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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 27.2-27.3


nanaccursed valley between' Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: 'This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever: Here shall all the accursed be gathered together who utter with their lips against the Lord unseemly words and of His glory speak hard things. Here shall they be gathered together, and here


nanhall be their place of judgement. In the last days there shall be upon them the spectacle of righteous judgement in the presence of the righteous for ever: here shall the merciful bless the Lord of glory, the Eternal King.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.16-2.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.4-1.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וַיהוָה הֵטִיל רוּחַ־גְּדוֹלָה אֶל־הַיָּם וַיְהִי סַעַר־גָּדוֹל בַּיָּם וְהָאֳנִיָּה חִשְּׁבָה לְהִשָּׁבֵר׃ 1.5. וַיִּירְאוּ הַמַּלָּחִים וַיִּזְעֲקוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֱלֹהָיו וַיָּטִלוּ אֶת־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאֳנִיָּה אֶל־הַיָּם לְהָקֵל מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וְיוֹנָה יָרַד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי הַסְּפִינָה וַיִּשְׁכַּב וַיֵּרָדַם׃ 1.6. וַיִּקְרַב אֵלָיו רַב הַחֹבֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מַה־לְּךָ נִרְדָּם קוּם קְרָא אֶל־אֱלֹהֶיךָ אוּלַי יִתְעַשֵּׁת הָאֱלֹהִים לָנוּ וְלֹא נֹאבֵד׃ 1.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ לְכוּ וְנַפִּילָה גוֹרָלוֹת וְנֵדְעָה בְּשֶׁלְּמִי הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת לָנוּ וַיַּפִּלוּ גּוֹרָלוֹת וַיִּפֹּל הַגּוֹרָל עַל־יוֹנָה׃ 1.8. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הַגִּידָה־נָּא לָנוּ בַּאֲשֶׁר לְמִי־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת לָנוּ מַה־מְּלַאכְתְּךָ וּמֵאַיִן תָּבוֹא מָה אַרְצֶךָ וְאֵי־מִזֶּה עַם אָתָּה׃ 1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם עִבְרִי אָנֹכִי וְאֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲנִי יָרֵא אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־הַיַּבָּשָׁה׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לָּךְ וְיִשְׁתֹּק הַיָּם מֵעָלֵינוּ כִּי הַיָּם הוֹלֵךְ וְסֹעֵר׃ 1.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם שָׂאוּנִי וַהֲטִילֻנִי אֶל־הַיָּם וְיִשְׁתֹּק הַיָּם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם כִּי יוֹדֵעַ אָנִי כִּי בְשֶׁלִּי הַסַּעַר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 1.13. וַיַּחְתְּרוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים לְהָשִׁיב אֶל־הַיַּבָּשָׁה וְלֹא יָכֹלוּ כִּי הַיָּם הוֹלֵךְ וְסֹעֵר עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 1.14. וַיִּקְרְאוּ אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ אָנָּה יְהוָה אַל־נָא נֹאבְדָה בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן עָלֵינוּ דָּם נָקִיא כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר חָפַצְתָּ עָשִׂיתָ׃ 1.15. וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־יוֹנָה וַיְטִלֻהוּ אֶל־הַיָּם וַיַּעֲמֹד הַיָּם מִזַּעְפּוֹ׃ 1.16. וַיִּירְאוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים יִרְאָה גְדוֹלָה אֶת־יְהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־זֶבַח לַיהוָה וַיִּדְּרוּ נְדָרִים׃ 1.4. But the LORD hurled a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken." 1.5. And the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god; and they cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it unto them. But Jonah was gone down into the innermost parts of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep." 1.6. So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him: ‘What meanest thou that thou sleepest? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.’" 1.7. And they said every one to his fellow: ‘Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us.’ So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah." 1.8. Then said they unto him: ‘Tell us, we pray thee, for whose cause this evil is upon us: what is thine occupation? and whence comest thou? what is thy country? and of what people art thou?’" 1.9. And he said unto them: ‘I am an Hebrew; and I fear the LORD, the God of heaven, who hath made the sea and the dry land.’" 1.10. Then were the men exceedingly afraid, and said unto him: ‘What is this that thou hast done?’ For the men knew that he fled from the presence of the LORD, because he had told them." 1.11. Then said they unto him: ‘What shall we do unto thee, that the sea may be calm unto us?’ for the sea grew more and more tempestuous." 1.12. And he said unto them: ‘Take me up, and cast me forth into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you; for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you.’" 1.13. Nevertheless the men rowed hard to bring it to the land; but they could not; for the sea grew more and more tempestuous against them." 1.14. Wherefore they cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘We beseech Thee, O LORD, we beseech Thee, let us not perish for this man’s life, and lay not upon us innocent blood; for Thou, O LORD, hast done as it pleased Thee.’" 1.15. So they took up Jonah, and cast him forth into the sea; and the sea ceased from its raging." 1.16. Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly; and they offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 74.10-74.11, 106.23-106.30, 107.23-107.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

74.11. לָמָּה תָשִׁיב יָדְךָ וִימִינֶךָ מִקֶּרֶב חוקך [חֵיקְךָ] כַלֵּה׃ 106.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לְהַשְׁמִידָם לוּלֵי מֹשֶׁה בְחִירוֹ עָמַד בַּפֶּרֶץ לְפָנָיו לְהָשִׁיב חֲמָתוֹ מֵהַשְׁחִית׃ 106.24. וַיִּמְאֲסוּ בְּאֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה לֹא־הֶאֱמִינוּ לִדְבָרוֹ׃ 106.25. וַיֵּרָגְנוּ בְאָהֳלֵיהֶם לֹא שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה׃ 106.26. וַיִּשָּׂא יָדוֹ לָהֶם לְהַפִּיל אוֹתָם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 106.27. וּלְהַפִּיל זַרְעָם בַּגּוֹיִם וּלְזָרוֹתָם בָּאֲרָצוֹת׃ 106.28. וַיִּצָּמְדוּ לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיֹּאכְלוּ זִבְחֵי מֵתִים׃ 106.29. וַיַּכְעִיסוּ בְּמַעַלְלֵיהֶם וַתִּפְרָץ־בָּם מַגֵּפָה׃ 107.23. יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת עֹשֵׂי מְלָאכָה בְּמַיִם רַבִּים׃ 107.24. הֵמָּה רָאוּ מַעֲשֵׂי יְהוָה וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו בִּמְצוּלָה׃ 107.25. וַיֹּאמֶר וַיַּעֲמֵד רוּחַ סְעָרָה וַתְּרוֹמֵם גַּלָּיו׃ 107.26. יַעֲלוּ שָׁמַיִם יֵרְדוּ תְהוֹמוֹת נַפְשָׁם בְּרָעָה תִתְמוֹגָג׃ 107.27. יָחוֹגּוּ וְיָנוּעוּ כַּשִּׁכּוֹר וְכָל־חָכְמָתָם תִּתְבַּלָּע׃ 107.28. וַיִּצְעֲקוּ אֶל־יְהוָה בַּצַּר לָהֶם וּמִמְּצוּקֹתֵיהֶם יוֹצִיאֵם׃ 107.29. יָקֵם סְעָרָה לִדְמָמָה וַיֶּחֱשׁוּ גַּלֵּיהֶם׃ 74.10. How long, O God, shall the adversary reproach? Shall the enemy blaspheme Thy name for ever?" 74.11. Why withdrawest Thou Thy hand, even Thy right hand? Draw it out of Thy bosom and consume them." 106.23. Therefore He said that He would destroy them, Had not Moses His chosen stood before Him in the breach, To turn back His wrath, lest He should destroy them." 106.24. Moreover, they scorned the desirable land, They believed not His word;" 106.25. And they murmured in their tents, They hearkened not unto the voice of the LORD." 106.26. Therefore He swore concerning them, That He would overthrow them in the wilderness;" 106.27. And that He would cast out their seed among the nations, And scatter them in the lands." 106.28. They joined themselves also unto Baal of Peor, And ate the sacrifices of the dead." 106.29. Thus they provoked Him with their doings, And the plague broke in upon them." 106.30. Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed." 107.23. They that go down to the sea in ships, That do business in great waters—" 107.24. These saw the works of the LORD, And His wonders in the deep;" 107.25. For He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, Which lifted up the waves thereof;" 107.26. They mounted up to the heaven, they went down to the deeps; Their soul melted away because of trouble;" 107.27. They reeled to and fro, and staggered like a drunken man, And all their wisdom was swallowed up—" 107.28. They cried unto the LORD in their trouble, And He brought them out of their distresses." 107.29. He made the storm a calm, So that the waves thereof were still." 107.30. Then were they glad because they were quiet, And He led them unto their desired haven."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.35. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה שְׁמוֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 19.35. And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 4.24, 5.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.24. רָאִיתִי הֶהָרִים וְהִנֵּה רֹעֲשִׁים וְכָל־הַגְּבָעוֹת הִתְקַלְקָלוּ׃ 5.22. הַאוֹתִי לֹא־תִירָאוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם חָק־עוֹלָם וְלֹא יַעַבְרֶנְהוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ וְלֹא יוּכָלוּ וְהָמוּ גַלָּיו וְלֹא יַעַבְרֻנְהוּ׃ 4.24. I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, And all the hills moved to and fro." 5.22. Fear ye not Me? saith the LORD; Will ye not tremble at My presence? Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, An everlasting ordice, which it cannot pass; And though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; Though they roar, yet can they not pass over it."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 28.24 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.24. וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל סִלּוֹן מַמְאִיר וְקוֹץ מַכְאִב מִכֹּל סְבִיבֹתָם הַשָּׁאטִים אוֹתָם וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 28.24. And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel, nor a piercing thorn of any that are round about them, that did have them in disdain; and they shall know that I am the Lord GOD."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 32.21 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.21. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה מַלְאָךְ וַיַּכְחֵד כָּל־גִּבּוֹר חַיִל וְנָגִיד וְשָׂר בְּמַחֲנֵה מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וַיָּשָׁב בְּבֹשֶׁת פָּנִים לְאַרְצוֹ וַיָּבֹא בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו ומיציאו [וּמִיצִיאֵי] מֵעָיו שָׁם הִפִּילֻהוּ בֶחָרֶב׃ 32.21. And the LORD sent an angel, who cut off all the mighty men of valour, and the leaders and captains, in the camp of the king of Assyria. So he returned with shame of face to his own land. And when he was come into the house of his god, they that came forth of his own bowels slew him there with the sword."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.3, 1.9, 2.1, 5.4-5.6, 7.1, 7.3-7.4, 8.3-8.4, 9.6-9.10, 10.6, 10.11, 10.17-10.19, 12.4, 14.20, 15.3-15.7, 16.3, 18.15, 19.1, 21.1-21.7, 21.9-21.10, 22.3, 22.10-22.11, 24.2-24.6, 25.6-25.7, 27.3-27.5, 32.3-32.6, 33.3, 54.5, 72.1, 75.3, 80.1-80.8, 85.4, 89.32-89.33, 89.51-89.52, 89.54, 90.25-90.27, 91.7, 91.11, 93.4, 93.6, 94.6, 94.9, 96.7, 97.7, 98.11, 99.2, 99.6-99.9, 100.8-100.9, 100.11, 101.1, 101.3-101.6, 101.9, 102.3-102.4, 102.6, 102.10, 103.9, 103.11, 103.14, 106.14, 108.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling 1.9. And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him. 2.1. Observe ye everything that takes place in the heaven, how they do not change their orbits, and the luminaries which are in the heaven, how they all rise and set in order each in its season, and 5.4. But ye -ye have not been steadfast, nor done the commandments of the Lord, But ye have turned away and spoken proud and hard words With your impure mouths against His greatness. Oh, ye hard-hearted, ye shall find no peace. 5.5. Therefore shall ye execrate your days, And the years of your life shall perish, And the years of your destruction shall be multiplied in eternal execration, And ye shall find no mercy. 7.1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charm 7.3. became pregt, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed 7.4. all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 9.6. things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 10.11. that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselve 10.17. And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace. 10.18. And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and 10.19. be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield 12.4. called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve 15.3. for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children 15.4. of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die 15.5. and perish. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget 15.6. children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. But you were formerly 15.7. piritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling. 16.3. to them): 'You have been in heaven, but all the mysteries had not yet been revealed to you, and you knew worthless ones, and these in the hardness of your hearts you have made known to the women, and through these mysteries women and men work much evil on earth. 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in 21.1. I answered: 'Because of this fearful place, and because of the spectacle of the pain.' And he said unto me: 'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.' 21.3. a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw 21.4. even stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then 21.5. I said: 'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: 'Enoch, why 21.6. dost thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years 21.7. the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of 21.9. fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!' Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'Enoch, why hast thou such fear and affright' And 22.3. Then Raphael answered, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'These hollow places have been created for this very purpose, that the spirits of the souls of the dead should 22.11. lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There 24.2. fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones (thereof) were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which 24.3. joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them 24.4. in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever: 24.5. and its fruit is beautiful, and its fruit n resembles the dates of a palm. Then I said: 'How beautiful is this tree, and fragrant, and its leaves are fair, and its blooms very delightful in appearance.' 24.6. Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured angels who was with me, and was their leader. 25.6. Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.' 25.7. Then blessed I the God of Glory, the Eternal King, who hath prepared such things for the righteous, and hath created them and promised to give to them. 27.3. hall be their place of judgement. In the last days there shall be upon them the spectacle of righteous judgement in the presence of the righteous for ever: here shall the merciful bless the Lord of glory, the Eternal King. 27.4. In the days of judgement over the former, they shall bless Him for the mercy in accordance with 27.5. which He has assigned them (their lot).' Then I blessed the Lord of Glory and set forth His glory and lauded Him gloriously. 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4. That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 32.5. is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.' 33.3. I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their 72.1. The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world 72.1. morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth 75.3. accomplished through its separate three hundred and sixty-four stations. For the signs and the times and the years and the days the angel Uriel showed to me, whom the Lord of glory hath set for ever over all the luminaries of the heaven, in the heaven and in the world, that they should rule on the face of the heaven and be seen on the earth, and be leaders for the day and the night, i.e. the sun, moon, and stars, and all the ministering creatures which make their revolution in all the chariot 80.1. And in those days the angel Uriel answered and said to me: ' Behold, I have shown thee everything, Enoch, and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldst see this sun and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the heaven and all those who turn them, their tasks and times and departures. 80.2. And in the days of the sinners the years shall be shortened, And their seed shall be tardy on their lands and fields, And all things on the earth shall alter, And shall not appear in their time: And the rain shall be kept back And the heaven shall withhold (it). 80.3. And in those times the fruits of the earth shall be backward, And shall not grow in their time, And the fruits of the trees shall be withheld in their time. 80.4. And the moon shall alter her order, And not appear at her time. 80.5. [And in those days the sun shall be seen and he shall journey in the evening on the extremity of the great chariot in the west] And shall shine more brightly than accords with the order of light. 80.6. And many chiefs of the stars shall transgress the order (prescribed). And these shall alter their orbits and tasks, And not appear at the seasons prescribed to them. 80.7. And the whole order of the stars shall be concealed from the sinners, And the thoughts of those on the earth shall err concerning them, [And they shall be altered from all their ways], Yea, they shall err and take them to be gods. 80.8. And evil shall be multiplied upon them, And punishment shall come upon them So as to destroy all.' 85.4. the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon 89.32. them]: ' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander 89.33. from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen 89.51. And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep 89.52. but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from 90.25. of pillars of fire. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast 90.26. into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep, and they were all judged and found guilty and 90.27. cast into this fiery abyss, and they burned; now this abyss was to the right of that house. And I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning. 91.7. And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth. 93.4. And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore. 93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them. 94.6. Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace. 94.9. Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement. 96.7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil. 97.7. Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them. 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish. 100.8. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you. 100.9. Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn. 100.11. judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they 101.1. Observe the heaven, ye children of heaven, and every work of the Most High, and fear ye Him 101.3. the dew from descending on the earth on your account, what will ye do then And if He sends His anger upon you because of your deeds, ye cannot petition Him; for ye spake proud and insolent 101.4. words against His righteousness: therefore ye shall have no peace. And see ye not the sailors of the ships, how their ships are tossed to and fro by the waves, and are shaken by the winds, and are 101.5. in sore trouble And therefore do they fear because all their goodly possessions go upon the sea with them, and they have evil forebodings of heart that the sea will swallow them and they will 101.6. perish therein. Are not the entire sea and all its waters, and all its movements, the work of the Most 101.9. Do not the sailors of the ships fear the sea Yet sinners fear not the Most High. 102.3. And all the angels shall execute their commandst And shall seek to hide themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, And the children of earth shall tremble and quake; And ye sinners shall be cursed for ever, And ye shall have no peace. 102.4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness. 102.6. And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deed 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.14. And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice.
9. Anon., Jubilees, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.19, 7.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.19. אֱדַיִן צְבִית לְיַצָּבָא עַל־חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא דִּי־הֲוָת שָׁנְיָה מִן־כלהון [כָּלְּהֵין] דְּחִילָה יַתִּירָה שניה [שִׁנַּהּ] דִּי־פַרְזֶל וְטִפְרַיהּ דִּי־נְחָשׁ אָכְלָה מַדֲּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא בְּרַגְלַיהּ רָפְסָה׃ 7.23. כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃ 7.19. Then I desired to know the truth concerning the fourth beast, which was diverse from all of them, exceeding terrible, whose teeth were of iron, and its nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet;" 7.23. Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces."
11. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 43.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.3. but it is thy providence, O Father, that steers its course,because thou hast given it a path in the sea,and a safe way through the waves
13. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.22. He shook him on this side and that as a reed is shaken by the wind, so that he lay helpless on the ground and, besides being paralyzed in his limbs, was unable even to speak, since he was smitten by a righteous judgment.
14. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.227-2.232 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

2.227. And they all watch at all times and expect 2.228. With sleepless eyes. For it will be at dawn 2.229. Or eve or midday; but he sure shall come 2.230. 230 And it shall be as I say, it shall be 2.231. To them that sleep, that from the starry heaven 2.232. The stars at midday will to all appear
15. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 19.2, 28.3, 37.5, 40.2, 40.6, 43.1 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4, 8.6-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. רבי חנניה בן (גמלא) אומר אף על הדם מן החי רבי חידקא אומר אף על הסירוס רבי שמעון אומר אף על הכישוף,רבי יוסי אומר כל האמור בפרשת כישוף בן נח מוזהר עליו (דברים יח, י) לא ימצא בך מעביר בנו ובתו באש קוסם קסמים מעונן ומנחש ומכשף וחובר חבר ושואל אוב וידעוני ודורש אל המתים וגו' ובגלל התועבות האלה ה' אלהיך מוריש אותם מפניך ולא ענש אלא אם כן הזהיר,רבי אלעזר אומר אף על הכלאים מותרין בני נח ללבוש כלאים ולזרוע כלאים ואין אסורין אלא בהרבעת בהמה ובהרכבת האילן,מנהני מילי אמר ר' יוחנן דאמר קרא (בראשית ב, טז) ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם לאמר מכל עץ הגן אכול תאכל,ויצו אלו הדינין וכן הוא אומר (בראשית יח, יט) כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה את בניו וגו',ה' זו ברכת השם וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת אלהים זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על האדם זו שפיכות דמים וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם וגו',לאמר זו גילוי עריות וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ג, א) לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו והיתה לאיש אחר מכל עץ הגן ולא גזל אכל תאכל ולא אבר מן החי,כי אתא רבי יצחק תני איפכא ויצו זו עבודת כוכבים אלהים זו דינין,בשלמא אלהים זו דינין דכתיב (שמות כב, ז) ונקרב בעל הבית אל האלהים אלא ויצו זו ע"ז מאי משמע,רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבדימי חד אמר (שמות לב, ח) סרו מהר מן הדרך אשר צויתים עשו להם וגו' וחד אמר (הושע ה, יא) עשוק אפרים רצוץ משפט כי הואיל הלך אחרי צו,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה למאן דאמר עשו משעת עשייה מיחייב למאן דאמר כי הואיל הלך עד דאזיל בתרה ופלח לה,אמר רבא ומי איכא למאן דאמר עכו"ם שעשאה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה חייב והתניא בעכו"ם דברים שבית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן בן נח מוזהר עליהן אין בית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן אין בן נח מוזהר עליהן למעוטי מאי לאו למעוטי עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה,אמר רב פפא לא למעוטי גיפוף ונישוק,גיפוף ונישוק דמאי אילימא כדרכה בר קטלא הוא אלא למעוטי שלא כדרכה,דינין בני נח איפקוד והתניא עשר מצות נצטוו ישראל במרה שבע שקיבלו עליהן בני נח והוסיפו עליהן דינין ושבת וכיבוד אב ואם,דינין דכתיב (שמות טו, כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט שבת וכיבוד אב ואם דכתיב (דברים ה, יא) כאשר צוך ה' אלהיך ואמר רב יהודה כאשר צוך במרה,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא נצרכה אלא לעדה ועדים והתראה,אי הכי מאי והוסיפו עליהן דינין,אלא אמר רבא לא נצרכה אלא לדיני קנסות אכתי והוסיפו בדינין מיבעי ליה,אלא אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא להושיב בית דין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר והא בני נח לא איפקוד והתניא כשם שנצטוו ישראל להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר כך נצטוו בני נח להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר,אלא אמר רבא האי תנא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דמפיק ד"ך ועייל ס"ך,דתנא דבי מנשה שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח ע"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים גזל ואבר מן החי סירוס וכלאים,רבי יהודה אומר אדם הראשון לא נצטווה אלא על ע"ז בלבד שנאמר ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר אף על ברכת השם ויש אומרים אף על הדינים,כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלהים אני לא תקללוני אלהים אני לא תמירוני אלהים אני יהא מוראי עליכם כמאן כיש אומרים,תנא דבי מנשה אי דריש ויצו אפילו הנך נמי אי לא דריש ויצו הני מנא ליה,לעולם לא דריש ויצו הני כל חדא וחדא באפי נפשיה כתיבא ע"ז וגילוי עריות 56b. bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamla says:The descendants of Noah are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against consuming bthe blood from a livinganimal. bRabbi Ḥideka says:They are balsocommanded bconcerning castration,i.e., they are prohibited to castrate any living animal. bRabbi Shimon says:They are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against engaging in bsorcery. /b, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to beverytype of sorcery bthat is stated in the passage about sorcery,it is bprohibited for a descendant of Noah toengage in bit.This is derived from the verses: “When you come into the land that the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations. bThere shall not be found among you one who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, a diviner, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a warlock, or a charmer, or one who consults a necromancer and a sorcerer, or directs inquiries to the dead.For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord; band because of these abominations, the Lord your God is driving them out from before you”(Deuteronomy 18:9–12). Evidently, the Canaanites were punished for these practices; bandsince God bwould not have punishedthem for an action bunless Hefirst bprohibitedit, these practices are clearly prohibited to gentiles., bRabbi Elazar says:The descendants of Noah were balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition of bdiverse kinds.Nevertheless, it is bpermitted for the descendants of Noah to wear diverse kindsof wool and linen band to sow diverse kindsof seeds together, band they are prohibited only with regard to breedingdiverse species of banimals and graftingdiverse species of btrees. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the Noahide mitzvot, derived? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It is from that bwhich the verse states: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying: of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat from it, for on the day that you eat from it, you shall die” (Genesis 2:16–17).,The verse is interpreted homiletically as follows: With regard to the term b“and…commanded,” these are thecourts of bjudgment; and so it statesin another verse: b“For I have known him, to the end that he may command his childrenand his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19).,With regard to the term b“the Lord,” thisalludes to bblessing the nameof God; band so it statesin another verse: b“And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord…shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). b“God,” thisalludes to bidol worship; and so it states: “You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:2). b“The man,” thisalludes to bbloodshed; and so it states: “One who sheds the blood of man,by man his blood shall be shed” (Genesis 9:6).,With regard to the term b“saying,” thisalludes to bforbidden sexual relations; and so it states: “Saying, if a man sends his wife, and she goes from him and becomes another man’s… /bwill that land not be greatly polluted? But you have played the harlot with many lovers” (Jeremiah 3:1). b“of every tree of the garden”alludes to the fact that one may partake only of items that are permitted to him, as they belong to him, bandhe may bnotpartake of bstolen items. “You may freely eat”alludes to the fact that one may eat fruit, bbut not a limb from a livinganimal., bWhen Rav Yitzḥak camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe taughttwo of the expositions in bthe oppositeorder: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship. “God,” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,the source for the exposition: b“God [ iElohim /i],” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment,is clear; bas it is written: “Then the master of the house shall come near the judges [ iha’elohim /i]”(Exodus 22:7). Evidently, judges are called ielohim /i. bButwith regard to the exposition: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship, from whereis this binferred? /b, bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimiboth give answers to this question. bOneof them bsaysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them; they have made thema molten calf” (Exodus 32:8). The word “commanded” is mentioned here in the context of idol worship. bAndthe other bone saysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in justice, because he willingly went after filth [ itzav /i]”(Hosea 5:11). The word itzav /i, used in this context in reference to idol worship, is the same Hebrew word used in the phrase: “And…commanded [ ivaytzav /i].”,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthese two sources? The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthem is in the case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it,i.e., he has not yet worshipped it. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“They have madethem a molten calf,” bhe is rendered liable from the time of fashioningit. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“Because he willingly wentafter filth,” he is not liable buntil he goes after it and worships it. /b, bRava says: And is there anyone who saysthat ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it is liable? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWith regard to idol worship, matters,i.e., transgressions, bfor which a Jewish court executesa Jew who commits one of them, bare prohibited to a descendant of Noah.But with regard to transgressions bfor which a Jewish court does not executea Jew who commits one of them, ba descendant of Noah is not prohibited fromdoing bthem. To exclude whattransgressions, i.e., to determine that they do not apply to gentiles, is this stated? Is it bnot to excludethe case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it?Since Jews are not executed for this transgression, gentiles should not be liable for this act either., bRav Pappa says: No,it is possible that it is stated bto exclude embracing and kissingthe idol; neither a Jew nor a gentile who embraces or kisses an idol is liable. No proof can be brought from here with regard to a gentile who fashions an idol but does not worship it.,The Gemara asks: bEmbracing and kissingan idol bin whatmanner? bIf we saythat he did so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship, i.e., that embracing and kissing is the standard method of worshipping this idol, certainly bhe is liable toreceive the bdeathpenalty. bRather,it is stated bto excludea case bwherehe did bnotdo so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the list of the Noahide mitzvot: bWere the descendants of Noah commandedto establish courts of bjudgment? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people were commandedto observe bten mitzvotwhen they were bin Marah: Seven that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, andGod badded to themthe following mitzvot: bJudgment, and Shabbat, and honoringone’s bfather and mother. /b,The mitzva of bjudgmentwas given at Marah, bas it is writtenwith regard to Marah: b“There He made for them a statute and an ordice”(Exodus 15:25). bShabbat and honoringone’s bfather and motherwere given at Marah, bas it is writtenconcerning them in the Ten Commandments: “Observe the day of Shabbat to keep it holy, bas the Lord your God commanded you”(Deuteronomy 5:12), and similarly: “Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you” (Deuteronomy 5:16). The phrase “as the Lord your God commanded you” indicates that they had already been commanded to observe these mitzvot previously. bAnd Rav Yehuda says: “Asthe Lord your God bcommanded you” in Marah.Apparently, the mitzva of establishing courts is not included in the seven Noahide mitzvot., bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:Establishing courts is a Noahide mitzva. The additional mitzva that was given in Marah bwas necessary only with regard tothe details of the ihalakhotof the justice system, e.g., that a defendant in a capital case is punished only by a full panel of twenty-three judges of the bSanhedrin, andonly if there are two bwitnesseswho testify concerning him, bandonly if he was issued ba forewarningbefore his transgression.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,and the mitzva given at Marah is a specification of the ihalakhotof the justice system, bwhatis the meaning of the sentence: bAndGod badded to them: Judgment?The details of a preexisting mitzva would not be referred to as an added mitzva., bRather, Rava says:The mitzva given at Marah bwas necessary only with regard to the ihalakhotof fines.Since these are not ihalakhotthat pertain to the basic performance of justice, but rather concern an additional fine for the guilty party, they were not given to the descendants of Noah. The Gemara asks: According to this interpretation, the language of the ibaraitais bstillinaccurate, as bit should havestated: bAndGod badded to themmore ihalakhot bof judgment. /b, bRather, Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: It was necessary onlyfor the additional requirement bto establish a court in each and every province and in each and every city.The Gemara asks: bAnd were the descendants of Noah not commandedwith regard to bthismatter? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bJust as the Jewish people were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city, so too, the descendants of Noah were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city? /b, bRather, Rava says: This itanna /i,who holds that the mitzva of establishing courts of judgment is not included in the Noahide mitzvot, bisthe itannaof the school of Menashe, who removesfrom the list of the Noahide mitzvot two mitzvot whose mnemonic is idalet /i, ikaf /i,which stands for judgment [ idinim /i] and blessing the name of God [ ibirkat Hashem /i], band insertsin their place two mitzvot whose mnemonic is isamekh /i, ikaf /i,standing for castration [ iseirus /i] and diverse kinds [ ikilayim /i]., bAs the school of Menashe taught: The descendants of Noah were commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The prohibitions of bidol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and blood-shed,and brobbery, andeating ba limb from a livinganimal, and bcastration, and diverse kinds. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: Adam, the firstman, bwas commanded only with regard tothe prohibition of bidol worship, as it is stated: “And the Lord God commanded the man”(Genesis 2:16). bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says:He was balsocommanded bconcerning blessing the nameof God. bAnd some saythat he was balsocommanded bconcerningestablishing courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in interpretation of the aforementioned verse: Since bI am “God,” do not curse Me;since bI am “God,” do not exchange Mewith another god; since bI am “God,” My fear shall be upon you?The Gemara answers: bIn accordance with whoseopinion? It is bin accordance withwhat bsome say,i.e., that the phrase “and the Lord God commanded the man” includes the prohibitions against cursing God’s name and idol worship, as well as the mitzva of establishing a system of law and justice, so that the fear of God will be upon the people.,The Gemara challenges: bIfthe itannaof the school of Menashe interpretsthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, even thesemitzvot, cursing the name of God and establishing courts, should be included. And bif he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, from where does hederive btheseseven mitzvot in his list?,The Gemara answers: bActually, he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically,but with regard to bthesemitzvot in his list, beach and every oneof them bis written separatelyin the Torah. The prohibitions of bidol worship and forbidden sexual relationsare stated
18. Anon., 3 Baruch, 4.4-4.5

19. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.4-3.11, 3.20-3.27, 4.1, 4.36-4.37, 6.45-6.46, 6.53-6.59, 7.11-7.14, 7.62-7.74, 7.116-7.131, 8.4-8.14, 8.44-8.45, 13.57, 14.27-14.36

3.4. O sovereign Lord, didst thou not speak at the beginning when thou didst form the earth -- and that without help -- and didst command the dust 3.5. and it gave thee Adam, a lifeless body? Yet he was the workmanship of thy hands, and thou didst breathe into him the breath of life, and he was made alive in thy presence. 3.6. And thou didst lead him into the garden which thy right hand had planted before the earth appeared. 3.7. And thou didst lay upon him one commandment of thine; but he transgressed it, and immediately thou didst appoint death for him and for his descendants. From him there sprang nations and tribes, peoples and clans without number. 3.8. And every nation walked after its own will and did ungodly things before thee and scorned thee, and thou didst not hinder them. 3.9. But again, in its time thou didst bring the flood upon the inhabitants of the world and destroy them. 3.10. And the same fate befell them: as death came upon Adam, so the flood upon them. 3.11. But thou didst leave one of them, Noah with his household, and all the righteous who have descended from him. 3.20. Yet thou didst not take away from them their evil heart, so that thy law might bring forth fruit in them. 3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.23. So the times passed and the years were completed, and thou didst raise up for thyself a servant, named David. 3.24. And thou didst command him to build a city for thy name, and in it to offer thee oblations from what is thine. 3.25. This was done for many years; but the inhabitants of the city transgressed 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 3.27. So thou didst deliver the city into the hands of thy enemies. 4.1. Then the angel that had been sent to me, whose name was Uriel, answered 4.36. And Jeremiel the archangel answered them and said, `When the number of those like yourselves is completed; for he has weighed the age in the balance 4.37. and measured the times by measure, and numbered the times by number; and he will not move or arouse them until that measure is fulfilled.' 6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 7.11. For I made the world for their sake, and when Adam transgressed my statutes, what had been made was judged. 7.12. And so the entrances of this world were made narrow and sorrowful and toilsome; they are few and evil, full of dangers and involved in great hardships. 7.13. But the entrances of the greater world are broad and safe, and really yield the fruit of immortality. 7.14. Therefore unless the living pass through the difficult and vain experiences, they can never receive those things that have been reserved for them. 7.62. I replied and said, "O earth, what have you brought forth, if the mind is made out of the dust like the other created things! 7.63. For it would have been better if the dust itself had not been born, so that the mind might not have been made from it. 7.64. But now the mind grows with us, and therefore we are tormented, because we perish and know it. 7.65. Let the human race lament, but let the beasts of the field be glad; let all who have been born lament, but let the four-footed beasts and the flocks rejoice! 7.66. For it is much better with them than with us; for they do not look for a judgment, nor do they know of any torment or salvation promised to them after death. 7.67. For what does it profit us that we shall be preserved alive but cruelly tormented? 7.68. For all who have been born are involved in iniquities, and are full of sins and burdened with transgressions. 7.69. And if we were not to come into judgment after death, perhaps it would have been better for us. 7.70. He answered me and said, "When the Most High made the world and Adam and all who have come from him, he first prepared the judgment and the things that pertain to the judgment. 7.71. And now understand from your own words, for you have said that the mind grows with us. 7.72. For this reason, therefore, those who dwell on earth shall be tormented, because though they had understanding they committed iniquity, and though they received the commandments they did not keep them, and though they obtained the law they dealt unfaithfully with what they received. 7.73. What, then, will they have to say in the judgment, or how will they answer in the last times? 7.74. For how long the time is that the Most High has been patient with those who inhabit the world, and not for their sake, but because of the times which he has foreordained! 8.4. I answered and said, "Then drink your fill of understanding, O my soul, and drink wisdom, O my heart! 8.5. For not of your own will did you come into the world, and against your will you depart, for you have been given only a short time to live. 8.6. O Lord who are over us, grant to thy servant that we may pray before thee, and give us seed for our heart and cultivation of our understanding so that fruit may be produced, by which every mortal who bears the likeness of a human being may be able to live. 8.7. For thou alone dost exist, and we are a work of thy hands, as thou hast declared. 8.8. And because thou dost give life to the body which is now fashioned in the womb, and dost furnish it with members, what thou hast created is preserved in fire and water, and for nine months the womb which thou has formed endures thy creation which has been created in it. 8.9. But that which keeps and that which is kept shall both be kept by thy keeping. And when the womb gives up again what has been created in it 8.10. thou hast commanded that from the members themselves (that is, from the breasts) milk should be supplied which is the fruit of the breasts 8.11. so that what has been fashioned may be nourished for a time; and afterwards thou wilt guide him in thy mercy. 8.12. Thou hast brought him up in thy righteousness, and instructed him in thy law, and reproved him in thy wisdom. 8.13. Thou wilt take away his life, for he is thy creation; and thou wilt make him live, for he is thy work. 8.14. If then thou wilt suddenly and quickly destroy him who with so great labor was fashioned by thy command, to what purpose was he made? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation. 13.57. Then I arose and walked in the field, giving great glory and praise to the Most High because of his wonders, which he did from time to time 14.27. Then I went as he commanded me, and I gathered all the people together, and said 14.28. Hear these words, O Israel 14.29. At first our fathers dwelt as aliens in Egypt, and they were delivered from there 14.30. and received the law of life, which they did not keep, which you also have transgressed after them. 14.31. Then land was given to you for a possession in the land of Zion; but you and your fathers committed iniquity and did not keep the ways which the Most High commanded you. 14.32. And because he is a righteous judge, in due time he took from you what he had given. 14.33. And now you are here, and your brethren are farther in the interior. 14.34. If you, then, will rule over your minds and discipline your hearts, you shall be kept alive, and after death you shall obtain mercy. 14.35. For after death the judgment will come, when we shall live again; and then the names of the righteous will become manifest, and the deeds of the ungodly will be disclosed. 14.36. But let no one come to me now, and let no one seek me for forty days.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 206
accursed/cursed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477, 708
acherusian sea (lake) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
adam, sin of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, humanity, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
angels, angelus interpres interpreting angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
angels, holy angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
angels, raguel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
angels, raphael Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
angels, uriel/ouriel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
angelus interpres; angelic guide Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 46, 48
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
arrogance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
authority, lack of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
blasphemy/blasphemers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334, 969
burial, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
burning, mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
burning, of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
burning, stars Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
chaos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
chariot, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
children/offspring, of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
complaint Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
cry Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
danger/peril Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
darkness, sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
day, of great judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477
dew Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
dry land Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
enoch, enochic literature Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
eschatology/eschatological, punishment/destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
ezra, vision of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
fear, of natural forces Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
fear Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477
fire Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 708
food, righteous as Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
fools/foolishness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
fruit, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
god, merciful Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
gods hand Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 206
gods wrath Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 206
hades Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 388
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
hands Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
heavens Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
help Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
hills Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
holy spirit Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 388
izates Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 206
jerusalem Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
jesus, descent into hell Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 388
joshua Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 206
journeys/voyages, heavenly, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
journeys/voyages, sea/maritime Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
labour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
land, dry Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
life / afterlife, earthly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
michael, mediator (intercessor), as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334, 969
mist Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
moses Jonquière, Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2007) 206
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
mouth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477
mystery Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
net/snare Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
noahide laws Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
paradise Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 46, 48, 51
pardes Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 46, 48, 51
peace, lack of for the sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
pseudepigrapha Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
purity and impurity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
rain Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
responsibility, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
resurrection, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
righteousness; righteous one; teacher of righteousness Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 46, 48
sand Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
satan, disguise (transformation) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
sealing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
seas, sea-farers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
seas, waves Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
seas Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477
seeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
seraphim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
ships Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
sin, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
sirach Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 388
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
stars, disobedient/wayward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 708
storms Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 477
suffering of the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
tree of wisdom Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 46, 48, 51
uriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334, 969
vision, ezra, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
voice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208, 477
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
washing, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
washing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 969
watchers (angels) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
waters' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 208
wind Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 334
wisdom (heavenly) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339