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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 12.4


nancalled me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.17-8.19, 28.16, 33.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.17. וְאָמַרְתָּ בִּלְבָבֶךָ כֹּחִי וְעֹצֶם יָדִי עָשָׂה לִי אֶת־הַחַיִל הַזֶּה׃ 8.18. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי הוּא הַנֹּתֵן לְךָ כֹּחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת חָיִל לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.19. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁכֹחַ תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבַדְתָּם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם הַעִדֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן׃ 28.16. אָרוּר אַתָּה בָּעִיר וְאָרוּר אַתָּה בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 33.1. יוֹרוּ מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ לְיַעֲקֹב וְתוֹרָתְךָ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל יָשִׂימוּ קְטוֹרָה בְּאַפֶּךָ וְכָלִיל עַל־מִזְבְּחֶךָ׃ 33.1. וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה אֲשֶׁר בֵּרַךְ מֹשֶׁה אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְנֵי מוֹתוֹ׃ 8.17. and thou say in thy heart: ‘My power and the might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth.’" 8.18. But thou shalt remember the LORD thy God, for it is He that giveth thee power to get wealth, that He may establish His covet which He swore unto thy fathers, as it is this day." 8.19. And it shall be, if thou shalt forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I forewarn you this day that ye shall surely perish." 28.16. Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and cursed shalt thou be in the field." 33.1. And this is the blessing wherewith Moses the man of God blessed the children of Israel before his death."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.40. And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.21-5.24, 6.1-6.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah." 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.4, 1.13, 1.22, 1.27, 44.15, 48.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ סְעָרָה בָּאָה מִן־הַצָּפוֹן עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב וּמִתּוֹכָהּ כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַל מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 1.13. וּדְמוּת הַחַיּוֹת מַרְאֵיהֶם כְּגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ בֹּעֲרוֹת כְּמַרְאֵה הַלַּפִּדִים הִיא מִתְהַלֶּכֶת בֵּין הַחַיּוֹת וְנֹגַהּ לָאֵשׁ וּמִן־הָאֵשׁ יוֹצֵא בָרָק׃ 1.22. וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27. וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 44.15. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי צָדוֹק אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי בִּתְעוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעָלַי הֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֵלַי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְעָמְדוּ לְפָנַי לְהַקְרִיב לִי חֵלֶב וָדָם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 48.1. וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּהְיֶה תְרוּמַת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לַכֹּהֲנִים צָפוֹנָה חֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף וְיָמָּה רֹחַב עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וְקָדִימָה רֹחַב עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וְנֶגְבָּה אֹרֶךְ חֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף וְהָיָה מִקְדַּשׁ־יְהוָה בְּתוֹכוֹ׃ 48.1. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת הַשְּׁבָטִים מִקְצֵה צָפוֹנָה אֶל־יַד דֶּרֶךְ־חֶתְלֹן לְבוֹא־חֲמָת חֲצַר עֵינָן גְּבוּל דַּמֶּשֶׂק צָפוֹנָה אֶל־יַד חֲמָת וְהָיוּ־לוֹ פְאַת־קָדִים הַיָּם דָּן אֶחָד׃ 1.4. And I looked, and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst thereof as the colour of electrum, out of the midst of the fire." 1.13. As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like coals of fire, burning like the appearance of torches; it flashed up and down among the living creatures; and there was brightness to the fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning." 1.22. And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above." 1.27. And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him." 44.15. But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to minister unto Me; and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD;" 48.1. Now these are the names of the tribes: from the north end, beside the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-e, at the border of Damascus, northward, beside Hamath; and they shall have their sides east and west: Dan, one portion."
6. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.
7. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1, 1.3, 1.4, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6.6, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 9, 9.1, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.5, 12.6, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 14, 14.1, 14.3, 14.5, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.2-16.4, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.8-16.1, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 16, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 17, 17.2, 18, 19, 19.1, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 26.6, 27, 27.2, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39.1, 60.6, 60.7, 60.8, 60.9, 60.10, 60.11, 60.12, 60.13, 60.14, 60.15, 60.16, 60.17, 60.18, 60.19, 71.7, 71.8, 71.9, 72.1, 81, 81.1, 81.2, 81.5, 82.1, 82.2, 82.3, 82.4, 82.6, 83, 84, 84.4, 85.4, 86.1, 86.2, 86.3, 86.4, 89.32, 89.33, 89.51, 89.52, 89.54, 89.72, 89.73, 89.74, 89.75, 90.20, 90.28, 90.29, 91, 91.1, 91.2, 91.3, 91.4, 91.5, 91.6, 91.7, 91.8, 91.9, 91.10, 92, 92.1, 93, 93.2, 93.4, 93.6, 94, 94.7, 95, 95.3, 95.4, 96, 96.1, 96.4, 96.7, 97, 97.7, 98, 98.10, 98.11, 98.12, 99, 99.2, 99.6, 99.7, 99.8, 99.9, 99.13, 100, 101, 102, 103, 103.1, 103.2, 103.3, 103.4, 104, 104.12, 105.1, 106.5, 106.14, 108, 108.6, 108.7, 108.8, 108.9, 108.10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
8. Anon., Jubilees, 1.17, 1.27-1.29, 4.15, 4.17-4.19, 4.22-4.23, 4.27-4.28, 4.33, 6.36-6.37, 7.20-7.39, 8.2-8.3, 12.27, 31.14, 45.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.17. and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change everything so as to work evil before My eyes. 1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.17. And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared; 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 4.19. And in the eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Bâraka, the daughter of Râsûjâl, a daughter of his father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee 4.22. and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of their separate months. 4.23. And he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them) known to him. 4.27. And he was moreover with the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they showed him everything which is on earth and in the heavens, the rule of the sun, and he wrote down everything. 4.28. And he testified to the Watchers, who had sinned with the daughters of men; 4.33. And he burnt the incense of the sanctuary, (even) sweet spices, acceptable before the Lord on the Mount. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram. 7.22. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew 7.24. and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. 7.25. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely 7.26. owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordices went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk 7.34. and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of another, and (so it cometh) that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his brother. 7.35. For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) seductions against you and against your children 7.36. and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. 7.37. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the earth. 7.38. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood. Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, Nor will there be left to him any seed or descendants living under heaven; 7.39. For into Sheol will they go, And into the place of condemnation will they descend. 8.2. and she bare him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kâinâm. 8.3. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 45.16. And Joseph took of the corn of the harvest the fifth part for the king and left four parts for them for food and for seed, and Joseph made it an ordice for the land of Egypt until this day.
9. Anon., Testament of Levi, 13.2-13.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.2. And do ye also teach your children letters, That they may have understanding all their life, Reading unceasingly the law of God. 13.3. For every one that knoweth the law of the Lord shall be honoured, And shall not be a stranger whithersoever he goeth.
10. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9-7.10, 8.16, 12.1, 12.3, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever." 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein.
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 38.24-39.11, 49.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.66-1.67 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.66. We ought to look upon the universal world as the highest and truest temple of God, having for its most holy place that most sacred part of the essence of all existing things, namely, the heaven; and for ornaments, the stars; and for priests, the subordinate ministers of his power, namely, the angels, incorporeal souls, not beings compounded of irrational and rational natures, such as our bodies are, but such as have the irrational parts wholly cut out, being absolutely and wholly intellectual, pure reasonings, resembling the unit. 1.67. But the other temple is made with hands; for it was desirable not to cut short the impulses of men who were eager to bring in contributions for the objects of piety, and desirous either to show their gratitude by sacrifices for such good fortune as had befallen them, or else to implore pardon and forgiveness for whatever errors they might have committed. He moreover foresaw that there could not be any great number of temples built either in many different places, or in the same place, thinking it fitting that as God is one, his temple also should be one.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.77-2.108 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.77. and the fashion of the building was as follows. There were eight and forty pillars of cedar, which is the most incorruptible of all woods, cut out of solid trunks of great beauty, and they were all veneered with gold of great thickness. Then under each pillar there were placed two silver pedestals to support it, and on the top of each was placed one golden capital; 2.78. and of these pillars the architect arranged forty along the length of the tabernacle, one half of them, or twenty, on each side, placing nothing between them, but arranging them and uniting them all in regular order, and close together, so that they might present the appearance of one solid wall; and he ranged the other eight along the inner breadth, placing six in the middle space, and two at the extreme corners, one on each side at the right and left of the centre. Again, at the entrance he placed four others, like the first in all other respects except that they had only one pedestal instead of two, as those opposite to them had, and behind them he placed five more on the outside differing only in the pedestals, for the pedestals of these last were made of brass. 2.79. So that all the pillars of the tabernacle taken together, besides the two at the corners which could not be seen, were fifty-five in number, all conspicuous, being the number made by the addition of all the numbers from the unit to the complete and perfect decade. 2.80. And if any were inclined to count those five pillars of the outer vestibule in the open air separately, as being in the outer court as it was called, there will then be left that most holy number of fifty, being the power of a rectangular triangle, which is the foundation of the creation of the universe, and is here entirely completed by the pillars inside the tabernacle; there being first of all forty, twenty on either side, and those in the middle being six, without counting those which were out of sight and concealed at the corners, and those opposite to the entrance, from which the veil was suspended, being four; 2.81. and the reason for which I reckon the other five with the first fifty, and again why I separate them from the fifty, I will now explain. The number five is the number of the external senses, and the external sense in man at one time inclines towards external things, and at another time comes back again upon the mind, being as it were a kind of handmaid of the laws of its nature; on which account it is that the architect has here allotted a central position to the five pillars, for those which are inside of them leant towards the innermost shrine of the tabernacle, which under a symbol is appreciable only by the intellect; and the outermost pillars, which are in the open air, and in the outer courtyard, and which are also perceptible by the external senses 2.82. in reference to which fact it is that they are said to have differed from the others only in the pedestals, for they were made of brass. But since the mind is the principal thing in us, having an authority over the external senses, and since that which is an object of the external senses is the extremity, and as it were the pedestal or foundation of it, the architect has likened the mind to gold, and the object of the external sense to brass. 2.83. And these are the measures of the pillars, they are ten cubits in length, and five cubits and a half in width, in order that the tabernacle may be seen to be of equal dimensions in all its parts. 2.84. Moreover the architect surrounded the tabernacle with very beautiful woven work of all kinds, employing work of hyacinth colour, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen for the tapestry; for he caused to be wrought ten cloths, which in the sacred scriptures he has called curtains, of the kinds which I have just mentioned, every one of them being eight and twenty cubits in length, and extending four cubits in width, in order that the complete number of the decade, and also the number four, which is the essence of the decade, and also the number twenty-eight, which is likewise a perfect number, being equal to its parts; and also the number forty, the most prolific and productive of all numbers, in which number they say that man was fashioned in the workshop of nature. 2.85. Therefore the eight and twenty cubits of the curtains have this distribution: there are ten along the roof, for that is the width of the tabernacle, and the rest are placed along the sides, on each side nine, which are extended so as to cover and conceal the pillars, one cubit from the floor being left uncovered in order that the beautiful and holy looking embroidery might not be dragged. 2.86. And of the forty which are included in the calculation and made up of the width of the ten curtains, the length takes thirty, for such is the length of the tabernacle, and the chamber behind takes nine. And the remaining one is in the outer vestibule, that it may be the bond to unite the whole circumference. 2.87. And the outer vestibule is overshadowed by the veil; and the curtains themselves are nearly the same as veils, not only because they cover the roof and the walls, but also because they are woven and embroidered by the same figures, and with hyacinth colour, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen. And the veil, and that thing, too, which was called the covering, was made of the same things. That which was within was placed along the five pillars, that the innermost shrine might be concealed; and that which was outside being placed along the five pillars, that no one of those who were not holy men might be able from any secret or distant place to behold the holy rites and ceremonies. 2.88. Moreover, he chose the materials of this embroidery, selecting with great care what was most excellent out of an infinite quantity, choosing materials equal in number to the elements of which the world was made, and having a direct relation to them; the elements being the earth and the water, and the air and the fire. For the fine flax is produced from the earth, and the purple from the water, and the hyacinth colour is compared to the air (for, by nature, it is black 2.89. Therefore the tabernacle was built in the manner that has been here described, like a holy temple. And all around it a sacred precinct extended a hundred cubits in length and fifty cubits in width, having pillars all placed at an equal distance of five cubits from one another, so that there were in all sixty pillars; and they were divided so that forty were placed along the length and twenty along the breadth of the tabernacle, one half on each side. 2.90. And the material of which the pillars were composed was cedar within, and on the surface without silver; and the pedestals of all of them were made of brass, and the height was equal to five cubits. For it seemed to the architect to be proper to make the height of what was called the hall equal to one half of the entire length, that so the tabernacle might appear to be elevated to double its real height. And there were thin curtains fitted to the pillars along their entire length and breadth, resembling so many sails, in order that no one might be able to enter in who was not pure. 2.91. And the situation was as follows. In the middle was placed a tent, being in length thirty cubits and in width ten cubits, including the depth of the pillars. And it was distant from the centre space by three intervals of equal distance, two being at the sides and one along the back chamber. And the interval between was by measurement twenty cubits. But along the vestibule, as was natural, by reason of the number of those who entered, the distance between them was increased and extended to fifty cubits and more; for in this way the hundred pillars of the hall were intended to be made up, twenty being along the chamber behind, and those which the tent contained, thirty in number, being included in the same calculation with the fifty at the entrances; 2.92. for the outer vestibule of the tabernacle was placed as a sort of boundary in the middle of the two fifties, the one, I mean, towards the east where the entrance was, and the other being on the west, in which direction the length of the tabernacle and the surrounding wall behind was. 2.93. Moreover, another outer vestibule, of great size and exceeding beauty, was made at the beginning of the entrance into the hall, by means of four pillars, along which was stretched the embroidered curtain in the same manner as the inner curtains were stretched along the tabernacle, and wrought also of similar materials; 2.94. and with this there were also many sacred vessels made, an ark, and a candlestick, and a table, and an altar of incense, and an altar of sacrifice. Now, the altar of sacrifice was placed in the open air, right opposite to the entrances of the tabernacle, being distant from it just so far as was necessary to give the ministering officers room to perform the sacrifices that were offered up every day. 2.95. But the ark was in the innermost shrine, in the inaccessible holy of holies, behind curtains; being gilded in a most costly and magnificent manner within and without, the covering of which was like to that which is called in the sacred scriptures the mercy-seat. 2.96. Its length and width are accurately described, but its depth is not mentioned, being chiefly compared to and resembling a geometrical superficies; so that it appears to be an emblem, if looked at physically, of the merciful power of God; and, if regarded in a moral point of view, of a certain intellect spontaneously propitious to itself, which is especially desirous to contract and destroy, by means of the love of simplicity united with knowledge, that vain opinion which raises itself up to an unreasonable height and puffs itself up without any grounds. 2.97. But the ark is the depository of the laws, for in that are placed the holy oracles of God, which were given to Moses; and the covering of the ark, which is called the mercy-seat, is a foundation for two winged creatures to rest upon, which are called, in the native language of the Hebrews, cherubim, but as the Greeks would translate the word, vast knowledge and science. 2.98. Now some persons say, that these cherubim are the symbols of the two hemispheres, placed opposite to and fronting one another, the one beneath the earth and the other above the earth, for the whole heaven is endowed with wings. 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness; 2.100. for he, being the only true living God, is also really the Creator of the world; since he brought things which had no existence into being; and he is also a king by nature, because no one can rule over beings that have been created more justly than he who created them. 2.101. And in the space between the five pillars and the four pillars, is that space which is, properly speaking, the space before the temple, being cut off by two curtains of woven work, the inner one of which is called the veil, and the outer one is called the covering: and the remaining three vessels, of those which I have enumerated, were placed as follows:--The altar of incense was placed in the middle, between earth and water, as a symbol of gratitude, which it was fitting should be offered up, on account of the things that had been done for the Hebrews on both these elements, for these elements have had the central situation of the world allotted to them. 2.102. The candlestick was placed on the southern side of the tabernacle, since by it the maker intimates, in a figurative manner, the motions of the stars which give light; for the sun, and the moon, and the rest of the stars, being all at a great distance from the northern parts of the universe, make all their revolutions in the south. And from this candlestick there proceeded six branches, three on each side, projecting from the candlestick in the centre, so as altogether to complete the number of seven; 2.103. and in all the seven there were seven candles and seven lights, being symbols of those seven stars which are called planets by those men who are versed in natural philosophy; for the sun, like the candlestick, being placed in the middle of the other six, in the fourth rank, gives light to the three planets which are above him, and to those of equal number which are below him, adapting to circumstances the musical and truly divine instrument. 2.104. And the table, on which bread and salt are laid, was placed on the northern side, since it is the north which is the most productive of winds, and because too all nourishment proceeds from heaven and earth, the one giving rain, and the other bringing to perfection all seeds by means of the irrigation of water; 2.105. for the symbols of heaven and earth are placed side by side, as the holy scripture shows, the candlestick being the symbol of heaven, and that which is truly called the altar of incense, on which all the fumigatory offerings are made, being the emblem of the things of earth. 2.106. But it became usual to call the altar which was in the open air the altar of sacrifice, as being that which preserved and took care of the sacrifices; intimating, figuratively, the consuming power of these things, and not the lambs and different parts of the victims which were offered, and which were naturally calculated to be destroyed by fire, but the intention of him who offered them; 2.107. for if the man who made the offerings was foolish and ignorant, the sacrifices were no sacrifices, the victims were not sacred or hallowed, the prayers were ill-omened, and liable to be answered by utter destruction, for even when they appear to be received, they produce no remission of sins but only a reminding of them. 2.108. But if the man who offers the sacrifice be bold and just, then the sacrifice remains firm, even if the flesh of the victim be consumed, or rather, I might say, even if no victim be offered up at all; for what can be a real and true sacrifice but the piety of a soul which loves God? The gratitude of which is blessed with immortality, and without being recorded in writing is engraved on a pillar in the mind of God, being made equally everlasting with the sun, and moon, and the universal world.
16. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.71, 2.93 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Anon., 2 Baruch, 4.2-4.7, 14.17-14.19, 56.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.122-3.124, 3.179-3.187 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.122. 4. As for the inside, Moses parted its length into three partitions. At the distance of ten cubits from the most secret end, Moses placed four pillars, the workmanship of which was the very same with that of the rest; and they stood upon the like bases with them, each a small matter distant from his fellow. Now the room within those pillars was the most holy place; but the rest of the room was the tabernacle, which was open for the priests. 3.123. However, this proportion of the measures of the tabernacle proved to be an imitation of the system of the world; for that third part thereof which was within the four pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, is, as it were, a heaven peculiar to God. But the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, sea and land, on which men live, and so this part is peculiar to the priests only. 3.124. But at the front, where the entrance was made, they placed pillars of gold, that stood on bases of brass, in number seven; but then they spread over the tabernacle veils of fine linen and purple, and blue, and scarlet colors, embroidered. 3.179. 7. Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which men bear to us, and which they profess to bear on account of our despising that Deity which they pretend to honor; 3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven; 3.187. for how otherwise could the name of God be inscribed upon it? That it was also illustrated with a crown, and that of gold also, is because of that splendor with which God is pleased. Let this explication suffice at present, since the course of my narration will often, and on many occasions, afford me the opportunity of enlarging upon the virtue of our legislator.
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.142, 5.207-5.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 5.207. 4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court], that most sacred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each a hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits further. 5.208. Its first gate was seventy cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad; but this gate had no doors; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; 5.209. but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. 5.211. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth; 5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.215. 5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height sixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits: 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use.
20. Mishnah, Pesahim, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.6. How far does one recite it? Bet Shammai say: Until “As a joyous mother of children” (Psalm. But Bet Hillel say: Until “The flinty rock into a fountain of waters” (Psalm. And he concludes with [a formula of] redemption. Rabbi Tarfon says: “Who redeemed us and redeemed our fathers from Egypt”, but he did not conclude [with a blessing]. Rabbi Akiva says: “So may the Lord our God and the God of our fathers bring us to other appointed times and festivals which come towards us for peace, rejoicing in the rebuilding of Your city and glad in Your service, and there we will eat of the sacrifices and the pesahim” etc. until “Blessed are You who has redeemed Israel.”"
21. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. For if God didn't spare angels when they sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved to judgment;
22. New Testament, Hebrews, 6.19-6.20, 8.1-8.5, 9.11-9.12, 9.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.19. This hope we have as an anchor of the soul, a hope both sure and steadfast and entering into that which is within the veil; 6.20. where as a forerunner Jesus entered for us, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek. 8.1. Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens 8.2. a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man. 8.3. For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. Therefore it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer. 8.4. For if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, seeing there are priests who offer the gifts according to the law; 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain. 9.11. But Christ having come as a high priest of the coming good things, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation 9.12. nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption. 9.24. For Christ hasn't entered into holy places made with hands, which are representations of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us;
23. New Testament, John, 1.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.28. These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing.
24. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4, 8.6-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.1.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Justin, First Apology, 45, 52, 44 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. And the holy Spirit of prophecy taught us this, telling us by Moses that God spoke thus to the man first created: Behold, before your face are good and evil: choose the good. And again, by the other prophet Isaiah, that the following utterance was made as if from God the Father and Lord of all: Wash you, make you clean; put away evils from your souls; learn to do well; judge the orphan, and plead for the widow: and come and let us reason together, says the Lord: And if your sins be as scarlet, I will make them white as wool; and if they be red like as crimson, I will make them white as snow. And if you be willing and obey Me, you shall eat the good of the land; but if you do not obey Me, the sword shall devour you: for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it. Isaiah 1:16, etc. And that expression, The sword shall devour you, does not mean that the disobedient shall be slain by the sword, but the sword of God is fire, of which they who choose to do wickedly become the fuel. Wherefore He says, The sword shall devour you: for the mouth of the Lord has spoken it. And if He had spoken concerning a sword that cuts and at once dispatches, He would not have said, shall devour. And so, too, Plato, when he says, The blame is his who chooses, and God is blameless, took this from the prophet Moses and uttered it. For Moses is more ancient than all the Greek writers. And whatever both philosophers and poets have said concerning the immortality of the soul, or punishments after death, or contemplation of things heavenly, or doctrines of the like kind, they have received such suggestions from the prophets as have enabled them to understand and interpret these things. And hence there seem to be seeds of truth among all men; but they are charged with not accurately understanding [the truth] when they assert contradictories. So that what we say about future events being foretold, we do not say it as if they came about by a fatal necessity; but God foreknowing all that shall be done by all men, and it being His decree that the future actions of men shall all be recompensed according to their several value, He foretells by the Spirit of prophecy that He will bestow meet rewards according to the merit of the actions done, always urging the human race to effort and recollection, showing that He cares and provides for men. But by the agency of the devils death has been decreed against those who read the books of Hystaspes, or of the Sibyl, or of the prophets, that through fear they may prevent men who read them from receiving the knowledge of the good, and may retain them in slavery to themselves; which, however, they could not always effect. For not only do we fearlessly read them, but, as you see, bring them for your inspection, knowing that their contents will be pleasing to all. And if we persuade even a few, our gain will be very great; for, as good husbandmen, we shall receive the reward from the Master.
27. Justin, Second Apology, 8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. And those of the Stoic school - since, so far as their moral teaching went, they were admirable, as were also the poets in some particulars, on account of the seed of reason [the Logos] implanted in every race of men - were, we know, hated and put to death - Heraclitus for instance, and, among those of our own time, Musonius and others. For, as we intimated, the devils have always effected, that all those who anyhow live a reasonable and earnest life, and shun vice, be hated. And it is nothing wonderful; if the devils are proved to cause those to be much worse hated who live not according to a part only of the word diffused [among men] but by the knowledge and contemplation of the whole Word, which is Christ. And they, having been shut up in eternal fire, shall suffer their just punishment and penalty. For if they are even now overthrown by men through the name of Jesus Christ, this is an intimation of the punishment in eternal fire which is to be inflicted on themselves and those who serve them. For thus did both all the prophets foretell, and our own teacher Jesus teach.
28. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 85.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

125. He explains what force the word Israel has, and how it suits Christ Justin: I wish, sirs, to learn from you what is the force of the name Israel. And as they were silent, I continued: I shall tell you what I know: for I do not think it right, when I know, not to speak; or, suspecting that you do know, and yet from envy or from voluntary ignorance deceive yourselves, to be continually solicitous; but I speak all things simply and candidly, as my Lord said: 'A sower went forth to sow the seed; and some fell by the wayside; and some among thorns, and some on stony ground, and some on good ground.' Matthew 13:3 I must speak, then, in the hope of finding good ground somewhere; since that Lord of mine, as One strong and powerful, comes to demand back His own from all, and will not condemn His steward if He recognises that he, by the knowledge that the Lord is powerful and has come to demand His own, has given it to every bank, and has not dug for any cause whatsoever. Accordingly the name Israel signifies this, A man who overcomes power; for Isra is a man overcoming, and El is power. And that Christ would act so when He became man was foretold by the mystery of Jacob's wrestling with Him who appeared to him, in that He ministered to the will of the Father, yet nevertheless is God, in that He is the first-begotten of all creatures. For when He became man, as I previously remarked, the devil came to Him— i.e., that power which is called the serpent and Satan— tempting Him, and striving to effect His downfall by asking Him to worship him. But He destroyed and overthrew the devil, having proved him to be wicked, in that he asked to be worshipped as God, contrary to the Scripture; who is an apostate from the will of God. For He answers him, 'It is written, You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only shall you serve.' Matthew 4:10 Then, overcome and convicted, the devil departed at that time. But since our Christ was to be numbed, i.e., by pain and experience of suffering, He made a previous intimation of this by touching Jacob's thigh, and causing it to shrink. But Israel was His name from the beginning, to which He altered the name of the blessed Jacob when He blessed him with His own name, proclaiming thereby that all who through Him have fled for refuge to the Father, constitute the blessed Israel. But you, having understood none of this, and not being prepared to understand, since you are the children of Jacob after the fleshly seed, expect that you shall be assuredly saved. But that you deceive yourselves in such matters, I have proved by many words.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. רבי חנניה בן (גמלא) אומר אף על הדם מן החי רבי חידקא אומר אף על הסירוס רבי שמעון אומר אף על הכישוף,רבי יוסי אומר כל האמור בפרשת כישוף בן נח מוזהר עליו (דברים יח, י) לא ימצא בך מעביר בנו ובתו באש קוסם קסמים מעונן ומנחש ומכשף וחובר חבר ושואל אוב וידעוני ודורש אל המתים וגו' ובגלל התועבות האלה ה' אלהיך מוריש אותם מפניך ולא ענש אלא אם כן הזהיר,רבי אלעזר אומר אף על הכלאים מותרין בני נח ללבוש כלאים ולזרוע כלאים ואין אסורין אלא בהרבעת בהמה ובהרכבת האילן,מנהני מילי אמר ר' יוחנן דאמר קרא (בראשית ב, טז) ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם לאמר מכל עץ הגן אכול תאכל,ויצו אלו הדינין וכן הוא אומר (בראשית יח, יט) כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה את בניו וגו',ה' זו ברכת השם וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת אלהים זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על האדם זו שפיכות דמים וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם וגו',לאמר זו גילוי עריות וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ג, א) לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו והיתה לאיש אחר מכל עץ הגן ולא גזל אכל תאכל ולא אבר מן החי,כי אתא רבי יצחק תני איפכא ויצו זו עבודת כוכבים אלהים זו דינין,בשלמא אלהים זו דינין דכתיב (שמות כב, ז) ונקרב בעל הבית אל האלהים אלא ויצו זו ע"ז מאי משמע,רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבדימי חד אמר (שמות לב, ח) סרו מהר מן הדרך אשר צויתים עשו להם וגו' וחד אמר (הושע ה, יא) עשוק אפרים רצוץ משפט כי הואיל הלך אחרי צו,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה למאן דאמר עשו משעת עשייה מיחייב למאן דאמר כי הואיל הלך עד דאזיל בתרה ופלח לה,אמר רבא ומי איכא למאן דאמר עכו"ם שעשאה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה חייב והתניא בעכו"ם דברים שבית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן בן נח מוזהר עליהן אין בית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן אין בן נח מוזהר עליהן למעוטי מאי לאו למעוטי עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה,אמר רב פפא לא למעוטי גיפוף ונישוק,גיפוף ונישוק דמאי אילימא כדרכה בר קטלא הוא אלא למעוטי שלא כדרכה,דינין בני נח איפקוד והתניא עשר מצות נצטוו ישראל במרה שבע שקיבלו עליהן בני נח והוסיפו עליהן דינין ושבת וכיבוד אב ואם,דינין דכתיב (שמות טו, כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט שבת וכיבוד אב ואם דכתיב (דברים ה, יא) כאשר צוך ה' אלהיך ואמר רב יהודה כאשר צוך במרה,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא נצרכה אלא לעדה ועדים והתראה,אי הכי מאי והוסיפו עליהן דינין,אלא אמר רבא לא נצרכה אלא לדיני קנסות אכתי והוסיפו בדינין מיבעי ליה,אלא אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא להושיב בית דין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר והא בני נח לא איפקוד והתניא כשם שנצטוו ישראל להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר כך נצטוו בני נח להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר,אלא אמר רבא האי תנא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דמפיק ד"ך ועייל ס"ך,דתנא דבי מנשה שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח ע"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים גזל ואבר מן החי סירוס וכלאים,רבי יהודה אומר אדם הראשון לא נצטווה אלא על ע"ז בלבד שנאמר ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר אף על ברכת השם ויש אומרים אף על הדינים,כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלהים אני לא תקללוני אלהים אני לא תמירוני אלהים אני יהא מוראי עליכם כמאן כיש אומרים,תנא דבי מנשה אי דריש ויצו אפילו הנך נמי אי לא דריש ויצו הני מנא ליה,לעולם לא דריש ויצו הני כל חדא וחדא באפי נפשיה כתיבא ע"ז וגילוי עריות 56b. bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamla says:The descendants of Noah are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against consuming bthe blood from a livinganimal. bRabbi Ḥideka says:They are balsocommanded bconcerning castration,i.e., they are prohibited to castrate any living animal. bRabbi Shimon says:They are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against engaging in bsorcery. /b, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to beverytype of sorcery bthat is stated in the passage about sorcery,it is bprohibited for a descendant of Noah toengage in bit.This is derived from the verses: “When you come into the land that the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations. bThere shall not be found among you one who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, a diviner, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a warlock, or a charmer, or one who consults a necromancer and a sorcerer, or directs inquiries to the dead.For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord; band because of these abominations, the Lord your God is driving them out from before you”(Deuteronomy 18:9–12). Evidently, the Canaanites were punished for these practices; bandsince God bwould not have punishedthem for an action bunless Hefirst bprohibitedit, these practices are clearly prohibited to gentiles., bRabbi Elazar says:The descendants of Noah were balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition of bdiverse kinds.Nevertheless, it is bpermitted for the descendants of Noah to wear diverse kindsof wool and linen band to sow diverse kindsof seeds together, band they are prohibited only with regard to breedingdiverse species of banimals and graftingdiverse species of btrees. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the Noahide mitzvot, derived? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It is from that bwhich the verse states: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying: of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat from it, for on the day that you eat from it, you shall die” (Genesis 2:16–17).,The verse is interpreted homiletically as follows: With regard to the term b“and…commanded,” these are thecourts of bjudgment; and so it statesin another verse: b“For I have known him, to the end that he may command his childrenand his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19).,With regard to the term b“the Lord,” thisalludes to bblessing the nameof God; band so it statesin another verse: b“And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord…shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). b“God,” thisalludes to bidol worship; and so it states: “You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:2). b“The man,” thisalludes to bbloodshed; and so it states: “One who sheds the blood of man,by man his blood shall be shed” (Genesis 9:6).,With regard to the term b“saying,” thisalludes to bforbidden sexual relations; and so it states: “Saying, if a man sends his wife, and she goes from him and becomes another man’s… /bwill that land not be greatly polluted? But you have played the harlot with many lovers” (Jeremiah 3:1). b“of every tree of the garden”alludes to the fact that one may partake only of items that are permitted to him, as they belong to him, bandhe may bnotpartake of bstolen items. “You may freely eat”alludes to the fact that one may eat fruit, bbut not a limb from a livinganimal., bWhen Rav Yitzḥak camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe taughttwo of the expositions in bthe oppositeorder: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship. “God,” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,the source for the exposition: b“God [ iElohim /i],” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment,is clear; bas it is written: “Then the master of the house shall come near the judges [ iha’elohim /i]”(Exodus 22:7). Evidently, judges are called ielohim /i. bButwith regard to the exposition: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship, from whereis this binferred? /b, bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimiboth give answers to this question. bOneof them bsaysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them; they have made thema molten calf” (Exodus 32:8). The word “commanded” is mentioned here in the context of idol worship. bAndthe other bone saysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in justice, because he willingly went after filth [ itzav /i]”(Hosea 5:11). The word itzav /i, used in this context in reference to idol worship, is the same Hebrew word used in the phrase: “And…commanded [ ivaytzav /i].”,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthese two sources? The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthem is in the case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it,i.e., he has not yet worshipped it. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“They have madethem a molten calf,” bhe is rendered liable from the time of fashioningit. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“Because he willingly wentafter filth,” he is not liable buntil he goes after it and worships it. /b, bRava says: And is there anyone who saysthat ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it is liable? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWith regard to idol worship, matters,i.e., transgressions, bfor which a Jewish court executesa Jew who commits one of them, bare prohibited to a descendant of Noah.But with regard to transgressions bfor which a Jewish court does not executea Jew who commits one of them, ba descendant of Noah is not prohibited fromdoing bthem. To exclude whattransgressions, i.e., to determine that they do not apply to gentiles, is this stated? Is it bnot to excludethe case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it?Since Jews are not executed for this transgression, gentiles should not be liable for this act either., bRav Pappa says: No,it is possible that it is stated bto exclude embracing and kissingthe idol; neither a Jew nor a gentile who embraces or kisses an idol is liable. No proof can be brought from here with regard to a gentile who fashions an idol but does not worship it.,The Gemara asks: bEmbracing and kissingan idol bin whatmanner? bIf we saythat he did so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship, i.e., that embracing and kissing is the standard method of worshipping this idol, certainly bhe is liable toreceive the bdeathpenalty. bRather,it is stated bto excludea case bwherehe did bnotdo so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the list of the Noahide mitzvot: bWere the descendants of Noah commandedto establish courts of bjudgment? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people were commandedto observe bten mitzvotwhen they were bin Marah: Seven that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, andGod badded to themthe following mitzvot: bJudgment, and Shabbat, and honoringone’s bfather and mother. /b,The mitzva of bjudgmentwas given at Marah, bas it is writtenwith regard to Marah: b“There He made for them a statute and an ordice”(Exodus 15:25). bShabbat and honoringone’s bfather and motherwere given at Marah, bas it is writtenconcerning them in the Ten Commandments: “Observe the day of Shabbat to keep it holy, bas the Lord your God commanded you”(Deuteronomy 5:12), and similarly: “Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you” (Deuteronomy 5:16). The phrase “as the Lord your God commanded you” indicates that they had already been commanded to observe these mitzvot previously. bAnd Rav Yehuda says: “Asthe Lord your God bcommanded you” in Marah.Apparently, the mitzva of establishing courts is not included in the seven Noahide mitzvot., bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:Establishing courts is a Noahide mitzva. The additional mitzva that was given in Marah bwas necessary only with regard tothe details of the ihalakhotof the justice system, e.g., that a defendant in a capital case is punished only by a full panel of twenty-three judges of the bSanhedrin, andonly if there are two bwitnesseswho testify concerning him, bandonly if he was issued ba forewarningbefore his transgression.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,and the mitzva given at Marah is a specification of the ihalakhotof the justice system, bwhatis the meaning of the sentence: bAndGod badded to them: Judgment?The details of a preexisting mitzva would not be referred to as an added mitzva., bRather, Rava says:The mitzva given at Marah bwas necessary only with regard to the ihalakhotof fines.Since these are not ihalakhotthat pertain to the basic performance of justice, but rather concern an additional fine for the guilty party, they were not given to the descendants of Noah. The Gemara asks: According to this interpretation, the language of the ibaraitais bstillinaccurate, as bit should havestated: bAndGod badded to themmore ihalakhot bof judgment. /b, bRather, Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: It was necessary onlyfor the additional requirement bto establish a court in each and every province and in each and every city.The Gemara asks: bAnd were the descendants of Noah not commandedwith regard to bthismatter? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bJust as the Jewish people were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city, so too, the descendants of Noah were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city? /b, bRather, Rava says: This itanna /i,who holds that the mitzva of establishing courts of judgment is not included in the Noahide mitzvot, bisthe itannaof the school of Menashe, who removesfrom the list of the Noahide mitzvot two mitzvot whose mnemonic is idalet /i, ikaf /i,which stands for judgment [ idinim /i] and blessing the name of God [ ibirkat Hashem /i], band insertsin their place two mitzvot whose mnemonic is isamekh /i, ikaf /i,standing for castration [ iseirus /i] and diverse kinds [ ikilayim /i]., bAs the school of Menashe taught: The descendants of Noah were commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The prohibitions of bidol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and blood-shed,and brobbery, andeating ba limb from a livinganimal, and bcastration, and diverse kinds. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: Adam, the firstman, bwas commanded only with regard tothe prohibition of bidol worship, as it is stated: “And the Lord God commanded the man”(Genesis 2:16). bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says:He was balsocommanded bconcerning blessing the nameof God. bAnd some saythat he was balsocommanded bconcerningestablishing courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in interpretation of the aforementioned verse: Since bI am “God,” do not curse Me;since bI am “God,” do not exchange Mewith another god; since bI am “God,” My fear shall be upon you?The Gemara answers: bIn accordance with whoseopinion? It is bin accordance withwhat bsome say,i.e., that the phrase “and the Lord God commanded the man” includes the prohibitions against cursing God’s name and idol worship, as well as the mitzva of establishing a system of law and justice, so that the fear of God will be upon the people.,The Gemara challenges: bIfthe itannaof the school of Menashe interpretsthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, even thesemitzvot, cursing the name of God and establishing courts, should be included. And bif he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, from where does hederive btheseseven mitzvot in his list?,The Gemara answers: bActually, he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically,but with regard to bthesemitzvot in his list, beach and every oneof them bis written separatelyin the Torah. The prohibitions of bidol worship and forbidden sexual relationsare stated
30. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Paul, 20 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 8.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Anon., 2 Enoch, 22.11, 33.8, 47.2

33. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.26, 8.52, 13.36, 14.47

7.26. For behold, the time will come, when the signs which I have foretold to you will come to pass, that the city which now is not seen shall appear, and the land which now is hidden shall be disclosed. 8.52. because it is for you that paradise is opened, the tree of life is planted, the age to come is prepared, plenty is provided, a city is built, rest is appointed, goodness is established and wisdom perfected beforehand. 13.36. And Zion will come and be made manifest to all people, prepared and built, as you saw the mountain carved out without hands. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accusing, heavenly Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
afterlife Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 90
ancient near east Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 45, 47, 48, 58, 92, 173
angelic sin, as intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
angelic sin, as sexual transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45, 92
angelic sin, as transgression of proper roles Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45
angelic sin Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45, 47
angels, fallen Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45, 53
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
angels, michael Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
angels, offspring of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45, 53
angels, shemihazah/shemhazai Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
angels Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
apocalyptic nan
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92, 173
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92, 173
apocalyptic literature, social settings of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 58
apology, apologetics, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
ardis Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 664
ark, noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
art, interpreters Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98
asael, azael, and human sin Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 47
asael, azael, as teacher Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45
asael, azael, rebuke of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 48
asc (altered state of consciousness) Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 148
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
atonement, timing of nan
authority, prophetic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
authority, scribal Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
baruch Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
blessing, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
book of the watchers, authors/redactors of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 58
book of the watchers, polysemy of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45
book of the watchers, scribal interests of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
books, letter Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
books, oral origins of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
cainan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
canon, scriptural Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
chain of mediation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
children/offspring, giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
children/offspring, of noah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
christ, and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
christ, and fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
christ, as logos Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
christ, incarnation of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
civilization, as decline Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
cleanse Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
cosmology, in enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44
cosmology Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 664
creation, in wisdom literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44
daniel, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37
david, ethical model Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
david, scribe Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
david Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
demonology, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
demons, as enemies of christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
demons, origin of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
demons, worship of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
divine name Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
enoch, and revealed knowledge Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
enoch, as rebuking fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 45, 48
enoch, as scribe Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48, 58; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219, 713
enoch, elevation of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 47, 48, 58
enoch, enochic literature Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
enoch, interpreter Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
enoch, mediator Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98
enoch, otherworldly journeys of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
enoch, scribe Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98
enoch literature, its motivation Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37, 46
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92, 173
eschatology, christian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
eschatology/eschatological, judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
essenes, proto-essenes Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37, 46
ethics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 203
faithful, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
fall of the watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45
fallen angels, as enemies of christ Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
fallen angels, as paradigms of punished wicked Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 47
fallen angels, punishment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45, 173
family, center of education Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 203
flesh, of the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
flood, causes of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
forgiveness, tabernacle in nan
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 58, 92, 173
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
giants, children of the angels of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
giants, oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
giants, punishment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
giants, violence of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 45
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
heaven Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 148
heavenly journey, enochs Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
hellenistic, of antediluvian age Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
hermon, mt Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
impurity, geneological Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
impurity/uncleanness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667, 671
instruction/teaching, by the fallen angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
instruction/teaching, gentile Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
instruction/teaching, to michael Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92, 173
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
jared Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 664
jerusalem, vs. sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
jerusalem Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 58
justin martyr Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 45, 47, 48, 58, 92, 173
knowledge, secret Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98
lamech Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667, 671
law, mosaic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 45, 47, 48, 58, 92, 173
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
maccabean revolt, and enoch tradition Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 90
magic, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92
martyrdom Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219, 664, 667
milik j.t. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 37
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
moses, epistemological ramifications of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 48
moses, etiological use of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 47
moses, example Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
moses, legislator Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
moses, motif of illicit angelic instruction Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 47, 92
moses, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
moses, scribe Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
narrative, orality, ideological formulations of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
nickelsburg, geroge w. e. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 664, 667, 671
noah, interpretations of his name Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 92, 173
noahide laws Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
oppression Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
origen Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 664
persecution Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
philosophy, and christianity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
polytheism Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
prayers, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 664, 667
prayers, intercessory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
priesthood, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
priests and textuality Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 203
pseudepigrapha Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
pseudepigraphy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112; Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
pseudepigraphy ix Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 148
pseudonimity Dobroruka, Second Temple Pseudepigraphy: A Cross-cultural Comparison of Apocalyptic Texts and Related Jewish Literature (2014) 148
pseudonymity, motives for Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
purify/cleanse Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
purity and impurity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
qumran, moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
qumran, scriptural traditions Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
redemption, earthly nan
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
sadducees Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
scribe, enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
scribes, in second temple period Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
scribes, priestly Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
scribes, scribalism, and apocalyptic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 58
scribes, scribalism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
scriptorium Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 112
servitude/slavery Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
shekhina, re-written scripture Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
sins / iniquity, origin of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
socrates Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 173
spirits, evil/of evil Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
strenski, ivan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
stuckenbruck, loren Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
suffering of the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
supernatural etiology of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 47
tablet Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 671
temple, heavenly Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
temple, in heaven, in 1 enoch Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 130
temple, jerusalem, second Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 90
temple, jerusalem Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 90
temple, second Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 58
testament genre' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 203
testament literary genre Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
testamentary Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
text-interpretive, transmission of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 44, 45, 47, 48, 58, 92
theodicy Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
theology, deuteronomistic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
throne of god, enochs vision of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
throne of god, hebrews appropriation of nan
tours of heaven and earth Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 48
tradition, deuteronomistic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45, 53
transmission of tradition Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 98, 112
truth, scribe of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
watchers/rebellious angels, angels of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
watchers/rebellious angels, impurity of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 713
watchers/rebellious angels, instructions by Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402, 664, 667, 713
watchers Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 45, 53
watchers (angels) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 53
wisdom, enochic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 219
wisdom (heavenly) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
woman/women, daughters of men/women of the earth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
woman/women, handmaid Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 667
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 402
writing, functions of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
writing, oral dimensions of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 23
zadok, zadokites Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46