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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 31.1-31.2


nanAnd I saw other mountains, and amongst them were groves of trees, and there flowed forth from


nanthem nectar, which is named sarara and galbanum. And beyond these mountains I saw another mountain to the east of the ends of the earth, whereon were aloe-trees, and all the trees were full


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 30.23-30.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.23. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ מָר־דְּרוֹר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת וְקִנְּמָן־בֶּשֶׂם מַחֲצִיתוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם וּקְנֵה־בֹשֶׂם חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם׃ 30.24. וְקִדָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת הִין׃ 30.25. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתוֹ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵחַ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה׃ 30.26. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בוֹ אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת׃ 30.23. ’Take thou also unto thee the chief spices, of flowing myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty," 30.24. and of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive oil a hin." 30.25. And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil." 30.26. And thou shalt anoint therewith the tent of meeting, and the ark of the testimony,"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them."
4. Anon., 1 Enoch, 5.5, 8.2-8.3, 13.7-13.8, 14.4, 14.10, 22.1, 22.5, 22.9, 23.1, 24.2-24.5, 25.1, 25.6, 30.1-30.3, 31.2, 32.1-32.6, 40.7, 77.6, 90.6-90.9, 91.14, 93.2, 106.19 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.5. Therefore shall ye execrate your days, And the years of your life shall perish, And the years of your destruction shall be multiplied in eternal execration, And ye shall find no mercy. 8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 13.7. requests that they should have forgiveness and length. And I went off and sat down at the waters of Dan, in the land of Dan, to the south of the west of Hermon: I read their petition till I fell 13.8. asleep. And behold a dream came to me, and visions fell down upon me, and I saw visions of chastisement, and a voice came bidding (me) I to tell it to the sons of heaven, and reprimand them. 14.4. the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement 22.1. And thence I went to another place, and he mountain [and] of hard rock. 22.1. water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their 22.5. and his voice went forth to heaven and made suit. And I asked Raphael the angel who was 22.9. And he answered me and said unto me: 'These three have been made that the spirits of the dead might be separated. And such a division has been make (for) the spirits of the righteous, in which there is the bright spring of 24.2. fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones (thereof) were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which 24.3. joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them 24.4. in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever: 24.5. and its fruit is beautiful, and its fruit n resembles the dates of a palm. Then I said: 'How beautiful is this tree, and fragrant, and its leaves are fair, and its blooms very delightful in appearance.' 25.1. And he said unto me: 'Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree 25.6. Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.' 30.3. therein there was a tree, the colour () of fragrant trees such as the mastic. And on the sides of those valleys I saw fragrant cinnamon. And beyond these I proceeded to the east. 31.2. them nectar, which is named sarara and galbanum. And beyond these mountains I saw another mountain to the east of the ends of the earth, whereon were aloe-trees, and all the trees were full 32.1. And after these fragrant odours, as I looked towards the north over the mountains I saw seven mountains full of choice nard and fragrant trees and cinnamon and pepper. 32.2. And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotiel. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4. That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 32.5. is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.' 40.7. And I heard the fourth voice fending off the Satans and forbidding them to come before the Lord 77.6. And these two come from the north to the sea and pour their waters into the Erythraean Sea in the 90.6. But behold lambs were borne by those white sheep, and they began to open their eyes and to see 90.7. and to cry to the sheep. Yea, they cried to them, but they did not hearken to what they said to 90.8. them, but were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes were very exceedingly blinded. And I saw in the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep 90.9. in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those sheep, and their eye 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
5. Anon., Jubilees, 3.26-3.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.26. And after the completion of the seven years, which he had completed there, seven years exactly, and in the second month, on the seventeenth day (of the month), the serpent came and approached the woman, and the serpent said to the woman 3.27. Hath God commanded you, saying, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?
6. Strabo, Geography, 16.4.19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.4.19. The country of the Sabaei, a very populous nation, is contiguous, and is the most fertile of all, producing myrrh, frankincense, and cinnamon. On the coast is found balsamum and another kind of herb of a very fragrant smell, but which is soon dissipated. There are also sweet-smelling palms and the calamus. There are snakes also of a dark red colour, a span in length, which spring up as high as a man's waist, and whose bite is incurable.On account of the abundance which the soil produces, the people are lazy and indolent in their mode of life. The lower class of people live on roots, and sleep on the trees.The people who live near each other receive, in continued succession, the loads [of perfumes] and deliver them to others, who convey them as far as Syria and Mesopotamia. When the carriers become drowsy by the odour of the aromatics, the drowsiness is removed by the fumes of asphaltus and of goat's beard.Mariaba, the capital of the Sabaeans, is situated upon a mountain, well wooded. A king resides there, who determines absolutely all disputes and other matters ; but he is forbidden to leave his palace, or if he does so, the rabble immediately assail him with stones, according to the direction of an oracle. He himself, and those about his person, pass their lives in effeminate voluptuousness.The people cultivate the ground, or follow the trade of dealing in aromatics, both the indigenous sort and those brought from Ethiopia; in order to procure them, they sail through the straits in vessels covered with skins. There is such an abundance of these aromatics, that cinnamon, cassia, and other spices are used by them instead of sticks and firewood.In the country of the Sabaeans is found the larimnum, a most fragrant perfume.By the trade [in these aromatics] both the Sabaeans and the Gerrhaei have become the richest of all the tribes, and possess a great quantity of wrought articles in gold and silver, as couches, tripods, basins, drinking-vessels, to which we must add the costly magnificence of their houses; for the doors, walls, and roofs are variegated with inlaid ivory, gold, silver, and precious stones.This is the account of Artemidorus. The rest of the description is partly similar to that of Eratosthenes, and partly derived from other historians.
7. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.3-29.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 29.3, 29.5-29.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

6a. בבואה לבבואה דבבואה נידע דאתי לביתיה ולאו מילתא היא דילמא חלשא דעתיה ומתרע מזליה,אמר אביי השתא דאמרת סימנא מילתא היא יהא רגיל איניש למיכל ריש שתא קרא ורוביא כרתי סילקא ותמרי,א"ל רב משרשיא לבניה כי בעיתו למיזל למגמר קמיה רבכון גרוסו מעיקרא מתני' והדר עולו קמי רבכון וכי יתביתו קמי רבכון חזו לפומיה דרבכון שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך וכי גריסיתו שמעתא גרוסו על מיא דכי היכי דמשכי מיא תמשוך שמעתכון,אקילקי דמתא מחסיא ולא אפדני דפומבדיתא טב גילדנא סריא למיכל מכותחא דרמי כיפי,(שמואל א ב, א) ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' רמה קרני רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותם שאול ויהוא שנמשחו מן הפך לא נמשכה מלכותם:,המפטם את הקטרת: ת"ר המפטם את הקטרת ללמד בה או למוסרה לציבור פטור להריח בה חייב והמריח בה פטור אלא שמעל,ומי איכא מעילה והאמר ר"ש בן פזי א"ר יהושע ב"ל משום בר קפרא קול ומראה וריח אין בהן משום מעילה,ריח אחר שתעלה תמרתו אין בו משום מעילה [שהרי] אין לך דבר אחר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בו,אלמה לא והרי תרומת הדשן דנעשית מצותה ומועלין בה,משום דהוי תרומת הדשן ובגדי כהונה שני כתובים הבאים כאחד וכל שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדים,הניחא לרבנן אלא לר' דוסא מאי איכא למימר דתניא (ויקרא טז, כג) והניחם שם מלמד שטעונין גניזה,רבי דוסא אומר כשירין הן לכהן הדיוט ומה תלמוד לומר והניחם שם שלא ישתמש בהן ביום הכפורים אחר,משום דהוי תרומת הדשן ועגלה ערופה שני כתובין הבאין כאחד וכל שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדין תרומת הדשן מאי היא דתניא (ויקרא ו, ג) ושמו אצל המזבח מלמד שטעונין גניזה עגלה ערופה מאי היא דתניא (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל מלמד שטעונין גניזה,ולמ"ד שני כתובין הבאים כאחד מלמדין הכא ודאי אין מלמדין משום דהוי תרי מיעוטי בתרומת הדשן כתיב ושמו הדין אין מידי אחרינא לא גבי עגלה ערופה כתיב הערופה ערופה אין מידי אחרינא לא,ת"ר פיטום הקטרת הצרי והציפורן והחלבנה והלבונה משקל שבעי' של שבעים מנה מור וקציעה שיבולת נרד וכרכום משקל ששה עשר של ששה עשר מנה הקושט שנים עשר קילופה שלשה וקנמון תשעה בורית כרשינה תשעה קבין יין קפריסין סאין תלתא קבין תלתא אם אין לו יין קפריסין מביא חמר חיוריין עתיק מלח סדומית רובע מעלה עשן כל שהוא ר' נתן אומר אף כיפת הירדן כל שהוא,ואם נתן בה דבש פסלה חיסר אחת מכל סממניה חייב מיתה רש"א הצרי אינו אלא שרף [הנוטף] מעצי הקטף בורית כרשינה ששפין בה את הציפורן כדי שתהא נאה יין קפריסין ששורין בו את הציפורן כדי שתהא עזה והלא מי רגלים יפין לה אלא שאין מכניסין מי רגלים למקדש,מסייע ליה לר' יוסי בר"ח דאמר (שמות ל, לב) קדש היא קדש תהיה לכם כל מעשיה לא יהו אלא בקדש,מיתיבי המקדיש נכסיו והיו בה דברים הראויין לקרבנות הציבור ינתנו לאומנין בשכרן,הני דברים הראויין מאי נינהו אי בהמה וחיה תנא ליה אי יינות שמנים וסלתות תנא ליה אלא לאו קטרת,א"ר אושעיא באותה הניתנת לאומנים בשכרן דתניא מותר הקטרת מה היו עושין בה היו מפרישין (ממנה) שכר האומנין ומחללין אותה על מעות האומנין ונותנין אותן לאומנין בשכרן וחוזרים ולוקחין אותה מתרומה חדשה,מתקיף לה רב יוסף הא בכולהו מותרות תני חוזרין ולוקחין אותה מתרומה חדשה והכא לא תני,אלא אמר רב יוסף באחד מסממני הקטרת,ת"ר קטרת היתה נעשית שס"ח מנה שס"ה כנגד ימות החמה שלשה מנין יתירין שמהן מכניס כהן גדול מלא חפניו ביום הכיפורים והשאר ניתנת לאומנין בשכרן,כדתניא מותר הקטרת מה היו עושין בה מפרישין (ממנה) שכר האומנין ומחללין אותה על מעות האומנין ונותנין אותן לאומנין בשכרן וחוזרין ולוקחין אותה מתרומת הלשכה 6a. bthe reflection [ ibavua /i] of a reflection ofhis breflection he shall know that he willreturn and bcome to his home.The Sages say about this: bAnd this is nothing,i.e., one should not practice these divinations, as bperhaps he will become despondentif he does not see the positive sign band his fortune will turn bad,and this itself will result in his failure., bAbaye said: Now that you have saidthat ba sign isa substantial bmatter, a person should be accustomed to eat, at the start of the year, gourd, fenugreek, leeks, beets, and dates,as each of these grow and multiply quickly, which is a good omen for the deeds of the upcoming year.,With regard to positive omens, bRav Mesharshiyya said to his sons: When you want to go to study in the presence of your teacher, initially study the imishnayotand then ascend before your teacher. And when you sit before your teacher, see your teacher’s mouth, as it is stated: “And your eyes shall see your teacher”(Isaiah 30:20). bAnd when you learn a ihalakha /i, learn neara source of flowing bwater, as just as the waterflow bcontinues,so too, byour learning should continue. /b,Rav Mesharshiyya gave his sons additional advice: It is better for you to dwell bon the garbage piles [ iakilkei /i] ofthe city bMata Meḥasya and notto dwell bin the palaces [ iapadnei /i] ofthe city bPumbedita.It is bbetter to eat rotten fish [ igildana /i] thanhigh-quality ikutḥa /i, whichuproots and btosses rocksfrom their places, i.e., it is a very spicy, powerful flavoring.,The Gemara further discusses the issue of anointing and good omens. Hannah said in her prayer after her son Samuel was born: b“And Hannah prayed and said: My heart exults in the Lord, my horn is exaltedin the Lord” (I Samuel 2:1). The Gemara notes that Hannah said: b“My horn is exalted,” andshe did bnotsay: bMy jug is exalted.With regard to bDavid and Solomon, who were anointed withoil from ba horn,this was a good omen for them, and btheir kingships lasted.But with regard to bSaul and Jehu, who were anointedwith oil bfrom a jug, their kingships did not last. /b,§ The mishna included in its list of those liable to receive ikaret /i: bOne who blends the incenseaccording to the specifications of the incense used in the Temple service, for purposes other than use in the Temple. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who blends the incensein order bto teachhimself how to prepare bit orin order bto transfer it to the community is exemptfrom liability. But if he prepares it in order bto smell ithe is bliableto receive ikaret /i, as it is stated: “He who prepares it in order to smell it shall be cut off from his people” (Exodus 30:38). bAnd one whoactually bsmellsthe incense mixture is bexemptfrom the punishment of ikaretand from bringing a sin offering; bbut he has misusedconsecrated property, and is therefore liable to bring a guilt offering if he acted unwittingly.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is therethe prohibition of bmisuseof consecrated property with regard to smell? bBut doesn’t Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says in the name of bar Kappara:With regard to exposure to the bsound, orto the bsight, orto the bsmellof consecrated items, including incense, these bare not subject tothe prohibition of bmisuseof consecrated property?,The Gemara answers: With regard to exposure to the bsmellof the incense, the following distinction applies: The smell of the incense that is emitted when the spices are placed on the coals on the altar is subject to the prohibition, since this is the manner in which the mitzva is performed. By contrast, the smell emitted bafterthe flame catches and bthe column of smoke rises is not subject tothe prohibition of bmisuseof consecrated property. The reason is that its mitzva has already been performed, and byou have nocase in which an bitemis at the stage bafter its mitzva hasalready bbeen performed andyet one is liable for bits misuse. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd why notsay that misuse of consecrated property applies to an item whose mitzva has been already performed? bBut there isthe case of bthedaily bremoval of the ashesof the offerings from the altar, bwhose mitzva has been performed,as the offerings have been burnt, bandyet one who uses the ashes is liable for bmisusingthe ashes, as derived from the verse: “And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh; and he shall take up the ashes of what the fire has consumed of the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar” (Leviticus 6:3).,The Gemara answers: This case does not disprove the principle, bsince the ihalakhotof bthe removal of the ashes and the priestly vestmentsof white linen worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur are btwo verses that come as one,i.e., to teach the same matter, bandthere is a principle that bany two verses that come as one do not teachtheir common aspect to apply to other cases. In other words, if a ihalakhais stated twice with regard to two separate cases, this ihalakhaapplies only to those cases. Had the Torah wanted to teach that this ihalakhaapplies to all other relevant cases as well, it would have mentioned it only once, and other cases would be derived from there. The fact that two cases are mentioned indicates they are exceptions.,The Gemara comments: The fact that the Torah mentions this ihalakhatwice bworks out well according tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who maintain that the priestly vestments worn by the High Priest on Yom Kippur require interment. bBut according tothe opinion of bRabbi Dosa, what can be said? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “And Aaron shall come into the Tent of Meeting, and shall take off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into the sacred place, band he shall leave them there”(Leviticus 16:23). This phrase bteaches thathis vestments brequire interment.Although their use for the mitzva has been completed, it is prohibited to derive benefit from these garments. This is the opinion of the Rabbis., bRabbi Dosa says:These priestly vestments may no longer be used by the High Priest on Yom Kippur, bbut they are fit foruse by ban ordinary priest,as they are similar to those worn by ordinary priests on a daily basis. Rabbi Dosa adds: bAnd whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “And he shall leave them there”?This teaches bthatthe High Priest bmay not use them on another Yom Kippur.According to the opinion of Rabbi Dosa, only one verse teaches there is misuse of consecrated property with regard to an item that has already been used for performing its mitzva. Therefore, one should derive a principle from the verse discussing the removal of the ashes.,The Gemara answers: One cannot derive a general principle from this case, bbecause the removal of the ashes andthe ihalakhaof bthe heifer whose neck is broken,from which one may not derive benefit after that rite has been performed, are btwo verses that come as one, and any two verses that come as one do not teachtheir common aspect to apply to other cases. The Gemara elaborates: bWhat isthe case of bthe removal of the ashes? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And he shall put them beside the altar”(Leviticus 6:3). This bteaches that they require interment. What isthe case of bthe heifer whose neck is broken? As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And they shall break the heifer’s neck in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4). This bteaches thatsuch heifers brequire interment. /b,The Gemara adds: bAndeven baccording to the one who saysthat btwo verses that come as onedo bteachtheir common aspect to apply to other cases, bhere they certainly do not teachthat misuse of consecrated property applies to items whose mitzva has been performed. This is bdue tothe fact that bthere are twoterms indicating bexclusionswith regard to these ihalakhot /i, limiting this ihalakhato those cases. bWith regard to the removal of the ashes it is written: “And he shall put it.”The word “it” teaches that in bthisparticular case, byes,there is misuse of consecrated property, but with regard to any bother matterthis prohibition does bnotapply. bWith regard to the heifer whose neck is broken it is written: “Theheifer bthat had its neck broken”(Deuteronomy 21:6). The word “the” indicates that with regard to the heifer that bhad its neck broken, yes,but with regard to any bother matterthe prohibition of misuse of consecrated property does bnotapply.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: How is bthe blending of the incenseperformed? bBalm, and onycha, and galbanum, and frankincense, eachof these by ba weight of seventy imaneh /i,i.e., seventy units of one hundred dinars. bMyrrh, and cassia,and bspikenard, and saffron, eachof these by ba weight of sixteen imaneh /i. Costusby ba weight of twelve imaneh /i; bthree imanehof aromatic bbark; and nine imanehof bcinnamon. Kersannah lyeof the volume of bnine ikav /i; Cyprus wineof the volume of bthree ise’a /iand bthreemore ikav /i,a half- ise’a /i. bIf one does not have Cyprus wine he brings old white wine. Sodomite saltis brought by the volume of ba quarter-ikav /i. Lastly, ba minimalamount of bthe smoke raiser,a plant that causes the smoke of the incense to rise properly. bRabbi Natan says: Also a minimalamount bof Jordan amber. /b, bAnd if one placed honey inthe incense he has bdisqualified it,as it is stated: “For you shall make no leaven, nor any honey, smoke as an offering made by fire unto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:11). If he bomitted any one of its spiceshe is bliableto receive bdeathat the hand of Heaven. bRabbi Shimon says: The balmmentioned here bis nothing other than a resinexuded bfrom the balsam tree,not the bark of the tree itself. The bKersannah lyementioned is not part of the ingredients of the incense itself, but it is necessary bas one rubs the onycha in it so thatthe onycha bshould be pleasant.Likewise, the bCyprus wineis required bas one soaks the onycha in it so that it should be strong. And urine is good forthis purpose, bbut one does not bring urine into the Templebecause it is inappropriate.,The Gemara comments: This final ruling bsupportsthe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who sayswith regard to a verse that discusses the incense: bIt is sacred, it shall be sacred to you(see Exodus 30:36–37), that this teaches that ball of its actions should beperformed bonly in the sacredarea of the Temple.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a mishna ( iShekalim4:6): With regard to bone who consecratesall bhis possessionswithout specifying for what purpose, they are consecrated for Temple maintece. bAndif bamong them there were items suitable foruse as bcommunal offerings,which may not be used for the maintece of the Temple but only for sacrificial purposes, what is done with those items to remove their consecration for Temple maintece so that they can be properly consecrated for sacrificial use? bThey are given toTemple bartisans as their wages,and they are thereby desacralized. They can then be consecrated again for their proper purpose.,The Gemara analyzes the mishna: bThese itemsthat are bsuitablefor use as communal offerings, bwhat are they? Ifthey are bdomesticated animals and undomesticated animals,the itanna btaughtthe ihalakhawith regard to bthemlater in that same mishna. Likewise, bifthey are bwines, oils, and flours,the itanna btaught themin that mishna as well. bRather,is it bnotreferring to bincenseconsecrated by a private individual? If so, this would mean that one can prepare and consecrate incense outside the Temple., bRabbi Oshaya said:The mishna is referring bto thatincense bwhich is given to theTemple bartisans as their wages,i.e., the incense was prepared in the sacred place and was desacralized when it was given to the artisans, who subsequently consecrated it. bAs it is taughtin a mishna ( iShekalim4:5): bThe leftover incensefrom one year could not be used the following year, as it had been purchased with the shekels collected for the previous year. bWhat would they do with itin order to render it usable? The Temple treasurers bwould removean amount bof itequal to the value of bthe wages of the artisanswho worked in the Temple. bAnd theywould then bdesacralizethat incense by transferring its sanctity bto the moneyowed bthe artisans. Theywould then bgivethe incense bto the artisans as their wages. Andfinally, btheywould breturn and purchasethe incense from the artisans with funds bfrom the new collectionof shekels., bRav Yosef objects to thisexplanation: How can the mishna in iShekalim4:6 be interpreted as referring to artisans who consecrated leftover incense? bWith regard to all leftoversthe itanna bteaches: Theywould breturn and purchasethe incense from the artisans with funds bfrom the new collectionof shekels, as stated in the mishna earlier. bAndyet bhere,in tractate iShekalim /i, the itanna bdoes not teachthis clause, indicating that it is not speaking of incense paid to the artisans and repurchased from them., bRather, Rav Yosef says:The mishna is referring bto one of the ingredients of the incense,which an individual consecrated when it is not in the Temple. It is not speaking of incense that has already been blended, as this action may be performed only in the sacred area, as claimed by Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The bincense was preparedfrom ingredients amounting to the weight of b368 imaneh /i,i.e., 368 units of one hundred dinars. of these, b365of them bcorrespond to the days of the solar year.The badditional three imaneh /iare those bfrom which the High Priest would bring into the Sanctuary bhis handfulrequired bon Yom Kippur(see Leviticus 16:12), band the rest,i.e., the incense that was not used over the course of the year, bwas given to the artisans as their wages. /b,This is bas it is taughtin the aforementioned mishna ( iShekalim4:5): With regard to bthe leftover incense, what would they do with it?The Temple treasurers would bremovean amount bof itequal to the value of bthe wages of the artisanswho worked in the Temple. bAnd theywould then bdesacralizethat incense by transferring its sanctity bto the moneyowed to bthe artisans. Theywould then bgivethe incense bto the artisans as their wages. Andfinally, bthey would return and purchasethe incense from the artisans with funds bfrom the collection of theTemple treasury bchamber. /b
11. Anon., 2 Enoch, 8.1, 8.3



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam, priest, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
aromatic cane Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
beauty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
children/offspring, of noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 930
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
frankincense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
galbanum Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758
garden of eden Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100
goat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
life Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 327
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
noah, escape from/survival of the flood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
noah, three sons Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
rapture Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 327
recognition Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 327
resurrection Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 327
righteousness/piety/truth, generation of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
sacrifice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
saffron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
shame Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100
spices, aromatic Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100
spices, chief Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 758
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
spikenard Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
stacte Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100
tablets, heavenly' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 682
throne, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 100, 758, 930
wind Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930