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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 2


nanObserve ye everything that takes place in the heaven, how they do not change their orbits, and the luminaries which are in the heaven, how they all rise and set in order each in its season, and,transgress not against their appointed order. Behold ye the earth, and give heed to the things which take place upon it from first to last, how steadfast they are, how none of the things upon earth,change, but all the works of God appear to you. Behold the summer and the winter, how the whole earth is filled with water, and clouds and dew and rain lie upon it.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

59 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.14. הֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ׃ 10.14. Behold, unto the LORD thy God belongeth the heaven, and the heaven of heavens, the earth, with all that therein is."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.1, 29.18, 29.25, 29.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 29.18. וְהִקְטַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הָאַיִל הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה הוּא לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה הוּא׃ 29.25. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם מִיָּדָם וְהִקְטַרְתָּ הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אִשֶּׁה הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 29.41. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 29.18. And thou shalt make the whole ram smoke upon the altar; it is a burnt-offering unto the LORD; it is a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.25. And thou shalt take them from their hands, and make them smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, for a sweet savour before the LORD; it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk, and shalt do thereto according to the meal-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.15, 3.3, 3.24, 4.19, 5.18-5.24, 6.1-6.8, 6.21, 8.21, 11.29, 12.5, 21.21, 24.3-24.4, 24.7, 25.1, 26.34, 27.46, 28.1-28.2, 28.6, 36.2, 38.2, 38.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 4.19. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ לֶמֶךְ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם הָאַחַת עָדָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית צִלָּה׃ 5.18. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ׃ 5.19. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 6.21. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ מִכָּל־מַאֲכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃ 8.21. וַיָּרַח יְהוָה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־לִבּוֹ לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃ 11.29. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם וְנָחוֹר לָהֶם נָשִׁים שֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם שָׂרָי וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת־נָחוֹר מִלְכָּה בַּת־הָרָן אֲבִי־מִלְכָּה וַאֲבִי יִסְכָּה׃ 12.5. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃ 21.21. וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 24.3. וְאַשְׁבִּיעֲךָ בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וֵאלֹהֵי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִבְּנוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 24.3. וַיְהִי כִּרְאֹת אֶת־הַנֶּזֶם וְאֶת־הַצְּמִדִים עַל־יְדֵי אֲחֹתוֹ וּכְשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־דִּבְרֵי רִבְקָה אֲחֹתוֹ לֵאמֹר כֹּה־דִבֶּר אֵלַי הָאִישׁ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָאִישׁ וְהִנֵּה עֹמֵד עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים עַל־הָעָיִן׃ 24.4. כִּי אֶל־אַרְצִי וְאֶל־מוֹלַדְתִּי תֵּלֵךְ וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי לְיִצְחָק׃ 24.4. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי לְפָנָיו יִשְׁלַח מַלְאָכוֹ אִתָּךְ וְהִצְלִיחַ דַּרְכֶּךָ וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתִּי וּמִבֵּית אָבִי׃ 24.7. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לְקָחַנִי מִבֵּית אָבִי וּמֵאֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתִּי וַאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לִי וַאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע־לִי לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת הוּא יִשְׁלַח מַלְאָכוֹ לְפָנֶיךָ וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִשָּׁם׃ 25.1. הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר־קָנָה אַבְרָהָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־חֵת שָׁמָּה קֻבַּר אַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ׃ 25.1. וַיֹּסֶף אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה וּשְׁמָהּ קְטוּרָה׃ 26.34. וַיְהִי עֵשָׂו בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־יְהוּדִית בַּת־בְּאֵרִי הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־בָּשְׂמַת בַּת־אֵילֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 27.46. וַתֹּאמֶר רִבְקָה אֶל־יִצְחָק קַצְתִּי בְחַיַּי מִפְּנֵי בְּנוֹת חֵת אִם־לֹקֵחַ יַעֲקֹב אִשָּׁה מִבְּנוֹת־חֵת כָּאֵלֶּה מִבְּנוֹת הָאָרֶץ לָמָּה לִּי חַיִּים׃ 28.1. וַיִּקְרָא יִצְחָק אֶל־יַעֲקֹב וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתוֹ וַיְצַוֵּהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה מִבְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן׃ 28.1. וַיֵּצֵא יַעֲקֹב מִבְּאֵר שָׁבַע וַיֵּלֶךְ חָרָנָה׃ 28.2. קוּם לֵךְ פַּדֶּנָה אֲרָם בֵּיתָה בְתוּאֵל אֲבִי אִמֶּךָ וְקַח־לְךָ מִשָּׁם אִשָּׁה מִבְּנוֹת לָבָן אֲחִי אִמֶּךָ׃ 28.2. וַיִּדַּר יַעֲקֹב נֶדֶר לֵאמֹר אִם־יִהְיֶה אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי וּשְׁמָרַנִי בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ וְנָתַן־לִי לֶחֶם לֶאֱכֹל וּבֶגֶד לִלְבֹּשׁ׃ 28.6. וַיַּרְא עֵשָׂו כִּי־בֵרַךְ יִצְחָק אֶת־יַעֲקֹב וְשִׁלַּח אֹתוֹ פַּדֶּנָה אֲרָם לָקַחַת־לוֹ מִשָּׁם אִשָּׁה בְּבָרֲכוֹ אֹתוֹ וַיְצַו עָלָיו לֵאמֹר לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה מִבְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן׃ 36.2. עֵשָׂו לָקַח אֶת־נָשָׁיו מִבְּנוֹת כְּנָעַן אֶת־עָדָה בַּת־אֵילוֹן הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־אָהֳלִיבָמָה בַּת־עֲנָה בַּת־צִבְעוֹן הַחִוִּי׃ 36.2. אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־שֵׂעִיר הַחֹרִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ לוֹטָן וְשׁוֹבָל וְצִבְעוֹן וַעֲנָה׃ 38.2. וַיַּרְא־שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת־אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי וּשְׁמוֹ שׁוּעַ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ׃ 38.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים בְּיַד רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי לָקַחַת הָעֵרָבוֹן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מְצָאָהּ׃ 38.6. וַיִּקַּח יְהוּדָה אִשָּׁה לְעֵר בְּכוֹרוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ תָּמָר׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 4.19. And Lamech took unto him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah." 5.18. And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begot Enoch." 5.19. And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.20. And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years; and he died. ." 5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah." 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." 6.21. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.’" 8.21. And the LORD smelled the sweet savour; and the LORD said in His heart: ‘I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done." 11.29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah." 12.5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came." 21.21. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt." 24.3. And I will make thee swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell." 24.4. But thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred, and take a wife for my son, even for Isaac.’" 24.7. The LORD, the God of heaven, who took me from my father’s house, and from the land of my nativity, and who spoke unto me, and who swore unto me, saying: Unto thy seed will I give this land; He will send His angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife for my son from thence." 25.1. And Abraham took another wife, and her name was Keturah." 26.34. And when Esau was forty years old, he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite." 27.46. And Rebekah said to Isaac: ‘I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth. If Jacob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these, of the daughters of the land, what good shall my life do me?’" 28.1. And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him: ‘Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan." 28.2. Arise, go to Paddan-aram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother’s father; and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother’s brother." 28.6. Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Paddan-aram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying: ‘Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan’;" 36.2. Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan; Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite," 38.2. And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was Shua; and he took her, and went in unto her." 38.6. And Judah took a wife for Er his first-born, and her name was Tamar."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.9, 1.17, 2.9, 2.12, 3.5, 3.11, 3.16, 4.31, 6.15, 6.21, 8.28, 17.4, 17.6, 21.14-21.15, 23.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.9. וְקִרְבּוֹ וּכְרָעָיו יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֹּל הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחוֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 1.17. וְשִׁסַּע אֹתוֹ בִכְנָפָיו לֹא יַבְדִּיל וְהִקְטִיר אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ עֹלָה הוּא אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 2.9. וְהֵרִים הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 2.12. קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית תַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתָם לַיהוָה וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא־יַעֲלוּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ׃ 3.5. וְהִקְטִירוּ אֹתוֹ בְנֵי־אַהֲרֹן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 3.11. וְהִקְטִירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 3.16. וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ כָּל־חֵלֶב לַיהוָה׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 6.15. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ תַּחְתָּיו מִבָּנָיו יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ חָק־עוֹלָם לַיהוָה כָּלִיל תָּקְטָר׃ 6.21. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר תְּבֻשַּׁל־בּוֹ יִשָּׁבֵר וְאִם־בִּכְלִי נְחֹשֶׁת בֻּשָּׁלָה וּמֹרַק וְשֻׁטַּף בַּמָּיִם׃ 8.28. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֹתָם מֵעַל כַּפֵּיהֶם וַיַּקְטֵר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה מִלֻּאִים הֵם לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 17.4. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ׃ 17.6. וְזָרַק הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִקְטִיר הַחֵלֶב לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 21.15. וְלֹא־יְחַלֵּל זַרְעוֹ בְּעַמָּיו כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשׁוֹ׃ 23.13. וּמִנְחָתוֹ שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ וְנִסְכֹּה יַיִן רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 1.9. but its inwards and its legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall make the whole smoke on the altar, for a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 1.17. And he shall rend it by the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 2.9. And the priest shall take off from the meal-offering the memorial-part thereof, and shall make it smoke upon the altar—an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 2.12. As an offering of first-fruits ye may bring them unto the LORD; but they shall not come up for a sweet savour on the altar." 3.5. And Aaron’s sons shall make it smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, which is upon the wood that is on the fire; it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 3.11. And the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the LORD." 3.16. And the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savour; all the fat is the LORD’S." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 6.15. And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons shall offer it, it is a due for ever; it shall be wholly made to smoke unto the LORD." 6.21. But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall be broken; and if it be sodden in a brazen vessel, it shall be scoured, and rinsed in water." 8.28. And Moses took them from off their hands, and made them smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering; they were a consecration-offering for a sweet savour; it was an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 17.4. and hath not brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people." 17.6. And the priest shall dash the blood against the altar of the LORD at the door of the tent of meeting, and make the fat smoke for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife." 21.15. And he shall not profane his seed among his people; for I am the LORD who sanctify him." 23.13. And the meal-offering thereof shall be two tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour; and the drink-offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of a hin."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.3, 15.5, 15.7, 15.14, 15.24, 18.17, 28.6, 28.8, 29.2, 29.8, 29.11, 29.13, 29.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.3. וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּיָד רָמָה מִן־הָאֶזְרָח וּמִן־הַגֵּר אֶת־יְהוָה הוּא מְגַדֵּף וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 15.3. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה עֹלָה אוֹ־זֶבַח לְפַלֵּא־נֶדֶר אוֹ בִנְדָבָה אוֹ בְּמֹעֲדֵיכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה מִן־הַבָּקָר אוֹ מִן־הַצֹּאן׃ 15.5. וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ רְבִיעִית הַהִין תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־הָעֹלָה אוֹ לַזָּבַח לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד׃ 15.7. וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ שְׁלִשִׁית הַהִין תַּקְרִיב רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 15.14. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּכֶם גֵּר אוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכְכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשׂוּ כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 15.24. וְהָיָה אִם מֵעֵינֵי הָעֵדָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה לִשְׁגָגָה וְעָשׂוּ כָל־הָעֵדָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד לְעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתוֹ וְנִסְכּוֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּת׃ 18.17. אַךְ בְּכוֹר־שׁוֹר אוֹ־בְכוֹר כֶּשֶׂב אוֹ־בְכוֹר עֵז לֹא תִפְדֶּה קֹדֶשׁ הֵם אֶת־דָּמָם תִּזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּם תַּקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 28.6. עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 28.8. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 29.2. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פָּרִים עַשְׁתֵּי־עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.2. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם עֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם׃ 29.8. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃ 29.11. שְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים וְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 29.13. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ׃ 29.36. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פַּר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם׃ 15.3. and will make an offering by fire unto the LORD, a burnt-offering, or a sacrifice, in fulfilment of a vow clearly uttered, or as a freewill-offering, or in your appointed seasons, to make a sweet savour unto the LORD, of the herd, or of the flock;" 15.5. and wine for the drink-offering, the fourth part of a hin, shalt thou prepare with the burnt-offering or for the sacrifice, for each lamb." 15.7. and for the drink-offering thou shalt present the third part of a hin of wine, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 15.14. And if a stranger sojourn with you, or whosoever may be among you, throughout your generations, and will offer an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD; as ye do, so he shall do." 15.24. then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD—with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordice—and one he-goat for a sin-offering." 18.17. But the firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt dash their blood against the altar, and shalt make their fat smoke for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 28.6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was offered in mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 28.8. And the other lamb shalt thou present at dusk; as the meal-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt present it, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 29.2. And ye shall prepare a burnt-offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.8. but ye shall present a burnt-offering unto the LORD for a sweet savour: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year; they shall be unto you without blemish;" 29.11. one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the sin-offering of atonement, and the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings." 29.13. and ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish;" 29.36. but ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 30.1-30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.1. דִּבְרֵי אָגוּר בִּן־יָקֶה הַמַּשָּׂא נְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר לְאִיתִיאֵל לְאִיתִיאֵל וְאֻכָל׃ 30.1. אַל־תַּלְשֵׁן עֶבֶד אֶל־אדנו [אֲדֹנָיו] פֶּן־יְקַלֶּלְךָ וְאָשָׁמְתָּ׃ 30.2. כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ אִשָּׁה מְנָאָפֶת אָכְלָה וּמָחֲתָה פִיהָ וְאָמְרָה לֹא־פָעַלְתִּי אָוֶן׃ 30.2. כִּי בַעַר אָנֹכִי מֵאִישׁ וְלֹא־בִינַת אָדָם לִי׃ 30.3. וְלֹא־לָמַדְתִּי חָכְמָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים אֵדָע׃ 30.3. לַיִשׁ גִּבּוֹר בַּבְּהֵמָה וְלֹא־יָשׁוּב מִפְּנֵי־כֹל׃ 30.4. מִי עָלָה־שָׁמַיִם וַיֵּרַד מִי אָסַף־רוּחַ בְּחָפְנָיו מִי צָרַר־מַיִם בַּשִּׂמְלָה מִי הֵקִים כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ מַה־שְּׁמוֹ וּמַה־שֶּׁם־בְּנוֹ כִּי תֵדָע׃ 30.1. The words of Agur the son of Jakeh; the burden. The man saith unto Ithiel, unto Ithiel and Ucal:" 30.2. Surely I am brutish, unlike a man, And have not the understanding of a man;" 30.3. And I have not learned wisdom, That I should have the knowledge of the Holy One." 30.4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in his garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106.23, 106.30, 107.23-107.30, 148.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

106.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לְהַשְׁמִידָם לוּלֵי מֹשֶׁה בְחִירוֹ עָמַד בַּפֶּרֶץ לְפָנָיו לְהָשִׁיב חֲמָתוֹ מֵהַשְׁחִית׃ 107.23. יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם בָּאֳנִיּוֹת עֹשֵׂי מְלָאכָה בְּמַיִם רַבִּים׃ 107.24. הֵמָּה רָאוּ מַעֲשֵׂי יְהוָה וְנִפְלְאוֹתָיו בִּמְצוּלָה׃ 107.25. וַיֹּאמֶר וַיַּעֲמֵד רוּחַ סְעָרָה וַתְּרוֹמֵם גַּלָּיו׃ 107.26. יַעֲלוּ שָׁמַיִם יֵרְדוּ תְהוֹמוֹת נַפְשָׁם בְּרָעָה תִתְמוֹגָג׃ 107.27. יָחוֹגּוּ וְיָנוּעוּ כַּשִּׁכּוֹר וְכָל־חָכְמָתָם תִּתְבַּלָּע׃ 107.28. וַיִּצְעֲקוּ אֶל־יְהוָה בַּצַּר לָהֶם וּמִמְּצוּקֹתֵיהֶם יוֹצִיאֵם׃ 107.29. יָקֵם סְעָרָה לִדְמָמָה וַיֶּחֱשׁוּ גַּלֵּיהֶם׃ 148.4. הַלְלוּהוּ שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 106.23. Therefore He said that He would destroy them, Had not Moses His chosen stood before Him in the breach, To turn back His wrath, lest He should destroy them." 106.30. Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed." 107.23. They that go down to the sea in ships, That do business in great waters—" 107.24. These saw the works of the LORD, And His wonders in the deep;" 107.25. For He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, Which lifted up the waves thereof;" 107.26. They mounted up to the heaven, they went down to the deeps; Their soul melted away because of trouble;" 107.27. They reeled to and fro, and staggered like a drunken man, And all their wisdom was swallowed up—" 107.28. They cried unto the LORD in their trouble, And He brought them out of their distresses." 107.29. He made the storm a calm, So that the waves thereof were still." 107.30. Then were they glad because they were quiet, And He led them unto their desired haven." 148.4. Praise Him, ye heavens of heavens, And ye waters that are above the heavens."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.27. כִּי הַאֻמְנָם יֵשֵׁב אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יְכַלְכְּלוּךָ אַף כִּי־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.27. But will God in very truth dwell on the earth? behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this house that I have builded!"
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.12-40.14, 65.17-65.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.12. מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃ 40.13. מִי־תִכֵּן אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וְאִישׁ עֲצָתוֹ יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 40.14. אֶת־מִי נוֹעָץ וַיְבִינֵהוּ וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ בְּאֹרַח מִשְׁפָּט וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ דַעַת וְדֶרֶךְ תְּבוּנוֹת יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 65.17. כִּי־הִנְנִי בוֹרֵא שָׁמַיִם חֲדָשִׁים וָאָרֶץ חֲדָשָׁה וְלֹא תִזָּכַרְנָה הָרִאשֹׁנוֹת וְלֹא תַעֲלֶינָה עַל־לֵב׃ 65.18. כִּי־אִם־שִׂישׂוּ וְגִילוּ עֲדֵי־עַד אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי בוֹרֵא כִּי הִנְנִי בוֹרֵא אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם גִּילָה וְעַמָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ׃ 65.19. וְגַלְתִּי בִירוּשָׁלִַם וְשַׂשְׂתִּי בְעַמִּי וְלֹא־יִשָּׁמַע בָּהּ עוֹד קוֹל בְּכִי וְקוֹל זְעָקָה׃ 65.21. וּבָנוּ בָתִּים וְיָשָׁבוּ וְנָטְעוּ כְרָמִים וְאָכְלוּ פִּרְיָם׃ 65.22. לֹא יִבְנוּ וְאַחֵר יֵשֵׁב לֹא יִטְּעוּ וְאַחֵר יֹאכֵל כִּי־כִימֵי הָעֵץ יְמֵי עַמִּי וּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם יְבַלּוּ בְחִירָי׃ 65.23. לֹא יִיגְעוּ לָרִיק וְלֹא יֵלְדוּ לַבֶּהָלָה כִּי זֶרַע בְּרוּכֵי יְהוָה הֵמָּה וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם אִתָּם׃ 40.12. Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?" 40.13. Who hath meted out the spirit of the LORD? Or who was His counsellor that he might instruct Him?" 40.14. With whom took He counsel, and who instructed Him, And taught Him in the path of right, And taught Him knowledge, And made Him to know the way of discernment?" 65.17. For, behold, I create new heavens And a new earth; And the former things shall not be remembered, Nor come into mind. ." 65.18. But be ye glad and rejoice for ever In that which I create; For, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, And her people a joy." 65.19. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; And the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, Nor the voice of crying." 65.20. There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man, That hath not filled his days; For the youngest shall die a hundred years old, And the sinner being a hundred years old shall be accursed." 65.21. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; And they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them." 65.22. They shall not build, and another inhabit, They shall not plant, and another eat; For as the days of a tree shall be the days of My people, And Mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands." 65.23. They shall not labour in vain, Nor bring forth for terror; For they are the seed blessed of the LORD, And their offspring with them."
13. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן הַזֹּאת תִּהְיֶה־בָּנוּ לְעֵדָה כִּי־הִיא שָׁמְעָה אֵת כָּל־אִמְרֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עִמָּנוּ וְהָיְתָה בָכֶם לְעֵדָה פֶּן־תְּכַחֲשׁוּן בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 24.27. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Behold, this stone shall be a witness against us; for it hath heard all the words of the LORD which He spoke unto us; it shall be therefore a witness against you, lest ye deny your God.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.19-5.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.19. בָּאוּ מְלָכִים נִלְחָמוּ אָז נִלְחֲמוּ מַלְכֵי כְנַעַן בְּתַעְנַךְ עַל־מֵי מְגִדּוֹ בֶּצַע כֶּסֶף לֹא לָקָחוּ׃ 5.19. The kings came and fought, then fought the kings of Kena῾an in Ta῾nakh by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of silver." 5.20. They fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought against Sisera."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 11.5 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.5. כַּאֲשֶׁר אֵינְךָ יוֹדֵעַ מַה־דֶּרֶךְ הָרוּחַ כַּעֲצָמִים בְּבֶטֶן הַמְּלֵאָה כָּכָה לֹא תֵדַע אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂה הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הַכֹּל׃ 11.5. As thou knowest not what is the way of the wind, Nor how the bones do grow in the womb of her that is with child; Even so thou knowest not the work of God Who doeth all things."
16. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2-8, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3, 4, 5, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6, 6.6, 7, 7.1, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.4-9.3, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 10.1, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.11, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 11, 12, 12.4, 13, 14, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 15, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 16, 16.3, 17, 18, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 19, 19.1, 20, 20.7, 21, 22, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 23, 24, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 25, 25.1, 25.3, 25.6, 26, 27, 27.2, 28, 29, 30, 30.1, 30.2, 30.3, 31, 31.1, 31.2, 32, 32.1, 32.3, 32.4, 32.5, 32.6, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40.7, 40.9, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 46.6, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 51.1, 52, 53, 54, 54.6, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 60.8, 60.11, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 71.8, 71.9, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 80.4, 80.5, 80.6, 80.7, 80.8, 81, 81.1, 81.1-82.4, 81.2, 81.5, 81.9, 82, 82.2, 82.9, 82.10, 82.11, 82.12, 82.13, 82.14, 82.15, 82.16, 82.17, 82.18, 82.19, 82.20, 83, 83.6, 83.7, 84, 84.2, 84.3, 84.4, 85, 85.3, 85.4, 85.9, 86, 87, 87.3, 88, 89, 89.1, 89.9, 89.10, 89.11, 89.32, 89.33, 89.46, 89.49, 89.51, 89.52, 89.54, 89.62, 90, 90.24, 90.28, 90.29, 90.33, 90.37, 90.38, 90.41, 90.42, 91, 91.1, 91.2, 91.3, 91.4, 91.5, 91.6, 91.7, 91.8, 91.9, 91.10, 91.11, 91.12, 91.13, 91.14, 91.15, 91.16, 91.17, 91.18, 92, 92.1, 92.2, 92.3, 92.4, 92.5, 93, 93.1, 93.2, 93.3, 93.4, 93.5, 93.6, 93.7, 93.8, 93.9, 93.10, 93.11, 93.11-105.2, 93.12, 93.13, 93.14, 94, 94.5, 94.6, 95, 95.4, 96, 96.4, 97, 97.7, 97.9, 98, 98.2, 98.4, 98.6, 98.7, 98.8, 98.11, 98.14, 98.15, 99, 99.2, 99.6, 99.7, 99.8, 99.9, 100, 100.1, 100.4, 100.6, 100.7, 100.9, 100.10, 100.11, 100.12, 100.13, 101, 101.1, 101.2, 101.3, 101.4, 101.5, 101.6, 101.7, 101.8, 101.9, 102, 102.3, 102.4-104.8, 102.6, 103, 103.2, 103.3, 103.11, 103.14, 103.15, 104, 104.1, 104.2, 104.5, 104.7, 104.8, 104.10, 104.11, 104.12, 105, 106, 106.14, 107, 108, 108.7, 108.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
18. Anon., Jubilees, 4.15, 5.1-5.2, 5.6-5.11, 10.1-10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 5.1. And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them 5.2. that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. 5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes. 5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 5.8. But Noah found grace before the eyes of the Lord. 5.9. And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion 5.10. and He bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. 5.11. And against their sons went forth a command from before His face that they should be smitten with the sword, and be removed from under heaven. 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.8. and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are maligt, and created in order to destroy. 10.9. And let them not rule over the spirits of the living; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion over them. And let them not have power over the sons of the righteous from henceforth and for evermore. 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.14. And He said: "Let the tenth part of them remain before him, and let nine parts descend into the place of condemnation.
19. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Anon., Testament of Levi, 3.2-3.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. And it has fire, snow, and ice made ready for the day of judgement, in the righteous judgement of God; for in it are all the spirits of the retributions for vengeance on men. 3.3. And in the second are the hosts of the armies which are ordained for the day of judgement, to work vengeance on the spirits of deceit and of Beliar. And above them are the holy ones. 3.4. And in the highest of all dwelleth the Great Glory, far above all holiness. 3.5. In [the heaven next to] it are the archangels, who minister and make propitiation to the Lord for all the sins of ignorance of the righteous; 3.6. offering to the Lord a sweet- smelling savour, a reasonable and a bloodless offering. 3.7. And [in the heaven below this] are the angels who bear answers to the angels of the presence of the Lord. 3.8. And in the heaven next to this are thrones and dominions, in which always they offer praise to God. 3.9. When, therefore, the Lord looketh upon us, all of us are shaken; yea, the heavens, and the earth, and the abysses are shaken at the presence of His majesty.
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 9.14-9.16, 17.6-17.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26, 4.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.57, 7.3-7.8, 7.14, 8.9-8.14, 9.21, 9.24-9.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.3. וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן־יַמָּא שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן־דָּא׃ 7.4. קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי־נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי־מְּרִיטוּ גַפַּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן־אַרְעָא וְעַל־רַגְלַיִן כֶּאֱנָשׁ הֳקִימַת וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ׃ 7.5. וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרִי תִנְיָנָה דָּמְיָה לְדֹב וְלִשְׂטַר־חַד הֳקִמַת וּתְלָת עִלְעִין בְּפֻמַּהּ בֵּין שניה [שִׁנַּהּ] וְכֵן אָמְרִין לַהּ קוּמִי אֲכֻלִי בְּשַׂר שַׂגִּיא׃ 7.6. בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר וְלַהּ גַּפִּין אַרְבַּע דִּי־עוֹף עַל־גביה [גַּבַּהּ] וְאַרְבְּעָה רֵאשִׁין לְחֵיוְתָא וְשָׁלְטָן יְהִיב לַהּ׃ 7.7. בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רביעיה [רְבִיעָאָה] דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָא וְשִׁנַּיִן דִּי־פַרְזֶל לַהּ רַבְרְבָן אָכְלָה וּמַדֱּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא ברגליה [בְּרַגְלַהּ] רָפְסָה וְהִיא מְשַׁנְּיָה מִן־כָּל־חֵיוָתָא דִּי קָדָמַיהּ וְקַרְנַיִן עֲשַׂר לַהּ׃ 7.8. מִשְׂתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת ביניהון [בֵּינֵיהֵן] וּתְלָת מִן־קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אתעקרו [אֶתְעֲקַרָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא־דָא וּפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 8.9. וּמִן־הָאַחַת מֵהֶם יָצָא קֶרֶן־אַחַת מִצְּעִירָה וַתִּגְדַּל־יֶתֶר אֶל־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶל־הַמִּזְרָח וְאֶל־הַצֶּבִי׃ 8.11. וְעַד שַׂר־הַצָּבָא הִגְדִּיל וּמִמֶּנּוּ הרים [הוּרַם] הַתָּמִיד וְהֻשְׁלַךְ מְכוֹן מִקְדָּשׁוֹ׃ 8.12. וְצָבָא תִּנָּתֵן עַל־הַתָּמִיד בְּפָשַׁע וְתַשְׁלֵךְ אֱמֶת אַרְצָה וְעָשְׂתָה וְהִצְלִיחָה׃ 8.13. וָאֶשְׁמְעָה אֶחָד־קָדוֹשׁ מְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶחָד קָדוֹשׁ לַפַּלְמוֹנִי הַמְדַבֵּר עַד־מָתַי הֶחָזוֹן הַתָּמִיד וְהַפֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס׃ 8.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עַד עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר אַלְפַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ׃ 9.21. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר בַּתְּפִלָּה וְהָאִישׁ גַּבְרִיאֵל אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בֶחָזוֹן בַּתְּחִלָּה מֻעָף בִּיעָף נֹגֵעַ אֵלַי כְּעֵת מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 9.24. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל־עַמְּךָ וְעַל־עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם [וּלְהָתֵם] חטאות [חַטָּאת] וּלְכַפֵּר עָוֺן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים׃ 9.25. וְתֵדַע וְתַשְׂכֵּל מִן־מֹצָא דָבָר לְהָשִׁיב וְלִבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַד־מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעָה וְשָׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם תָּשׁוּב וְנִבְנְתָה רְחוֹב וְחָרוּץ וּבְצוֹק הָעִתִּים׃ 9.26. וְאַחֲרֵי הַשָּׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם יִכָּרֵת מָשִׁיחַ וְאֵין לוֹ וְהָעִיר וְהַקֹּדֶשׁ יַשְׁחִית עַם נָגִיד הַבָּא וְקִצּוֹ בַשֶּׁטֶף וְעַד קֵץ מִלְחָמָה נֶחֱרֶצֶת שֹׁמֵמוֹת׃ 9.27. וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד־כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל־שֹׁמֵם׃ 7.3. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another." 7.4. The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings; I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked off, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon two feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it." 7.5. And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; and it was said thus unto it: ‘Arise, devour much flesh.’" 7.6. After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the sides of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it." 7.7. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns." 7.8. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 8.9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the beauteous land." 8.10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled upon them." 8.11. Yea, it magnified itself, even to the prince of the host; and from him the continual burnt-offering was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down." 8.12. And the host was given over to it together with the continual burnt-offering through transgression; and it cast down truth to the ground, and it wrought, and prospered." 8.13. Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke: ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the continual burnt-offering, and the transgression that causes appalment, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled under foot?’" 8.14. And he said unto me: ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be victorious.’" 9.21. yea, while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, approached close to me about the time of the evening offering." 9.24. Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place." 9.25. Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again, with broad place and moat, but in troublous times." 9.26. And after the threescore and two weeks shall an anointed one be cut off, and be no more; and the people of a prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood; and unto the end of the war desolations are determined." 9.27. And he shall make a firm covet with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.’"
24. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.2-1.3, 1.9, 1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. The sand of the sea, the drops of rain,and the days of eternity -- who can count them? 1.3. The height of heaven, the breadth of the earth,the abyss, and wisdom -- who can search them out? 1.3. Do not exalt yourself lest you fall,and thus bring dishonor upon yourself. The Lord will reveal your secrets and cast you down in the midst of the congregation,because you did not come in the fear of the Lord,and your heart was full of deceit. 1.9. The fear of the Lord is glory and exultation,and gladness and a crown of rejoicing. 1.16. The fear of the Lord is the crown of wisdom,making peace and perfect health to flourish.
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23-2.24, 3.1-3.9, 9.13-9.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.2. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died,and their departure was thought to be an affliction 3.3. and their going from us to be their destruction;but they are at peace. 3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality. 3.5. Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good,because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; 3.6. like gold in the furnace he tried them,and like a sacrificial burnt offering he accepted them. 3.7. In the time of their visitation they will shine forth,and will run like sparks through the stubble. 3.8. They will govern nations and rule over peoples,and the Lord will reign over them for ever. 3.9. Those who trust in him will understand truth,and the faithful will abide with him in love,because grace and mercy are upon his elect,and he watches over his holy ones. 9.13. For what man can learn the counsel of God?Or who can discern what the Lord wills? 9.14. For the reasoning of mortals is worthless,and our designs are likely to fail 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 9.16. We can hardly guess at what is on earth,and what is at hand we find with labor;but who has traced out what is in the heavens? 9.17. Who has learned thy counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom and sent thy holy Spirit from on high? 9.18. And thus the paths of those on earth were set right,and men were taught what pleases thee,and were saved by wisdom.
26. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.215 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

2.215. 215 And there shall be upon them fearful wrath
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

115. But when they appear to be made propitious, then Moses will sing a sacred hymn over them, saying, "The Lord has smelt the smell of a sweet savour," using the word to smell here as equivalent to approving of; for God is not formed like a man, nor has he any need of nostrils, or of any other organ parts.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 87 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

87. and he will appear in the outer conspicuous altar of life to exercise abundant prudence with respect to the skin, and flesh, and blood, and everything relating to the body, in order not to offend the common multitude which gives the second place in honour to the good things of the body in close proximity to the good things of the soul; and at the inner altar he will use bloodless, fleshless, incorporeal things, things proceeding from reasoning alone, which are compared to frankincense and other burnt spices; for as these fill the nostrils, so do those fill the whole region of the soul with fragrance. XXII.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 165 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

165. But its juggleries and deceits pleasure does not venture to bring directly to the man, but first offers them to the woman, and by her means to the man; acting in a very natural and sagacious manner. For in human beings the mind occupies the rank of the man, and the sensations that of the woman. And pleasure joins itself to and associates itself with the sensations first of all, and then by their means cajoles also the mind, which is the domit part. For, after each of the senses have been subjected to the charms of pleasure, and has learnt to delight in what is offered to it, the sight being fascinated by varieties of colours and shapes, the hearing by harmonious sounds, the taste by the sweetness of flowers, and the smell by the delicious fragrance of the odours which are brought before it, these all having received these offerings, like handmaids, bring them to the mind as their master, leading with them persuasion as an advocate, to warn it against rejecting any of them whatever. And the mind being immediately caught by the bait, becomes a subject instead of a ruler, and a slave instead of a master, and an exile instead of a citizen, and a mortal instead of an immortal.
30. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV.
31. Strabo, Geography, 16.4.19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.4.19. The country of the Sabaei, a very populous nation, is contiguous, and is the most fertile of all, producing myrrh, frankincense, and cinnamon. On the coast is found balsamum and another kind of herb of a very fragrant smell, but which is soon dissipated. There are also sweet-smelling palms and the calamus. There are snakes also of a dark red colour, a span in length, which spring up as high as a man's waist, and whose bite is incurable.On account of the abundance which the soil produces, the people are lazy and indolent in their mode of life. The lower class of people live on roots, and sleep on the trees.The people who live near each other receive, in continued succession, the loads [of perfumes] and deliver them to others, who convey them as far as Syria and Mesopotamia. When the carriers become drowsy by the odour of the aromatics, the drowsiness is removed by the fumes of asphaltus and of goat's beard.Mariaba, the capital of the Sabaeans, is situated upon a mountain, well wooded. A king resides there, who determines absolutely all disputes and other matters ; but he is forbidden to leave his palace, or if he does so, the rabble immediately assail him with stones, according to the direction of an oracle. He himself, and those about his person, pass their lives in effeminate voluptuousness.The people cultivate the ground, or follow the trade of dealing in aromatics, both the indigenous sort and those brought from Ethiopia; in order to procure them, they sail through the straits in vessels covered with skins. There is such an abundance of these aromatics, that cinnamon, cassia, and other spices are used by them instead of sticks and firewood.In the country of the Sabaeans is found the larimnum, a most fragrant perfume.By the trade [in these aromatics] both the Sabaeans and the Gerrhaei have become the richest of all the tribes, and possess a great quantity of wrought articles in gold and silver, as couches, tripods, basins, drinking-vessels, to which we must add the costly magnificence of their houses; for the doors, walls, and roofs are variegated with inlaid ivory, gold, silver, and precious stones.This is the account of Artemidorus. The rest of the description is partly similar to that of Eratosthenes, and partly derived from other historians.
32. Anon., 2 Baruch, 23.4, 29.3-29.8, 54.8, 54.13-54.14, 54.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 1.2, 10.1, 13.6, 28.4, 29.3, 29.5-29.6, 37.5, 40.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.73-1.74 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. 1.74. But Noah was very uneasy at what they did; and being displeased at their conduct, persuaded them to change their dispositions and their acts for the better: but seeing they did not yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked pleasures, he was afraid they would kill him, together with his wife and children, and those they had married; so he departed out of that land.
35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.375 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.375. while the souls of those whose hands have acted madly against themselves are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their Father, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity?
36. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before.
37. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
38. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
39. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. 2.14. Adam wasn't deceived, but the woman, being deceived, has fallen into disobedience;
40. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.15, 12.2-12.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, Acts, 15.28-15.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.
42. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.1, 12.7-12.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this. 12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 12.8. They didn't prevail, neither was a place found for him any more in heaven. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.
43. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance.
44. New Testament, Philippians, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.8. Finally, brothers, whatever things are true, whatever things are honorable, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report; if there is any virtue, and if there is any praise, think about these things.
45. New Testament, Romans, 3.18, 5.12-5.21, 8.18-8.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.18. There is no fear of God before their eyes. 5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified.
46. New Testament, John, 2.24, 3.13, 6.42, 14.2, 14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.24. But Jesus didn't trust himself to them, because he knew everyone 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 6.42. They said, "Isn't this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How then does he say, 'I have come down out of heaven?' 14.2. In my Father's house are many mansions. If it weren't so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me.
47. New Testament, Luke, 19.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.40. He answered them, "I tell you that if these were silent, the stones would cry out.
48. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4, 8.6-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 32, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. And the apostle stood, and began to pray and to speak thus: My Lord and MY God, that travellest with thy servants, that guidest and correctest them that believe in thee, the refuge and rest of the oppressed, the hope of the poor and ransomer of captives, the physician of the souls that lie sick and saviour of all creation, that givest life unto the world and strengthenest souls; thou knowest things to come, and by our means accomplishest them: thou Lord art he that revealeth hidden mysteries and maketh manifest words that are secret: thou Lord art the planter of the good tree, and of thine hands are all good works engendered: thou Lord art he that art in all things and passest through all, and art set in all thy works and manifested in the working of them all. Jesus Christ, Son of compassion and perfect saviour, Christ, Son of the living God, the undaunted power that hast overthrown the enemy, and the voice that was heard of the rulers, and made all their powers to quake, the ambassador that wast sent from the height and camest down even unto hell, who didst open the doors and bring up thence them that for many ages were shut up in the treasury of darkness, and showedst them the way that leadeth up unto the height: l beseech thee, Lord Jesu, and offer unto thee supplication for these young persons, that thou wouldest do for them the things that shall help them and be expedient and profitable for them. And he laid his hands on them and said: The Lord shall be with you, and left them in that place and departed.
50. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 44.15 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

44.15. דָּבָר אַחֵר, קְחָה לִי עֶגְלָה מְשֻׁלֶּשֶׁת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה שְׁלשָׁה מְלָכִים, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַר וֶאֱוִיל מְרוֹדַךְ וּבֵלְשַׁצַּר. וְעֵז מְשֻׁלֶּשֶׁת, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמִידָה שְׁלשָׁה מְלָכִים, כּוֹרֶשׁ וְדָרְיָוֶשׁ וַאֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. וְאַיִל מְשֻׁלָּשׁ, זוֹ יָוָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר כָּל הָרוּחוֹת כָּבְשׁוּ בְּנֵי יָוָן וְרוּחַ מִזְרָחִית לֹא כָבָשׁוּ, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְהָכְתִיב (דניאל ח, ד): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאַיִל מְנַגֵּחַ יָמָּה וְצָפוֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְכָל חַיּוֹת לֹא יַעַמְדוּ לְפָנָיו וְאֵין מַצִּיל מִיָּדוֹ וְעָשָׂה כִרְצֹנוֹ וְהִגְדִּיל, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּלָא אֲמַר מִזְרָחִית. וְתֹר וְגוֹזָל, זוֹ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם, תּוֹר הוּא אֶלָּא שֶׁגַּזְלָן הוּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּקַּח לוֹ אֶת כָּל אֵלֶּה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר שָׂרֵי עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים הֶרְאָה לוֹ. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר שָׂרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֶרְאָה לוֹ, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה קָתֶדְרִין דְּדֵין לָקֳבֵל קָתֶדְרִין דְּדֵין. עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה שֶׁשָּׁם הָיוּ סַנְהֶדְּרֵי גְדוֹלָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹשֶׁבֶת וְחוֹתֶמֶת דִּינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאֶת הַצִּפֹּר לֹא בָתָר, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר הֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מַעֲמִיד פָּנִים בַּגַּל, הַגַּל שׁוֹטְפוֹ, וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַעֲמִיד פָּנִים בַּגַּל, אֵין הַגַּל שׁוֹטְפוֹ.
51. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

75a. קניגיא עם לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כה) התמשוך לויתן בחכה ובחבל תשקיע לשונו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר (איוב מ, יט) העושו יגש חרבו,כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שלויתן רעב מוציא הבל מפיו ומרתיח כל מימות שבמצולה שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ירתיח כסיר מצולה ואלמלא מכניס ראשו לגן עדן אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ים ישים כמרקחה,ובשעה שצמא עושה תלמים תלמים בים שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) אחריו יאיר נתיב אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אין תהום חוזר לאיתנו עד שבעים שנה שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) יחשוב תהום לשיבה ואין שיבה פחותה משבעים,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים מבשרו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יכרו עליו חברים ואין כרה אלא סעודה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כרה גדולה ויאכלו וישתו ואין חברים אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, יג) היושבת בגנים חברים מקשיבים לקולך השמיעני,והשאר מחלקין אותו ועושין בו סחורה בשוקי ירושלים שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יחצוהו בין כנענים ואין כנענים אלא תגרים שנאמר (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה לעשק אהב ואי בעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סוכה לצדיקים מעורו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) התמלא בשכות עורו זכה עושין לו סוכה לא זכה עושין לו צלצל שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) ובצלצל דגים ראשו,זכה עושין לו צלצל לא זכה עושין לו ענק שנאמר (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך זכה עושין לו ענק לא זכה עושין לו קמיע שנאמר (איוב מ, כט) ותקשרנו לנערותיך,והשאר פורסו הקב"ה על חומות ירושלים וזיוו מבהיק מסוף העולם ועד סופו שנאמר (ישעיהו ס, ג) והלכו גוים לאורך ומלכים לנוגה זרחך:,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכד שמשותיך א"ר שמואל בר נחמני פליגי תרי מלאכי ברקיעא גבריאל ומיכאל ואמרי לה תרי אמוראי במערבא ומאן אינון יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא חד אמר שוהם וחד אמר ישפה אמר להו הקב"ה להוי כדין וכדין,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושעריך לאבני אקדח כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם שלשים על שלשים וחוקק בהן עשר על עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד השתא כביעתא דציצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזא מלאכי השרת דיתבי וקא מינסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם ל' על ל' וחקוק בהן עשר ברום עשרים אמר להו הני למאן אמרו ליה שעתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דרוש רבי לך נאה לדרוש כאשר אמרת כן ראיתי אמר לו ריקא אלמלא (לא) ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,מיתיבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות רבי מאיר אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון,רבי יהודה אומר מאה אמה כנגד היכל וכתליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל כי קאמר ר' יוחנן לכווי דבי זיקא,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות שבע חופות לכל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ה) וברא ה' על כל מכון הר ציון ועל מקראיה ענן יומם ועשן ונוגה אש להבה לילה כי על כל כבוד חופה מלמד שכל אחד ואחד עושה לו הקדוש ברוך הוא חופה לפי כבודו,עשן בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא שכל מי שעיניו צרות בתלמידי חכמים בעולם הזה מתמלאות עיניו עשן לעולם הבא ואש בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נכוה מחופתו של חבירו אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו ולא כל הודך זקנים שבאותו הדור אמרו פני משה כפני חמה פני יהושע כפני לבנה אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא עשר חופות עשה הקדוש ברוך הוא לאדם הראשון בגן עדן שנאמר (יחזקאל כח, יג) בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה וגו' מר זוטרא אמר אחת עשרה שנאמר כל אבן יקרה אמר רבי יוחנן וגרוע שבכולן זהב דקא חשיב ליה לבסוף,מאי (יחזקאל כח, יג) מלאכת תופיך ונקביך בך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לחירם מלך צור בך נסתכלתי ובראתי נקבים נקבים באדם ואיכא דאמרי הכי קאמר בך נסתכלתי 75a. ba hunt of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you draw out leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?”(Job 40:25). bAnd were the Holy One, Blessed be He, not assistingGabriel, bhe would not be able tohunt bit, as it is stated: “Only He Who made him can use His sword to approach him”(Job 40:19)., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whenthe bleviathan is hungry, he produces breath from his mouth andthereby bboils all of the waters in the depthsof the sea. bAs it is stated: “He makes the deep boil like a pot”(Job 41:23). bAnd ifthe leviathan bdid not place its head in the Garden of Eden, no creature could withstand hisfoul bsmell, as it is stated: “He makes the sea like a seething mixture [ imerkaḥa /i]”(Job 41:23), and the term imerkaḥais also used to describe something with a smell (see Exodus 30:25)., bAnd when he is thirsty, he makes many furrows in the sea, as it is stated: “He makes a path to shine after him”(Job 41:24). bRav Aḥa bar Yaakov says:After the leviathan drinks from the sea, bthe depthof the sea does bnot return to its normal condition until seventy yearshave passed, bas it is stated: “One would think the deep to be hoary”(Job 41:24), band hoaryindicates a person who is bno less than seventyyears old., bRabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will make a feast for the righteous from the flesh of the leviathan, as it is stated: “The iḥabbarimwill make a feast [ iyikhru /i] of him”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikera /imeans bnothing other than a feast, as it is stated: “And he prepared [ iva’yikhreh /i] for them a great feast [ ikera /i]; and they ate and drank”(II Kings 6:23). bAnd iḥabbarim /imeans bnothing other than Torah scholars, as it is stated: “You that dwell in the gardens, the companions [ iḥaverim /i] hearken for your voice: Cause me to hear it”(Song of Songs 8:13). This verse is interpreted as referring to Torah scholars, who listen to God’s voice., bAndwith regard to bthe remainderof the leviathan, they will bdivide it and use it for commerce in the markets of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “They will part him among the ikena’anim /i”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikena’anim /imeans bnothing other than merchants, as it is stated: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress”(Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, saythat the proof is bfrom here: “Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8)., bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a isukkafor the righteous from the skin ofthe bleviathan, as it is stated: “Can you fill his skin with barbed irons [ ibesukkot /i]”(Job 40:31). If one bis deservingof being called righteous, an entire isukkais prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan; if one is bnot deservingof this honor, ba covering is prepared for hishead, bas it is stated: “Or his head with fish-spears”(Job 40:31).,If one is bdeservingat least of this reward, ba covering is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, as it is stated: “And necklaces about your neck”(Proverbs 1:9). If one is somewhat bdeserving, a necklace is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deservingeven of this, only ban amu-let is prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan, bas it is stated: “Or will you bind him for your maidens”(Job 40:29), i.e., a small amulet is prepared for him, like the amulets tied on children’s necks., bAndwith regard to bthe remainingpart of the skin of the leviathan, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, spreads it on the walls of Jerusalem, and its glory radiates fromone bend of the world until theother bend. As it is stated: “And nations shall walk in your light, and kings at the brightness of your rising”(Isaiah 60:3).,§ With regard to the future glory of Jerusalem, the Gemara interprets the verse: b“And I will make your pinnacles of ikadkhod /i”(Isaiah 54:12). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, disagreewith regard to the material that will be used to form the walls of Jerusalem. bAnd some saythat this dispute is between btwo iamora’imin the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael. bAnd who are they?They are bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya. One saidthey will be made of bonyx, and one saidof bjasper. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Let it be like this [ ikedein /i] and like that [ iukhedein /i],i.e., let them be formed from both together. This compromise is indicated by the word ikadkhod /i, a combination of this [ ikedein /i] and that [ iukhedein /i].,The Gemara analyzes the rest of that verse: b“And your gates of precious stones”(Isaiah 54:12). This should be understood binlight of bthatincident bwhere Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring precious stones and pearls that are thirty by thirtycubits, band He will hollow out in thema hole of bten by twentycubits band set them in the gates of Jerusalem. A certainunnamed bstudent sneered at him,saying: bNow we do not findprecious stones even bofthe size of ban egg of a dove,and yet ball of this we will find? /b, bAftera period of btimethat student’s bship went to sea,where bhe saw ministering angels sitting and sawing precious stones and pearls that were thirty by thirtycubits, band hollowed out in themwere holes of bten by twentycubits. bHe said tothe angels: bFor whom are these? They said to him thatin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will place them in the gates of Jerusalem.Later, the student bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him:Continue to binterpret, my teacher, it is fitting for you to interpret,as bI sawjust bas you said.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Worthlessman, bif you had not seen, you would not have believed;clearly, byou are mocking the statement of the Sages.Rabbi Yoḥa bset his eyes upon him, andthe student was instantly killed band turned into a pile of bones. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionagainst Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement, based on a ibaraita /i. The verse states: b“And I will make you go upright [ ikomemiyyut /i]”(Leviticus 26:13). bRabbi Meir says:In the future, the Jewish people will have the stature of btwo hundred cubits, equivalent to twotimes the bheight [ ikomot /i] of Adam the firstman, whose height was one hundred cubits. Rabbi Meir interprets the word ikomemiyyutas two ikomot /i., bRabbi Yehuda says:They will have the stature of bone hundred cubits, corresponding to the Sanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Sanctuary”(Psalms 144:12). But if they are each one hundred cubits tall, how could the Jews enter the gates of Jerusalem, whose entrance gate will be ten by twenty cubits, as claimed by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa statedthat idea, he was not referring to the gates themselves but btothe bwindows thatallow bwindto enter.,§ bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will fashion seven canopies for each and every righteousindividual, bas it is stated: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy”(Isaiah 4:5). This bteaches thatfor beach and everyrighteous individual, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions for him a canopyseven times over, bin accordance with his honor,i.e., greater individuals receive grander and larger canopies.,The Gemara asks a question with regard to the above verse: bWhyshould there be bsmoke in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is bbecause anyone whose eyes are narrow,i.e., is stingy, btoward Torah scholars in this world, his eyes fill with smoke in the World-to-Come. And whyshould there be bfire in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:This bteaches that each and every one is burned fromembarrassment at the size of bthe canopy of the other,and says: bWoe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that I did not merit a canopy as large as his., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat God said to Moses about Joshua: b“And you shall put of your honor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that you should put some of your honor, bbut not all of your honor. The elders of that generation said: The face of Moseswas as bright bas the face of the sun; the face of Joshuawas blike the face of the moon. Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that we did not merit another leader of the stature of Moses., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, fashioned ten canopies for Adam the firstman, bin the Garden of Eden; as it is statedto Hiram, king of Tyre: b“You were in Eden the garden of God; every precious stonewas your covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of your drums and of your holes was in you; they were prepared on the day that you were created” (Ezekiel 28:13). This verse mentions ten items, from carnelian to gold. bMar Zutra said:There were belevencanopies, bas it states: “Every precious stone,”which is also part of the tally. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And the worst of all of themwas bgold, as it is counted last,which indicates that the other items are more valuable.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“The workmanship of your drums and of your holes [ inekavekha /i]”(Ezekiel 28:13)? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hiram, king of Tyre:Were you in the Garden of Eden when I created all of this for you? bI looked at you,saw that you would one day claim divinity for yourself, band created many orifices [ inekavim /i] in man,i.e., the excretory system, so that you would know that you are human and not a god. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bthisis what God bsaidto Hiram: bI looked at you /b
52. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. רבי חנניה בן (גמלא) אומר אף על הדם מן החי רבי חידקא אומר אף על הסירוס רבי שמעון אומר אף על הכישוף,רבי יוסי אומר כל האמור בפרשת כישוף בן נח מוזהר עליו (דברים יח, י) לא ימצא בך מעביר בנו ובתו באש קוסם קסמים מעונן ומנחש ומכשף וחובר חבר ושואל אוב וידעוני ודורש אל המתים וגו' ובגלל התועבות האלה ה' אלהיך מוריש אותם מפניך ולא ענש אלא אם כן הזהיר,רבי אלעזר אומר אף על הכלאים מותרין בני נח ללבוש כלאים ולזרוע כלאים ואין אסורין אלא בהרבעת בהמה ובהרכבת האילן,מנהני מילי אמר ר' יוחנן דאמר קרא (בראשית ב, טז) ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם לאמר מכל עץ הגן אכול תאכל,ויצו אלו הדינין וכן הוא אומר (בראשית יח, יט) כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה את בניו וגו',ה' זו ברכת השם וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת אלהים זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על האדם זו שפיכות דמים וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם וגו',לאמר זו גילוי עריות וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ג, א) לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו והיתה לאיש אחר מכל עץ הגן ולא גזל אכל תאכל ולא אבר מן החי,כי אתא רבי יצחק תני איפכא ויצו זו עבודת כוכבים אלהים זו דינין,בשלמא אלהים זו דינין דכתיב (שמות כב, ז) ונקרב בעל הבית אל האלהים אלא ויצו זו ע"ז מאי משמע,רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבדימי חד אמר (שמות לב, ח) סרו מהר מן הדרך אשר צויתים עשו להם וגו' וחד אמר (הושע ה, יא) עשוק אפרים רצוץ משפט כי הואיל הלך אחרי צו,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה למאן דאמר עשו משעת עשייה מיחייב למאן דאמר כי הואיל הלך עד דאזיל בתרה ופלח לה,אמר רבא ומי איכא למאן דאמר עכו"ם שעשאה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה חייב והתניא בעכו"ם דברים שבית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן בן נח מוזהר עליהן אין בית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן אין בן נח מוזהר עליהן למעוטי מאי לאו למעוטי עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה,אמר רב פפא לא למעוטי גיפוף ונישוק,גיפוף ונישוק דמאי אילימא כדרכה בר קטלא הוא אלא למעוטי שלא כדרכה,דינין בני נח איפקוד והתניא עשר מצות נצטוו ישראל במרה שבע שקיבלו עליהן בני נח והוסיפו עליהן דינין ושבת וכיבוד אב ואם,דינין דכתיב (שמות טו, כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט שבת וכיבוד אב ואם דכתיב (דברים ה, יא) כאשר צוך ה' אלהיך ואמר רב יהודה כאשר צוך במרה,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא נצרכה אלא לעדה ועדים והתראה,אי הכי מאי והוסיפו עליהן דינין,אלא אמר רבא לא נצרכה אלא לדיני קנסות אכתי והוסיפו בדינין מיבעי ליה,אלא אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא להושיב בית דין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר והא בני נח לא איפקוד והתניא כשם שנצטוו ישראל להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר כך נצטוו בני נח להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר,אלא אמר רבא האי תנא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דמפיק ד"ך ועייל ס"ך,דתנא דבי מנשה שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח ע"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים גזל ואבר מן החי סירוס וכלאים,רבי יהודה אומר אדם הראשון לא נצטווה אלא על ע"ז בלבד שנאמר ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר אף על ברכת השם ויש אומרים אף על הדינים,כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלהים אני לא תקללוני אלהים אני לא תמירוני אלהים אני יהא מוראי עליכם כמאן כיש אומרים,תנא דבי מנשה אי דריש ויצו אפילו הנך נמי אי לא דריש ויצו הני מנא ליה,לעולם לא דריש ויצו הני כל חדא וחדא באפי נפשיה כתיבא ע"ז וגילוי עריות 56b. bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamla says:The descendants of Noah are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against consuming bthe blood from a livinganimal. bRabbi Ḥideka says:They are balsocommanded bconcerning castration,i.e., they are prohibited to castrate any living animal. bRabbi Shimon says:They are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against engaging in bsorcery. /b, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to beverytype of sorcery bthat is stated in the passage about sorcery,it is bprohibited for a descendant of Noah toengage in bit.This is derived from the verses: “When you come into the land that the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations. bThere shall not be found among you one who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, a diviner, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a warlock, or a charmer, or one who consults a necromancer and a sorcerer, or directs inquiries to the dead.For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord; band because of these abominations, the Lord your God is driving them out from before you”(Deuteronomy 18:9–12). Evidently, the Canaanites were punished for these practices; bandsince God bwould not have punishedthem for an action bunless Hefirst bprohibitedit, these practices are clearly prohibited to gentiles., bRabbi Elazar says:The descendants of Noah were balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition of bdiverse kinds.Nevertheless, it is bpermitted for the descendants of Noah to wear diverse kindsof wool and linen band to sow diverse kindsof seeds together, band they are prohibited only with regard to breedingdiverse species of banimals and graftingdiverse species of btrees. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the Noahide mitzvot, derived? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It is from that bwhich the verse states: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying: of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat from it, for on the day that you eat from it, you shall die” (Genesis 2:16–17).,The verse is interpreted homiletically as follows: With regard to the term b“and…commanded,” these are thecourts of bjudgment; and so it statesin another verse: b“For I have known him, to the end that he may command his childrenand his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19).,With regard to the term b“the Lord,” thisalludes to bblessing the nameof God; band so it statesin another verse: b“And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord…shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). b“God,” thisalludes to bidol worship; and so it states: “You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:2). b“The man,” thisalludes to bbloodshed; and so it states: “One who sheds the blood of man,by man his blood shall be shed” (Genesis 9:6).,With regard to the term b“saying,” thisalludes to bforbidden sexual relations; and so it states: “Saying, if a man sends his wife, and she goes from him and becomes another man’s… /bwill that land not be greatly polluted? But you have played the harlot with many lovers” (Jeremiah 3:1). b“of every tree of the garden”alludes to the fact that one may partake only of items that are permitted to him, as they belong to him, bandhe may bnotpartake of bstolen items. “You may freely eat”alludes to the fact that one may eat fruit, bbut not a limb from a livinganimal., bWhen Rav Yitzḥak camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe taughttwo of the expositions in bthe oppositeorder: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship. “God,” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,the source for the exposition: b“God [ iElohim /i],” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment,is clear; bas it is written: “Then the master of the house shall come near the judges [ iha’elohim /i]”(Exodus 22:7). Evidently, judges are called ielohim /i. bButwith regard to the exposition: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship, from whereis this binferred? /b, bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimiboth give answers to this question. bOneof them bsaysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them; they have made thema molten calf” (Exodus 32:8). The word “commanded” is mentioned here in the context of idol worship. bAndthe other bone saysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in justice, because he willingly went after filth [ itzav /i]”(Hosea 5:11). The word itzav /i, used in this context in reference to idol worship, is the same Hebrew word used in the phrase: “And…commanded [ ivaytzav /i].”,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthese two sources? The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthem is in the case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it,i.e., he has not yet worshipped it. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“They have madethem a molten calf,” bhe is rendered liable from the time of fashioningit. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“Because he willingly wentafter filth,” he is not liable buntil he goes after it and worships it. /b, bRava says: And is there anyone who saysthat ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it is liable? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWith regard to idol worship, matters,i.e., transgressions, bfor which a Jewish court executesa Jew who commits one of them, bare prohibited to a descendant of Noah.But with regard to transgressions bfor which a Jewish court does not executea Jew who commits one of them, ba descendant of Noah is not prohibited fromdoing bthem. To exclude whattransgressions, i.e., to determine that they do not apply to gentiles, is this stated? Is it bnot to excludethe case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it?Since Jews are not executed for this transgression, gentiles should not be liable for this act either., bRav Pappa says: No,it is possible that it is stated bto exclude embracing and kissingthe idol; neither a Jew nor a gentile who embraces or kisses an idol is liable. No proof can be brought from here with regard to a gentile who fashions an idol but does not worship it.,The Gemara asks: bEmbracing and kissingan idol bin whatmanner? bIf we saythat he did so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship, i.e., that embracing and kissing is the standard method of worshipping this idol, certainly bhe is liable toreceive the bdeathpenalty. bRather,it is stated bto excludea case bwherehe did bnotdo so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the list of the Noahide mitzvot: bWere the descendants of Noah commandedto establish courts of bjudgment? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people were commandedto observe bten mitzvotwhen they were bin Marah: Seven that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, andGod badded to themthe following mitzvot: bJudgment, and Shabbat, and honoringone’s bfather and mother. /b,The mitzva of bjudgmentwas given at Marah, bas it is writtenwith regard to Marah: b“There He made for them a statute and an ordice”(Exodus 15:25). bShabbat and honoringone’s bfather and motherwere given at Marah, bas it is writtenconcerning them in the Ten Commandments: “Observe the day of Shabbat to keep it holy, bas the Lord your God commanded you”(Deuteronomy 5:12), and similarly: “Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you” (Deuteronomy 5:16). The phrase “as the Lord your God commanded you” indicates that they had already been commanded to observe these mitzvot previously. bAnd Rav Yehuda says: “Asthe Lord your God bcommanded you” in Marah.Apparently, the mitzva of establishing courts is not included in the seven Noahide mitzvot., bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:Establishing courts is a Noahide mitzva. The additional mitzva that was given in Marah bwas necessary only with regard tothe details of the ihalakhotof the justice system, e.g., that a defendant in a capital case is punished only by a full panel of twenty-three judges of the bSanhedrin, andonly if there are two bwitnesseswho testify concerning him, bandonly if he was issued ba forewarningbefore his transgression.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,and the mitzva given at Marah is a specification of the ihalakhotof the justice system, bwhatis the meaning of the sentence: bAndGod badded to them: Judgment?The details of a preexisting mitzva would not be referred to as an added mitzva., bRather, Rava says:The mitzva given at Marah bwas necessary only with regard to the ihalakhotof fines.Since these are not ihalakhotthat pertain to the basic performance of justice, but rather concern an additional fine for the guilty party, they were not given to the descendants of Noah. The Gemara asks: According to this interpretation, the language of the ibaraitais bstillinaccurate, as bit should havestated: bAndGod badded to themmore ihalakhot bof judgment. /b, bRather, Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: It was necessary onlyfor the additional requirement bto establish a court in each and every province and in each and every city.The Gemara asks: bAnd were the descendants of Noah not commandedwith regard to bthismatter? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bJust as the Jewish people were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city, so too, the descendants of Noah were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city? /b, bRather, Rava says: This itanna /i,who holds that the mitzva of establishing courts of judgment is not included in the Noahide mitzvot, bisthe itannaof the school of Menashe, who removesfrom the list of the Noahide mitzvot two mitzvot whose mnemonic is idalet /i, ikaf /i,which stands for judgment [ idinim /i] and blessing the name of God [ ibirkat Hashem /i], band insertsin their place two mitzvot whose mnemonic is isamekh /i, ikaf /i,standing for castration [ iseirus /i] and diverse kinds [ ikilayim /i]., bAs the school of Menashe taught: The descendants of Noah were commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The prohibitions of bidol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and blood-shed,and brobbery, andeating ba limb from a livinganimal, and bcastration, and diverse kinds. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: Adam, the firstman, bwas commanded only with regard tothe prohibition of bidol worship, as it is stated: “And the Lord God commanded the man”(Genesis 2:16). bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says:He was balsocommanded bconcerning blessing the nameof God. bAnd some saythat he was balsocommanded bconcerningestablishing courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in interpretation of the aforementioned verse: Since bI am “God,” do not curse Me;since bI am “God,” do not exchange Mewith another god; since bI am “God,” My fear shall be upon you?The Gemara answers: bIn accordance with whoseopinion? It is bin accordance withwhat bsome say,i.e., that the phrase “and the Lord God commanded the man” includes the prohibitions against cursing God’s name and idol worship, as well as the mitzva of establishing a system of law and justice, so that the fear of God will be upon the people.,The Gemara challenges: bIfthe itannaof the school of Menashe interpretsthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, even thesemitzvot, cursing the name of God and establishing courts, should be included. And bif he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, from where does hederive btheseseven mitzvot in his list?,The Gemara answers: bActually, he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically,but with regard to bthesemitzvot in his list, beach and every oneof them bis written separatelyin the Torah. The prohibitions of bidol worship and forbidden sexual relationsare stated
53. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 8.12-8.19, 18.20 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 18.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

18.5. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה, אָמַר דָּוִד (תהלים עז, ז): אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי בַּלָּיְלָה, אָמְרָה כְּנֶסֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל נִזְכֶּרֶת אֲנִי אֶת הַשְּׁבָרִים שֶׁהָיִיתָ שׁוֹבֵר אֶת הָאוֹיְבִים בַּעֲבוּרִי בַּלַּיְלָה. וְאֵין נְגִינָתִי אֶלָּא לְשׁוֹן שֶׁבֶר, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ג, סג): אֲנִי מַנְגִינָתָם, וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית יד, כ): אֲשֶׁר מִגֵּן צָרֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ. בָּא עָלֵינוּ סַנְחֵרִיב שָׁבַרְתָּ אוֹתוֹ בַּלַּיְלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה בּוֹא וּרְאֵה אַהֲבָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת שֶׁהֵן גִּבּוֹרֵי כֹחַ עוֹשֵׂי דְבָרוֹ עֲשָׂאָן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׁוֹמְרִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמִי הֵם מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סב, ו): עַל חוֹמֹתַיִךְ יְרוּשָׁלָיִם הִפְקַדְתִּי שֹׁמְרִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּא סַנְחֵרִיב מִיכָאֵל יָצָא וְהִכָּה בָהֶם, וְגַבְרִיאֵל הִצִּיל בְּמִצְוָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַחֲנַנְיָה וַחֲבֵרָיו. לָמָּה כָךְ, אֶלָּא תְּנָאִין עָשָׂה עִמָּהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אֵימָתַי, כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ לֵירֵד לְהַצִּיל אַבְרָהָם מִכִּבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ אָמְרוּ מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל לְפָנָיו אָנוּ יוֹרְדִין לְהַצִּיל אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִלּוּ יָרַד לְשֵׁם אֶחָד מִכֶּם לַכִּבְשָׁן אַתֶּם הֱיִיתֶם מַצִּילִין אוֹתוֹ, אֶלָּא לִשְׁמִי יָרַד וַאֲנִי יוֹרֵד וּמַצִּילוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טו, ז): אֲנִי ה' אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים, אֶלָּא אֶתֵּן לָכֶם זְמַן אֵימָתַי תֵּרְדוּ עַל שֶׁנִּזְדַּקַּקְתֶּם לְהַצִּילוֹ לִכְבוֹד שְׁמִי, אַתָּה מִיכָאֵל עַל מַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר, וְאַתָּה גַּבְרִיאֵל עַל מַחֲנֵה כַּשְׂדִּים. כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד גַּבְרִיאֵל לְהַצִּיל לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, גָּזַר לָאֵשׁ וְיָצָא וְלִהַט כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁהִשְׁלִיכוּ אוֹתָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ג, כב): גֻּבְרַיָא אִלֵּךְ דִּי הַסִּקוּ לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וגו'. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַרְבַּע אֻמּוֹת מֵתוּ שָׁם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה כְּתִיב (דניאל ג, ג): בֵּאדַיִן מִתְכַּנְשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָא סְגָנַיָא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא, וְכָאן חָסְרוּ אַרְבַּע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ג, כז): וּמִתְכַּנְשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָא, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר חֲנַנְיָה (תהלים קיז, א): הַלְלוּ אֶת ה' כָּל גּוֹיִם. מִישָׁאֵל אָמַר (תהלים קיז א): שַׁבְּחוּהוּ כָּל הָאֻמִּים. וַעֲזַרְיָה אָמַר (תהלים קיז, ב): כִּי גָבַר עָלֵינוּ חַסְדּוֹ. הַמַּלְאָךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קיז ב): וֶאֱמֶת ה' לְעוֹלָם, אֱמֶת מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לִי כְּשֶׁיָּרַדְתִּי לְהַצִּיל אַבְרָהָם, וְכֵן מִיכָאֵל עָשָׂה מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ ה', תָּנָא כֻּלָּן פּוֹלֶמַרְכִין וְדֻכָּסִין הָיוּ שׁוֹתִין יַיִן וְהִנִּיחוּ קַנְקַנֵּיהֶם מֻשְׁלָכִים, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְסַנְחֵרִיב אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ שֶׁלָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב יט, כג): בְּיַד מַלְאָכֶיךָ חֵרַפְתָּ, אַף אֲנִי בְּיַד מַלְאָכִי, מֶה עָשָׂה לוֹ (ישעיה י, טז): וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ יְקַד יְקֹד כִּיקוֹד אֵשׁ. מַהוּ וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ, שֶׁשָֹּׂרַף גּוּפָן מִבִּפְנִים וְהִנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵיהֶם מִבַּחוּץ, שֶׁכְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם בִּגְדוֹ, וְלָמָּה הִנִּיחַ בִּגְדֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁל שֵׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית י, כב): בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַיָּב אֲנִי לְשֵׁם אֲבִיהֶם שֶׁנָּטְלוּ הוּא וְיֶפֶת בִּגְדֵיהֶם וְכִסּוּ עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט, כג): וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת הַשִֹּׂמְלָה, לְכָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִיכָאֵל הַנַּח בִּגְדֵיהֶן וּשְׂרֹף נִשְׁמָתָן, מַה כְּתִיב שָׁם (מלכים ב יט, לה): וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קא, ח): לַבְּקָרִים אַצְמִית כָּל רִשְׁעֵי אָרֶץ, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְחִזְקִיָּהוּ יוֹשְׁבִין וְאוֹמְרִין אֶת הַהַלֵּל, שֶׁהָיָה לַיִל שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְהָיוּ מִתְיָרְאִים לוֹמַר עַכְשָׁו יְרוּשָׁלַיִם מִתְכַּבֶּשֶׁת בְּיָדוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר לַעֲמֹד וְלִקְרוֹת קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וּלְהִתְפַּלֵּל, מָצְאוּ אוֹיְבֵיהֶם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִישַׁעְיָה (ישעיה ח, ג): קְרָא שְׁמוֹ מַהֵר שָׁלָל חָשׁ בַּז, וּמִהֵר לָבֹז שְׁלָלָם. וְהָאֶחָד קָרָא שְׁמוֹ (ישעיה ז, יד): עִמָּנוּאֵל, לוֹמַר שֶׁאֲנִי עִמּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לב, ח): עִמּוֹ זְרוֹעַ בָּשָׂר וְעִמָּנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁעָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּיַד מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל, כֵּן לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא יַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו, זֶה מִיכָאֵל וְגַבְרִיאֵל. וְרַבֵּנוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ אוֹמֵר זֶה מִיכָאֵל לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל יב, א): וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַֹּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ, שֶׁהוּא תּוֹבֵעַ צְרָכֵיהֶן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְדַבֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (זכריה א, יב): וַיַּעַן מַלְאַךְ ה' וַיֹּאמַר ה' צְבָאוֹת עַד מָתַי אַתָּה לֹא תְרַחֵם אֶת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, וְאוֹמֵר (דניאל י, כא): וְאֵין אֶחָד מִתְחַזֵּק עִמִּי עַל אֵלֶּה כִּי אִם מִיכָאֵל שַׂרְכֶם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לְמָה מִיכָאֵל וְסמא"ל דּוֹמִין לְסָנֵיגוֹר וְקָטֵיגוֹר עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה מְדַבֵּר, גָּמַר זֶה דְּבָרָיו וְזֶה דְּבָרָיו, יָדַע אוֹתוֹ הַסְּנֵיגוֹר שֶׁנָּצַח הִתְחִיל מְשַׁבֵּחַ אֶת הַדַּיָּין שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אִיפוֹפָסִין. בִּקֵּשׁ אוֹתוֹ קָטֵיגוֹר לְהוֹסִיף דָּבָר, אָמַר לוֹ הַסָּנֵיגוֹר הַחֲרֵשׁ וְנִשְׁמַע מִן הַדַּיָּן. כָּךְ מִיכָאֵל וְסמא"ל עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וְהַשָֹּׂטָן מְקַטְרֵג וּמִיכָאֵל מְלַמֵּד זְכוּתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהַשָֹּׂטָן בָּא לְדַבֵּר וּמִיכָאֵל מְשַׁתְּקוֹ, לָמָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פה, ט): אֶשְׁמְעָה מַה יְּדַבֵּר הָאֵל ה' כִּי יְדַבֵּר שָׁלוֹם אֶל עַמּוֹ, הֱוֵי (תהלים עז, ז): אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי בַּלָּיְלָה, עַל נֵס שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶזְכְּרָה נְגִינָתִי, נִזְכַּר אֲנִי מַה שֶּׁעָשִׂיתָ לָנוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם, וּמְנַגְנִין שֶׁעָשִׂיתָ לְמִצְרַיִם, הֵיאַךְ מִתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָבִיא הַמַּכּוֹת עַל הַמִּצְרִים, מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת אָמַר לְהָבִיא תְּחִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ד, כג): הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ. הִתְחִיל אוֹמֵר (שמות ה, ב): מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם אָבִיא עָלָיו מַכַּת בְּכוֹרוֹת תְּחִלָּה מְשַׁלְּחָן, אֶלָּא מֵבִיא אֲנִי עָלָיו מַכּוֹת אַחֵרוֹת [תחלה] וּבְעֵקֶב זֹאת אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶת כֻּלָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַה' הִכָּה כָל בְּכוֹר, לְפִיכָךְ דָּוִד מְקַלֵּס (תהלים צ, יא): מִי יוֹדֵעַ עֹז אַפֶּךָ, מִי יוֹדֵעַ נַגְנִין שֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בַּיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עז, כ): בַּיָּם דַּרְכֶּךָ וּשְׁבִילְךָ בְּמַיִם רַבִּים וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נוֹדָעוּ, דְּבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְּעָקֵב מִי יוֹדֵעַ. 18.5. Another explanation: \"And it was in the middle of the night\" - David said (Psalms 77:7), \"I recall my music at night:\" The congregation of Israel said, \"I recall the breakings, that You broke the enemies for my sake at night.\" And [the term], 'my music' ( iniginati /i) only means breaking, as you would say (Lamentations 3:63), \"I am their song.\" And I [would also] say (Genesis 14:20), \"who gave over ( imigen /i) your enemies into your hand.\" Sancheriv came against us - You broke him at night, as it is stated (II Kings 19:35), \"And it was on that night and the angel of the Lord came out and he smote in the camp of Assyria.\" Rabbi Nechemia said, \"Come and see the love of the Holy One, blessed be He for Israel; as behold, the ministering angels - who are mighty of strength, doers of His will - the Holy One, blessed be He, made them guardians over Israel. And who are they? Michael and Gavriel, as it is stated (Isaiah 62:6), 'Upon your walls Jerusalem, I have appointed guardians.' And when Sancheriv came, Michael went out and smote them; and Gavriel, from the command of the Holy One, blessed be He, saved Chaia and his friends.\" Why was it like that? Rather the Holy One, blessed be He, made a condition with them. When? When He wanted to go down to save Avaraham from the fiery pit: Michael and Gavriel said in front of Him, \"We will go down to save him.\" He said [back] to them, \"If [even] one of you would go down there to the pit, you would save him, but [since Avraham] went down for My name, then I will go down and save him,\" as it is stated (Genesis 15:7), \"I am the Lord who took you out of the Ur Kasdim (understood here as the fire of Kasdim);\" \"but I will give you a time [to go down and save others.\"] When did they go down? \"Since you were prepared to save him for My honor, you, Michael [will descend] against the camp of Assyria; and you, Gavriel [will descend] against the camp of Kasdim (the Chaldeans).\" When Gavriel went down to save Chaia, Mishael and Azaria, he tore the fire and came out and set aflame all those that had thrown them in, as it is stated (Daniel 3:22), \"those men that raised Shadrakh, Meshakh, etc.\" And some say, \"Four nations died there: At first, it is written (Ibid. 3), 'Then were gathered the satraps, the prefects, the governors[, etc.]' and the advisers of the king and, here, four [of them] are lacking, as it states (Ibid. 27), 'And the satraps gathered.'\" Hence Chaia said (Psalms 117:1), \"Praise the Lord, all nations;\" Mishael said (Ibid.), \"exalt him all peoples;\" and Azaria said (Ibid. 2), \"Since His kindness has overwhelmed us;\" and the angel said (Ibid.), \"'and the truth of the Lord is forever' - what He said to me when I went down to save Avraham is true.\" And so [too with] Michael, [God] did what He told him, as it is stated (II Kings 19:35), \"And it was on that night and the angel of the Lord came out.\" It was taught, \"All of the commanders and the dukes were drinking wine and left their receptacles thrown out. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Sancheriv, 'You have done yours,' as it is stated (Ibid. 23), 'By the hand of your messengers have you cursed;' 'I too [will act] by the hand of my messenger.'\" What did He do to him? \"And under his glory there shall be kindled a burning like the burning of fire.\" (Isaiah 10:16) What is [meant by] \"and under his glory?\" That He burned his body from the inside and left his clothing on the outside, since the glory of a person is his clothing. And why did He leave his clothing? Rather, since they were the descendants of Shem, as it is stated (Genesis 10:22), \"The sons of Shem were Eilam and Ashur (Assyria).\" The Holy One, blessed be He, said, \"I am indebted to Shem, their father, as he and Yafet took their clothing and covered the nakedness of their father,\" as it is stated (Genesis 9:23), \"And Shem and Yafet took the cloak.\" Hence, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Michael, \"Leave their clothing and burn their souls.\" What is written there? \"And they arose in the morning and, behold, dead corpses.\" This is [the meaning of] that which is written (Psalms 101:8), \"In the mornings, I will annihilate the evildoers of the world.\" And Hizkiyahu and Israel were sitting and saying Hallel (Psalms of praise recited on festivals), as it was the night of Pesach, and they were afraid to say [it] now - Jerusalem was being conquered by his hand. When they woke up early in the morning to stand and read the Shema and to pray, they found their enemies were dead corpses. Hence, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to Yeshaya (Isaiah 8:3), \"'and call his name, \"quick take booty, fast loot\"' and be quick to loot booty; and the [other] one call 'with us is the Power ( iImanuel /i),' to say that I am with him,\" as it is stated (II Chronicles 32:8), \"with him is the forearm of flesh but with us is the Lord, our God.\" And just like the Holy One, blessed be He, acted in this world by the hand of Michael and Gavriel, so [too] in the future to come, he will act through them, as it is stated (Obadiah 1:21), \"And the saviors will come up on Mount Zion to judge the mountain of Esav\" - this is [referring to] Michael and Gavriel. And our Holy Rabbi said, \"This is Michael by himself, as it is stated (Daniel 12:1), 'And at that time, Michael will stand, the great minister who stands for the children of Your people.'\" As he [is the one that] demands the needs of Israel and speaks for them, as it is stated (Zechariah 1:12), \"And the angel of the Lord answered and said, 'Lord of hosts, until when when will you not have mercy on Jerusalem?'\" And I will [also] say (Daniel 10:21), \"and none is being strong with Me except for Michael, your minister.\" Rabbi Yose said, \"To what are Michael and Samael similar? To a defender and a prosecutor standing in court. This one is speaking and that one is speaking. [When] this one finished his words and that one his words, that defender knows that he has won. [Then] he begins to praise the judge, that issues the verdict. That prosecutor [then] requests to add something. The defender [then] says to him, 'Be quiet and let us hear from the judge.' So is it that Michael and Samael stand in front of the Divine Presence; and the Satan [Samael] prosecutes and Michael deliberates on the merit of Israel, and [then] the Satan comes to speak and Michael silences him. Why? As it is stated (Psalms 85:9), 'I will hear what the Power, the Lord, will speak, as He will speak peace about His people.'\" This is [the meaning of] \"I recall my music at night\" - about the miracle of Hizkiyahu. Another explanation: \"I recall my music at night\" - I recall what you have done for us in Egypt, and the plots ( imenagnin /i) that you did to the Egyptians. How is it? At first, when the Holy One, blessed be He, requested to bring plagues upon the Egyptians, He said to bring the plague of the firstborn first, as it is stated (Exodus 4:23), \"behold I am killing your son, your firstborn.\" [Pharaoh] started to say (Exodus 5:2), \"Who is the Lord that I should listen to His voice?\" The Holy One, blessed be He, said [to Himself], \"If I bring the plague of the firstborn first, he will send them [right away], but rather I will bring other plagues upon him (first). And in its heels ( ibeekev zot /i), I will bring them all,\" as it is stated, \"And the Lord smote every firstborn.\" Hence David praises (Psalms 90:11), \"Who knows the boldness of Your anger\" - who knows your plots that You do in the sea, as it is stated (Psalms 77:20), \"In the sea is Your way and Your path in the great waters, and Your footsteps ( ieekvotekha /i) were not known\" - things that you do afterward ( ibeekev /i), who [can] know? "
55. Anon., 2 Enoch, 1.6, 7.3, 8.3-8.5, 20.3, 22.6-22.7, 33.10, 71.1

56. Anon., 3 Baruch, 11.4, 11.6-11.8, 13.3

57. Anon., 3 Enoch, 10.5

58. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.31, 4.5-4.9, 4.21, 4.30, 7.11-7.12, 7.36

3.31. and hast not shown to any one how thy way may be comprehended. Are the deeds of Babylon better than those of Zion? 4.5. I said, "Speak on, my lord." And he said to me, "Go, weigh for me the weight of fire, or measure for me a measure of wind, or call back for me the day that is past. 4.6. I answered and said, "Who of those that have been born can do this, that you ask me concerning these things? 4.7. And he said to me, "If I had asked you, `How many dwellings are in the heart of the sea, or how many streams are at the source of the deep, or how many streams are above the firmament, or which are the exits of hell, or which are the entrances of paradise?' 4.8. Perhaps you would have said to me, `I never went down into the deep, nor as yet into hell, neither did I ever ascend into heaven.' 4.9. But now I have asked you only about fire and wind and the day, things through which you have passed and without which you cannot exist, and you have given me no answer about them! 4.21. For as the land is assigned to the forest and the sea to its waves, so also those who dwell upon earth can understand only what is on the earth, and he who is above the heavens can understand what is above the height of the heavens. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes! 7.11. For I made the world for their sake, and when Adam transgressed my statutes, what had been made was judged. 7.12. And so the entrances of this world were made narrow and sorrowful and toilsome; they are few and evil, full of dangers and involved in great hardships. 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight.
59. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 10.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 95
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196, 264; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
acts of thomas Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 381
adam, resurrection of Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
adam Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
adamand eve Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 70
adamic lore Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 197
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 211, 458, 711
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 581, 711
afterlife Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 78
agents of revelation, overseers of paradise Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
agrapha Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 338
alexander the great Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 62
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 930
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, intercession of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
angels, agents of judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
angels, angelus interpres interpreting angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 711
angels, archangels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 236
angels, bearers of petition Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
angels, elohim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 158
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 158, 711
angels, witnesses of piety Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 191, 197
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
animal apocalypse Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 7
annianus, chronicles of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 13
anthropological, anthropology Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
anthropologizing Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11
apocalypse/apocalyptic Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 91
apocalypse Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 166
apocalypse\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
apocalypse of weeks Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 7, 53
apocalyptic eschatology, typology/typological implications for Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 64
apocalyptic literature, definitions Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 7
apocalyptic literature, device of pseudonymity Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 75
apocalyptic literature Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 164
aramaic Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 166
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 748, 854
aromatic cane Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
art, interpreters Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191
art, metatron Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
art, stars Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 197
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
asclepius Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 381
astronomical book Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 53, 75, 78
astronomy Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 11; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
azazel Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 61, 71
barabbas Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 273
beauty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748, 930
bloodshed, eating Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 264
books, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 14, 15
books, of deeds Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 581
books, of moses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 15
cain Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 273
canaan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
careless Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 940
cherub Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166
cherubim Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 940
children/offspring, humanity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11
cloud, vision of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 711
complaint Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
cosmic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11, 144
cosmology Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211, 458
cosmos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 236, 474
covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 477; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458, 474
crisis Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 11
cry Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 711
daimon(es) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 360, 361, 362
danger/peril Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 474
daniel Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 87
daniel (person) Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
daughters Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
david Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 854
day, of great judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
day, resurrection, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 940
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144
deceit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748
deeds, of truth/righteousness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 581
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211, 581, 711
demon, demonic Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
demonic, powers/spirits Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
demonic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
divine, judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11
dream visions Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189
dry land Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144
eating, drinking Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
echo, eden, garden of Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166
elxai, elchasaites Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 361
embodiment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144
enoch, enochic literature Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 338, 339, 348
enoch, prophecy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191
enoch Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
enoch literature, earliest Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 16
epistemology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
eros (sexual desire), womens Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 537
eschatological, eschatology, eschaton Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
eschatology/eschatological, punishment/destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
eschatology/eschatological, rewards Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 581
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 474; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
esoteric traditions Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 191
ethiopian enoch Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 166
ethnicity Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 62
eve, journey of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
eve, lament of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 940
eve Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
exagoge of ezekiel the, tragedian Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
expulsion, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
eye, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
eye Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
ezekiel, book of Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 164, 166
fear, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 474
fertility Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
fire, fiery, tongues as of Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 164
fire Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
flood Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 361
food, righteous as Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
fragrance Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196, 930
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 748, 930
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
frankincense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 930
gabriel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
gentiles Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
giant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
giants, oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
giants Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 11; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 361; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 211
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
glory, divine Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189
glory, doxa (δόξα) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 166
glory, of temple Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 164
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
gnostic/gnosticism Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115
goat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
god, creator Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
god, great one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748
god, inscrutability Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 236
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
goodness eschatological reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
gospel of john, johannine epistemology Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
gospel of john, johannine spirituality Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
gospel of john, johannine travel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
gospel of peter Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 381
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748
greek (culture, milieu, philosophy, reader, writer, influence) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 166
hades Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 381
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 854, 940
heaven Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
heaven\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
heavens, journey through Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 158
heavens, windows/gates of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
hekhalot literature Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 166; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 348
help Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
historiography/chronography Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 477
history historiography, universal Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 62
holiness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
house of the lord Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166
idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144; Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 95
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 930
instruction/teaching, to enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 158
intercession Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
iran Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115
isaac Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
israel, emergence Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 62
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
jerusalem Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 91; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 122; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 25
jerusalem\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
jesus, descent into hell Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 381
jesus Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
john the baptist Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115
journey, spiritual journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
journeys/voyages, heavenly, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 158, 209
judgment, day Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166
judgment, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854
judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 748, 930
justice, divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458, 581
justice, lack of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211, 581
justice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 854; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
kavod Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11
lament Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
land, dry Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
law, jewish Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 537
law/torah, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 14, 15
life Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 164
lights, heavenly bodies Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 236
lights, versus darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
lowliness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11
mandaeans Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115
mani, manichaeans Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 361
mani Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115
manichaeans Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 127
mantic Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 91
marriage, jewish Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 537
mediatory figures Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 191
memorial/remembrance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
merkavah Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 67
metatron Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 166
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 158
michael, mediator (intercessor), as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 748, 854, 930
milik j.t. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 16
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
moses, enoch, enochic traditions Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
moses, polemics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
mouth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 711
murder Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194, 930
mystic, mystical, mysticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
mysticism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197; Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 67, 72
narrative, travel accounts Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
narrative, travel narrative Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 148
narrative Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 62
natural/meterological phenomena Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211, 458, 474
new jerusalem Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
nn. Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
noah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 344
noahide laws Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
nothingness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 11
obedient Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 211
panodorus, chronicles of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 13
paradise, greek translation of eden Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
paradise, post-mortem destination Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
paraenesis Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 7
passion narratives Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 273
patriarch Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
peace, enochic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 14
peace, lack of for the sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 211
peace, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 14, 15
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
peter (apostle) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 346, 360, 361, 362
petitions / prayers, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 236
petitions / prayers, by sea-farers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 474
petitions / prayers, by the archangels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 236
pharisee Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144
plea, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
pleasure Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748
prayers, righteous, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
pregnancy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
priest, high Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
priest Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
prophecy Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 91
prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 711
pseudepigrapha Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 164, 166; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 338, 339, 344, 346, 348
pseudepigraphon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 13
pseudonymity Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 75
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 211, 458, 711
purity and impurity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339, 360, 361, 362
qumran, initiation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189
qumran Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 91, 115, 127; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 348
raphael Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 71; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
record of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 581
redaction criticism Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 348
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 194
repentance, see also unrepentance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 474
responsibility, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 122
restoration, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 122, 194
resurrection, entrants of paradise Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
resurrection Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 95; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 940
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 189, 191, 197
righteous, the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 144
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 930
ritual Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 115; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 137
sacrifice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 748, 854
saffron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 930
sarah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 196
sariel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264
satan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 264, 940
scapegoat Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 273
scribes Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 95
scriptures, false pericopae Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 338
scriptures, greek translation of Graham, The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24 (2022) 32
seas, sea-farers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 474
seas Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 458
second adam Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 273