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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 60.9


nanman whom the Lord of Spirits created. And I besought the other angel that he should show me the might of those monsters, how they were parted on one day and cast, the one into the abysse


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.16, 33.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.16. אָרוּר אַתָּה בָּעִיר וְאָרוּר אַתָּה בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 33.2. וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת [אֵשׁ] [דָּת] לָמוֹ׃ 33.2. וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃ 28.16. Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and cursed shalt thou be in the field." 33.2. And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.24. וַיְהִי בַדֶּרֶךְ בַּמָּלוֹן וַיִּפְגְּשֵׁהוּ יְהוָה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ הֲמִיתוֹ׃ 4.24. And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place, that the LORD met him, and sought to kill him."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.16, 6.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden." 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.11, 23.15-23.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.11. וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הָעֹמֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת יְנִיפֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן׃ 23.15. וּסְפַרְתֶּם לָכֶם מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת מִיּוֹם הֲבִיאֲכֶם אֶת־עֹמֶר הַתְּנוּפָה שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה׃ 23.16. עַד מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת הַשְּׁבִיעִת תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה לַיהוָה׃ 23.11. And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you; on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it." 23.15. And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete;" 23.16. even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 104.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

104.26. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃ 104.26. There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 27.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.1. כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃ 27.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃ 27.1. In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea."
7. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10.7, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 16.1, 16.2, 37.2, 38.4, 39.2, 39.3, 40.5, 40.6, 45.3, 45.4, 45.5, 45.6, 46.2, 48.5, 48.8, 48.10, 51.5, 52.4, 53.1, 54.7-55.2, 56.5, 56.6, 56.7, 60.1, 60.2, 60.3, 60.4, 60.5, 60.6, 60.7, 60.8, 60.10, 60.11, 60.12, 60.13, 60.14, 60.15, 60.16, 60.17, 60.18, 60.19, 60.20, 60.21, 60.22, 60.23, 60.24, 60.25, 61.10, 62.1, 62.5, 62.9, 62.10, 62.12, 62.14, 62.15, 62.16, 63.1, 63.9, 65.1, 66.1, 67.8, 67.12, 69.1, 69.2, 69.3, 69.4, 69.7, 69.10, 69.11, 69.12, 69.13, 69.14, 69.15, 69.16, 69.17, 69.18, 69.19, 69.20, 69.21, 69.22, 69.23, 69.24, 69.25, 69.26, 69.27, 69.28, 69.29, 70.1, 71.14, 86, 86.1, 86.2, 86.3, 86.4, 87, 88, 89, 89.1, 89.9, 106, 106.1-107.3, 106.5, 107 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.
8. Ezekiel The Tragedian, Exagoge, 67, 69-82, 66 (3rd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Anon., Jubilees, 4.15, 4.19, 7.26-7.39, 10.1-10.14, 21.6-21.11, 32.1-32.15, 50.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.19. And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Bâraka, the daughter of Râsûjâl, a daughter of his father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee 7.26. owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordices went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk 7.34. and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of another, and (so it cometh) that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his brother. 7.35. For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) seductions against you and against your children 7.36. and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. 7.37. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the earth. 7.38. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood. Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, Nor will there be left to him any seed or descendants living under heaven; 7.39. For into Sheol will they go, And into the place of condemnation will they descend. 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.8. and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are maligt, and created in order to destroy. 10.9. And let them not rule over the spirits of the living; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion over them. And let them not have power over the sons of the righteous from henceforth and for evermore. 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.14. And He said: "Let the tenth part of them remain before him, and let nine parts descend into the place of condemnation. 21.6. And do thou, my son, observe His commandments and His ordices and His judgments, and walk not after the abominations and after the graven images and after the molten images. brAnd eat no blood at all of animals or cattle, or of any bird which flieth in the heaven. 21.7. And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace-offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine flour (and the meat-offering) mingled with oil, with its drink-offering 21.8. --offer them all together on the altar of burnt-offering; it is a sweet savour before the Lord. 21.9. And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank-offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat on the inward 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 21.11. And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-offering, for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord 32.1. And he abode that night at Bethel, and Levi dreamed that they had ordained and made him the priest of the Most High God,him and his sons for ever; 32.2. and he awoke from his sleep and blessed the Lord. 32.3. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave tithes of all. 32.4. And in those days Rachel became pregt with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord 32.5. and his father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 32.6. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God 32.7. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings. 32.8. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire 32.9. and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats; 32.10. and thus he did daily for seven days. brAnd he and all his sons and his men were eating (this) with joy there during seven day 32.11. and blessing and thanking the Lord, who had delivered him out of all his tribulation and had given him his vow. 32.12. And he tithed all the clean animals, and made a burnt sacrifice, but the unclean animals he gave (not) to Levi his son, and he gave him all the souls of the men 32.13. And Levi discharged the priestly office at Bethel before Jacob his father in preference to his ten brothers, and he was a priest there 32.14. and Jacob gave his vow: thus he tithed again the tithe to the Lord and sanctified it, and it became holy unto Him. 32.15. And for this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tables as a law for the tithing again the tithe to eat before the Lord from year to year 50.4. And the land also will keep its sabbaths while they dwell upon it, and they will know the jubilee year.
10. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.1-7.8, 7.23, 8.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.1. נְהַר דִּי־נוּר נָגֵד וְנָפֵק מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי אֶלֶף אלפים [אַלְפִין] יְשַׁמְּשׁוּנֵּהּ וְרִבּוֹ רבון [רִבְבָן] קָדָמוֹהִי יְקוּמוּן דִּינָא יְתִב וְסִפְרִין פְּתִיחוּ׃ 7.1. בִּשְׁנַת חֲדָה לְבֵלְאשַׁצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל דָּנִיֵּאל חֵלֶם חֲזָה וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשֵׁהּ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבֵהּ בֵּאדַיִן חֶלְמָא כְתַב רֵאשׁ מִלִּין אֲמַר׃ 7.2. עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם־לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָּא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא׃ 7.2. וְעַל־קַרְנַיָּא עֲשַׂר דִּי בְרֵאשַׁהּ וְאָחֳרִי דִּי סִלְקַת ונפלו [וּנְפַלָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] תְּלָת וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן וְעַיְנִין לַהּ וְפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן וְחֶזְוַהּ רַב מִן־חַבְרָתַהּ׃ 7.3. וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן־יַמָּא שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן־דָּא׃ 7.4. קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי־נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי־מְּרִיטוּ גַפַּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן־אַרְעָא וְעַל־רַגְלַיִן כֶּאֱנָשׁ הֳקִימַת וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ׃ 7.5. וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרִי תִנְיָנָה דָּמְיָה לְדֹב וְלִשְׂטַר־חַד הֳקִמַת וּתְלָת עִלְעִין בְּפֻמַּהּ בֵּין שניה [שִׁנַּהּ] וְכֵן אָמְרִין לַהּ קוּמִי אֲכֻלִי בְּשַׂר שַׂגִּיא׃ 7.6. בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר וְלַהּ גַּפִּין אַרְבַּע דִּי־עוֹף עַל־גביה [גַּבַּהּ] וְאַרְבְּעָה רֵאשִׁין לְחֵיוְתָא וְשָׁלְטָן יְהִיב לַהּ׃ 7.7. בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רביעיה [רְבִיעָאָה] דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָא וְשִׁנַּיִן דִּי־פַרְזֶל לַהּ רַבְרְבָן אָכְלָה וּמַדֱּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא ברגליה [בְּרַגְלַהּ] רָפְסָה וְהִיא מְשַׁנְּיָה מִן־כָּל־חֵיוָתָא דִּי קָדָמַיהּ וְקַרְנַיִן עֲשַׂר לַהּ׃ 7.8. מִשְׂתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת ביניהון [בֵּינֵיהֵן] וּתְלָת מִן־קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אתעקרו [אֶתְעֲקַרָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא־דָא וּפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן׃ 7.23. כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃ 8.13. וָאֶשְׁמְעָה אֶחָד־קָדוֹשׁ מְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶחָד קָדוֹשׁ לַפַּלְמוֹנִי הַמְדַבֵּר עַד־מָתַי הֶחָזוֹן הַתָּמִיד וְהַפֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס׃ 7.1. In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed; then he wrote the dream and told the sum of the matters." 7.2. Daniel spoke and said: I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven broke forth upon the great sea." 7.3. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another." 7.4. The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings; I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked off, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon two feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it." 7.5. And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; and it was said thus unto it: ‘Arise, devour much flesh.’" 7.6. After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the sides of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it." 7.7. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns." 7.8. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things." 7.23. Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces." 8.13. Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke: ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the continual burnt-offering, and the transgression that causes appalment, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled under foot?’"
12. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.3-29.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
14. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.3, 13.2, 13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.3. Another sign was seen in heaven. Behold, a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads seven crowns. 13.2. The beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. 13.14. He deceives my own people who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given to him to do in front of the beast; saying to those who dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast who had the sword wound and lived.
15. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 44.17, 76.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44.17. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא (בראשית טו, יב), רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר תְּחִלַּת מַפָּלָה שֵׁנָה, דָּמִיךְ לֵיהּ וְלָא לָעֵי בְּאוֹרַיְיתָא, דָּמִיךְ לֵיהּ וְלָא עָבֵיד עֲבוֹדָה. רַב אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה תַּרְדֵּמוֹת הֵן, תַּרְדֵּמַת שֵׁנָה, וְתַרְדֵּמַת נְבוּאָה, וְתַרְדֵּמַת מַרְמִיטָה. תַּרְדֵּמַת שֵׁנָה (בראשית ב, כא): וַיַּפֵּל ה' אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן. תַּרְדֵּמַת נְבוּאָה: וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָה נָפְלָה עַל אַבְרָם, וְתַרְדֵּמַת מַרְמִיטָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א כו, יב): וְאֵין רֹאֶה וְאֵין יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵין מֵקִיץ כִּי כֻלָּם יְשֵׁנִים כִּי תַּרְדֵּמַת ה' נָפְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אַף תַּרְדֵּמָה שֶׁל שְׁטוּת, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה כט, י): כִּי נָסַךְ ה' עֲלֵיכֶם רוּחַ תַּרְדֵּמָה וגו'. רַבִּי חֲנִינָה בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר שָׁלשׁ נוֹבְלוֹת הֵן, נוֹבְלוֹת מִיתָה, שֵׁנָה. נוֹבְלוֹת נְבוּאָה, חֲלוֹם. נוֹבְלוֹת הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שַׁבָּת. רַבִּי אָבִין מוֹסִיף תַּרְתֵּין, נוֹבְלוֹת אוֹרָה שֶׁל מַעְלָה, גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה. נוֹבְלוֹת חָכְמָה שֶׁל מַעְלָה, תּוֹרָה. (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה חֲשֵׁכָה גְדֹלָה נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו. אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ג, יט): בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְתַעֲנִית. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן. רַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים דּוּכָסִים, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אִפַּרְכוּן, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אִסְטְרַטְלִיטִין. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מִשִּׁשִׁים שִׁשִּׁים, דִּכְתִיב (דברים ח, טו): נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב. נָחָשׁ, זוֹ בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זוֹ מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן. מָה עַקְרָב זוֹ יוֹלֶדֶת לְשִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הֶעֱמִידָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מִשִּׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁמַּחְלִיפִין, נוֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו, זוֹ בָּבֶל, דִּכְתִיב בָּהּ (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, דִּכְתִיב (אסתר ג, א): אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ז): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה. 76.6. הַצִּילֵנִי נָא מִיַּד אָחִי מִיַּד עֵשָׂו (בראשית לב, יב), הַצֵּל אֶת בָּנַי לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מִיַּד בְּנֵי בָנָיו שֶׁבָּאוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מִכֹּחוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ח): מִסְתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת בֵּינֵיהֵן, זֶה בֶּן נֵצֶר. (דניאל ז, ח): וּתְלָת מִן קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אֶתְעֲקַרָה מִן קָדָמַהּ, זוֹ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לָהֶם מַלְכוּתָם, מַקְדִּין וּקְרוֹס וְקַרְדִידוֹסִי. (דניאל ז, ח): וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא דָא וּפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא מַכְתֶּבֶת טִירוֹנְיָא מִכָּל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כְּתִיב עַל קַרְנַיָא עֲשַׂר מִנַּהּ מַלְכוּתָא עַשְׂרָא מַלְכִין יְקֻמוּן מִן אַרְעָא, כּוּלְּהוֹן בְּיוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, אֶלָּא: מְִתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת בֵּינֵיהֵן, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה. וּתְלָת מִן קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אֶתְעֲקַרָה מִן קָדָמַהּ, אֵלּוּ שְׁלשָׁה מַלְכֻיּוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת. וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא דָא, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא מַכְנֶסֶת עַיִן רָעָה בְּמָמוֹנוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם, פְּלַן עַתִּיר נַעַבְדִּינֵיהּ אַרְכוֹנוֹנוּס, פְּלַן עַתִּיר נַעַבְדֵיהּ בַּלְיוֹטוֹס. (בראשית לב, יב): פֶּן יָבוֹא וְהִכַּנִי אֵם עַל בָּנִים, וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ (דברים כב, ו): לֹא תִקַּח הָאֵם עַל הַבָּנִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פֶּן יָבוֹא וְהִכַּנִּי אֵם עַל בָּנִים, וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ (ויקרא כב, כח): וְשׁוֹר וָשֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד.
16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

74b. בר אמוראי לאתויה ורגש ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיה ושדא זיקא דחלא ונחת נפק בת קלא אמר לן מאי אית לכו בהדי קרטליתא דדביתהו דר"ח בן דוסא דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בה לצדיקי לעלמא דאתי,רב יהודה הינדוא משתעי זימנא חדא הוה אזלינן בספינתא וחזינן ההוא אבן טבא דהוה הדיר לה תנינא נחית בר אמוראי לאתויה אתא תנינא קא בעי למבלע לה לספינתא אתא פישקנצא פסקיה לרישיה אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמא אתא תנינא חבריה שקליה ותליה ליה וחיה הדר אתא קא בעי בלעא לספינתא הדר אתא ציפרא פסקיה לרישיה שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא שדיוה לספינתא הוה הני ציפרי מליחי בהדן אותבינהו עלייהו שקלוה ופרחו להו בהדה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע שהיו באין בספינה והיה ר"א ישן ור' יהושע נעור נזדעזע ר' יהושע וננער ר"א אמר לו מה זה יהושע מפני מה נזדעזעת אמר לו מאור גדול ראיתי בים אמר לו שמא עיניו של לויתן ראית דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עיניו כעפעפי שחר,אמר רב אשי אמר לי הונא בר נתן זימנא חדא הוה קא אזלינן במדברא והואי אטמא דבשרא בהדן פתחנא ונקרינא ואנחנא אעשבי אדמייתינן ציבי חלם אטמא וטוינן כי הדרן לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא חזינהו להנהו גומרי דהוו קא מלחשי כי אתאי לקמיה דאמימר אמר לי ההוא עישבא סמתרי הוה הנהו גומרי דריתמא הוו,(בראשית א, כא) ויברא אלהים את התנינים הגדולים הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימא ר' יוחנן אמר זה לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) ביום ההוא יפקוד ה' בחרבו הקשה וגו':,(סימן כל שעה ירדן): אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקב"ה בעולמו זכר ונקבה בראם אף לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס את הזכר והרג הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) והרג את התנין אשר בים,ואף בהמות בהררי אלף זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס הזכר וצינן הנקבה ושמרה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (איוב מ, טז) הנה נא כחו במתניו זה זכר ואונו בשרירי בטנו זו נקבה,התם נמי ליסרסיה לזכר וליצננה לנקבה דגים פריצי וליעביד איפכא איבעית אימא נקבה מליחא מעלי איבעית אימא כיון דכתיב (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו בהדי נקבה לאו אורח ארעא הכא נמי לימלחה לנקבה כוורא מליחא מעלי בשרא מליחא לא מעלי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שביקש הקב"ה לבראות את העולם אמר לו לשר של ים פתח פיך ובלע כל מימות שבעולם אמר לפניו רבש"ע די שאעמוד בשלי מיד בעט בו והרגו שנאמר (איוב כו, יב) בכחו רגע הים ובתבונתו מחץ רהב,אמר ר' יצחק ש"מ שרו של ים רהב שמו ואלמלא מים מכסין אותו אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (ישעיהו יא, ט) לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי וגו' כמים לים מכסים אל תקרי לים מכסים אלא לשרה של ים מכסים,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס תניא נמי הכי ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס ומהלך בימה של סיבכי ובימה של טבריא ומתגלגל ויורד לים הגדול ומתגלגל ויורד עד שמגיע לפיו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כג) יבטח כי יגיח ירדן אל פיהו מתקיף לה רבא בר עולא האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב אלא אמר רבא בר עולא אימתי בהמות בהררי אלף בטוחות בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתן,(סימן ימים גבריאל רעב) כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים כד, ב) כי הוא על ימים יסדה ועל נהרות יכוננה אלו שבעה ימים וארבעה נהרות שמקיפין את ארץ ישראל ואלו הן שבעה ימים ימה של טבריא וימה של סדום וימה של חילת וימה של חילתא וימה של סיבכי וים אספמיא וים הגדול ואלו הן ארבעה נהרות ירדן וירמוך וקירומיון ופיגה,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יונתן עתיד גבריאל לעשות 74b. i.e., ba diver [ ibar amoraei /i]went into the water bto bringup this chest, bandthe fish bbecame angry and sought to sever his thigh, butthe diver bthrewupon it ba flask of vinegar and they descendedand swam away. bA Divine Voice emergedand bsaid to us: Whatright bdo you have totouch bthe crate of the wife of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, as she is destined to insert sky-bluewool bin it tobe used in the ritual fringes of bthe righteous in the World-to-Come? /b, bRav Yehuda from India relates: Once we were traveling in a ship and we saw a certain precious stone that was encircled by a snake. A diver descended to bring itup, and the bsnake came and sought to swallow the ship. A raven cameand bcut off its head,and bthe water turned into blooddue to the enormousness of the snake. bAnother snake came, tookthe precious stone, band hung iton the dead snake, band it recovered. It returnedand again bsought to swallow the ship,and yet again ba bird came and cut off its head, took that precious stone,and bthrew it onto the ship. We had with us these salted birds; we placedthe stone bon them,and bthey tookthe stone band flew away with it. /b,§ Apropos the stories of large sea creatures, the Gemara discusses the large sea creatures mentioned in the Bible. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, who were traveling on a ship, and Rabbi Eliezer was sleeping and Rabbi Yehoshua was awake. Rabbi Yehoshua trembled, and Rabbi Eliezer awoke.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: What is this, Yehoshua; for whatreason bdid you tremble?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: I saw a great light in the sea.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Perhaps you saw the eyes of the leviathan, as it is written: “And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning”(Job 41:10)., bRav Ashi said: Huna bar Natan said to me: Once we were traveling in the desert, and we had a thigh of meat with us. We cut openthe thigh band toreoff the sciatic nerve and the forbidden fat band put it on the grass. Bythe time bthat we brought wood, the thigh had repaireditself, band we roasted it. When we returnedto that place bafter twelve monthsof bthe yearhad passed, bwe saw that those coals were still glowing. When I came before Ameimar, he said to me: That grass was a drug of life [ isamterei /i],while bthose coals were of broom. /b,The verse states: b“And God created the great sea monsters”(Genesis 1:21). bHere,in Babylonia, bthey interpretedthis as a reference to the bsea oryx. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent, as it is stated: “In that day the Lord with His soreand great and strong bswordwill punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent” (Isaiah 27:1).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the following statements of Rav Yehuda citing Rav: bEverything; time; Jordan. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He created male and female. Even leviathan the slant serpent and leviathan the tortuous serpent He created male and female. And if they would have coupledand produced offspring, they would have bdestroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and killed the female, and saltedthe female to preserve it for the banquet bfor the righteous in the future. As it is stated: “And He will slay the serpent that is in the sea”(Isaiah 27:1)., bAnd He created even the beasts on the thousand hills(see Psalms 50:10) bmale and female. Andthey were so enormous that bif they would have coupledand produced offspring, bthey would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and cooledthe sexual desire of bthe female and preserved it for the righteous in the future. As it is statedabout the beasts: b“Lo now, his strength is in his loins”(Job 40:16); bthisis referring to the bmale.The continuation of the verse: b“And his force is in the stays of his body”; thisis the bfemale,alluding to the idea that they did not use their genitals for the purpose of procreation.,The Gemara asks: bThere too,with regard to the leviathan, blet Him castrate the male and cool the female;why was it necessary to kill the female? The Gemara answers: bFish are unrestrained,and therefore even if the female was cooled, the female would still procreate. The Gemara suggests: bAnd let Him do the opposite,and kill and preserve the male leviathan. The Gemara responds: bIf you wish, saythat the bsalted female is better; if you wish, sayinstead bthatsince bit is written: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26), the male must be left alive for sport, because it is bnot proper conductto sport bwith a female.The Gemara asks: bHere too,with regard to the beasts, blet Himpreserve the bfemale in salt,instead of cooling it. The Gemara answers: bSalted fish is good,but bsalted meat is not good. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create the world, He said to the minister of the sea: Open your mouth and swallow all the waters of the world,so that there will be room for land. The minister of the sea bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,it is benough that I will stay within my ownwaters. God bimmediately struck him and killed him; as it is stated: “He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His understanding He smites through Rahab”(Job 26:12)., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Conclude from herethat bthe name of the minister of the sea is Rahab, and were it not for watersof the sea that bcover him, no creature could withstand his smell,as his corpse emits a terrible stench. bAs it is stated: “They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain;for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, bas the waters cover the sea”(Isaiah 11:9). bDo not readthis phrase as b“cover the sea”; ratherread it as: bCover the minister of the sea,i.e., the term sea is referring to the minister of the sea, not to the sea itself., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas. That is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas, and travels in the Sea of Sivkhi,i.e., the Hula Lake, band in the Sea of Tiberias,the Sea of Galilee, band rolls down to the Great Sea, and rolls down until it reaches the mouth of the leviathan. As it is stated: “He is confident, though the Jordan rush forth to his mouth”(Job 40:23). bRava bar Ulla strongly objects to thisexplanation of the verse, stating: But bthisverse bis written about the beasts on the thousand hills. Rather, Rava bar Ulla saidthat this is the meaning of the verse: bWhen are the beasts on the thousand hills confident? When the Jordan rushes forth into the mouth of the leviathan. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the upcoming statements of Rav Dimi: bSeas; Gabriel; hungry. When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods”(Psalms 24:2)? bThese arethe bseven seas and four rivers that surround Eretz Yisrael. And these arethe bseven seas: The Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Sodom,i.e., the Dead Sea, bthe Sea of Ḥeilat, the Sea of Ḥeilata, the Sea of Sivkhi, the Sea of Aspamya, and the Great Sea,i.e., the Mediterranean. bAnd these are the four rivers: The Jordan, the Jarmuth, and the Keiromyon, and the Piga,which are the rivers of Damascus., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yonatan says: In the future, Gabriel will perform /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.17.1-9.17.9, 9.18.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.49-6.52



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
age, present/eschatological Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
alexander polyhistor Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
anat, verus lotan Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 139
angelic status Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
angelification Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
angels, fallen Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45
angels, offspring of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45
ascend/ascension Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
authority Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
beasts, the, as castrated Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 142
beasts, the, as food Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 138, 139, 140, 141, 142
beasts, the, as kosher Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 142
beasts, the, with mates Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 139, 142
beasts Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
books, of noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
charles r.h. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 19
cosmos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
covenant van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 213
demonic, affliction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
dendayn Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 139
domitian van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 187
dragon, as muzzled Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 139
dragon, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
empire, roman Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
enoch van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 214
enoch literature, earliest Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 19
ethnic boundary making model, normative inversion van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 214
eusebius of caesarea Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
fall of the watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45
flood/deluge, great/noahs, escape from, survival of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609, 610
foundation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
god, inscrutability Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
herod the great van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 187
hills Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
horn Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
instruction/teaching, on sacrifice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
jerusalem van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 214
judea van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 214
kingdom Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
leopard Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
lion Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
merkavah (chariot) tradition Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 140
michael, the archangel Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 138, 139
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
noah, as an angel/angel-like Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609, 610
noah, book of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
noah, transformation into an angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
noah van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 213
opponents of god Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
orlov, andrei Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 139
patriarchs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
pharisees, proto-pharisees Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 19
pseudo-eupolemos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609
sacrifice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 610
sea Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193
stones, foundation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
titus van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 187
tradition, deuteronomistic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45
vespasian van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 187
visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 609, 610
watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45
waters' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 241
whitney jr., k. william Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 138, 139, 142
worship Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 193