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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.2


nancolouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they


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1. Septuagint, Genesis, 7.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.8, 8.2-8.3, 12.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.8. because she had been given to seven husbands, and the evil demon Asmodeus had slain each of them before he had been with her as his wife. So the maids said to her, "Do you not know that you strangle your husbands? You already have had seven and have had no benefit from any of them. 8.2. As he went he remembered the words of Raphael, and he took the live ashes of incense and put the heart and liver of the fish upon them and made a smoke. 8.3. And when the demon smelled the odor he fled to the remotest parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
3. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
4. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 18.9-18.14, 22.5, 24.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.9. כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃ 18.11. וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃ 18.12. כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 18.13. תָּמִים תִּהְיֶה עִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 18.14. כִּי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתָם אֶל־מְעֹנְנִים וְאֶל־קֹסְמִים יִשְׁמָעוּ וְאַתָּה לֹא כֵן נָתַן לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 22.5. לֹא־יִהְיֶה כְלִי־גֶבֶר עַל־אִשָּׁה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 18.9. When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations." 18.10. There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer," 18.11. or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer." 18.12. For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee." 18.13. Thou shalt be whole-hearted with the LORD thy God." 18.14. For these nations, that thou art to dispossess, hearken unto soothsayers, and unto diviners; but as for thee, the LORD thy God hath not suffered thee so to do." 22.5. A woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment; for whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD thy God." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house,"
5. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה צַעֲקַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָה אֵלָי וְגַם־רָאִיתִי אֶת־הַלַּחַץ אֲשֶׁר מִצְרַיִם לֹחֲצִים אֹתָם׃ 3.9. And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto Me; moreover I have seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.29, 4.22-4.24, 5.21-5.25, 6.1-6.7, 6.9, 6.11-6.12, 6.19, 7.1, 7.7, 7.18, 18.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.29. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כָּל־עֵשֶׂב זֹרֵעַ זֶרַע אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ פְרִי־עֵץ זֹרֵעַ זָרַע לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה׃ 4.22. וְצִלָּה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה אֶת־תּוּבַל קַיִן לֹטֵשׁ כָּל־חֹרֵשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל וַאֲחוֹת תּוּבַל־קַיִן נַעֲמָה׃ 4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃ 4.24. כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃ 5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 5.25. וַיְחִי מְתוּשֶׁלַח שֶׁבַע וּשְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 6.11. וַתִּשָּׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ חָמָס׃ 6.12. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.19. וּמִכָּל־הָחַי מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה יִהְיוּ׃ 7.1. וַיְהִי לְשִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים וּמֵי הַמַּבּוּל הָיוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 7.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לְנֹחַ בֹּא־אַתָּה וְכָל־בֵּיתְךָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה כִּי־אֹתְךָ רָאִיתִי צַדִּיק לְפָנַי בַּדּוֹר הַזֶּה׃ 7.7. וַיָּבֹא נֹחַ וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנָיו אִתּוֹ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה מִפְּנֵי מֵי הַמַּבּוּל׃ 7.18. וַיִּגְבְּרוּ הַמַּיִם וַיִּרְבּוּ מְאֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַתֵּלֶךְ הַתֵּבָה עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 18.21. אֵרֲדָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה הַכְּצַעֲקָתָהּ הַבָּאָה אֵלַי עָשׂוּ כָּלָה וְאִם־לֹא אֵדָעָה׃ 1.29. And God said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed—to you it shall be for food;" 4.22. And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah." 4.23. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;" 4.24. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold." 5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah." 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 5.25. And Methuselah lived a hundred eighty and seven years, and begot Lamech." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 6.11. And the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence." 6.12. And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. ." 6.19. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female." 7.1. And the LORD said unto Noah: ‘Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before Me in this generation." 7.7. And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him, into the ark, before the waters of the flood." 7.18. And the waters prevailed, and increased greatly upon the earth; and the ark went upon the face of the waters." 18.21. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto Me; and if not, I will know.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. הֵם הִמְלִיכוּ וְלֹא מִמֶּנִּי הֵשִׂירוּ וְלֹא יָדָעְתִּי כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֲצַבִּים לְמַעַן יִכָּרֵת׃ 8.4. They have set up kings, but not from Me, they have made princes, and I knew it not; of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off."
8. Hebrew Bible, Job, 28.12-28.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.12. וְהַחָכְמָה מֵאַיִן תִּמָּצֵא וְאֵי זֶה מְקוֹם בִּינָה׃ 28.13. לֹא־יָדַע אֱנוֹשׁ עֶרְכָּהּ וְלֹא תִמָּצֵא בְּאֶרֶץ הַחַיִּים׃ 28.14. תְּהוֹם אָמַר לֹא בִי־הִיא וְיָם אָמַר אֵין עִמָּדִי׃ 28.15. לֹא־יֻתַּן סְגוֹר תַּחְתֶּיהָ וְלֹא יִשָּׁקֵל כֶּסֶף מְחִירָהּ׃ 28.16. לֹא־תְסֻלֶּה בְּכֶתֶם אוֹפִיר בְּשֹׁהַם יָקָר וְסַפִּיר׃ 28.17. לֹא־יַעַרְכֶנָּה זָהָב וּזְכוֹכִית וּתְמוּרָתָהּ כְּלִי־פָז׃ 28.18. רָאמוֹת וְגָבִישׁ לֹא יִזָּכֵר וּמֶשֶׁךְ חָכְמָה מִפְּנִינִים׃ 28.19. לֹא־יַעַרְכֶנָּה פִּטְדַת־כּוּשׁ בְּכֶתֶם טָהוֹר לֹא תְסֻלֶּה׃ 28.12. But wisdom, where shall it be found? And where is the place of understanding?" 28.13. Man knoweth not the price thereof; Neither is it found in the land of the living." 28.14. The deep saith: ‘It is not in me’; And the sea saith: ‘It is not with me.’" 28.15. It cannot be gotten for gold, Neither shall silver be weighed for the price thereof." 28.16. It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir, With the precious onyx, or the sapphire." 28.17. Gold and glass cannot equal it; Neither shall the exchange thereof be vessels of fine gold." 28.18. No mention shall be made of coral or of crystal; Yea, the price of wisdom is above rubies." 28.19. The topaz of Ethiopia shall not equal it, Neither shall it be valued with pure gold."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.10-8.11, 16.16, 20.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.11. כִּי־טוֹבָה חָכְמָה מִפְּנִינִים וְכָל־חֲפָצִים לֹא יִשְׁווּ־בָהּ׃ 16.16. קְנֹה־חָכְמָה מַה־טּוֹב מֵחָרוּץ וּקְנוֹת בִּינָה נִבְחָר מִכָּסֶף׃ 20.15. יֵשׁ זָהָב וְרָב־פְּנִינִים וּכְלִי יְקָר שִׂפְתֵי־דָעַת׃ 8.10. Receive my instruction, and not silver, And knowledge rather than choice gold." 8.11. For wisdom is better than rubies, And all things desirable are not to be compared unto her." 16.16. How much better is it to get wisdom than gold! Yea, to get understanding is rather to be chosen than silver." 20.15. There is gold, and a multitude of rubies; but the lips of knowledge are a precious jewel."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 110.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 9.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.16. כָּעֵת מָחָר אֶשְׁלַח אֵלֶיךָ אִישׁ מֵאֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן וּמְשַׁחְתּוֹ לְנָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־עַמִּי מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי רָאִיתִי אֶת־עַמִּי כִּי בָּאָה צַעֲקָתוֹ אֵלָי׃ 9.16. To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Binyamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be a prince over my people Yisra᾽el, that he may save my people out of the hand of the Pelishtim: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come to me."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.20, 3.16-3.21, 31.7, 35.1-35.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יַעַן כִּי גָבְהוּ בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן וַתֵּלַכְנָה נטוות [נְטוּיוֹת] גָּרוֹן וּמְשַׂקְּרוֹת עֵינָיִם הָלוֹךְ וְטָפֹף תֵּלַכְנָה וּבְרַגְלֵיהֶם תְּעַכַּסְנָה׃ 3.17. וְשִׂפַּח אֲדֹנָי קָדְקֹד בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן וַיהוָה פָּתְהֵן יְעָרֶה׃ 3.18. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יָסִיר אֲדֹנָי אֵת תִּפְאֶרֶת הָעֲכָסִים וְהַשְּׁבִיסִים וְהַשַּׂהֲרֹנִים׃ 3.19. הַנְּטִיפוֹת וְהַשֵּׁירוֹת וְהָרְעָלוֹת׃ 3.21. הַטַּבָּעוֹת וְנִזְמֵי הָאָף׃ 31.7. כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִמְאָסוּן אִישׁ אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וֶאֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לָכֶם יְדֵיכֶם חֵטְא׃ 35.1. וּפְדוּיֵי יְהוָה יְשֻׁבוּן וּבָאוּ צִיּוֹן בְּרִנָּה וְשִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם עַל־רֹאשָׁם שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּ וְנָסוּ יָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה׃ 35.1. יְשֻׂשׂוּם מִדְבָּר וְצִיָּה וְתָגֵל עֲרָבָה וְתִפְרַח כַּחֲבַצָּלֶת׃ 35.2. פָּרֹחַ תִּפְרַח וְתָגֵל אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן נִתַּן־לָהּ הֲדַר הַכַּרְמֶל וְהַשָּׁרוֹן הֵמָּה יִרְאוּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָה הֲדַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 35.3. חַזְּקוּ יָדַיִם רָפוֹת וּבִרְכַּיִם כֹּשְׁלוֹת אַמֵּצוּ׃ 35.4. אִמְרוּ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵב חִזְקוּ אַל־תִּירָאוּ הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נָקָם יָבוֹא גְּמוּל אֱלֹהִים הוּא יָבוֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶם׃ 35.5. אָז תִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי עִוְרִים וְאָזְנֵי חֵרְשִׁים תִּפָּתַחְנָה׃ 35.6. אָז יְדַלֵּג כָּאַיָּל פִּסֵּחַ וְתָרֹן לְשׁוֹן אִלֵּם כִּי־נִבְקְעוּ בַמִּדְבָּר מַיִם וּנְחָלִים בָּעֲרָבָה׃ 35.7. וְהָיָה הַשָּׁרָב לַאֲגַם וְצִמָּאוֹן לְמַבּוּעֵי מָיִם בִּנְוֵה תַנִּים רִבְצָהּ חָצִיר לְקָנֶה וָגֹמֶא׃ 35.8. וְהָיָה־שָׁם מַסְלוּל וָדֶרֶךְ וְדֶרֶךְ הַקֹּדֶשׁ יִקָּרֵא לָהּ לֹא־יַעַבְרֶנּוּ טָמֵא וְהוּא־לָמוֹ הֹלֵךְ דֶּרֶךְ וֶאֱוִילִים לֹא יִתְעוּ׃ 35.9. לֹא־יִהְיֶה שָׁם אַרְיֵה וּפְרִיץ חַיּוֹת בַּל־יַעֲלֶנָּה לֹא תִמָּצֵא שָׁם וְהָלְכוּ גְּאוּלִים׃ 2.20. In that day a man shall cast away His idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which they made for themselves to worship, To the moles and to the bats;" 3.16. Moreover the LORD said: Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, And walk with stretched-forth necks And wanton eyes, Walking and mincing as they go, And making a tinkling with their feet;" 3.17. Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab The crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, And the LORD will lay bare their secret parts." 3.18. In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of their anklets, and the fillets, and the crescents;" 3.19. the pendants, and the bracelets, and the veils;" 3.20. the headtires, and the armlets, and the sashes, and the corselets, and the amulets;" 3.21. the rings, and the nose-jewels;" 31.7. For in that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which your own hands have made unto you for a sin." 35.1. The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad; And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose." 35.2. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice, Even with joy and singing; The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, The excellency of Carmel and Sharon; They shall see the glory of the LORD, The excellency of our God." 35.3. Strengthen ye the weak hands, And make firm the tottering knees." 35.4. Say to them that are of a fearful heart: ‘Be strong, fear not’; Behold, your God will come with vengeance, With the recompense of God He will come and save you." 35.5. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped." 35.6. Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, And the tongue of the dumb shall sing; For in the wilderness shall waters break out, And streams in the desert." 35.7. And the parched land shall become a pool, And the thirsty ground springs of water; In the habitation of jackals herds shall lie down, It shall be an enclosure for reeds and rushes." 35.8. And a highway shall be there, and a way, And it shall be called The way of holiness; The unclean shall not pass over it; but it shall be for those; The wayfaring men, yea fools, shall not err therein." 35.9. No lion shall be there, Nor shall any ravenous beast go up thereon, They shall not be found there; But the redeemed shall walk there;" 35.10. And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come with singing unto Zion, And everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; They shall obtain gladness and joy, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not."
14. Hesiod, Works And Days, 110-201, 109 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

109. Filling both land and sea, while every day
15. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 485-500, 484 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

484. τρόπους τε πολλοὺς μαντικῆς ἐστοίχισα
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 7.19, 23.40 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.19. כַּסְפָּם בַּחוּצוֹת יַשְׁלִיכוּ וּזְהָבָם לְנִדָּה יִהְיֶה כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם לֹא־יוּכַל לְהַצִּילָם בְּיוֹם עֶבְרַת יְהוָה נַפְשָׁם לֹא יְשַׂבֵּעוּ וּמֵעֵיהֶם לֹא יְמַלֵּאוּ כִּי־מִכְשׁוֹל עֲוֺנָם הָיָה׃ 7.19. They shall cast their silver in the streets, and their gold shall be as an unclean thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the LORD; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels; because it hath been the stumblingblock of their iniquity." 23.40. And furthermore ye have sent for men that come from far; unto whom a messenger was sent, and, lo, they came; for whom thou didst wash thyself, paint thine eyes, and deck thyself with ornaments;"
17. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 8.18-8.23 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.19. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת צוֹם הָרְבִיעִי וְצוֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי וְצוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְצוֹם הָעֲשִׂירִי יִהְיֶה לְבֵית־יְהוּדָה לְשָׂשׂוֹן וּלְשִׂמְחָה וּלְמֹעֲדִים טוֹבִים וְהָאֱמֶת וְהַשָּׁלוֹם אֱהָבוּ׃ 8.21. וְהָלְכוּ יֹשְׁבֵי אַחַת אֶל־אַחַת לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה הָלוֹךְ לְחַלּוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֵלְכָה גַּם־אָנִי׃ 8.22. וּבָאוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְגוֹיִם עֲצוּמִים לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וּלְחַלּוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה׃ 8.23. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה אֲשֶׁר יַחֲזִיקוּ עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִכֹּל לְשֹׁנוֹת הַגּוֹיִם וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ בִּכְנַף אִישׁ יְהוּדִי לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה עִמָּכֶם כִּי שָׁמַעְנוּ אֱלֹהִים עִמָּכֶם׃ 8.19. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful seasons; therefore love ye truth and peace." 8.20. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: It shall yet come to pass, that there shall come peoples, and the inhabitants of many cities;" 8.21. and the inhabitants of one city shall go to another, saying: Let us go speedily to entreat the favour of the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts; I will go also." 8.22. Yea, many peoples and mighty nations shall come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the favour of the LORD." 8.23. Thus saith the LORD of hosts: In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, shall even take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying: We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.’"
18. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.8, 8.2-8.3, 12.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.8. because she had been given to seven husbands, and the evil demon Asmodeus had slain each of them before he had been with her as his wife. So the maids said to her, "Do you not know that you strangle your husbands? You already have had seven and have had no benefit from any of them. 8.2. As he went he remembered the words of Raphael, and he took the live ashes of incense and put the heart and liver of the fish upon them and made a smoke. 8.3. And when the demon smelled the odor he fled to the remotest parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
19. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 8, 8.1, 8.3, 8.4, 8.4-9.11, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 9, 9.1, 9.3, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 11, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.6, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 14, 14.3, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 15, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8-16.1, 16, 16.3, 17, 18, 19, 19.1, 19.2, 20, 21, 22, 22.9, 23, 24, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 25, 25.1, 25.6, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 30.1, 30.2, 30.3, 31, 31.1, 31.2, 32, 32.1, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40.7, 52.7, 53.2, 54.6, 63.2, 63.5, 63.6, 63.7, 63.10, 64.2, 65.6, 65.7, 65.11, 81.1, 81.2, 81.5, 86.1, 86.2, 86.3, 88.1, 88.2, 88.3, 91.11, 91.12, 91.13, 91.14, 91.15, 91.16, 91.17, 93.1, 93.2, 93.3, 93.4, 93.5, 93.6, 93.7, 93.8, 93.9, 93.10, 94.6, 94.7, 94.8, 94.9, 94.10, 95.4, 95.5, 95.6, 95.7, 96.4, 96.5, 96.6, 96.7, 96.8, 97.3, 97.4, 97.5, 97.6, 97.7, 97.8, 97.9, 97.10, 98.2, 98.3, 99.6, 99.7, 99.11, 99.12, 99.13, 99.14, 99.15, 99.16, 100.6, 100.7, 100.8, 100.9, 102.9, 103.1, 103.2, 103.5, 103.6, 103.7, 103.8, 104.7, 104.8, 104.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
20. Anon., Jubilees, 4.15, 4.18, 4.22, 5.2-5.3, 5.20-5.32, 6.36-6.37, 7.20-7.21, 8.3-8.4, 10.1, 10.12-10.14, 12.16-12.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.22. and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months. 5.2. that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 5.3. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walketh on the earth 5.20. and all their judgments are ordained and written and engraved. 5.21. In regard to all He will judge, the great according to his greatness, and the small according to his smallness, and each according to his way. 5.22. And He is not one who will regard the person (of any), nor is He one who will receive gifts, if He saith that He will execute judgment on each: 5.23. if one gave everything that is on the earth, He will not regard the gifts or the person (of any), nor accept anything at his hands, for He is a righteous judge. 5.24. [And of the children of Israel it hath been written and ordained: If they turn to Him in righteousness, He will forgive all their transgressions and pardon all their sins. 5.25. It is written and ordained that He will show mercy to all who turn from all their guilt once each year.] 5.26. And as for all those who corrupted their ways and their thoughts before the flood, no man's person was accepted save that of Noah alone; for his person was accepted in behalf of his sons, whom (God) saved from the waters of the flood on his account; 5.27. for his heart was righteous in all his ways, according as it was commanded regarding him, and he had not departed from aught that was ordained for him. 5.28. And the Lord said that He would destroy everything which was upon the earth, both men and cattle, and beasts, and fowls of the air, and that which moveth on the earth. 5.29. And He commanded Noah to make him an ark, that he might save himself from the waters of the flood. 5.30. And Noah made the ark in all respects as He commanded him, in the twenty-seventh jubilee of years, in the fifth week in the fifth year (on the new moon of the first month). 5.31. And he entered in the sixth (year) thereof, in the second month, on the new moon of the second month 5.32. till the sixteenth; and he entered, and all that we brought to him, into the ark, and the Lord closed it from without on the seventeenth evening. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram. 8.3. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 8.4. And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.14. And He said: "Let the tenth part of them remain before him, and let nine parts descend into the place of condemnation. 12.16. and Abram, dwelt with Terah his father in Haran two weeks of years. 12.17. And in the sixth week, in the fifth year thereof, Abram sat up throughout the night on the new moon of the seventh month to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, in order to see what would be the character of the year with regard to the rains 12.18. and he was alone as he sat and observed. brAnd a word came into his heart and he said: "All the signs of the stars, and the signs of the moon and of the sun are all in the hand of the Lord. 12.19. Why do I search (them) out? If He desireth, He causeth it to rain, morning and evening; And if He desireth, He withholdeth it, And all things are in His hand. 12.20. And he prayed that night and said "My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God, And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. And Thou hast created all things, And all things that are are the work of Thy hands.
21. Anon., Testament of Asher, 3.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. But from wickedness flee away, destroying the (evil) inclination by your good works; for they that are double-faced serve not God, but their own lusts, so that they may please Beliar and men like unto themselves.
22. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.1, 5.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. Observe, therefore, my children, the commandments of the Lord, And keep His law; Depart from wrath, And hate lying, That the Lord may dwell among you, And Beliar may flee from you.
23. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.4. If ye work that which is good, my children, Both men and angels shall bless you; And God shall be glorified among the Gentiles through you, And the devil shall flee from you, And the wild beasts shall fear you, And the Lord shall love you, [And the angels shall cleave to you].
24. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 3.2-3.6, 5.5-5.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. With these spirits are mingled the spirits of error. 3.3. [First, the spirit of fornication is seated in the nature and in the senses; the second, the spirit of insatiableness, in the belly; the third, the spirit of fighting, in the liver and gall. 3.4. The fourth is the spirit of obsequiousness and chicanery, that through officious attention one may be fair in seeming. 3.5. The fifth is the spirit of pride, that one may be boastful and arrogant. The sixth is the spirit of lying, in perdition and jealousy to practise deceits, and concealments from kindred and friends. 3.6. The seventh is the spirit of injustice, with which are thefts and acts of rapacity, that a man may fulfill the desire of his heart; for injustice worketh together with the other spirits by the taking of gifts. 5.5. my children, and command your wives and your daughters, that they adorn not their heads and faces to deceive the mind: because every woman who useth these wiles hath been reserved for eternal punishment. 5.6. For thus they allured the Watchers who were before the flood; for as these continually beheld them, they lusted after them, and they conceived the act in their mind; for they changed themselves into the shape of men, and appeared to them when they were with their husbands.
25. Anon., Testament of Simeon, 2.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.7. And I set my mind against him to destroy him, because the prince of deceit sent forth the spirit of jealousy and blinded my mind, so that I regarded him not as a brother, nor did I spare even Jacob my father.
26. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 5.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 9.14-9.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Aramaic Levi Document, 13.4-13.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 5.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Testament of Naphtali, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9-7.10, 8.16, 12.1, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
33. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.
34. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.175-3.190 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea 3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian. 3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son 3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife 3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth 3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain 3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed 3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds. 3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard 3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused. 3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war 3.186. Among all mortals. [For it is indeed 3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.] 3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose
35. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 5.64.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.64.4.  But some historians, and Ephorus is one of them, record that the Idaean Dactyli were in fact born on the Mt. Idê which is in Phrygia and passed over to Europe together with Mygdon; and since they were wizards, they practised charms and initiatory rites and mysteries and in the course of a sojourn in Samothrace they amazed the natives of that island not a little by their skill in such matters. And it was at this time, we are further told, that Orpheus, who was endowed with an exceptional gift of poesy and song, also became a pupil of theirs, and he was subsequently the first to introduce initiatory rites and mysteries to the Greeks.
36. Strabo, Geography, 16.4.19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.4.19. The country of the Sabaei, a very populous nation, is contiguous, and is the most fertile of all, producing myrrh, frankincense, and cinnamon. On the coast is found balsamum and another kind of herb of a very fragrant smell, but which is soon dissipated. There are also sweet-smelling palms and the calamus. There are snakes also of a dark red colour, a span in length, which spring up as high as a man's waist, and whose bite is incurable.On account of the abundance which the soil produces, the people are lazy and indolent in their mode of life. The lower class of people live on roots, and sleep on the trees.The people who live near each other receive, in continued succession, the loads [of perfumes] and deliver them to others, who convey them as far as Syria and Mesopotamia. When the carriers become drowsy by the odour of the aromatics, the drowsiness is removed by the fumes of asphaltus and of goat's beard.Mariaba, the capital of the Sabaeans, is situated upon a mountain, well wooded. A king resides there, who determines absolutely all disputes and other matters ; but he is forbidden to leave his palace, or if he does so, the rabble immediately assail him with stones, according to the direction of an oracle. He himself, and those about his person, pass their lives in effeminate voluptuousness.The people cultivate the ground, or follow the trade of dealing in aromatics, both the indigenous sort and those brought from Ethiopia; in order to procure them, they sail through the straits in vessels covered with skins. There is such an abundance of these aromatics, that cinnamon, cassia, and other spices are used by them instead of sticks and firewood.In the country of the Sabaeans is found the larimnum, a most fragrant perfume.By the trade [in these aromatics] both the Sabaeans and the Gerrhaei have become the richest of all the tribes, and possess a great quantity of wrought articles in gold and silver, as couches, tripods, basins, drinking-vessels, to which we must add the costly magnificence of their houses; for the doors, walls, and roofs are variegated with inlaid ivory, gold, silver, and precious stones.This is the account of Artemidorus. The rest of the description is partly similar to that of Eratosthenes, and partly derived from other historians.
37. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.3-29.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 29.3, 29.5-29.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

39. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.261 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.261. 3. He also ordered that those whose bodies were afflicted with leprosy, and that had a gonorrhea, should not come into the city; nay, he removed the women, when they had their natural purgations, till the seventh day; after which he looked on them as pure, and permitted them to come in again.
40. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.142 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves.
41. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Mishnah, Niddah, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. All bloodstains, wherever they are found are clean except those that are found in rooms or in a house for unclean women. A house for unclean Samaritan women conveys uncleanness by overshadowing because they bury miscarriages there. Rabbi Judah says: they did not bury them but threw them away and the wild beasts dragged them off."
43. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
44. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.1-3.3, 3.6, 3.22, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. In like manner, wives, be in subjection to your own husbands; so that, even if any don't obey the Word, they may be won by the behavior of their wives without a word; 3.2. seeing your pure behavior in fear. 3.3. Let your beauty be not just the outward adorning of braiding the hair, and of wearing jewels of gold, or of putting on fine clothing; 3.6. as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord, whose children you now are, if you do well, and are not put in fear by any terror. 3.22. who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, angels and authorities and powers being made subject to him. 4.6. For to this end was the gospel preached even to the dead, that they might be judged indeed as men in the flesh, but live as to God in the spirit.
45. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.23, 8.4, 11.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks 8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels.
46. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. For you remember, brothers, our labor and travail; for working night and day, that we might not burden any of you, we preached to you the gospel of God.
47. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Without controversy, the mystery of godliness is great: God was revealed in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, And received up in glory.
48. New Testament, Acts, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky.
49. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.10, 2.1, 4.2, 18.4, 22.18-22.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet 2.1. To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands says these things: 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 18.4. I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come forth, my people, out of her, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don't receive of her plagues 22.18. I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book, if anyone adds to them, may God add to him the plagues which are written in this book. 22.19. If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book.
50. New Testament, Galatians, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain.
51. New Testament, Luke, 8.1, 10.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.1. It happened soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good news of the Kingdom of God. With him were the twelve 10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.
52. New Testament, Matthew, 4.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.23. Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people.
53. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

55. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 34.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.8. וְכָל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּךָ וגו' (בראשית ח, יז), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן הַוְצֵא כְּתִיב הַיְצֵא קְרִי. וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. וּפָרוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. (בראשית ח, יט): כָּל הַחַיָּה [ו] כָל הָרֶמֶשׂ וגו', כֹּל רוֹמֵשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ רוֹמֵשׂ מָלֵא פְּרַט לְכִלְאָיִם. לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם, פְּרַט לְסִירוּס. עַל שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, וְעַל הַדִּין, וְעַל הַגָּזֵל, וְעַל אֵבָר מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַדָּם מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכְּשָׁפִים. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַסֵּרוּס. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי עַל כָּל הָאָמוּר בַּפָּרָשָׁה נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ (דברים יח, י): לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (דברים יח, יב): כִּי תוֹעֲבַת ה' כָּל עוֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה. 34.8. Bring forth (hayetze) with you every living thing that is with you…that they may swarm in the earth (Gen. 8:18). R. Yudan said: havtze is written, but it is read hayetze: that they may swarm in the earth - but not in the Ark. And be fruitful and multiply upon the earth - but not in the Ark. 'Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever moves (kol romes) upon the earth (Gen 8:19). R. Aivu said: Kol romes is written fully [with a vav] - it excludes kilayim [mixing species]. After their families: this excludes emasculation. The children of Noah were enjoined concerning seven tings: Idolatry, incest, murder, cursing the Divine Name [blasphemy], civil law, and a limb torn from a living animal. Rabbi Chanina ben Gamliel says: also concerning blood from a living animal. Rabbi Eleazar says: also against mixing species. Rabbi Shime'on ben Yochai says: also against witchcraft. Rabbi Yocha ben Beroka says: also against emasculation. Rabbi Assi said: The children of Noah were ordered regarding everything stated in the sentence: 'There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, etc.' (Deut. 18:10) and afterwards 'because it is an abomination for Ad-nai all that do this.' (Deut. 18:12)"
56. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 25-26, 24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. What need is there, in speaking to you who have searched into every department of knowledge, to mention the poets, or to examine opinions of another kind? Let it suffice to say thus much. If the poets and philosophers did not acknowledge that there is one God, and concerning these gods were not of opinion, some that they are demons, others that they are matter, and others that they once were men, - there might be some show of reason for our being harassed as we are, since we employ language which makes a distinction between God and matter, and the natures of the two. For, as we acknowledge a God, and a Son his Logos, and a Holy Spirit, united in essence - the Father, the Son, the Spirit, because the Son is the Intelligence, Reason, Wisdom of the Father, and the Spirit an effluence, as light from fire; so also do we apprehend the existence of other powers, which exercise dominion about matter, and by means of it, and one in particular, which is hostile to God: not that anything is really opposed to God, like strife to friendship, according to Empedocles, and night to day, according to the appearing and disappearing of the stars (for even if anything had placed itself in opposition to God, it would have ceased to exist, its structure being destroyed by the power and might of God), but that to the good that is in God, which belongs of necessity to Him, and co-exists with Him, as color with body, without which it has no existence (not as being part of it, but as an attendant property co-existing with it, united and blended, just as it is natural for fire to be yellow and the ether dark blue) - to the good that is in God, I say, the spirit which is about matter, who was created by God, just as the other angels were created by Him, and entrusted with the control of matter and the forms of matter, is opposed. For this is the office of the angels - to exercise providence for God over the things created and ordered by Him; so that God may have the universal and general providence of the whole, while the particular parts are provided for by the angels appointed over them. Just as with men, who have freedom of choice as to both virtue and vice (for you would not either honour the good or punish the bad, unless vice and virtue were in their own power; and some are diligent in the matters entrusted to them by you, and others faithless), so is it among the angels. Some, free agents, you will observe, such as they were created by God, continued in those things for which God had made and over which He had ordained them; but some outraged both the constitution of their nature and the government entrusted to them: namely, this ruler of matter and its various forms, and others of those who were placed about this first firmament (you know that we say nothing without witnesses, but state the things which have been declared by the prophets); these fell into impure love of virgins, and were subjugated by the flesh, and he became negligent and wicked in the management of the things entrusted to him. of these lovers of virgins, therefore, were begotten those who are called giants. And if something has been said by the poets, too, about the giants, be not surprised at this: worldly wisdom and divine differ as much from each other as truth and plausibility: the one is of heaven and the other of earth; and indeed, according to the prince of matter, - We know we oft speak lies that look like truths.
57. Clement of Alexandria, Extracts From The Prophets, 53.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 3.7.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Irenaeus, Demonstration of The Apostolic Teaching, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

61. Minucius Felix, Octavius, 27, 26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

62. Tertullian, Apology, 35.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

63. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 4.2, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

64. Tertullian, On The Veiling of Virgins, 7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7. Turn we next to the examination of the reasons themselves which lead the apostle to teach that the female ought to be veiled, (to see) whether the self-same (reasons) apply to virgins likewise; so that hence also the community of the name between virgins and not-virgins may be established, while the self-same causes which necessitate the veil are found to exist in each case. If the man is head of the woman, of course (he is) of the virgin too, from whom comes the woman who has married; unless the virgin is a third generic class, some monstrosity with a head of its own. If it is shameful for a woman to be shaven or shorn, of course it is so for a virgin. (Hence let the world, the rival of God, see to it, if it asserts that close-cut hair is graceful to a virgin in like manner as that flowing hair is to a boy.) To her, then, to whom it is equally unbecoming to be shaven or shorn, it is equally becoming to be covered. If the woman is the glory of the man, how much more the virgin, who is a glory withal to herself! If the woman is of the man, and for the sake of the man, that rib of Adam was first a virgin. If the woman ought to have power upon the head, all the more justly ought the virgin, to whom pertains the essence of the cause (assigned for this assertion). For if (it is) on account of the angels- those, to wit, whom we read of as having fallen from God and heaven on account of concupiscence after females- who can presume that it was bodies already defiled, and relics of human lust, which such angels yearned after, so as not rather to have been inflamed for virgins, whose bloom pleads an excuse for human lust likewise? For thus does Scripture withal suggest: And it came to pass, it says, when men had begun to grow more numerous upon the earth, there were withal daughters born them; but the sons of God, having descried the daughters of men, that they were fair, took to themselves wives of all whom they elected. For here the Greek name of women does seem to have the sense wives, inasmuch as mention is made of marriage. When, then, it says the daughters of men, it manifestly purports virgins, who would be still reckoned as belonging to their parents- for wedded women are called their husbands'- whereas it could have said the wives of men: in like manner not naming the angels adulterers, but husbands, while they take unwedded daughters of men, who it has above said were born, thus also signifying their virginity: first, born; but here, wedded to angels. Anything else I know not that they were except born and subsequently wedded. So perilous a face, then, ought to be shaded, which has cast stumbling-stones even so far as heaven: that, when standing in the presence of God, at whose bar it stands accused of the driving of the angels from their (native) confines, it may blush before the other angels as well; and may repress that former evil liberty of its head -(a liberty) now to be exhibited not even before human eyes. But even if they were females already contaminated whom those angels had desired, so much the more on account of the angels would it have been the duty of virgins to be veiled, as it would have been the more possible for virgins to have been the cause of the angels' sinning. If, moreover, the apostle further adds the prejudgment of nature, that redundancy of locks is an honour to a woman, because hair serves for a covering, of course it is most of all to a virgin that this is a distinction; for their very adornment properly consists in this, that, by being massed together upon the crown, it wholly covers the very citadel of the head with an encirclement of hair.
65. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בכל יום דנין את העדים בכינוי יכה יוסי את יוסי,נגמר הדין לא הורגין בכינוי אלא מוציאין כל אדם לחוץ שואלין את הגדול שביניהן ואומר לו אמור מה ששמעת בפירוש והוא אומר והדיינין עומדין על רגליהן וקורעין ולא מאחין,והשני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא עד שיברך שם בשם,מנהני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם וגו' בנקבו שם יומת,ממאי דהאי נוקב לישנא דברוכי הוא דכתיב (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואזהרתיה מהכא (שמות כב, כז) אלהים לא תקלל,ואימא מיברז הוא דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים יב, ג) ואבדתם את שמם לא תעשון כן לה' אלהיכם,בעינא שם בשם וליכא,ואימא דמנח שני שמות אהדדי ובזע להו ההוא נוקב וחוזר ונוקב הוא ואימא דחייק שם אפומא דסכינא ובזע בה ההוא חורפא דסכינא הוא דקא בזע,אימא פרושי שמיה הוא דכתיב (במדבר א, יז) ויקח משה ואהרן את האנשים האלה אשר נקבו בשמות ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא,חדא דבעינא שם בשם וליכא ועוד הויא ליה אזהרת עשה ואזהרת עשה לא שמה אזהרה,ואיבעית אימא אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקב ויקלל למימרא דנוקב קללה הוא,ודילמא עד דעבד תרוייהו לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (ויקרא כד, יד) הוצא את המקלל ולא כתיב הוצא את הנוקב והמקלל שמע מינה חדא היא,תנו רבנן איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות את העובדי כוכבים שמוזהרין על ברכת השם כישראל ואינן נהרגין אלא בסייף שכל מיתה האמורה בבני נח אינה אלא בסייף,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא ה' זו ברכת השם,אמר ר' יצחק נפחא לא נצרכא אלא לרבותא הכינויין ואליבא דרבי מאיר,דתניא (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו מה תלמוד לומר והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת לפי שנאמר ונוקב שם מות יומת יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד בלבד מניין לרבות כל הכינויין תלמוד לומר איש כי יקלל אלהיו מכל מקום דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים על שם המיוחד במיתה ועל הכינויין באזהרה,ופליגא דרבי מיישא דאמר רבי מיישא בן נח שבירך את השם בכינויים לרבנן חייב,מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) כגר כאזרח גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן בנקבו שם אבל עובד כוכבים אפילו בכינוי,ורבי מאיר האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח בסקילה אבל עובד כוכבים בסייף סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ואיתרבו איתרבו קמ"ל,ורבי יצחק נפחא אליבא דרבנן האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן שם בשם אבל עובד כוכבים לא בעינן שם בשם,איש איש למה לי דיברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,תנו רבנן שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח דינין וברכת השם ע"ז גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל ואבר מן החי 56a. bOn every dayof a blasphemer’s trial, when the judges bjudge the witnesses,i.e., interrogate the witnesses, they ask the witnesses to use ban appellationfor the name of God, so that they do not utter a curse of God’s name. Specifically, the witnesses would say: bLet Yosei smite Yosei,as the name Yosei has four letters in Hebrew, as does the Tetragrammaton.,When bthe judgment is over,and the court votes to deem the defendant guilty, bthey do not sentencehim bto death based onthe testimony of the witnesses in which they used ban appellationfor the name of God, without having ever heard the exact wording of the curse. bRather, they remove allthe bpeoplewho are not required to be there from the court, so that the curse is not heard publicly, and the judges binterrogate the eldest ofthe witnesses, band say to him: Say what you heard explicitly. And he saysexactly what he heard. bAnd the judges stand on their feet and make a tearin their garments, as an act of mourning for the desecration of the honor of God. bAnd they do notever fully bstitchit back together again., bAnd the secondwitness bsays: I tooheard bas hedid, but he does not repeat the curse explicitly. bAnd the thirdwitness, in the event that there is one, bsays: I tooheard bas hedid. In this manner, the repetition of the invective sentence is limited to what is absolutely necessary., strongGEMARA: /strong The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: A blasphemer is not liable bunless he blesses,a euphemism for curses, the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, e.g., by saying: Let such and such a name strike such and such a name.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matterderived? bShmuel says:It is derived from that bwhich the verse states: “And he who blasphemes [ ivenokev /i] the nameof the Lord shall be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him; the convert as well as the homeborn, bwhen he blasphemes [ ibenokvo /i] the name, he shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). It is derived from the repetition of the phrase “blasphemes the name” that the reference is to cursing the name of God with the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis it derived bthat thisword inokevis a term for blessing,i.e., cursing? The Gemara answers that it is derived from the statement of Balaam, who was sent by Balak to curse the Jewish people: b“How shall I curse [ iekkov /i] whom God has not cursed?”(Numbers 23:8). bAndthe bprohibitionagainst cursing God is derived bfrom here: “You shall not curse God”(Exodus 22:27).,The Gemara asks: bBut saythat perhaps the meaning of inokev bisnot cursing, but rather bmaking a hole, as it is written: “And made a hole [ ivayyikkov /i] in its lid”(II Kings 12:10). According to this, the word inokevis referring to one who makes a hole and damages the written name of God. bAndthe bprohibitionagainst doing so is derived bfrom here: “And you shall destroy their nameout of that place. bYou shall not do so to the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 12:3–4).,The Gemara answers: It is derived from the repetition of inokevthat for one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to making a hole.,The Gemara challenges: bBut say thatsuch a transgression is possible, as one can bplace twowritten bnamesof God, bone on top of the other, and tearthrough bthemat once. The Gemara explains: bThatwould be defined as bmaking a hole and again making a hole,not making a hole in one name by means of another name. The Gemara asks: bBut say thatone can betchthe bnameof God bon the point of a knife and cutthrough another name bwith it.The Gemara answers: In bthatcase, bit is the point of the knife that is cutting,not the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bSaythat inokevmeans the butterance of theineffable bname ofGod. bAs it is written: “And Moses and Aaron took these men that are pointed out [ inikkevu /i] by name”(Numbers 1:17). bAndthe bprohibitionto do so is derived bfrom here: “You shall fear the Lord, your God”(Deuteronomy 6:13).,The Gemara answers: bOneanswer is bthatfor one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to uttering the ineffable name of God. bFurthermore,the prohibition derived from the verse “You shall fear the Lord, your God” bis a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva, and a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva is not considered a prohibition. /b,The Gemara presents an alternative proof that inokevis referring to cursing: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthe verse states: “Andthe son of the Israelite woman bblasphemed [ ivayyikkov /i]the name band cursed”(Leviticus 24:11). bThat is to say thatthe meaning of inokevisto bcurse. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthis verse does not prove that the meaning of inokevis to curse; rather, it indicates that one is not liable to be executed bunless he does both,i.e., both inokevand cursing God? The Gemara answers: This shall bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Bring forth the one who cursed… /band stone him” (Leviticus 24:14), band it is not written: Bring forth the inokevand one who cursed. Conclude from itthat bit is oneact and not two.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), that the verse could have stated: bOne [ iish /i]who curses his God. bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone [ iish ish /i]”?It is bto include the gentiles, who are prohibited from blessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God, just blike Jewsare. bAnd they are executedfor this transgression bby the sword alone, as all deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah are by the sword alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is this ihalakha bderived from here?Rather, bit is derived from there:“And the Lord God commanded the man” (Genesis 2:16), as is stated in a ibaraitathat will soon be quoted at length: b“The Lord,” thisis referring to bthe blessing,i.e., cursing, bof the nameof God. This verse concerns Adam, the first man, and is therefore binding on all of humanity., bRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says:The verse “anyone who curses his God” bis necessary only to includegentiles who curse God using bthe appellationsfor the name of God, rather than mentioning the ineffable name, bandthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin”? But isn’t it already stated: “And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16)? Rather, bsince it is stated: “And he who blasphemes the nameof the Lord bshall be put to death,”one bmighthave thought that one bwill be liable only forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God. bFrom whereis it derived that the verse bincludesone who curses bany of the appellationsas well? bThe verse states: “Anyone who curses his God,”to indicate that one is liable to be executed bin any case.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God, one is punished bby death, and forcursing bthe appellations,one is liable to receive lashes bforviolating ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, who holds that according to the Rabbis, gentiles are not liable for cursing appellations for the name of God, bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Meyasha. As Rav Meyasha says: A descendant of Noah who blessed God byone of the bappellations is liableto be executed even baccording tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b, bWhat is the reason?It is bbecause the verse states: “The convert as well as the homeborn,when he blasphemes the name, he shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:16), from which it is derived that bit isonly in the case of ba convert or a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition: b“When he blasphemes the name,”i.e., he is liable to be executed only if he curses the ineffable name. bBut a gentileis liable to be executed beven due tomerely cursing ban appellation. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Meir do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn”?What does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir derives that ba convert or a homebornJew is liable to be executed bby stoningfor this transgression, bbut a gentileis executed bby the sword.This exclusion is necessary as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat bsincegentiles bare includedin the ihalakhotof this verse, bthey are includedin all the ihalakhotof blasphemy. Therefore the verse bteaches usthat they are not stoned.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn,” according tothe opinion bof the Rabbis,since Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa holds that the Rabbis do not deem either a Jew or a gentile liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: He derives that bit isspecifically with regard to ba convert and a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition that he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God; bbutwith regard to ba gentile, we do not requirethat he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God in order for him to be liable.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed the inclusive term b“anyonewho curses his God,” according to the opinions that do not derive from it that a gentile is liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: No ihalakhais derived from it; it is not a superfluous term, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,§ Since the ihalakhotof the descendants of Noah have been mentioned, a full discussion of the Noahide mitzvot is presented. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe descendants of Noah,i.e., all of humanity, bwere commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The mitzva of establishing courts of bjudgment; andthe prohibition against bblessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God; and the prohibition of bidol worship;and the prohibition against bforbidden sexual relations; andthe prohibition of bbloodshed; andthe prohibition of brobbery; andthe prohibition against eating ba limb from a livinganimal.
66. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 8.12-8.13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

67. Anon., 3 Enoch, 5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 enoch, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28
1 enoch book of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 19, 38, 39
accusing, and stars Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
accusing, heavenly Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 33, 36, 75
accusing, rivalry with humans Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
adam and eve Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90
adjuration, of angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
altar Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
ancient halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
angelic descent, and anti-pagan polemics Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
angelic descent, and origins of evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37, 114
angelic descent, chronology of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 36, 37, 75
angelic descent, for positive aims Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 75, 90, 114, 175, 178, 268
angelic sin, as sexual transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 35, 37, 90, 114, 178
angelic sin Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 75
angels, offspring of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
angels Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37, 38; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 19, 39; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
antimony Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 46
apocalypse of weeks, eighth week Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75, 90, 114, 175, 178, 268
apocalyptic literature, and hekhalot literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75, 90, 114, 175, 178, 268
apology, apologetics, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175, 178, 268
aromatic cane Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
asael, azael, and human sin Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37
asael, azael, and prometheus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
asael, azael, as culture-hero Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 38, 40
asael, azael, as first angel to descend Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 36, 75
asael, azael, as leader of fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28
asael, azael, as teacher Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 33, 37, 40, 178, 268
asael, azael, paired with semihazah/semhazai Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 268
asael, azael Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
asael Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 38, 39; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44, 57, 128
asbel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
asceticism Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 38
astronomy, astrology, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175, 268
astronomy, astrology, as invention of sethians Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32
azazel, and satan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
azzah/uzzah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
babylon, sins of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
balaam Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
baraqel Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 38
battle Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
beauty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
book of noah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 38, 39
book of the watchers, and greco-roman culture Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 39
book of the watchers, jewish back-borrowing of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
book of the watchers, polysemy of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 37
book of the watchers, redaction of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35
book of the watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
cain, cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cainites as, fallen angels as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 38, 40
cainites as, greco-roman traditions about Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
cainites as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
church Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
civilization, as decline Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 40
civilization, origins of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37, 38
clement of alexandria Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
cosmetics, cosmetology, and promiscuity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 35, 38, 178
cosmetics, cosmetology, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37, 38, 268
cosmetics, cosmetology Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
cosmology, in enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75
cross-dressers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
cyprian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
daimones Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
daniel, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37
day of judgement Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
demonology, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
demons, and fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
demons, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114
demons, origin of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
demons, worship of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
diodorus siculus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
divination, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 37
divination Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
dyes Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 36, 178, 268
elchesai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
enoch, as rebuking fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90
enoch literature, its motivation Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37, 38
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
enochic literary tradition, and jubilees Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75, 90, 114, 175, 178, 268
enochic literature, and the torah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
enochic literature, preservation of extracts from Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
ephorus of cyme Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
epistemology Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75
epistle of enoch Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 49
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
eschatology/eschatological, judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
essenes, proto-essenes Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37, 38
eve Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114
evil, and human responsibility Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37
evil, origin of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 46
evil, problem of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 37
evil, supernatural etiology of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28
fall of the watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44, 57
fallen angels, and pagan gods Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
fallen angels, as paradigms of punished wicked Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90, 178
fallen angels, as priests Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
fallen angels, as stars Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 36, 75
fallen angels, as tempted to earth by women Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 36, 178
fallen angels, punishment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28
festivals Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
flood, causes of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35
flood, generation of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 19, 59, 123
forgive/forgiveness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
fornication Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44, 154
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
frankincense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
from cave Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 75, 90, 114, 175, 178, 268
genesis, and jubilees Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90
genesis, christian exegesis of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
giants, as symbols of foreign nations Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75
giants, oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
giants, violence of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 33
giants Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 19, 38, 39; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
goat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
gold Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
greco-roman culture, jewish polemics against Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
guilt, by association Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
harlotry Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
harmonization Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 123
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
heavenly ascent Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
hekhalot literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
hermoni Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 40
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
idaean dactyls Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
idol worship Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
idolatry, as linked to fallen angels and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114
idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
idols Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 46, 128, 154
illness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
impurity, moral Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
impurity, sexual Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35
impurity Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
inheritance, injustice, correction of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
instruction/teaching, by the fallen angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
instruction/teaching, gentile Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114, 175, 178, 268
irenaeus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
isaiah, ascension of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
jared Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90, 114
jerome Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
jerusalem Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 59; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
jesus, identity of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
jezebel Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 46, 154
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
justin martyr Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
knowledge, and sex Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32
knowledge, corrupting power of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 40
knowledge, human and divine Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 75, 90, 114, 175, 178, 268
knowledge, secret Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 33, 114
kokabel Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 39
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 75, 90, 114, 175, 178
love, of neighbour Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
loyalty, to god Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
luke, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
magic, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 37, 40, 114, 175, 268
magic, greco-roman etiologies of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
magic Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 38
marketplace Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
mastema Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
meat, sacrificial Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
merkavah mysticism Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35
metallurgy Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44, 49, 128
metalworking, and female vanity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 35, 37, 38, 178
metalworking, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and violence Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 38
metalworking, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 37, 38, 40, 114
metalworking, as invention of cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, greco-roman etiologies of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
midrash of semhazai and azael Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
milik j.t. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37
minicius felix Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
moses, christian redeployment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
moses, epistemological ramifications of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75
moses, etiological use of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37
moses, in medieval judaism Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
moses, inversion of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 90
moses, motif of illicit angelic instruction Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 33
moses, origin of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
moses, suppression of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 75
moses Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
networks, social Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
nicolaitans, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
noachite commandments Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
noah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 38, 123; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114, 175, 178, 268
oppression Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 46, 128, 154; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
pastoral epistles Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
paul Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
peter, first letter of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
pharmacology, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37, 40
pharmacology Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 40
philosophy, and christianity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175, 178, 268
polytheism Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37
possessions, of giants Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 49
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
power Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
prayer Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 39
priest Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
priests, priesthood Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39
progeny Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
prometheus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 39, 40
prophets/prophetic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
r. moshe ha-darshan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
reversal of fortunes Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
rich, the, fate of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 57
righteousness; righteous one; teacher of righteousness Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 69
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
saffron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
sahriel Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 39
satan, and azazel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
satan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 114
sectarian literature Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 59
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
semihazah, semhazai, as leader of watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28
semihazah, semhazai, as teacher Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 33, 40
semihazah, semhazai Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 268
serpent Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 178
servitude/slavery Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
seth, sethians Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
seventh heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
shamsiel Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 39
shared human and angelic culpability for.nan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 35
shemihazah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 38; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
silver Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
sin, human culpability for Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 37
sin Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 123
sins / iniquity, origin of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
sobriquet Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
sodom, sodomites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
sons of god, as sethians Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 268
soteriology Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 59
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
spikenard Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
spirits, evil/of evil Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
spirits, evil Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
spirits, impure Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
spirits, unclean Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
suffering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
supernatural etiology of, womens role in origins of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 37
supernatural etiology of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 37
syncellus, george Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 36
tatian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175
teaching, false Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
temple Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
tertullian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 175, 178
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 28, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 75, 90
throne, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
torah, and enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38, 40
tradition, enochic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
treasure Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
tubal-cain Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
unclean/uncleanness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 55
violence, antediluvian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 32, 33, 35, 38
violence Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 128
watchers/rebellious angels, instructions by Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44, 46, 49
wealth, critique of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 49
wealth, pursuit of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44, 57
wind Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
wisdom, acquisition of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
wisdom, mantic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 44
witness Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 154
woman/women, daughters of men/women of the earth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
women, as temptresses Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 36, 178
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 91
women, vanity of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 35, 40, 178