaTzaddik died, he said to them,his associates: bIn this year, he will die,euphemistically referring to himself. bThey said to him: How do you know? He said to them:In previous years, bon every Yom Kippur,upon entering the Holy of Holies, bI was met,in a prophetic vision, bby an old man who was dressed in white, andhis head was bwrapped up in white,and bhe would enterthe Holy of Holies bwith me, and he would leave with me. But today, I was met by an old man who was dressed in black, andhis head was bwrapped up in black,and bhe enteredthe Holy of Holies bwith me,but bhe did not leave with me.He understood this to be a sign that his death was impending. Indeed, bafter the festivalof iSukkot /i, bhe was ill for seven days and died. /b,Without the presence of Shimon HaTzaddik among them, the Jewish people were no longer worthy of the many miracles that had occurred during his lifetime. For this reason, following his death, bhis brethren, the priests, refrained from blessingthe Jewish people bwith theexplicit bname of Godin the priestly blessing., bThe Sages taught:During the tenure of Shimon HaTzaddik, the lot for God always arose in the High Priest’s right hand; after his death, it occurred only occasionally; but during the bforty years prior to the destruction of theSecond bTemple,the blotfor God bdid not arise in theHigh Priest’s brighthand at all. So too, bthe strip of crimsonwool that was tied to the head of the goat that was sent to Azazel bdid not turn white, and the westernmost lampof the candelabrum bdid not burncontinually., bAnd the doors of the Sanctuary opened by themselvesas a sign that they would soon be opened by enemies, buntil Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai scolded them. He said tothe Sanctuary: bSanctuary, Sanctuary, why do you frighten yourselfwith these signs? bI know about you that you will ultimately be destroyed, and Zechariah, son of Ido, has already prophesied concerning you: “Open your doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour your cedars”(Zechariah 11:1), Lebanon being an appellation for the Temple., bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavlai said: Why isthe Temple bcalled Lebanon [ iLevanon /i]? Because it whitens [ imalbin /i] the Jewish people’s sins,alluded to by the root ilavan /i, meaning white., bRav Zutra bar Toviya said: Why isthe Temple bcalled: Forest, as it is written: “The house of the forest of Lebanon”(I Kings 10:17)? bTo tell you: Just as a forest blooms, so too the Temple blooms. As Rav Hoshaya said: When Solomon built the Temple, he planted in it all kinds of sweet fruittrees made bof gold, andmiraculously these bbrought forth fruit in their season. And when the wind blew upon them, their fruit would fall off, as it is stated: “May his fruits rustle like Lebanon”(Psalms 72:16). bAnd throughselling these golden fruits to the public, bthere was a source of income for the priesthood. /b, bBut once thegentile bnations entered the Sanctuarythe golden trees bwithered, as it states “And the blossoms of Lebanon wither”(Nahum 1:4). bAnd in the futurehour of redemption, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, will restorethem bto us as it is stated: “It shall blossom abundantly, it shall also rejoice and shout, the glory of Lebanon will be given to it”(Isaiah 35:2).,§ The mishna states that after selecting the two lots, the High Priest bplacesthem bupon the two goats.Upon placing the lot for God upon the appropriate goat, he says: For God, as a sin-offering. This is just one of the occasions on which he mentions God’s name, as bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta( iYoma2:2): bThe High Priest mentions the nameof God bten times on that day: Threetimes bduring the first confession; and threetimes bduring the second confession,over the bull; band threetimes when he confesses over bthe scapegoatto Azazel; band onetime bwith the lots,when placing the lot for God upon the goat., bAnd there alreadywas an incident when the High Priest bsaid the nameof God and bhis voicewas so strong that it bwas heardeven bin Jericho. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said:The distance bfrom Jerusalem to Jericho is ten parasangs.Despite the great distance, his voice was miraculously heard there.,The Gemara describes similar miracles in which events in the Temple were sensed a great distance away. bAndthe sound of bthe doors of the Sanctuaryopening bwas heardfrom a distance of beight Shabbat limits,which is eight imil /i. Furthermore, bgoats that were in Jericho would sneeze fromsmelling bthe fragrance of the incensethat burned in the Temple; the bwomen that were in Jericho did not need to perfume themselves,since they were perfumed by the bfragranceof the bincense,which reached there; ba bride that was in Jerusalem did not need to adorn herselfwith perfumes, since she was perfumed by the bfragranceof the bincense,which filled the air of Jerusalem., bRabbi Yosei ben Dolgai said: Father had goats in the hills of Mikhmar,a district some distance from Jerusalem, band they would sneeze fromsmelling bthe fragrance of the incense.Similarly, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: An old man reported to me: One time I went tothe ruins of the Tabernacle in bShiloh, and I smelled the smell of the incense from between its walls.The Tabernacle stood there during the period of the Judges, and more than a thousand years had passed since its destruction.,§ bRabbi Yannai said:The bdrawing of the lot from inside the receptacle is an indispensablepart of the service, as it determines which goat will be for God and which for Azazel. However, the actual bplacingof the lots upon the goats bis not indispensable. And Rabbi Yoḥa said: Eventhe bdrawing of the lotsfrom inside the receptacle bis not indispensable,since the High Priest may designate the goats himself, without employing the lottery.,The Gemara explains the dispute: bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidthat bmatters that are performed inthe bwhite garments outsideof the Holy of Holies bare not indispensable, everyone agrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensable,since it is held outside the Holy of Holies. bWhen they disagree, it is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya.He holds that all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are indispensable. bThe one who saidthe drawing of the lots bis indispensableholds bin accordance withthe straightforward application of the principle of bRabbi Neḥemya. And the one who saidthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensableclaims that bthisprinciple bappliesonly with regard btomatters that are classified as a Temple bservice.The bdrawing of the lots is nota Temple bservice,therefore it is indispensable, even according to Rabbi Neḥemya’s principle., bSome saya different version of the dispute:, bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya, who saidthat all matters performed in the white garments, even those performed outside the Holy of Holies, are bindispensable, everyone agrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis indispensable. /b, bWhen they disagree, it is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that matters that are performed in the white garments outside of the Holy of Holies are not indispensable. bThe one who saidthat the drawing of the lots bis not indispensableholds bin accordance withthe straightforward application of the principle of bRabbi Yehuda. And the one who saidthat the drawing of the lots bis indispensableclaims that although Rabbi Yehuda’s principle is generally true, bit is different here,in the case of the lottery, bbecause the verse repeatedthe phrase b“which came up”(Leviticus 16:9) b“which came up”(Leviticus 16:10) btwo times.In the laws of sacrifices, a repeated phrase indicates the matter is indispensable.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraita /i: bIt is a mitzva to drawthe lots, band ifthe High Priest bdid not draw the lotsbut instead designated the goats without using the lots, the designation bis valid. /b,The Gemara considers the opinion presented in the ibaraita /i: bGranted, according to thatfirst bversionof the dispute, bin which you said: In accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda everyone,i.e., Rabbi Yannai and Rabbi Yoḥa, bagrees thatthe drawing of the lots bis not indispensable,in accordance with bwhoseopinion bis this ibaraitataught? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,according to all opinions.
18. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 91.8 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

19. Marinus, Vita Proclus, 22 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20. Anon., 3 Enoch, 12.5

21. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.2

1.2. An additional meaning: \"See a man diligent in his work, before kings he will stand, he will not stand before mean men.\" That is Moses, our teacher, regarding the work of the Tabernacle. Therefore, before kings he will stand, this is Pharaoh, as it says, \"Hurriedly awaken in the morning and stand before Pharaoh (Exodus 8).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", this is Jethro. Rabbi Nehemiah said: \"You have made that which is holy, profane!\" Rather, \"Before kings he will stand\", that is King, the King of Kings, the Holy One Blessed Be He. As it is said, \"And he (Moses) was there with the Lord, for 40 days (Exodus 34).\" \"He will not stand before mean men\", that is Pharaoh, as it says: \"And there was dark darkness, etc. (Exodus 10).\""
22. Anon., Prayer of Manasseh, 3, 2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexandria Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
angel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
ascent Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
book of creation, translations of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
book of creation Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
creation, building blocks of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
creator, creation Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68, 72
dan, j. Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
divine identity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68, 72
divine name Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68, 72
divine names, creative power of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28
divine names, destruction of world with Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28
divine names, power of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
divine names, rabbinic interpretation of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28
divine names, taken away after golden calf Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28
grünbaum, m. Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28
heaven Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68, 72
hebrew Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
image of god Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
immortality Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
law, laws Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
letters, hebrew Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
letters Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68
metatron Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
mysticism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68, 72
philosophy Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
platonism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
pragmatics, of letters Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
pragmatics Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
rabbis Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
revelation, of marcus Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
shem ha-meforash Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 28
sounds' Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 54
sun Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68
throne Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 68
vision Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
yahoel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72
yahweh, yhwh Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 72