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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 26.1-26.6


nanAnd I went from thence to the middle of the earth, and I saw a blessed place in which there were


nantrees with branches abiding and blooming [of a dismembered tree]. And there I saw a holy mountain


nanand underneath the mountain to the east there was a stream and it flowed towards the south. And I saw towards the east another mountain higher than this, and between them a deep and narrow


nanravine: in it also ran a stream underneath the mountain. And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower than the former and of small elevation, and a ravine deep and dry between them: and another deep and dry ravine was at the extremities of the three mountains. And all the ravines were deep rand narrow, (being formed) of hard rock, and trees were not planted upon
NaN


nanthem. And I marveled at the rocks, and I marveled at the ravine, yea, I marveled very much.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.4, 28.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 28.30. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron’s heart, when he goeth in before the LORD; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.24, 6.1-6.4, 28.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 28.18. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 28.18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it."
3. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.28-2.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. וְאוּלָם אָנֹכִי מָלֵאתִי כֹחַ אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וּמִשְׁפָּט וּגְבוּרָה לְהַגִּיד לְיַעֲקֹב פִּשְׁעוֹ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 3.8. But I truly am full of power by the spirit of the LORD, and of justice, and of might, to declare unto Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 28.16, 59.21, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי יִסַּד בְּצִיּוֹן אָבֶן אֶבֶן בֹּחַן פִּנַּת יִקְרַת מוּסָד מוּסָּד הַמַּאֲמִין לֹא יָחִישׁ׃ 59.21. וַאֲנִי זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָם אָמַר יְהוָה רוּחִי אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ וּדְבָרַי אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְּפִיךָ לֹא־יָמוּשׁוּ מִפִּיךָ וּמִפִּי זַרְעֲךָ וּמִפִּי זֶרַע זַרְעֲךָ אָמַר יְהוָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 28.16. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, A tried stone, a costly corner-stone of sure foundation; He that believeth shall not make haste." 59.21. And as for Me, this is My covet with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and My words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 51.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

51.26. וְלֹא־יִקְחוּ מִמְּךָ אֶבֶן לְפִנָּה וְאֶבֶן לְמוֹסָדוֹת כִּי־שִׁמְמוֹת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 51.26. And they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, Nor a stone for foundations; But thou shalt be desolate for ever, saith the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.4, 1.13, 1.22, 1.27, 5.5 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ סְעָרָה בָּאָה מִן־הַצָּפוֹן עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב וּמִתּוֹכָהּ כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַל מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 1.13. וּדְמוּת הַחַיּוֹת מַרְאֵיהֶם כְּגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ בֹּעֲרוֹת כְּמַרְאֵה הַלַּפִּדִים הִיא מִתְהַלֶּכֶת בֵּין הַחַיּוֹת וְנֹגַהּ לָאֵשׁ וּמִן־הָאֵשׁ יוֹצֵא בָרָק׃ 1.22. וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 5.5. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה זֹאת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בְּתוֹךְ הַגּוֹיִם שַׂמְתִּיהָ וּסְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ אֲרָצוֹת׃ 1.4. And I looked, and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst thereof as the colour of electrum, out of the midst of the fire." 1.13. As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like coals of fire, burning like the appearance of torches; it flashed up and down among the living creatures; and there was brightness to the fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning." 1.22. And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 5.5. Thus saith the Lord GOD: This is Jerusalem! I have set her in the midst of the nations, and countries are round about her."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.2-1.4, 6.6, 9.8, 10.11, 12.4, 13.7-13.8, 14.5, 14.8-14.25, 15.1-15.7, 17.1-17.2, 17.4, 19.1, 21.1, 21.7, 22.1, 23.1, 24.4, 25.1, 25.4-25.5, 26.2-26.6, 27.4, 30.2-30.3, 32.2-32.4, 33.1, 36.1, 82.1-82.20, 83.1, 85.1, 90.42, 91.1-91.9, 91.18, 93.1-93.2, 94.1, 108.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which i 1.3. for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling 1.4. And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens. 6.6. by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn 10.11. that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselve 12.4. called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve 13.7. requests that they should have forgiveness and length. And I went off and sat down at the waters of Dan, in the land of Dan, to the south of the west of Hermon: I read their petition till I fell 13.8. asleep. And behold a dream came to me, and visions fell down upon me, and I saw visions of chastisement, and a voice came bidding (me) I to tell it to the sons of heaven, and reprimand them. 14.5. has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree 14.8. written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in 14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright 14.11. of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were 14.12. fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and it 14.13. portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there 14.14. were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked 14.15. and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater 14.16. than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to 14.17. you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path 14.18. of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 14.19. cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look 14.21. was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason 14.22. of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand time 14.23. ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were 14.24. nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: ' Come hither 14.25. Enoch, and hear my word.' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards. 15.1. And He answered and said to me, and I heard His voice: 'Fear not, Enoch, thou righteou 15.1. they shall be evil spirits on earth, and evil spirits shall they be called. [As for the spirits of heaven, in heaven shall be their dwelling, but as for the spirits of the earth which were born upon the earth, on the earth shall be their dwelling.] And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, destroy, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth, and cause trouble: they take no food, but neverthele 15.2. man and scribe of righteousness: approach hither and hear my voice. And go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent thee to intercede for them: 'You should intercede' for men, and not men 15.3. for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children 15.4. of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die 15.5. and perish. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget 15.6. children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. But you were formerly 15.7. piritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling. 17.1. And they took and brought me to a place in which those who were there were like flaming fire 17.2. and, when they wished, they appeared as men. And they brought me to the place of darkness, and to a mountain the point of whose summit reached to heaven. And I saw the places of the luminaries and the treasuries of the stars and of the thunder and in the uttermost depths, where were 17.4. a fiery bow and arrows and their quiver, and a fiery sword and all the lightnings. And they took 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in 21.1. I answered: 'Because of this fearful place, and because of the spectacle of the pain.' And he said unto me: 'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.' 21.7. the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of 22.1. And thence I went to another place, and he mountain [and] of hard rock. 22.1. water. And such has been made for sinners when they die and are buried in the earth and judgement has not been executed on them in their 24.4. in height, resembling the seat of a throne: and fragrant trees encircled the throne. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet smelt, neither was any amongst them nor were others like it: it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood wither not for ever: 25.1. And he said unto me: 'Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree 25.4. the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring (everything) to its consummation 25.5. for ever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King. 26.2. trees with branches abiding and blooming [of a dismembered tree]. And there I saw a holy mountain 26.3. and underneath the mountain to the east there was a stream and it flowed towards the south. And I saw towards the east another mountain higher than this, and between them a deep and narrow 26.4. ravine: in it also ran a stream underneath the mountain. And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower than the former and of small elevation, and a ravine deep and dry between them: and another deep and dry ravine was at the extremities of the three mountains. And all the ravines were deep rand narrow, (being formed) of hard rock, and trees were not planted upon 26.6. them. And I marveled at the rocks, and I marveled at the ravine, yea, I marveled very much. 27.4. In the days of judgement over the former, they shall bless Him for the mercy in accordance with 30.3. therein there was a tree, the colour () of fragrant trees such as the mastic. And on the sides of those valleys I saw fragrant cinnamon. And beyond these I proceeded to the east. 32.2. And thence I went over the summits of all these mountains, far towards the east of the earth, and passed above the Erythraean sea and went far from it, and passed over the angel Zotiel. And I came to the Garden of Righteousness 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4. That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 33.1. And from thence I went to the ends of the earth and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other; and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and voice, the one differing from the other. And to the east of those beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon the heaven 36.1. And from thence I went to the south to the ends of the earth, and saw there three open portal 82.1. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father's hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world. 82.1. And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 82.2. I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, [And thy children that shall be to thee], That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought. 82.2. in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida'ljal, Ke'el, and He'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions. 82.3. And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food. 82.4. Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which 82.5. lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them 82.6. accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days. 82.7. And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the 82.8. Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars 82.9. and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months. 82.12. the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between 82.13. leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki'el, Hel'emmelek, and Mel'ejal 82.14. and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar'el, and Ijasusa'el, and 'Elome'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam'aini and sun, and 82.16. all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka'el, Zelebs'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end. 82.18. The next leader after him is Hel'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the day 82.19. of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that i 83.1. And now, my son Methuselah, I will show thee all my visions which I have seen, recounting 83.1. destruction. After that I arose and prayed and implored and besought, and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, and I will show everything to thee, my son Methuselah. And when I had gone forth below and seen the heaven, and the sun rising in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgement and extolled Him because He had made the sun to go forth from the windows of the east, and he ascended and rose on the face of the heaven, and set out and kept traversing the path shown unto him. 90.42. be fulfilled, and all the deeds of men in their order were shown to me. On that night I remembered the first dream, and because of it I wept and was troubled-because I had seen that vision.Section V. XCI-CIV (i.e. XCII, XCI. 91.1. And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy brothers And gather together to me all the sons of thy mother; For the word calls me, And the spirit is poured out upon me, That I may show you everything That shall befall you for ever.' 91.1. And the righteous shall arise from their sleep, And wisdom shall arise and be given unto them. 91.2. And there upon Methuselah went and summoned to him all his brothers and assembled his relatives. 91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 91.4. Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion. 91.5. For I know that violence must increase on the earth, And a great chastisement be executed on the earth, And all unrighteousness come to an end:Yea, it shall be cut off from its roots, And its whole structure be destroyed. 91.6. And unrighteousness shall again be consummated on the earth, And all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence And transgression shall prevail in a twofold degree. 91.7. And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth. 91.8. In those days violence shall be cut off from its roots, And the roots of unrighteousness together with deceit, And they shall be destroyed from under heaven. 91.9. And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever. 91.18. And now I tell you, my sons, and show you The paths of righteousness and the paths of violence. Yea, I will show them to you again That ye may know what will come to pass. 93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 108.1. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him 108.1. found pure so that they should bless His name. And all the blessings destined for them I have recounted in the books. And he hath assigned them their recompense, because they have been found to be such as loved heaven more than their life in the world, and though they were trodden under foot of wicked men, and experienced abuse and reviling from them and were put to shame
9. Anon., Jubilees, 1.2-1.6, 1.27-1.29, 4.26, 8.19, 19.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them. 1.3. And Moses went up into the mount of God, and the glory of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud overshadowed it six days. brAnd He called to Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud 1.4. and the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a flaming fire on the top of the Mount. 1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history 1.6. of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony. 1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 4.26. And in the twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Ednî, the daughter of Dânêl, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth year in this week she bare him a son and he called his name Methuselah. 8.19. and his portion goeth towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extendeth till it reacheth the water of the abysses, out of which this river goeth forth 19.13. And Abraham took to himself a third wife, and her name was Keturah, from among the daughters of his household servants, for Hagar had died before Sarah.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.52. The city Jerusalem is situated in the very middle; on which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the Navel of the country. 3.52. Some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria.
11. Mishnah, Middot, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. The great gate had two small doors, one to the north and one to the south. By the one to the south no one ever went in, and concerning it was stated explicitly be Ezekiel, as it says, “And the Lord said to me: this gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, neither shall any man enter in by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered in by it; therefore it shall be shut” (Ezekiel 44:2). He [the priest] took the key and opened the [northern] door and went in to the cell, and from the cell he went into the Hekhal. Rabbi Judah says: he used to walk along in the thickness of the wall until he came to the space between the two gates. He would open the outer doors from within and the inner doors from without."
12. Mishnah, Parah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. One may not bring a sin-offering by virtue of [the purifications made for] another sin-offering, nor one child by virtue of [the preparations made for] another. The children had to be sprinkle on each other, the words of Rabbi Yose the Galilean. Rabbi Akiva says: they did not need to sprinkle."
13. Mishnah, Yoma, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. After the Ark had been taken away, there was a stone from the days of the earlier prophets, called “shtiyah”, three fingers above the ground, on which he would place [the pan of burning coals]."
14. New Testament, Acts, 2.16-2.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.16. But this is what has been spoken through the prophet Joel: 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.21. It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.'
15. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.1, 1.19, 4.1, 22.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. This is the Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things which must happen soon, which he sent and made known by his angel to his servant, John 1.19. Write therefore the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will happen hereafter; 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 22.6. He said to me, "These words are faithful and true. The Lord God of the spirits of the prophets sent his angel to show to his bondservants the things which must happen soon.
16. New Testament, Mark, 11.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.11. Jesus entered into the temple in Jerusalem. When he had looked around at everything, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.
17. New Testament, Matthew, 21.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.17. He left them, and went out of the city to Bethany, and lodged there.
18. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, 17.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

74b. בר אמוראי לאתויה ורגש ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיה ושדא זיקא דחלא ונחת נפק בת קלא אמר לן מאי אית לכו בהדי קרטליתא דדביתהו דר"ח בן דוסא דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בה לצדיקי לעלמא דאתי,רב יהודה הינדוא משתעי זימנא חדא הוה אזלינן בספינתא וחזינן ההוא אבן טבא דהוה הדיר לה תנינא נחית בר אמוראי לאתויה אתא תנינא קא בעי למבלע לה לספינתא אתא פישקנצא פסקיה לרישיה אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמא אתא תנינא חבריה שקליה ותליה ליה וחיה הדר אתא קא בעי בלעא לספינתא הדר אתא ציפרא פסקיה לרישיה שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא שדיוה לספינתא הוה הני ציפרי מליחי בהדן אותבינהו עלייהו שקלוה ופרחו להו בהדה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע שהיו באין בספינה והיה ר"א ישן ור' יהושע נעור נזדעזע ר' יהושע וננער ר"א אמר לו מה זה יהושע מפני מה נזדעזעת אמר לו מאור גדול ראיתי בים אמר לו שמא עיניו של לויתן ראית דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עיניו כעפעפי שחר,אמר רב אשי אמר לי הונא בר נתן זימנא חדא הוה קא אזלינן במדברא והואי אטמא דבשרא בהדן פתחנא ונקרינא ואנחנא אעשבי אדמייתינן ציבי חלם אטמא וטוינן כי הדרן לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא חזינהו להנהו גומרי דהוו קא מלחשי כי אתאי לקמיה דאמימר אמר לי ההוא עישבא סמתרי הוה הנהו גומרי דריתמא הוו,(בראשית א, כא) ויברא אלהים את התנינים הגדולים הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימא ר' יוחנן אמר זה לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) ביום ההוא יפקוד ה' בחרבו הקשה וגו':,(סימן כל שעה ירדן): אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקב"ה בעולמו זכר ונקבה בראם אף לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס את הזכר והרג הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) והרג את התנין אשר בים,ואף בהמות בהררי אלף זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס הזכר וצינן הנקבה ושמרה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (איוב מ, טז) הנה נא כחו במתניו זה זכר ואונו בשרירי בטנו זו נקבה,התם נמי ליסרסיה לזכר וליצננה לנקבה דגים פריצי וליעביד איפכא איבעית אימא נקבה מליחא מעלי איבעית אימא כיון דכתיב (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו בהדי נקבה לאו אורח ארעא הכא נמי לימלחה לנקבה כוורא מליחא מעלי בשרא מליחא לא מעלי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שביקש הקב"ה לבראות את העולם אמר לו לשר של ים פתח פיך ובלע כל מימות שבעולם אמר לפניו רבש"ע די שאעמוד בשלי מיד בעט בו והרגו שנאמר (איוב כו, יב) בכחו רגע הים ובתבונתו מחץ רהב,אמר ר' יצחק ש"מ שרו של ים רהב שמו ואלמלא מים מכסין אותו אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (ישעיהו יא, ט) לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי וגו' כמים לים מכסים אל תקרי לים מכסים אלא לשרה של ים מכסים,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס תניא נמי הכי ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס ומהלך בימה של סיבכי ובימה של טבריא ומתגלגל ויורד לים הגדול ומתגלגל ויורד עד שמגיע לפיו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כג) יבטח כי יגיח ירדן אל פיהו מתקיף לה רבא בר עולא האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב אלא אמר רבא בר עולא אימתי בהמות בהררי אלף בטוחות בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתן,(סימן ימים גבריאל רעב) כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים כד, ב) כי הוא על ימים יסדה ועל נהרות יכוננה אלו שבעה ימים וארבעה נהרות שמקיפין את ארץ ישראל ואלו הן שבעה ימים ימה של טבריא וימה של סדום וימה של חילת וימה של חילתא וימה של סיבכי וים אספמיא וים הגדול ואלו הן ארבעה נהרות ירדן וירמוך וקירומיון ופיגה,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יונתן עתיד גבריאל לעשות 74b. i.e., ba diver [ ibar amoraei /i]went into the water bto bringup this chest, bandthe fish bbecame angry and sought to sever his thigh, butthe diver bthrewupon it ba flask of vinegar and they descendedand swam away. bA Divine Voice emergedand bsaid to us: Whatright bdo you have totouch bthe crate of the wife of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, as she is destined to insert sky-bluewool bin it tobe used in the ritual fringes of bthe righteous in the World-to-Come? /b, bRav Yehuda from India relates: Once we were traveling in a ship and we saw a certain precious stone that was encircled by a snake. A diver descended to bring itup, and the bsnake came and sought to swallow the ship. A raven cameand bcut off its head,and bthe water turned into blooddue to the enormousness of the snake. bAnother snake came, tookthe precious stone, band hung iton the dead snake, band it recovered. It returnedand again bsought to swallow the ship,and yet again ba bird came and cut off its head, took that precious stone,and bthrew it onto the ship. We had with us these salted birds; we placedthe stone bon them,and bthey tookthe stone band flew away with it. /b,§ Apropos the stories of large sea creatures, the Gemara discusses the large sea creatures mentioned in the Bible. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, who were traveling on a ship, and Rabbi Eliezer was sleeping and Rabbi Yehoshua was awake. Rabbi Yehoshua trembled, and Rabbi Eliezer awoke.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: What is this, Yehoshua; for whatreason bdid you tremble?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: I saw a great light in the sea.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Perhaps you saw the eyes of the leviathan, as it is written: “And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning”(Job 41:10)., bRav Ashi said: Huna bar Natan said to me: Once we were traveling in the desert, and we had a thigh of meat with us. We cut openthe thigh band toreoff the sciatic nerve and the forbidden fat band put it on the grass. Bythe time bthat we brought wood, the thigh had repaireditself, band we roasted it. When we returnedto that place bafter twelve monthsof bthe yearhad passed, bwe saw that those coals were still glowing. When I came before Ameimar, he said to me: That grass was a drug of life [ isamterei /i],while bthose coals were of broom. /b,The verse states: b“And God created the great sea monsters”(Genesis 1:21). bHere,in Babylonia, bthey interpretedthis as a reference to the bsea oryx. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent, as it is stated: “In that day the Lord with His soreand great and strong bswordwill punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent” (Isaiah 27:1).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the following statements of Rav Yehuda citing Rav: bEverything; time; Jordan. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He created male and female. Even leviathan the slant serpent and leviathan the tortuous serpent He created male and female. And if they would have coupledand produced offspring, they would have bdestroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and killed the female, and saltedthe female to preserve it for the banquet bfor the righteous in the future. As it is stated: “And He will slay the serpent that is in the sea”(Isaiah 27:1)., bAnd He created even the beasts on the thousand hills(see Psalms 50:10) bmale and female. Andthey were so enormous that bif they would have coupledand produced offspring, bthey would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and cooledthe sexual desire of bthe female and preserved it for the righteous in the future. As it is statedabout the beasts: b“Lo now, his strength is in his loins”(Job 40:16); bthisis referring to the bmale.The continuation of the verse: b“And his force is in the stays of his body”; thisis the bfemale,alluding to the idea that they did not use their genitals for the purpose of procreation.,The Gemara asks: bThere too,with regard to the leviathan, blet Him castrate the male and cool the female;why was it necessary to kill the female? The Gemara answers: bFish are unrestrained,and therefore even if the female was cooled, the female would still procreate. The Gemara suggests: bAnd let Him do the opposite,and kill and preserve the male leviathan. The Gemara responds: bIf you wish, saythat the bsalted female is better; if you wish, sayinstead bthatsince bit is written: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26), the male must be left alive for sport, because it is bnot proper conductto sport bwith a female.The Gemara asks: bHere too,with regard to the beasts, blet Himpreserve the bfemale in salt,instead of cooling it. The Gemara answers: bSalted fish is good,but bsalted meat is not good. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create the world, He said to the minister of the sea: Open your mouth and swallow all the waters of the world,so that there will be room for land. The minister of the sea bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,it is benough that I will stay within my ownwaters. God bimmediately struck him and killed him; as it is stated: “He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His understanding He smites through Rahab”(Job 26:12)., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Conclude from herethat bthe name of the minister of the sea is Rahab, and were it not for watersof the sea that bcover him, no creature could withstand his smell,as his corpse emits a terrible stench. bAs it is stated: “They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain;for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, bas the waters cover the sea”(Isaiah 11:9). bDo not readthis phrase as b“cover the sea”; ratherread it as: bCover the minister of the sea,i.e., the term sea is referring to the minister of the sea, not to the sea itself., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas. That is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas, and travels in the Sea of Sivkhi,i.e., the Hula Lake, band in the Sea of Tiberias,the Sea of Galilee, band rolls down to the Great Sea, and rolls down until it reaches the mouth of the leviathan. As it is stated: “He is confident, though the Jordan rush forth to his mouth”(Job 40:23). bRava bar Ulla strongly objects to thisexplanation of the verse, stating: But bthisverse bis written about the beasts on the thousand hills. Rather, Rava bar Ulla saidthat this is the meaning of the verse: bWhen are the beasts on the thousand hills confident? When the Jordan rushes forth into the mouth of the leviathan. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the upcoming statements of Rav Dimi: bSeas; Gabriel; hungry. When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods”(Psalms 24:2)? bThese arethe bseven seas and four rivers that surround Eretz Yisrael. And these arethe bseven seas: The Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Sodom,i.e., the Dead Sea, bthe Sea of Ḥeilat, the Sea of Ḥeilata, the Sea of Sivkhi, the Sea of Aspamya, and the Great Sea,i.e., the Mediterranean. bAnd these are the four rivers: The Jordan, the Jarmuth, and the Keiromyon, and the Piga,which are the rivers of Damascus., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yonatan says: In the future, Gabriel will perform /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. bAnyone who prolongs his prayer and expects itto be answered, bwill ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are:Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an binclined wallthat is about to collapse, bexpecting prayerto be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, band passing a case against another to Heaven,as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult. This,where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one bexpectshis prayer to be accepted, bwhile this,where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does bnot expecthis prayer to be accepted. bHow does heprolong his prayer? By bincreasinghis bsupplication. /b,As for the virtue of bprolonging one’smealtime at the btable,which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: bPerhaps a poor person will comeduring the meal and the host will be in a position to bgive himfood immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, bas it is written: “The altar, three cubits highand the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), band it is writtenin the continuation of that verse: b“And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.”The language of this verse is difficult, as it bbegins with the altar and concludes with the table.Rather, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’stransgressions. bNowthat it is destroyed, ba person’s table atones for histransgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of bone who prolongshis time bin the bathroom,the Gemara asks: bIs that a virtue? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTen things bring a person tosuffer from bhemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal,as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, bthe spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay,the materials from which earthenware is made, band one who wipes himself with a stone with which anotherperson bwiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well.This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where bone prolongshis time there band suspendshimself, while bthisstatement of Rav Yehuda refers to where bone prolongshis time there band does not suspendhimself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. bLike thatincident bwhen a matron [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face isfat and full, blikethe faces of bpig farmers and usurerswho do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. bHe said to her: Honestly, those twooccupations bare prohibited to me; rather,why is it that my face is nice? Because bthere are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk Istop and bexamine myself in all of them. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who isinvited and bgiven the Torah scroll to read and he does not read,one who is given ba cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority. /b,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the bTorah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is writtenof the Torah: b“It is your life and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bA cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you”(Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. bAndwith regard to bone who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers,as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? bBecause he conducted himself withan air of bsuperiority,and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Threematters brequirea plea for bmercyto bring them about: bA good king, a good year, and a good dream.These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bA good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses:He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A bgood year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year”(Deuteronomy 11:12). And a bgood dream, as it is written:“O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore bYou will recover me [ ivataḥlimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word itaḥlimeniis interpreted as deriving from the word iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader.The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bFamine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine;and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). bPlenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you”(Ezekiel 36:29). And ba good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the communityand they agree to the appointment, bas it is stated:“And Moses said unto the children of Israel: bSee, the Lord has called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). bThe Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalela bsuitableappointment in byoureyes? Moses bsaid to Him: Master of the universe, if he isa bsuitableappointment in bYoureyes, bthen all the more soin bmyeyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Nevertheless, go and tellIsrael and ask their opinion. Moses bwent and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitablein byoureyes? bThey said to him: If he is suitablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, andin byoureyes, ball the more sohe is suitable in boureyes., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was calledby that name bon account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 31:7–11), bMoses went and reversedthe order band toldBezalel: b“Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle”(see Exodus 25–26). bHe said toMoses: bMoses, our teacher, thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba person builds a house andonly bafterward places the vesselsin the house, band you sayto me: bMake an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle.If I do so in the order you have commanded, bthe vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 36). Moses bsaid toBezalel: bPerhaps you were in God’s shadow [ ibetzel El /i], and you knewprecisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Bezalel knewhow bto jointhe bletters with which heaven and earth were created.From where do we derive this? bIt is written herein praise of Bezalel: b“And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); band it is written therewith regard to creation of heaven and earth: b“The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens”(Proverbs 3:19), band it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew”(Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one whoalready bpossesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding”(Daniel 2:21). bRav Taḥalifa, from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bheardthis band repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: You learnedproof for this idea bfrom there; we learn it from here: As it is writtenin praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b“And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom”(Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. bRav Ḥisda said:One should see bany dream, and not a fast.In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read.As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream,as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him.This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, bRav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it.Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him”(Ecclesiastes 3:14), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dreamthat causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b“The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: bWhat do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grainto grow bwithout straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters.Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, bRabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do wederive this? bFromthe story of bJoseph’sdream, bas it is written:“And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: band, behold, the sun and the moon /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. אשה היתה בוררת חטים לאור של בית השואבה:,חסידים ואנשי מעשה כו': ת"ר יש מהן אומרים אשרי ילדותנו שלא ביישה את זקנותנו אלו חסידים ואנשי מעשה ויש מהן אומרים אשרי זקנותנו שכפרה את ילדותנו אלו בעלי תשובה אלו ואלו אומרים אשרי מי שלא חטא ומי שחטא ישוב וימחול לו,תניא אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן כשהיה שמח בשמחת בית השואבה אמר כן אם אני כאן הכל כאן ואם איני כאן מי כאן הוא היה אומר כן למקום שאני אוהב שם רגלי מוליכות אותי אם תבא אל ביתי אני אבא אל ביתך אם אתה לא תבא אל ביתי אני לא אבא אל ביתך שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבא אליך וברכתיך,אף הוא ראה גלגולת אחת שצפה על פני המים אמר לה על דאטפת אטפוך ומטיפיך יטופון אמר רבי יוחנן רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,הנהו תרתי כושאי דהוו קיימי קמי שלמה (מלכים א ד, ג) אליחרף ואחיה בני שישא סופרים דשלמה הוו יומא חד חזייה למלאך המות דהוה קא עציב א"ל אמאי עציבת א"ל דקא בעו מינאי הני תרתי כושאי דיתבי הכא מסרינהו לשעירים שדרינהו למחוזא דלוז כי מטו למחוזא דלוז שכיבו,למחר חזיא מלאך המות דהוה קבדח א"ל אמאי בדיחת א"ל באתר דבעו מינאי תמן שדרתינהו מיד פתח שלמה ואמר רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,תניא אמרו עליו על רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כשהיה שמח שמחת בית השואבה היה נוטל שמנה אבוקות של אור וזורק אחת ונוטל אחת ואין נוגעות זו בזו וכשהוא משתחוה נועץ שני גודליו בארץ ושוחה ונושק את הרצפה וזוקף ואין כל בריה יכולה לעשות כן וזו היא קידה,לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע והא גרמא ליה והאמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי הא והא גרמא ליה,לוי הוה מטייל קמיה דרבי בתמני סכיני שמואל קמיה שבור מלכא בתמניא מזגי חמרא אביי קמיה (דרבא) בתמניא ביעי ואמרי לה בארבעה ביעי,תניא אמר ר' יהושע בן חנניה כשהיינו שמחים שמחת בית השואבה לא ראינו שינה בעינינו כיצד שעה ראשונה תמיד של שחר משם לתפלה משם לקרבן מוסף משם לתפלת המוספין משם לבית המדרש משם לאכילה ושתיה משם לתפלת המנחה משם לתמיד של בין הערבים מכאן ואילך לשמחת בית השואבה,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן שבועה שלא אישן שלשה ימים מלקין אותו וישן לאלתר אלא הכי קאמר לא טעמנו טעם שינה דהוו מנמנמי אכתפא דהדדי:,חמש עשרה מעלות: אמר ליה רב חסדא לההוא מדרבנן דהוי קמסדר אגדתא קמיה א"ל שמיע לך הני חמש עשרה מעלות כנגד מי אמרם דוד א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעי למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד חמש עשרה מעלות והורידן אי הכי חמש עשרה מעלות יורדות מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה הואיל ואדכרתן (מלתא) הכי אתמר בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעא למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד מי איכא דידע אי שרי למכתב שם 53a. It was so bright that ba woman wouldbe able to bsort wheat by the light of theCelebration of the bPlace of the Drawingof the Water.,§ The mishna continues: bThe pious and the men of actionwould dance before the people who attended the celebration. bThe Sages taughtin the iToseftathat bsome of them would sayin their song praising God: bHappy is our youth,as we did not sin then, bthat did not embarrass our old age. These are the pious and the men of action,who spent all their lives engaged in Torah and mitzvot. bAnd some would say: Happy is our old age, that atoned for our youthwhen we sinned. bThese are the penitents.Both bthese and those say: Happy is he who did not sin; and he who sinned should repent andGod bwill absolve him. /b, bIt is taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThey said about Hillel the Elder that when he was rejoicing at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bhe said this: If I am here, everyone is here; and if I am not here, who is here?In other words, one must consider himself as the one upon whom it is incumbent to fulfill obligations, and he must not rely on others to do so. bHe wouldalso bsay this: To the place that I love, there my feet take me,and therefore, I come to the Temple. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: bIf you come to My house, I will come to your house; if you do not come to My house, I will not come to your house, as it is stated: “In every place that I cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you”(Exodus 20:21).,The Gemara cites another statement of Hillel the Elder. bAdditionally, he saw one skull that was floating on the waterand bhe said to it: Because you drownedothers, bthey drowned you, and those that drowned you will be drowned.That is the way of the world; everyone is punished measure for measure. Apropos following one’s feet, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bthese two Cushites who would stand before Solomon: “Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha”(I Kings 4:3), and bthey were scribes of Solomon. One daySolomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was sad. He said to him: Why are you sad? He said to him: They are asking meto take the lives of bthese two Cushites who are sitting here.Solomon bhanded them to the demonsin his service, band sent them to the district of Luz,where the Angel of Death has no dominion. bWhen they arrived at the district of Luz, they died. /b, bThe following day,Solomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was happy. He said to him: Why are you happy? He replied: In the place that they asked meto take them, bthere you sent them.The Angel of Death was instructed to take their lives in the district of Luz. Since they resided in Solomon’s palace and never went to Luz, he was unable to complete his mission. That saddened him. Ultimately, Solomon dispatched them to Luz, enabling the angel to accomplish his mission. That pleased him. bImmediately, Solomon beganto speak band said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he would rejoice at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bhe would take eight flaming torches and toss one and catch another,juggling them, band,though all were in the air at the same time, bthey would not touch each other. And when he would prostrate himself, he would insert his two thumbs into the ground, and bow, and kiss the floorof the courtyard band straighten, andthere was bnot anyother bcreaturethat bcould do thatdue to the extreme difficulty involved. bAnd this was theform of bowing called ikidda /iperformed by the High Priest.,The Gemara relates: bLevi demonstrated a ikiddabefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi and strained his thigh band came up lame.The Gemara asks: bAnd is that what caused himto be lame? bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One should never speak impertinently towardGod babove; as a great persononce bspoke impertinently towardGod babove,and even though his prayers were answered, he was still punished band came up lame. And whowas this great person? It was bLevi.Apparently his condition was not caused by his bow. The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction. Both bthis and that caused himto come up lame; because he spoke impertinently toward God, he therefore was injured when exerting himself in demonstrating ikidda /i.,Apropos the rejoicing of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, the Gemara recounts: bLevi would walk before RabbiYehuda HaNasi juggling bwith eight knives. Shmuelwould juggle bbefore King Shapur with eight glasses of winewithout spilling. bAbayewould juggle bbefore Rabba with eight eggs. Some sayhe did so bwith four eggs.All these were cited., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said: When we would rejoicein bthe Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwe did not see sleep in our eyesthe entire Festival. bHow so?In the bfirst hourof the day, bthe daily morning offeringwas sacrificed and everyone came to watch. bFrom therethey proceeded btoengage in bprayerin the synagogue; bfrom there, towatch the sacrifice of bthe additional offerings; from there,to the synagogue btorecite bthe additional prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the study hallto study Torah; bfrom there to the eating and drinkingin the isukka /i; bfrom there to the afternoon prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the daily afternoon offeringin the Temple. bFrom thispoint bforward,they proceeded bto the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The Gemara wonders: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One who took ban oath that I will not sleep three days, one flogs himimmediately for taking an oath in vain, band hemay bsleep immediatelybecause it is impossible to stay awake for three days uninterrupted. bRather, this is whatRabbi Yehoshua bis saying: We did not experience the sense ofactual bsleep, because they wouldmerely bdoze on each other’s shoulders.In any case, they were not actually awake for the entire week.,§ The mishna continues: The musicians would stand on the bfifteen stairsthat descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms. bRav Ḥisda said to one of the Sages who was organizing iaggadabefore him: Did you hearwith regard to bthese fifteenSongs of bAscentsin Psalms, bcorresponding to what did David say them? He said to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa said: At the time that David dug the drainpipesin the foundation of the Temple, the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world.Immediately, bDavid recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and caused them to subside.Rav Ḥisda asked: bIf so,should they be called bfifteenSongs of the bAscents? They should have beencalled Songs of the bDescents. /b,Rav Ḥisda continued and bsaid to him: Since you reminded meof this bmatter, this iswhat bwasoriginally bstated: At the time that David dug the drainpipes,the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world. David said: Is there anyone who knows whether it is permitted to write thesacred bname /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. בברייתו של עולם,ת"ר א"י נבראת תחילה וכל העולם כולו נברא לבסוף שנאמר (משלי ח, כו) עד לא עשה ארץ וחוצות א"י משקה אותה הקב"ה בעצמו וכל העולם כולו ע"י שליח שנאמר (איוב ה, י) הנותן מטר על פני ארץ ושולח מים על פני חוצות,א"י שותה מי גשמים וכל העולם כולו מתמצית שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' א"י שותה תחילה וכל העולם כולו לבסוף שנאמר הנותן מטר על פני ארץ וגו' משל לאדם שמגבל את הגבינה נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,אמר מר ממתקין הן בעבים מנליה דא"ר יצחק בר יוסף א"ר יוחנן כתיב (תהלים יח, יב) חשכת מים עבי שחקים וכתיב (שמואל ב כב, יב) חשרת מים עבי שחקים,שקול כף ושדי אריש וקרי ביה חכשרת,ור' יהושע בהני קראי מאי דריש בהו סבר לה כי הא דכי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא נהור ענני זעירין מוהי חשוך ענני סגיין מוהי,כמאן אזלא הא דתניא מים העליונים במאמר הם תלוים ופירותיהן מי גשמים שנאמר (תהלים קד, יג) מפרי מעשיך תשבע הארץ כמאן כר' יהושע ור' אליעזר ההוא במעשה ידיו של הקב"ה הוא דכתיב,אריב"ל כל העולם כולו מתמצית גן עדן הוא שותה שנאמר (בראשית ב, י) ונהר יוצא מעדן וגו' תנא מתמצית בית כור שותה תרקב:,ת"ר ארץ מצרים הויא ד' מאות פרסה על ד' מאות פרסה והוא אחד מששים בכוש וכוש אחד מששים בעולם ועולם א' מששים בגן וגן אחד מששים לעדן ועדן אחד מס' לגיהנם נמצא כל העולם כולו ככיסוי קדרה לגיהנם וי"א גיהנם אין לה שיעור וי"א עדן אין לה שיעור,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, יג) שוכנת על מים רבים רבת אוצרות מי גרם לבבל שיהו אוצרותיה מליאות בר הוי אומר מפני ששוכנת על מים רבים אמר רב עתירה בבל דחצדא בלא מיטרא אמר אביי נקיטינן טובעני ולא יובשני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בג' במרחשון שואלין את הגשמים רבן גמליאל אומר בשבעה בו ט"ו יום אחר החג כדי שיגיע אחרון שבישראל לנהר פרת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבן גמליאל תניא חנניה אומר ובגולה עד ששים בתקופה אמר רב הונא בר חייא אמר שמואל הלכה כחנניה,איני והא בעו מיניה משמואל מאימת מדכרינן ותן טל ומטר אמר להו מכי מעיילי ציבי לבי טבות רישבא דילמא אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא,איבעיא להו יום ששים כלפני ששים או כלאחר ששים ת"ש רב אמר יום ששים כלאחר ששים ושמואל אמר יום ששים כלפני ששים,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק וסימנך עילאי בעו מיא תתאי לא בעו מיא אמר רב פפא הלכתא יום ששים כלאחר ששים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיע י"ז במרחשון ולא ירדו גשמים התחילו היחידים מתענין ג' תעניות אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה הגיע ר"ח כסליו ולא ירדו גשמים ב"ד גוזרין שלש תעניות על הצבור אוכלין ושותין משחשיכה ומותרין במלאכה וברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאן יחידים אמר רב הונא רבנן ואמר רב הונא יחידים מתענין שלשה תעניות שני וחמישי ושני,מאי קמשמע לן תנינא אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחילה בחמישי שלא להפקיע את השערים אלא שלש תעניות הראשונות שני וחמישי ושני,מהו דתימא הני מילי צבור אבל יחיד לא קמשמע לן תניא נמי הכי כשהתחילו היחידים להתענות מתענין שני וחמישי ושני ומפסיקין בראשי חדשים 10a. verse deals bwith the creation of the world,when all the water was contained in the deep., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEretz Yisrael was created first and the rest of the entire world was created afterward, as it is stated: “While as yet He had not made the land, nor the fields”(Proverbs 8:26). Here, and in the following statements, the term “land” is understood as a reference to the Land of Israel, while “the fields” means all the fields in other lands. Furthermore, bEretz Yisrael is watered by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself, and the rest of the entire worldis watered bthrough an intermediary, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the land, and sends water upon the fields”(Job 5:10).,Additionally, bEretz Yisrael drinks rainwater andthe rest of bthe entire worlddrinks bfromthe remaining bresidueof rainwater left in the clouds, bas it is statedthat God is He b“who gives rain upon the land”and only afterward takes what is left “and sends water upon the fields.” bEretz Yisrael drinks first, andthe rest of bthe entire world afterward, as it is stated: “Who gives rain upon the landand sends water upon the fields.” There is ba parablethat illustrates this: bA personwho bkneadshis bcheeseafter it has curdled btakes the food and leaves the refuse. /b, bThe Master saidabove: The ocean waters bare sweetened in the clouds.The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredoes Rabbi Eliezer derive bthis?The Gemara answers bthat Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat bit is written: “Darkness [ iḥeshkhat /i] of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). bAnd it is written,in a similar verse: b“Gathering of [ iḥashrat /i] waters, thick clouds of the skies”(II Samuel 22:12).,The Gemara explains the significance of this minor variation. These two phrases vary in only one word, which themselves differ by only one letter, a ikaffor a ireish /i. If you join the two versions together, and btakethe letter ikaf /ifrom the first version bandplace it bwiththe second version of the word, which has ba ireish /i,you can bread intothe verse a new word meaning brendering fit [ iḥakhsharat /i].Accordingly, the verse can be interpreted as: The rendering fit of water is performed in the clouds of the sky.,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua,with regard bto these verses, whatdoes he learn from bthem?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehoshua bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bthisSage, Rav Dimi. bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat bthey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael: When bclouds are bright, they have little water;when bclouds are dark, they have much water.Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua explains that when there is “a darkness of waters” in the clouds, there is also “a gathering of waters,” as rain will fall from them.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe upper watersdo not stand in any defined place; rather, they are bsuspended bythe bwordof God, band their fruit is rainwater, as it is stated:“Who waters the mountains from His upper chambers; bthe earth is full of the fruit of Your works”(Psalms 104:13). bIn accordance with whoseopinion is this statement? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua. And Rabbi Eliezer,how does he explain this verse? Rabbi Eliezer could say: bThatverse from Psalms bis written with regard to the handiwork of the Holy One, Blessed be He,not the upper waters., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The entire world drinks from the runoff of the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “And a river went out of Edento water the garden” (Genesis 2:10). It was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom the runoff of a ibeit kor /i,a field in which a ikorof seed can be planted, which is approximately seventy-five thousand square cubits, a field in which ba half- ise’a[ itarkav /i],of seed can be sown, i.e. one-sixtieth the size of a ibeit kor /i, bcan be watered.If the runoff from a ibeit koris sufficient for a field one-sixtieth its size, it can be inferred that the rest of the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The area of the bland of Egypt is four hundred parasangs [ iparsa /i] by four hundred parasangs. Andthis bis one sixtieththe size bof Cush, and Cushitself bis one sixtieththe size bofthe rest of bthe world. And the world is one sixtieth of the Gardenof Eden, band the Gardenof Eden bis one sixtieth of Edenitself, band Eden is one sixtieth of Gehenna.You bfindthat bthe entire world is like a pot cover for Gehenna,as Eden, which is far larger than the rest of the world, is only one sixtieth the size of Gehenna. bAnd some say: Gehenna has no measure. And some saythat bEden has no measure. /b, bRabbi Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenabout Babylonia: b“You who dwells on many waters, abundant in storehouses”(Jeremiah 51:13)? bWhat caused Babylonia to have storehouses full of grain? You must saythat it is bdue tothe fact that bit resides on many waters,the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers, which render its land easy to irrigate. Similarly, bRav said: Babylonia is wealthy sinceit can bgrow cropsfor harvest beven without rain. Abaye said: We holdthat it is better for a land to be bswampylike Babylonia, band not dry,as crops in Babylonia grow all year., strongMISHNA: /strong bOn the third ofthe month of bMarḥeshvanone starts to brequest rainby inserting the phrase: And give dew and rain, in the blessing of the years, the ninth blessing of the iAmida /i. bRabban Gamliel says:One starts to request rain bon the seventh ofMarḥeshvan, which is bfifteen days after the festivalof iSukkot /i. Rabban Gamliel explains that one waits these extra four days bso thatthe blastpilgrim bof the Jewish people,who traveled to Jerusalem on foot for the Festival, bcan reach the Euphrates Riverwithout being inconvenienced by rain on his journey home., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Elazar said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabban Gamliel,that one does not begin to request rain until the seventh of Marḥeshvan. It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bḤaya says: And in the Diasporaone does not begin to request rain buntil sixtydays binto the season,i.e., sixty days after the autumnal equinox. bRav Huna bar Ḥiyya saidthat bShmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But they raised a dilemma before Shmuel: From when does one mention: And give dew and rain? He said to them: From when they bring wood into the house of Tavut the bird hunter [ irishba /i].This is apparently a different date than that mentioned by Ḥaya. The Gemara suggests: bPerhaps this and that are one measureof time, i.e., Shmuel merely provided a sign of sixty days after the autumnal equinox., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the bsixtieth dayitself treated as part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtiethday boris it included binthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday? The Gemara answers. bComeand bhearthat there is a dispute in this regard. bRav said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, band Shmuel said:The bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bbeforethe bsixtieth. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonicto remember the divergent opinions is: bThose above require water; those below do not require water.Since water flows downward, those who live in low places receive their water from above and are generally in less need of additional water. Accordingly, Shmuel, who lived in the lowlands of Babylonia, ruled that one begins to request for rain later, whereas Rav, who studied in Eretz Yisrael, which is higher in elevation and has a greater need for rain, stated an earlier date. bRav Pappa said: The ihalakhaisthat the bsixtieth dayis part bofthe period bafterthe bsixtiethday, as stated by bRav,and therefore one begins to mention the request for rain on the sixtieth day after the autumnal equinox., strongMISHNA: /strong If the bseventeenth of Marḥeshvan arrived and rain has not fallen, individuals,but not the entire community, bbegin to fast three fastsfor rain. How are these fasts conducted? As the fast begins in the morning, one bmay eat and drink after dark, and one is permittedduring the days of the fasts themselves to engage binthe performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearing oilon one’s body, bin wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations.If the bNew Moon of Kislev arrived and rain hasstill bnot fallen,the bcourt decrees three fasts on theentire bcommunity.Similar to the individual fasts, everyone bmay eat and drink after dark, and they are permitted toengage in the performance of bwork, in bathing, in smearingone’s body bwith oil, in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWho arethese bindividualsmentioned in the mishna? bRav Huna said:This is referring to bthe Sages,who are held to a higher standard and are expected to undertake fasts even when ordinary people do not. bAnd Rav Hunafurther said: The bindividualswho bfastthe bthree fastsdo so bon a Monday, andon the next bThursday, andagain on the following bMonday. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isRav Huna bteaching us? Wealready blearnedthis (15b): The court bmay not decree a fast on the community starting from a Thursday, so as not to cause an increase in prices. Rather,the bfirst three fastsare established on bMonday, and Thursday, and Monday.What does Rav Huna’s statement add to this ruling?,The Gemara answers: Rav Huna’s comment is necessary, blest you saythat bthis appliesonly to ba community, butthat in the case of ban individual, no,the series of three fasts does not have to start on a Monday. bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to those mentioned in the mishna: bWhen the individuals begin to fast, they fast on a Monday, a Thursday, and a Monday. Andif one of the fast days occurs on a day with special observances, bthey interruptthe sequence bfor New Moons, /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53b. אמרו ליה לרב יוסף הכי עביד רבא אמר ליה יהא רעוא דתרום רישך אכולה כרכא,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום אמר ליה רב מרדכי כיון שפסע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו התם איבעיא ליה למיקם משל לתלמיד הנפטר מרבו אם חוזר לאלתר דומה לכלב ששב על קיאו,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום ואם לא עשה כן ראוי לו שלא התפלל ומשום שמעיה אמרו שנותן שלום לימין ואחר כך לשמאל שנאמר (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו ואומר (תהלים צא, ז) יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,מאי ואומר וכי תימא אורחא דמילתא היא למיתב בימין ת"ש יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,רבא חזייה לאביי דיהיב שלמא לימינא ברישא א"ל מי סברת לימין דידך לשמאל דידך קא אמינא דהוי ימינו של הקב"ה אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דפסעי להו שלש פסיעות בכריעה אחת,ומתפלל תפלה קצרה בבית החיצון מאי מצלי רבא בר רב אדא ורבין בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב אמרי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא שנה זו גשומה ושחונה שחונה מעליותא היא אלא אימא אם שחונה תהא גשומה,רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודה ולא יהיו עמך ישראל צריכין לפרנס זה מזה ולא תכנס לפניך תפלת עוברי דרכים,רבי חנינא בן דוסא הוה קא אזיל באורחא שדא מטרא עליה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בנחת וחנינא בצער פסק מיטרא כי אתא לביתיה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בצער וחנינא בנחת אתא מיטרא א"ר יוסף מאי אהניא ליה צלותיה דכהן גדול לגבי ר' חנינא בן דוסא,תנו רבנן מעשה בכהן גדול אחד שהאריך בתפלתו ונמנו אחיו הכהנים ליכנס אחריו התחילו הם נכנסין והוא יוצא אמרו לו מפני מה הארכת בתפלתך אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שהתפללתי עליכם ועל בית המקדש שלא יחרב אמרו לו אל תהי רגיל לעשות כן שהרי שנינו לא היה מאריך בתפלתו כדי שלא להבעית את ישראל, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משניטל ארון אבן היתה שם מימות נביאים ראשונים ושתייה היתה נקראת גבוה מן הארץ שלש אצבעות ועליה היה נותן נטל את הדם ממי שהיה ממרס בו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה,ולא היה מתכוון להזות לא למעלה ולא למטה אלא כמצליף וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים אחת ושלש אחת וארבע אחת וחמש אחת ושש אחת ושבע יצא והניחו על כן הזהב שבהיכל,הביאו לו את השעיר שחטו וקבל במזרק את דמו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים וכו' יצא והניחו על כן הזהב השני שבהיכל רבי יהודה אומר לא היה שם אלא כן אחד בלבד נטל דם הפר והניח דם השעיר,והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה ולא היה מתכוון וכו' וכך היה מונה וכו' נטל דם השעיר והניח דם הפר והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכו' עירה דם הפר לתוך דם השעיר ונתן את המלא בריקן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big משנגנז לא קתני אלא משניטל תנן כמאן דאמר ארון גלה לבבל דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה',רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (ישעיהו לט, ו) לא יותר דבר אמר ה' אלו עשרת הדברות שבו,רבי יהודה (בן לקיש) אומר ארון במקומו נגנז שנאמר (מלכים א ח, ח) ויראו ראשי הבדים מן הקדש על פני הדביר ולא יראו החוצה ויהיו שם עד היום הזה,ופליגא דעולא דאמר עולא שאל רבי מתיא בן חרש את רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ברומי וכי מאחר שרבי אליעזר מלמדנו פעם ראשונה ושניה ארון גלה לבבל ראשונה הא דאמרן (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה' שניה מאי היא דכתיב (איכה א, ו) ויצא מבת ציון 53b. bThey said to Rav Yosef: This is what Rava does.Rav Yosef was blind and could not see for himself. Rav Yosef bsaid to him: May it beGod’s bwill that you lift your head over the entire city,in reward for honoring your teacher.,§ Apropos the obligation of a student to walk backward when taking leave of his teacher, the Gemara discusses a similar topic. bRabbi Alexandri saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace,in a manner befitting one who departs from before the Holy One, Blessed be He. bRav Mordekhai said to him: Since he has taken three steps backward, he should stand thereand not return to his place immediately. This is banalogous to a student who takes leave of his teacher. If he returns immediatelyto the place where was first standing, bhe is similar to a dog who returns to its vomit,and his previous action is spoiled.,The Gemara comments that bthis was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must take three steps backwardupon concluding his prayer band then recite: Peace. And if he did not do so, it is better for him not to have prayed,as his actions are disrespectful toward God. bAnd they said in the name of Shemayathe Sage bthatwhen bone recites: Peace,he first bows bto the right and then to the left, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law to them”(Deuteronomy 33:2), band it says: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side”(Psalms 91:7).,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe reason for: bAnd it says?Why is it necessary to cite another source? The Gemara explains: bIf you saythat bit ismerely bthe usual manner to givean object bwith the righthand, but this bears no special significance, bcomeand bhear: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side,”which indicates that the right side is the more significant one.,The Gemara relates that bRava saw Abaye reciting: Peace,by bowing at the end of his prayer btohis bright first.Rava bsaid to him: Do you maintainthat you should bow bto your right? I sayyou should bow bto your leftfirst, bas it is the right of the Holy One, Blessed be He,since He is opposite you face-to-face, as it were. bRav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Huna, said: I observed that Abaye and Ravaboth btookthose bthree steps all in oneact of bbowing,without standing upright in between, by way of submission to and acceptance of God’s authority.,§ The mishna taught: bAndthe High Priest brecites a brief prayer in the outer chamber.The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes bhe pray? Rava bar Rav Adda and Ravin bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Ravthat this was his prayer: bMay it be your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot.The Gemara immediately expresses surprise at this request: Is bheat a goodmatter? Why should he request that the year be hot? bRather, sayand emend it as follows: bIfthe upcoming year is bhot, may italso bbe rainy,lest the heat harm the crops., bRav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludedthe language of this prayer bin the name of Rav Yehuda: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judah; and may your nation Israel not depend on each other for sustece,rather, they should be sustained from the produce of their land; band let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presencewhen they pray for the rain to stop on their travels.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was walking on the roadwhen brain fell upon him. He said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable and Ḥanina is suffering. The rain stopped. When he came to his house he said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is sufferingfor lack of rain band Ḥanina is comfortable. The rain cameback. bRav Yosef said: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have with regard to Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa?Notwithstanding the prayer of the High Priest in the Holy of Holies, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s sanctity is greater, as God fulfills his bidding.,§ The mishna stated that the High Priest would not extend his prayer. bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: There was ban incidentinvolving ba certain High Priest who extended his prayer, and his fellow prieststook a vote, bcounted,and decided bto go in after himout of concern that he had died or fainted and required assistance. bThey began to enter andat that moment bhe emerged. They said to him: Why did you extend your prayer? He said to them:Why not? bDoes it trouble you that I prayed for you and for the Temple not to be destroyed? They said to him: Do not make a habit of doing so, as we learned: He would not extend his prayer, so as not to alarm the Jewish people,who might fear he had died., strongMISHNA: /strong bAfter the Ark was takeninto exile, bthere was a rockin the Holy of Holies bfrom the days of the early prophets,David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, bandthis stone bwas calledthe bfoundationrock. It was bthree fingerbreadths higher than the ground, andthe High Priest bwould placethe incense bon it.After the High Priest left the Holy of Holies, bhe took the bloodof the bull sacrificed as a sin-offering bfromthe one bwho was stirring it,so it would not coagulate. bHe entered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place where hehad previously bstoodto offer the incense, between the staves. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. /b, bAnd he would neither intend to sprinklethe blood bupward norto sprinkle it bdownward, but rather like one who whips,with the blood sprinkled in a single column, one drop below the other. bAnd thisis how bhe would countas he sprinkled, to avoid error: bOne; one and one; one and two; one and three; one and four; one and five; one and six; one and seven.The High Priest then bemergedfrom there band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. /b, bThey brought him the goatto be sacrificed as a sin-offering to God. bHe slaughtered it and received its blood in the bowl. Heagain bentered into the place that hehad previously bentered,the Holy of Holies, band stood at the place that hepreviously bstood, and sprinkled fromthe blood of the goat bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward. And thisis how bhe would count,just as he counted when sprinkling the blood of the bull: bOne; one and one; one and two; etc.The High Priest then bemergedfrom the Holy of Holies band placedthe bowl with the remaining blood bon the second golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. Rabbi Yehuda says: There was only one pedestal there,and he btook the blood of the bullfrom the pedestal band placed the blood of the goatin its place., bAnd he sprinkled fromthe blood of the bull bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outsidethe Holy of Holies, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, and he would not intend, etc. And thisis how bhe would count, etc.When he concluded, bhe took the blood of the goatfrom the pedestal band placed blood of the bullin its place on the pedestal. bAnd he sprinkled fromthe goat’s blood bon the curtain opposite the Ark from outside,just as he did with the blood of the bull, bonetime bupward and seventimes bdownward, etc.Afterward, bhe poured the blood of the bull into the blood of the goat and placedthe blood bfrom the fullbowl into the bemptybowl, so that the blood would be mixed well., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara comments with regard to the wording of the mishna: It does bnot teach: Afterthe Ark bwas buried, but: Afterit bwas taken.If so, bwe learnedthis mishna bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe one who saidthat bthe Ark was exiled to Babyloniaand was not buried in its place, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated: “And at the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord”(II Chronicles 36:10). These precious vessels must include the Ark.,Likewise, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated:“Behold, the days come that all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored until this day, shall be carried to Babylonia; bnothing [ idavar /i] shall be left, says the Lord”(Isaiah 39:6). bThese are the Ten Commandments [ idibrot /i] that are inside it;they too shall not be left behind., bRabbi Yehuda ben Lakish says: The Ark was buried in its place, as it is stated: “And the ends of the staves were seen from the sacred place before the partition, but they could not be seen without; and they are there to this day”(I Kings 8:8). The expression “to this day” means forever, as the text might be read at any time. This teaches that the Ark is hidden in its place.,The Gemara comments: And bthisopinion that the Ark was exiled to Babylonia bdisagrees withthat bof Ulla, as Ulla said: Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai in Rome: And since Rabbi Eliezer taught us once and twice,i.e., from two separate verses, that bthe Ark was exiled to Babylonia.The Gemara interrupts its citation of Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash’s question to identify these two verses. bThe firstverse is bthat which we said: “And brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord.” What is the secondverse? Rabbi Eliezer said: bAs it is written: “And gone from the daughter of Zion is /b
24. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 15.22 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

15.22. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קד, יט): עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ, הַרְבֵּה מַעֲשִׂים כָּתַב משֶׁה בַּתּוֹרָה סְתוּמִים עָמַד דָּוִד וּפֵרְשָׁם, אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִמַּעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית מִשֶּׁבָּרָא שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ בָּרָא הָאוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א ג): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר. וְדָוִד פֵּרְשׁוֹ מֵאַחַר שֶׁבָּרָא אוֹר בָּרָא שָׁמָיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה, וְהָדַר (תהלים קד, ב): נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה, הֲרֵי לָמַדְנוּ מִשֶּׁבָּרָא אוֹר בָּרָא שָׁמָיִם. שְׁלשָׁה בְּרִיּוֹת קָדְמוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, הַמַּיִם וְהָרוּחַ וְהָאֵשׁ. הַמַּיִם הָרוּ וְיָלְדוּ אֲפֵלָה, הָאֵשׁ הָרָה וְיָלְדָה אוֹר, הָרוּחַ הָרָה וְיָלְדָה חָכְמָה, וּבְשֵׁשׁ בְּרִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ הָעוֹלָם מִתְנַהֵג, בָּרוּחַ, בַּחָכְמָה, וּבָאֵשׁ, וּבָאוֹר, וּבַחשֶׁךְ, וּבַמָּיִם. לְפִיכָךְ דָּוִד אָמַר (תהלים קד, א): בָּרְכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת ה' ה' אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְאֹד, אָדָם רוֹאֶה עַמּוּד נָאֶה אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ הַמַּחְצָב שֶׁנֶּחְצַב מִמֶּנּוּ. נָאֶה הָעוֹלָם, בָּרוּךְ הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁחֲצָבוֹ וּבְרָאוֹ בְּדָבָר, אַשְׁרֶיךָ הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מָלַךְ [המליך] בָּךְ. בָּשָׂר וָדָם צָר אִיקוּנִין שֶׁלּוֹ עַל הַטַּבְלָא שֶׁל עֵץ, הַטַּבְלָא גְדוֹלָה מִצּוּרָתוֹ, הָאֱלֹהִים יְהִי שְׁמוֹ מְבֹרָךְ הוּא גָדוֹל וְאִיקוֹנִין שֶׁלּוֹ גְּדוֹלָה. הָעוֹלָם קָטָן וְהוּא גָּדוֹל מִן הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כו, ד): כִּי בְּיָהּ ה' צוּר עוֹלָמִים, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר צוּר עוֹלָמִים, שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים עָלָיו אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כְּלוּם, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: ה' אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְאֹד, מִשֶּׁעָטַף אֶת הָאוֹר חָזַר וּבָרָא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה וגו'. בָּשָׂר וָדָם מִשֶּׁבּוֹנֶה אֶת הַבַּיִת הוּא בּוֹנֶה אֶת הָעֲלִיָּה, הָאֱלֹהִים אֵינוֹ כֵן, מִשֶּׁמָּתַח מַעֲזִיבָה בָּנָה עֲלִיָּה, וּמִשֶּׁבָּנָה עֲלִיָּה הֶעֱמִיד אוֹתָן עַל אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם עַל בְּלִימָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִתְקִין מַרְכְּבוֹתָיו עֲנָנִים, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָאִסְטִיס שֶׁלּוֹ עַל סְעָרָה. וּמִי מוֹדִיעֲךָ כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ, דָּוִד, שֶׁהוּא פֵּרַשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים, לְהוֹדִיעַ לְבָאֵי עוֹלָם גְּבוּרָתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו הַשָֹּׂם עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ, לֹא בִנְחשֶׁת וְלֹא בְבַרְזֶל אֶלָּא בִּגְזוּזְטְרָאוֹת שֶׁל מָיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּנָה אֶת הָעֲלִיּוֹת, לֹא בְאֶבֶן וְלֹא בְגָזִית אֶלָּא רְכָסִים שֶׁל מָיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו. בָּשָׂר וָדָם עוֹשֶׂה סַרְגְּלָא שֶׁלּוֹ חֲזָקָה שֶׁתִּשָֹּׂא כָּל מַשָֹּׂאוֹ, וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ בְּבַרְזֶל בִּנְחשֶׁת וּבְכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב, וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְהִי שְׁמוֹ מְבֹרָךְ הֶעָנָן אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁ וְעוֹשֶׂה סַרְגְּלִין שֶׁלּוֹ עָבִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: הַשָֹּׂם עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ. בָּשָׂר וָדָם אִם הָיָה לְפָנָיו דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁל שְׁקִיעָה מְהַלֵּךְ הוּא עַל אֲבָנִים שֶׁהֵם קָשִׁים, וְהָאֱלֹהִים אֵינוֹ כֵן אֶלָּא עוֹזֵב אֶת הֶעָנָן הַנִּרְאֶה וּמְהַלֵּךְ עַל הָרוּחַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל כַּנְפֵי רוּחַ. בָּשָׂר וָדָם מַכְתִּיב לוֹ סִטְרַטְיוֹטִין גִּבּוֹרִים בְּרִיאִים כְּדֵי לִלְבּוֹשׁ קַסְדָּא וְשִׁרְיוֹן וּכְלֵי זַיִן, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִכְתִּיב סִטְרַטְיוֹטִין שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁאֵינָן נִרְאִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ד): עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת, הָרוּחַ יוֹצֵא וְהַבָּרָק אַחֲרָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ד): מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לוֹהֵט. מִשֶּׁבָּרָא רָקִיעַ בָּרָא מַלְאָכִים בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, וּבוֹ בַיּוֹם בָּרָא גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁאֵין כָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי טוֹב, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהוּא קוֹנֶה עֲבָדִים וְאוֹמֵר עֲשׂוּ אַסְפַּתִּין, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לָמָּה כָּךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם שֶׁאִם יִמְרְדוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ אַסְפִּיקוּלָא, כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בּוֹרֵא אֲנִי גֵּיהִנֹּם שֶׁאֵין כָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי טוֹב, שֶׁאִם יֶחֶטְאוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם יוֹרְדִין לְתוֹכוֹ. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁנִּבְרֵאת גֵּיהִנֹּם בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁכֵּן הַנָּבִיא מְפָרֵשׁ (ישעיה ל, לג): כִּי עָרוּךְ מֵאֶתְמוּל תָּפְתֶּה, מִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁאָדָם יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֶתְמוֹל, וְאֵימָתַי אָדָם יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֶתְמוֹל, בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁיּוֹם אֶחָד בַּשַּׁבָּת לְפָנָיו. וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּרָא יַבָּשָׁה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בַּשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ה): יָסַד אֶרֶץ עַל מְכוֹנֶיהָ, וְאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אֶחָד עָרוּם וְאֶחָד לָבוּשׁ, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עֲבָדִים, הִפְשִׁיט כְּסוּתוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד וְהִלְבִּישָׁהּ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, כָּךְ אָמַר הָאֱלֹהִים (בראשית א, ט): יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, גִּלָּה אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְכִסָּה אֶת הַתְּהוֹם. וְכֵן דָּוִד אוֹמֵר (תהלים קד, ו): תְּהוֹם כַּלְּבוּשׁ כִּסִּיתוֹ, (תהלים קד, ז): מִן גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁרָאָה גִתּוֹ מְלֵאָה עֲנָבִים וְהַכֶּרֶם לִבְצֹר, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְהֵיכָן אַתָּה נוֹתֵן שְׁאָר עֲנָבִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁהַגַּת קְטַנָּה, אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה גַת שֶׁתִּטֹּל לְכָל הָעֲנָבִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם, מֶה עָשָׂה רָפַשׁ הָעֲנָבִים וּבָעַט רִאשׁוֹן רִאשׁוֹן וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵבִיא אֶת הָעֲנָבִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם וְהֶחֱזִיק הַגַּת כָּל הָעֲנָבִים, כָּךְ הָיָה כָּל הָעוֹלָם מָלֵא מַיִם בְּמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ שְׁקוּעָה בַּמַּיִם, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית א, ט): וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה, אָמְרוּ הַמַּיִם הֲרֵי הָעוֹלָם אָנוּ מְלֵאִים וְעַד עַכְשָׁו צַר לָנוּ לְהֵיכָן אָנוּ הוֹלְכִין, יְהִי שְׁמוֹ מְבֹרָךְ בָּעַט בָּאוֹקְיָנוֹס וַהֲרָגוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כו, יב): בְּכֹחוֹ רָגַע הַיָּם וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ מָחַץ רָהַב, וְאֵין מָחַץ אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן הֲרִיגָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ה, כו): וּמָחֲצָה וְחָלְפָה רַקָּתוֹ. כְּשֶׁהָרַג אוֹתָן יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהֵן בּוֹכִין עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב לח, טז): הֲבָאתָ עַד נִבְכֵי יָם. וְלָמָּה הָרַג אוֹתָן, שֶׁהַבַּיִת שֶׁהוּא מַחֲזִיק מֵאָה חַיִּים מַחֲזִיק אֶלֶף מֵתִים, לְכָךְ נִקְרָא אוֹקְיָנוֹס יַם הַמָּוֶת, וְעָתִיד אֱלֹהִים לְרַפֹּאתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל מז, ח): אֶל הַיָּמָּה הַמּוּצָאִים וְנִרְפְּאוּ הַמָּיִם. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּ שְׁאָר הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּעַט בְּאוֹקְיָנוֹס, לְקוֹל צַעֲקָתוֹ בָּרְחוּ חַבְרֵיהֶן, כְּמוֹ חַמָּר בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ וְהָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי עֲבָדִים, אוֹתָן הָרִאשׁוֹנִים רָצִין וּבוֹרְחִין, כָּךְ הָיוּ שְׁאָר הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם בּוֹרְחִים מִקּוֹל צַעֲקָתוֹ שֶׁל אוֹקְיָנוֹס, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ז): מִן גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן, וְהָיוּ בּוֹרְחִין וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין לְהֵיכָן בּוֹרְחִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ח): יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם, כְּגוֹן עֶבֶד בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ אֲדוֹנוֹ הַמְתֵּן לִי בַּשּׁוּק, וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ הֵיכָן יַמְתִּין, הִתְחִיל הָעֶבֶד אוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא אֵצֶל בַּסִילְקִי אָמַר לִי לְהַמְתִּינוֹ אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֵצֶל בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ אָמַר לִי, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא בְּצַד פִּיטְרוֹן אָמַר לִי, עָלָה מְצָאוֹ סְטָרוֹ מִסְטָר, אָמַר לוֹ עַל שַׁעַר פַּלְטֵרִין שֶׁל אִפַּרְכוֹס שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ, כָּךְ הָיוּ הַמַּיִם חוֹזְרִים כְּשֶׁשָּׁמְעוּ שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית א, ט): יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל מָקוֹם אֶחָד, לֹא לַדָּרוֹם וְלֹא לַצָּפוֹן אָמַר לָהֶם אֶלָּא הָיוּ פוֹזְרִין, יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת, סְטָרָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִסְטָר אָמַר לָהֶם לִמְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁל לִוְיָתָן אָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם לֵילֵךְ. מִנַּיִן כֵּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד, ח): אֶל מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם, וְזֶה מְקוֹמוֹ שֶׁל לִוְיָתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קד כו): לִוְיָתָן זֶה יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק בּוֹ, (תהלים קד, ט): גְּבוּל שַׂמְתָּ בַּל יַעֲבֹרוּן, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁהִכְנִיס בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לְדִיר וְנָעַל הַמַּסְגֵּר בְּפָנֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא תֵצֵא וְתִרְעֶה אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה, כָּךְ נָעַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַיָּם בַּחוֹל וְהִשְׁבִּיעוֹ שֶׁלֹא יֵצֵא מִן הַחוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ה, כב): אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם. (תהלים קד, י): הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעֲיָנִים בַּנְחָלִים, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר וָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עֲקָלִים שֶׁל זֵיתִים, כָּבַשׁ אֶת הַקּוֹרָה זֶה עַל זֶה, וְהַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹרֵד מִלְמַעְלָה וְהַשֶּׁמֶן יוֹרֵד מִלְּמַטָּה, כָּךְ הָהָר מִכָּאן וְהָהָר מִכָּאן כְּבוּשִׁין עַל הַמַּעְיָנוֹת וְהֵן מַקְטִיעִין וְיוֹצְאִין מִבֵּין הֶהָרִים, לְכָךְ כְּתִיב: הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעֲיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים. אַחַר כָּךְ מַה דָּוִד אוֹמֵר (תהלים קד, יט): עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים, שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת וְשִׁשִּׁים וַחֲמִשָּׁה חַלּוֹנוֹת בָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּרָקִיעַ, מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים וּשְׁלשָׁה בַּמִּזְרָח, וּמֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים וּשְׁנַיִם בַּמַּעֲרָב, מֵהֶן בָּרָא לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וּמֵהֶן בָּרָא לַלְּבָנָה, שֶׁיְהֵא הָעוֹלָם שָׁט אַחֲרָיו וְהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ כֻּלָּן חוּץ מֵאַחַד עָשָׂר חַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁאֵין הַלְּבָנָה נִכְנֶסֶת לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן, כְּגוֹן אִפַּרְכוֹס וְדֻכָּס, שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹטְלִין דּוֹנָטִיבָא. אִפַּרְכוֹס נוֹטֵל לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ וְדֻכָּס לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ. כָּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נִקְרָא גָּדוֹל וְהַלְּבָנָה נִקְרֵאת קָטָן, לְכָךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נִקְרָא גָּדוֹל שֶׁהוּא גָדוֹל עַל הַלְּבָנָה אַחַד עָשָׂר יוֹם, לְכָךְ בָּרָא הַלְּבָנָה בִּשְׁבִיל מוֹעֲדוֹת שֶׁיִּהְיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַרְבִּין וּמְמַעֲטִין כַּלְּבָנָה וְאֵינוֹ רַע לָהּ בַּעֲבוּר תַּקָּנַת הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת, שֶׁכָּל הַשָּׁנָה מוֹנָה לַחַמָּה לִשְׁנֵי עוֹלָם וּלְשָׁנִים שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָם, וְהוּא שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ קִצּוֹ שֶׁל כָּל אָדָם וְאָדָם כַּמָּה שָׁנִים רָאָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְכָל הֵימְךָ לוֹמַר שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל אֵלּוּ הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת עָשָׂה אֶת הַלְּבָנָה, עָמַד דָּוִד וּפֵרַשׁ עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְדָוִד עַד שֶׁאָנוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם נָטַלְנוּ חֹדֶשׁ שֶׁל לְבָנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם.
25. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 18.22 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

18.22. יִתְבָּרַךְ שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁבָּרָא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה, לְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו אֵין חֵקֶר וְלִגְדֻלָּתוֹ אֵין מִסְפָּר, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים לג, ז): כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד מֵי הַיָּם נֹתֵן בְּאוֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת, מַהוּ כֹּנֵס כַּנֵּד, כְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ אָמַר לוֹ לְשַׂר שֶׁל יָם פְּתַח פִּיךָ וּבְלַע כָּל מֵימוֹת בְּרֵאשִׁית, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם דַּיִּי שֶׁאֶעֱמֹד בְּשֶׁלִּי, הִתְחִיל לִבְכּוֹת, בָּעַט בּוֹ וַהֲרָגוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כו, יב): בְּכֹחוֹ רָגַע הַיָּם וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ מָחַץ רָהַב, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא שֶׁשַֹּׂר שֶׁל יָם רַהַב שְׁמוֹ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּבָשָׁן וּדְרָכָן וְקִבְּלָן הַיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ד, יג): וְדָרַךְ עַל בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ. וְשָׂם לָהֶם חוֹל בְּרִיחַ וּדְלָתַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב לח, ח): וַיָּסֶךְ בִּדְלָתַיִם יָם, וּכְתִיב (ירמיה ה, כב): הַאוֹתִי לֹא תִירָאוּ נְאֻם ה' אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם, וּכְתִיב (איוב לח, יא): וָאֹמַר עַד פֹּה תָבוֹא וְלֹא תֹסִיף. אָמַר לוֹ הַיָּם רַבִּי אִם כֵּן יִתְעָרְבוּ מֵימַי הַמְתוּקִין בַּמְלוּחִים, אָמַר לוֹ לָאו, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד יֵשׁ לוֹ אוֹצָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לג, ז): נֹתֵן בְּאוֹצָרוֹת תְּהוֹמוֹת, אִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁזֶּה תֵּמַהּ גָדוֹל שֶׁאֵין מִתְעָרְבִים כָּל מֵימֵי הַיָּם, הֲרֵי פַּרְצוּף שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּבְנֵי אָדָם מְלֹא הַסִּיט יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּמָּה מַעְיָנוֹת וְאֵין מִתְעָרְבִין זֶה בָּזֶה, מֵי עֵינַיִם מְלוּחִין, מֵי אָזְנַיִם שְׁמֵנִים, מֵי הַחֹטֶם סְרוּחִים, מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין. מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי עֵינַיִם מְלוּחִין, שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁאָדָם בּוֹכֶה עַל הַמֵּת בְּכָל שָׁעָה מִיָּד הָיָה מִסְתַּמֵּא, אֶלָּא עַל שֶׁהֵן מְלוּחִין פּוֹסֵק וְאֵינוֹ בּוֹכֶה. מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי אָזְנַיִם שְׁמֵנִים, שֶׁכְּשֶׁאָדָם שׁוֹמֵעַ שְׁמוּעָה קָשָׁה, אִלֵּימָא תּוֹפְשָׂהּ בְּאָזְנָיו מִתְקַשֶּׁרֶת וּמֵת, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֵם שְׁמֵנִים מַכְנִיס בָּזֶה וּמוֹצִיא בָּזֶה, מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי הַחֹטֶם סְרוּחִים, שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁאָדָם מֵרִיחַ רֵיחַ רַע, אִלֵּימָא מֵי הַחֹטֶם סְרוּחִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד מֵת. מִפְּנֵי מָה מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין, פְּעָמִים אוֹכֵל אֲכִילָה וְאֵינָהּ מִתְקַבֶּלֶת בְּלִבּוֹ, אִם אֵין מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין אֵין נַפְשׁוֹ חוֹזֶרֶת עוֹד, וְעוֹד לְפִי שֶׁקּוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה, דִּכְתִיב בָּהּ (תהלים יט, יא): וּמְתוּקִים מִדְּבַשׁ, לְפִיכָךְ מֵי הַפֶּה מְתוּקִין, וַהֲלוֹא דְבָרִים קַל וָחוֹמֶר, וּמַה מְּלֹא הַסִּיט יֵשׁ בּוֹ כַּמָּה מַעְיָנוֹת, הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (תהלים קד, כה): זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדַיִם שָׁם רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ וְלֹא בָּרָא דָּבָר אֶחָד לְבַטָּלָה, פְּעָמִים שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי צְפַרְדֵעַ וּפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי צִרְעָה וּפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי עַקְרָב. אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין דְּצִפּוֹרִי מַעֲשֶׂה בְּעַקְרָב אֶחָד שֶׁהָלַךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְזִמֵּן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צְפַרְדֵעַ אַחַת וְעָבַר עָלֶיהָ, וְהָלַךְ אוֹתוֹ עַקְרָב וְעָקַץ אֶת הָאָדָם. וְכֵן מַעֲשֶׂה בְּקוֹצֵר אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה מְעַמֵּר וְקוֹצֵר בְּבִקְעַת בֵּית תּוֹפֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא הַשָּׁרָב נָטַל עֵשֶׂב וְקָשַׁר בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, אֲתָא עֲלֵיהּ חִוְיָא גִּבָּר קָם קַטְלֵיהּ, עֲבַר עֲלֵיהּ חַבָּר, חָמָא קְטִיל חִוְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאן קְטַל הָדֵין חִוְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא, אִסְתַּכַּל עִשְׂבָּא דִּבְרֵישֵׁיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ מֵרִים אַתְּ עִשְׂבָּא דִּבְרֵישֵׁךְ וְאַתְּ מַשְׁבִּיחַ, עֲבַד הָכֵי, קָרַב לְגַבֵּיהּ, לֹא הִסְפִּיק לִגַּע בּוֹ עַד שֶׁנָּשַׁר אֵבָרִים אֵבָרִים. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וּפוֹשֵׁט בְּפֶתַח עִירוֹ, רָאָה נָחָשׁ מַרְתִּיחַ וּבָא לָעִיר, מַאן דְּמוֹקְמִין לֵיהּ מִן הָכָא אָזֵיל לְהָכָא, מַאן דְּמוֹקְמִין לֵיהּ מִן הָכָא אָזֵיל לְהָכָא, אָמַר זֶה הוֹלֵךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָעִיר נָפְלָה הֲבָרָה בָּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי בַּר פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ נָחָשׁ וָמֵת. רַבִּי יִצְחָק בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה מְטַיֵּל בְּשׁוּנִיתָא בְּקֵיסָרִי, מָצָא קוּלִית אַחַת מֻשְׁלֶכֶת בַּדֶּרֶךְ הָיָה מַצְנַע לָהּ מִן הָכָא הָדַר מַשְׁכַּח לָהּ מִן הָכָא, אָמַר כִּמְדֻמֶּה אֲנִי שֶׁזּוֹ מְתֻקֶּנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָהּ, בָּתַר יוֹמִין עֲבַר בַּלְדָּר מִן מַלְכוּתָא נִכְשַׁל בָּהּ וְנָפַל בָּהּ וָמֵת, בָּדְקוּ אַחֲרָיו וּמָצְאוּ בְּיָדוֹ כְּתָבִין בִּישִׁין עַל יְהוּדָאִין. מַעֲשֶׂה בִּשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין בַּדֶּרֶךְ, אֶחָד פִּקֵּחַ וְאֶחָד סוּמָא, יָשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכֹל פָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם לְעִשְׂבֵּי הַשָֹּׂדֶה וְאָכְלוּ, זֶה שֶׁהָיָה פִּקֵּחַ נִסְתַּמָּא, וְזֶה שֶׁהָיָה סוּמָא נִתְפַּקַּח, לֹא זָזוּ מִשָּׁם עַד שֶׁזֶּה נִסְמַךְ עַל זֶה שֶׁהָיָה סוֹמְכוֹ. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹלֵךְ מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבָבֶל, כְּשֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל לֶחֶם רָאָה שְׁנֵי צִפֳּרִים מִתְנַצִּין זֶה עִם זֶה, הָרַג אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ, הָלַךְ וְהֵבִיא עֵשֶׂב וְהִנִּיחוֹ עַל פִּיו וְהֶחֱיָהוּ, הָלַךְ אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וְנָטַל אוֹתוֹ הָעֵשֶׂב שֶׁנָּפַל מִן הַצִּפּוֹר וְהָלַךְ לְהַחֲיוֹת בּוֹ אֶת הַמֵּתִים, כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסֻלָּמָהּ שֶׁל צוֹר מָצָא אֲרֵי מֻשְׁלָךְ וּמֵת, הֵנִיחַ הָעֵשֶׂב עַל פִּיו וְהֶחֱיָּהוּ, עָמַד הָאֲרִי וַאֲכָלוֹ, מַתְלָא אָמְרִין טַב לְבִישׁ לָא תַעֲבֵיד וּבִישָׁא לָא מָטֵי לָךְ. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׂיחִין אֶחָד סוּמָא שֶׁיָּרַד בַּמַּיִם לִטְבֹּל, נִזְדַּמְּנָה לוֹ בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם וְטָבַל וְנִתְרַפֵּא. טִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע נִכְנַס בְּבֵית קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים כְּשֶׁהוּא מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף, עָמַד וְגִדֵּר אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת וְנָטַל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְהִצִּיעָהּ וְהֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי זוֹנוֹת וְעָבַר עֲלֶיהֶן, וְשָׁלַף חַרְבּוֹ וְקִצֵּץ אֶת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה, נַעֲשָׂה נֵס הִתְחִיל דַּם מְבַצְבֵּץ מִמֶּנּוּ, הִתְחִיל מִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ לוֹמַר שֶׁעַצְמוֹ הָרַג, הִתְחִיל מִתְגַּבֵּר וְהוֹלֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַיָּם הָיָה הַיָּם הוֹלֵךְ וְסוֹעֵר, אָמַר אֱלֹהֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ אֵין גְּבוּרָתוֹ אֶלָּא בַּיָּם, אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה יַעֲלֶה לַיַּבָּשָׁה וְנִרְאֶה מִי נוֹצֵחַ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רָשָׁע בֶּן רָשָׁע בְּרִיָּה פְּחוּתָה קַלָּה שֶׁבִּבְרִיּוֹתַי אֲנִי מַשְׁלִיחַ בְּךָ לְבַעֶרְךָ מִן הָעוֹלָם. נִכְנַס יַתּוּשׁ בְּחָטְמוֹ וּמֵת בְּמִיתָה מְשֻׁנָּה. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא בְּרִיָּה שְׁפָלָה, עַל שֶׁמַּכְנִיס וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא. וּפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי צִרְעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, כח): וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת הַצִּרְעָה. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ כְּשֶׁשָּׁלַח הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַצִּרְעָה לִפְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַהֲרֹג אֶת הָאֱמוֹרִים, רְאֵה מַה כְּתִיב בָּהֶן (עמוס ב, ט): וְאָנֹכִי הִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת הָאֱמֹרִי מִפְּנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר כְּגֹבַהּ אֲרָזִים גָּבְהוֹ וְחָסֹן הוּא כָּאַלּוֹנִים וָאַשְׁמִיד פִּרְיוֹ מִמַּעַל וגו'. הָיְתָה נִכְנֶסֶת לְתוֹךְ עֵינוֹ שֶׁל יְמִין וְשׁוֹפֶכֶת אִרְסָהּ וְהָיָה מִתְבַּקֵּעַ וְנוֹפֵל וָמֵת, שֶׁכֵּן דַּרְכּוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי דְבָרִים קַלִּים, לְכָל הַמִּתְגָּאִין עָלָיו שָׁלַח לָהֶם בְּרִיָה קַלָּה לְהִפָּרַע מֵהֶם, לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁאֵין גְּבוּרָתָן מַמָּשׁ, וְלֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִפָּרַע מִן הָאֻמּוֹת עַל יְדֵי דְבָרִים קַלִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ז, יח): וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִשְׁרֹק ה' לַזְּבוּב אֲשֶׁר בִּקְצֵה יְאֹרֵי מִצְרָיִם וְלַדְּבוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר. 18.22. ---"
26. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 35

27. Anon., Tanhuma, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abyss Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 99
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
alexander, philip s. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
ancient near east Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
angels, angelus interpres interpreting angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
angels, interaction of enoch with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
angels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130, 131
aptowitzer, avigdor Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
axis mundi Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
beauty Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
berossus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
bethpage Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
bloch, rene´e Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
bowman, glenn Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
busink, th. a. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
christianity and christians Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
constantine Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
covenant, sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
crisis Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
dead sea Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
deep, tehom Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
divine name Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
enoch Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
family Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
geography, mythical Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
geography Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
giants Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
ginzberg, louis Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
god, and Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
hebrew bible Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
hellenism/hellenistic period Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
hellenistic kings/rulers, alexander the great Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
hermon Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
high priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
historiography/chronography Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
instruction/teaching, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
instruction/teaching, ethical Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
israel, land of Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
jerusalem, vs. sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
jerusalem, zion Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
jerusalem Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
jesus Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
jordan river valley Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
josephus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
journey Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
judgment Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
law, revealed Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
levenson, jon d. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
life Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
maimonides Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
moses, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
mountain Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
mt zion Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
nickelsburg, geroge w. e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
of the holy sepulcher, mount of olives Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
of the holy sepulcher, temple Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
oppressed ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
paradise Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
patai, raphael Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
pilgrimage Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
poor Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
priesthood, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
punishment Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 99
qumran, deuteronomy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
qumran, moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
rabbinic literature Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
red sea Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 63
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
ritual Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
sacred place Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
scent Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
second temple, era Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 150
sectarianism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
servants, isaianic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
sinai, covenant Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
smell Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
spirits, inspiration Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
spirits, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
strenski, ivan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
synagogue, zion/jerusalem Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
talmon, shemaryahu Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
temple, in heaven, in 1 enoch Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130, 131
temple, in heaven, in t. levi Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 131
temple Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
temporal language Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
testamentary Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
time, concepts of Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 448
tishby, isaiah Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
tree, of wisdom Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 168
vilnay, zev Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 283
visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
voice' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 160
yom kippur Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 126
zion Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 74