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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 104.4-104.5


nanrulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal
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45 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.6, 4.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 25.19, 28.13, 28.15, 28.25-28.26, 28.29, 28.31, 28.33, 28.38-28.42, 28.44-28.45, 28.48, 28.51, 28.58, 28.62, 28.64-28.66, 31.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃ 28.13. וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה לְרֹאשׁ וְלֹא לְזָנָב וְהָיִיתָ רַק לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא תִהְיֶה לְמָטָּה כִּי־תִשְׁמַע אֶל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לִשְׁמֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 28.15. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ׃ 28.25. יִתֶּנְךָ יְהוָה נִגָּף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד תֵּצֵא אֵלָיו וּבְשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים תָּנוּס לְפָנָיו וְהָיִיתָ לְזַעֲוָה לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.26. וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 28.29. וְהָיִיתָ מְמַשֵּׁשׁ בַּצָּהֳרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר יְמַשֵּׁשׁ הָעִוֵּר בָּאֲפֵלָה וְלֹא תַצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ עָשׁוּק וְגָזוּל כָּל־הַיָּמִים וְאֵין מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 28.31. שׁוֹרְךָ טָבוּחַ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְלֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ חֲמֹרְךָ גָּזוּל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְלֹא יָשׁוּב לָךְ צֹאנְךָ נְתֻנוֹת לְאֹיְבֶיךָ וְאֵין לְךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 28.33. פְּרִי אַדְמָתְךָ וְכָל־יְגִיעֲךָ יֹאכַל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדָעְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ רַק עָשׁוּק וְרָצוּץ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 28.38. זֶרַע רַב תּוֹצִיא הַשָּׂדֶה וּמְעַט תֶּאֱסֹף כִּי יַחְסְלֶנּוּ הָאַרְבֶּה׃ 28.39. כְּרָמִים תִּטַּע וְעָבָדְתָּ וְיַיִן לֹא־תִשְׁתֶּה וְלֹא תֶאֱגֹר כִּי תֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַתֹּלָעַת׃ 28.41. בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת תּוֹלִיד וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ לָךְ כִּי יֵלְכוּ בַּשֶּׁבִי׃ 28.42. כָּל־עֵצְךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ יְיָרֵשׁ הַצְּלָצַל׃ 28.44. הוּא יַלְוְךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא תַלְוֶנּוּ הוּא יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה לְזָנָב׃ 28.45. וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וּרְדָפוּךָ וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ כִּי־לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ׃ 28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 28.51. וְאָכַל פְּרִי בְהֶמְתְּךָ וּפְרִי־אַדְמָתְךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַשְׁאִיר לְךָ דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ עַד הַאֲבִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 28.58. אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת הַכְּתוּבִים בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא הַזֶּה אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 28.62. וְנִשְׁאַרְתֶּם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֱיִיתֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לָרֹב כִּי־לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 28.64. וֶהֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ עֵץ וָאָבֶן׃ 28.65. וּבַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם לֹא תַרְגִּיעַ וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלֶךָ וְנָתַן יְהוָה לְךָ שָׁם לֵב רַגָּז וְכִלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם וְדַאֲבוֹן נָפֶשׁ׃ 28.66. וְהָיוּ חַיֶּיךָ תְּלֻאִים לְךָ מִנֶּגֶד וּפָחַדְתָּ לַיְלָה וְיוֹמָם וְלֹא תַאֲמִין בְּחַיֶּיךָ׃ 31.17. וְחָרָה אַפִּי בוֹ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא וַעֲזַבְתִּים וְהִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי מֵהֶם וְהָיָה לֶאֱכֹל וּמְצָאֻהוּ רָעוֹת רַבּוֹת וְצָרוֹת וְאָמַר בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא הֲלֹא עַל כִּי־אֵין אֱלֹהַי בְּקִרְבִּי מְצָאוּנִי הָרָעוֹת הָאֵלֶּה׃ 25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget." 28.13. And the LORD will make thee the head, and not the tail; and thou shalt be above only, and thou shalt not be beneath; if thou shalt hearken unto the commandments of the LORD thy God, which I command thee this day, to observe and to do them;" 28.15. But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee." 28.25. The LORD will cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies; thou shalt go out one way against them, and shalt flee seven ways before them; and thou shalt be a horror unto all the kingdoms of the earth." 28.26. And thy carcasses shall be food unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be none to frighten them away." 28.29. And thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness, and thou shalt not make thy ways prosperous; and thou shalt be only oppressed and robbed alway, and there shall be none to save thee." 28.31. Thine ox shall be slain before thine eyes, and thou shalt not eat thereof; thine ass shall be violently taken away from before thy face, and shall not be restored to thee; thy sheep shall be given unto thine enemies; and thou shalt have none to save thee." 28.33. The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed away:" 28.38. Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather little in; for the locust shall consume it." 28.39. Thou shalt plant vineyards and dress them, but thou shalt neither drink of the wine, nor gather the grapes; for the worm shall eat them." 28.40. Thou shalt have olive-trees throughout all thy borders, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olives shall drop off." 28.41. Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be thine; for they shall go into captivity." 28.42. All thy trees and the fruit of thy land shall the locust possess." 28.44. He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him; he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail." 28.45. And all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; because thou didst not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which He commanded thee." 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee." 28.51. And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy ground, until thou be destroyed; that also shall not leave thee corn, wine, or oil, the increase of thy kine, or the young of thy flock, until he have caused thee to perish." 28.58. If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and awful Name, the LORD thy God;" 28.62. And ye shall be left few in number, whereas ye were as the stars of heaven for multitude; because thou didst not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God." 28.64. And the LORD shall scatter thee among all peoples, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou nor thy fathers, even wood and stone." 28.65. And among these nations shalt thou have no repose, and there shall be no rest for the sole of thy foot; but the LORD shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and languishing of soul." 28.66. And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear night and day, and shalt have no assurance of thy life." 31.17. Then My anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will hide My face from them, and they shall be devoured, and many evils and troubles shall come upon them; so that they will say in that day: Are not these evils come upon us because our God is not among us?"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 28.17, 35.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 35.17. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃ 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’" 35.17. And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 7.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.13. אוֹי לָהֶם כִּי־נָדְדוּ מִמֶּנִּי שֹׁד לָהֶם כִּי־פָשְׁעוּ בִי וְאָנֹכִי אֶפְדֵּם וְהֵמָּה דִּבְּרוּ עָלַי כְּזָבִים׃ 7.13. Woe unto them! for they have strayed from Me; Destruction unto them! for they have transgressed against Me; Shall I then redeem them, Seeing they have spoken lies against Me?"
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 2.1, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. הוֹי חֹשְׁבֵי־אָוֶן וּפֹעֲלֵי רָע עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָם בְּאוֹר הַבֹּקֶר יַעֲשׂוּהָ כִּי יֶשׁ־לְאֵל יָדָם׃ 2.1. קוּמוּ וּלְכוּ כִּי לֹא־זֹאת הַמְּנוּחָה בַּעֲבוּר טָמְאָה תְּחַבֵּל וְחֶבֶל נִמְרָץ׃ 2.3. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי חֹשֵׁב עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הַזֹּאת רָעָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תָמִישׁוּ מִשָּׁם צַוְּארֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא תֵלְכוּ רוֹמָה כִּי עֵת רָעָה הִיא׃ 2.1. Woe to them that devise iniquity And work evil upon their beds! When the morning is light, they execute it, Because it is in the power of their hand." 2.3. Therefore thus saith the LORD: Behold, against this family do I devise an evil, From which ye shall not remove your necks, Neither shall ye walk upright; for it shall be an evil time."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 9.6, 37.34, 77.25, 78.25, 95.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.6. גָּעַרְתָּ גוֹיִם אִבַּדְתָּ רָשָׁע שְׁמָם מָחִיתָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 37.34. קַוֵּה אֶל־יְהוָה וּשְׁמֹר דַּרְכּוֹ וִירוֹמִמְךָ לָרֶשֶׁת אָרֶץ בְּהִכָּרֵת רְשָׁעִים תִּרְאֶה׃ 78.25. לֶחֶם אַבִּירִים אָכַל אִישׁ צֵידָה שָׁלַח לָהֶם לָשֹׂבַע׃ 95.11. אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי אִם־יְבֹאוּן אֶל־מְנוּחָתִי׃ 9.6. Thou hast rebuked the nations, Thou hast destroyed the wicked, Thou hast blotted out their name for ever and ever." 37.34. Wait for the LORD, and keep His way, and He will exalt thee to inherit the land; when the wicked are cut off, thou shalt see it." 78.25. Man did eat the bread of the mighty; He sent them provisions to the full." 95.11. Wherefore I swore in My wrath, That they should not enter into My arest.'"
9. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.14-1.16, 2.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. קָרוֹב יוֹם־יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל קָרוֹב וּמַהֵר מְאֹד קוֹל יוֹם יְהוָה מַר צֹרֵחַ שָׁם גִּבּוֹר׃ 1.15. יוֹם עֶבְרָה הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יוֹם צָרָה וּמְצוּקָה יוֹם שֹׁאָה וּמְשׁוֹאָה יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה יוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 1.16. יוֹם שׁוֹפָר וּתְרוּעָה עַל הֶעָרִים הַבְּצֻרוֹת וְעַל הַפִּנּוֹת הַגְּבֹהוֹת׃ 2.15. זֹאת הָעִיר הָעַלִּיזָה הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת לָבֶטַח הָאֹמְרָה בִּלְבָבָהּ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד אֵיךְ הָיְתָה לְשַׁמָּה מַרְבֵּץ לַחַיָּה כֹּל עוֹבֵר עָלֶיהָ יִשְׁרֹק יָנִיעַ יָדוֹ׃ 1.14. The great day of the LORD is near, It is near and hasteth greatly, Even the voice of the day of the LORD, Wherein the mighty man crieth bitterly." 1.15. That day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress, A day of wasteness and desolation, A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness," 1.16. A day of the horn and alarm, Against the fortified cities, and against the high towers." 2.15. This is the joyous city That dwelt without care, That said in her heart: ‘I am, and there is none else beside me’; How is she become a desolation, A place for beasts to lie down in! Every one that passeth by her Shall hiss, and wag his hand."
10. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 6.1, 6.4-6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

6.1. הוֹי הַשַּׁאֲנַנִּים בְּצִיּוֹן וְהַבֹּטְחִים בְּהַר שֹׁמְרוֹן נְקֻבֵי רֵאשִׁית הַגּוֹיִם וּבָאוּ לָהֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.1. וּנְשָׂאוֹ דּוֹדוֹ וּמְסָרְפוֹ לְהוֹצִיא עֲצָמִים מִן־הַבַּיִת וְאָמַר לַאֲשֶׁר בְּיַרְכְּתֵי הַבַּיִת הַעוֹד עִמָּךְ וְאָמַר אָפֶס וְאָמַר הָס כִּי לֹא לְהַזְכִּיר בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 6.4. הַשֹּׁכְבִים עַל־מִטּוֹת שֵׁן וּסְרֻחִים עַל־עַרְשׂוֹתָם וְאֹכְלִים כָּרִים מִצֹּאן וַעֲגָלִים מִתּוֹךְ מַרְבֵּק׃ 6.5. הַפֹּרְטִים עַל־פִּי הַנָּבֶל כְּדָוִיד חָשְׁבוּ לָהֶם כְּלֵי־שִׁיר׃ 6.6. הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ וְלֹא נֶחְלוּ עַל־שֵׁבֶר יוֹסֵף 6.7. לָכֵן עַתָּה יִגְלוּ בְּרֹאשׁ גֹּלִים וְסָר מִרְזַח סְרוּחִים׃ 6.1. Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, And to them that are secure in the mountain of Samaria, The notable men of the first of the nations, To whom the house of Israel come!" 6.4. That lie upon beds of ivory, And stretch themselves upon their couches, And eat the lambs out of the flock, And the calves out of the midst of the stall;" 6.5. That thrum on the psaltery, That devise for themselves instruments of music, like David;" 6.6. That drink wine in bowls, And anoint themselves with the chief ointments; But they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph." 6.7. Therefore now shall they go captive at the head of them that go captive, And the revelry of them that stretched themselves shall pass away."
11. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.13, 2.6, 2.9, 2.15, 2.19 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.13. טְהוֹר עֵינַיִם מֵרְאוֹת רָע וְהַבִּיט אֶל־עָמָל לֹא תוּכָל לָמָּה תַבִּיט בּוֹגְדִים תַּחֲרִישׁ בְּבַלַּע רָשָׁע צַדִּיק מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 2.6. הֲלוֹא־אֵלֶּה כֻלָּם עָלָיו מָשָׁל יִשָּׂאוּ וּמְלִיצָה חִידוֹת לוֹ וְיֹאמַר הוֹי הַמַּרְבֶּה לֹּא־לוֹ עַד־מָתַי וּמַכְבִּיד עָלָיו עַבְטִיט׃ 2.9. הוֹי בֹּצֵעַ בֶּצַע רָע לְבֵיתוֹ לָשׂוּם בַּמָּרוֹם קִנּוֹ לְהִנָּצֵל מִכַּף־רָע׃ 2.15. הוֹי מַשְׁקֵה רֵעֵהוּ מְסַפֵּחַ חֲמָתְךָ וְאַף שַׁכֵּר לְמַעַן הַבִּיט עַל־מְעוֹרֵיהֶם׃ 2.19. הוֹי אֹמֵר לָעֵץ הָקִיצָה עוּרִי לְאֶבֶן דּוּמָם הוּא יוֹרֶה הִנֵּה־הוּא תָּפוּשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וְכָל־רוּחַ אֵין בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 1.13. Thou that art of eyes too pure to behold evil, And that canst not look on mischief, Wherefore lookest Thou, when they deal treacherously, And holdest Thy peace, when the wicked swalloweth up The man that is more righteous than he;" 2.6. Shall not all these take up a parable against him, And a taunting riddle against him, And say: ‘Woe to him that increaseth that which is not his! How long? and that ladeth himself with many pledges! ’" 2.9. Woe to him that gaineth evil gains for his house, That he may set his nest on high, That he may be delivered from the power of evil!" 2.15. Woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink, That puttest thy venom thereto, and makest him drunken also, That thou mayest look on their nakedness!" 2.19. Woe unto him that saith to the wood: ‘Awake’, To the dumb stone: ‘Arise! ’ Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, And there is no breath at all in the midst of it."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 3.9, 3.11, 10.1-10.6, 26.14, 28.4, 45.23, 54.9, 60.1-60.2, 61.3, 61.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם עָנְתָה בָּם וְחַטָּאתָם כִּסְדֹם הִגִּידוּ לֹא כִחֵדוּ אוֹי לְנַפְשָׁם כִּי־גָמְלוּ לָהֶם רָעָה׃ 3.11. אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃ 10.1. כַּאֲשֶׁר מָצְאָה יָדִי לְמַמְלְכֹת הָאֱלִיל וּפְסִילֵיהֶם מִירוּשָׁלִַם וּמִשֹּׁמְרוֹן׃ 10.1. הוֹי הַחֹקְקִים חִקְקֵי־אָוֶן וּמְכַתְּבִים עָמָל כִּתֵּבוּ׃ 10.2. לְהַטּוֹת מִדִּין דַּלִּים וְלִגְזֹל מִשְׁפַּט עֲנִיֵּי עַמִּי לִהְיוֹת אַלְמָנוֹת שְׁלָלָם וְאֶת־יְתוֹמִים יָבֹזּוּ׃ 10.2. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא־יוֹסִיף עוֹד שְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפְלֵיטַת בֵּית־יַעֲקֹב לְהִשָּׁעֵן עַל־מַכֵּהוּ וְנִשְׁעַן עַל־יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 10.3. וּמַה־תַּעֲשׂוּ לְיוֹם פְּקֻדָּה וּלְשׁוֹאָה מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבוֹא עַל־מִי תָּנוּסוּ לְעֶזְרָה וְאָנָה תַעַזְבוּ כְּבוֹדְכֶם׃ 10.3. צַהֲלִי קוֹלֵךְ בַּת־גַּלִּים הַקְשִׁיבִי לַיְשָׁה עֲנִיָּה עֲנָתוֹת׃ 10.4. בִּלְתִּי כָרַע תַּחַת אַסִּיר וְתַחַת הֲרוּגִים יִפֹּלוּ בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה׃ 10.5. הוֹי אַשּׁוּר שֵׁבֶט אַפִּי וּמַטֶּה־הוּא בְיָדָם זַעְמִי׃ 10.6. בְּגוֹי חָנֵף אֲשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ וְעַל־עַם עֶבְרָתִי אֲצַוֶּנּוּ לִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל וְלָבֹז בַּז ולשימו [וּלְשׂוּמוֹ] מִרְמָס כְּחֹמֶר חוּצוֹת׃ 26.14. מֵתִים בַּל־יִחְיוּ רְפָאִים בַּל־יָקֻמוּ לָכֵן פָּקַדְתָּ וַתַּשְׁמִידֵם וַתְּאַבֵּד כָּל־זֵכֶר לָמוֹ׃ 28.4. וְהָיְתָה צִיצַת נֹבֵל צְבִי תִפְאַרְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ גֵּיא שְׁמָנִים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ בְּטֶרֶם קַיִץ אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָרֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּעוֹדָהּ בְּכַפּוֹ יִבְלָעֶנָּה׃ 45.23. בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי יָצָא מִפִּי צְדָקָה דָּבָר וְלֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי־לִי תִּכְרַע כָּל־בֶּרֶךְ תִּשָּׁבַע כָּל־לָשׁוֹן׃ 54.9. כִּי־מֵי נֹחַ זֹאת לִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי־נֹחַ עוֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ כֵּן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מִקְּצֹף עָלַיִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּךְ׃ 60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃ 60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 60.2. לֹא־יָבוֹא עוֹד שִׁמְשֵׁךְ וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף כִּי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וְשָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי אֶבְלֵךְ׃ 60.2. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַחֹשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה־אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח יְהוָה וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 61.7. תַּחַת בָּשְׁתְּכֶם מִשְׁנֶה וּכְלִמָּה יָרֹנּוּ חֶלְקָם לָכֵן בְּאַרְצָם מִשְׁנֶה יִירָשׁוּ שִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לָהֶם׃ 3.9. The show of their countece doth witness against them; And they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! For they have wrought evil unto themselves." 3.11. Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him." 10.1. Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, And to the writers that write iniquity;" 10.2. To turn aside the needy from judgment, And to take away the right of the poor of My people, That widows may be their spoil, And that they may make the fatherless their prey!" 10.3. And what will ye do in the day of visitation, And in the ruin which shall come from far? To whom will ye flee for help? And where will ye leave your glory?" 10.4. They can do nought except crouch under the captives, And fall under the slain. For all this His anger is not turned away, But His hand is stretched out still." 10.5. O Asshur, the rod of Mine anger, In whose hand as a staff is Mine indignation!" 10.6. I do send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath do I give him a charge, To take the spoil, and to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets." 26.14. The dead live not, the shades rise not; To that end hast Thou punished and destroyed them, And made all their memory to perish." 28.4. And the fading flower of his glorious beauty, Which is on the head of the fat valley, Shall be as the first-ripe fig before the summer, Which when one looketh upon it, While it is yet in his hand he eateth it up." 45.23. By Myself have I sworn, The word is gone forth from My mouth in righteousness, And shall not come back, That unto Me every knee shall bow, Every tongue shall swear." 54.9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee." 60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee." 60.2. For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, And gross darkness the peoples; But upon thee the LORD will arise, And His glory shall be seen upon thee." 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory." 61.7. For your shame which was double, And for that they rejoiced: ‘Confusion is their portion’; Therefore in their land they shall possess double, Everlasting joy shall be unto them."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 11.5, 15.2, 22.13, 23.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.5. לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־הַשְּׁבוּעָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאַעַן וָאֹמַר אָמֵן יְהוָה׃ 15.2. וּנְתַתִּיךָ לָעָם הַזֶּה לְחוֹמַת נְחֹשֶׁת בְּצוּרָה וְנִלְחֲמוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא־יוּכְלוּ לָךְ כִּי־אִתְּךָ אֲנִי לְהוֹשִׁיעֲךָ וּלְהַצִּילֶךָ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 15.2. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ אָנָה נֵצֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לַמָּוֶת לַמָּוֶת וַאֲשֶׁר לַחֶרֶב לַחֶרֶב וַאֲשֶׁר לָרָעָב לָרָעָב וַאֲשֶׁר לַשְּׁבִי לַשֶּׁבִי׃ 22.13. הוֹי בֹּנֶה בֵיתוֹ בְּלֹא־צֶדֶק וַעֲלִיּוֹתָיו בְּלֹא מִשְׁפָּט בְּרֵעֵהוּ יַעֲבֹד חִנָּם וּפֹעֲלוֹ לֹא יִתֶּן־לוֹ׃ 23.1. הוֹי רֹעִים מְאַבְּדִים וּמְפִצִים אֶת־צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 23.1. כִּי מְנָאֲפִים מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־מִפְּנֵי אָלָה אָבְלָה הָאָרֶץ יָבְשׁוּ נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר וַתְּהִי מְרוּצָתָם רָעָה וּגְבוּרָתָם לֹא־כֵן׃ 11.5. that I may establish the oath which I swore unto your fathers, to give them a land flowing with milk and honey, as at this day.’ Then answered I, and said: ‘Amen, O LORD.’" 15.2. And it shall come to pass, when they say unto thee: Whither shall we go forth? then thou shall tell them: Thus saith the LORD: Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for captivity, to captivity." 22.13. Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, And his chambers by injustice; That useth his neighbour’s service without wages, And giveth him not his hire;" 23.1. Woe unto the shepherds that destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture! saith the LORD."
14. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 5.3-5.5, 5.7, 5.9-5.13, 5.16-5.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.3. יְתוֹמִים הָיִינוּ אין [וְאֵין] אָב אִמֹּתֵינוּ כְּאַלְמָנוֹת׃ 5.4. מֵימֵינוּ בְּכֶסֶף שָׁתִינוּ עֵצֵינוּ בִּמְחִיר יָבֹאוּ׃ 5.5. עַל צַוָּארֵנוּ נִרְדָּפְנוּ יָגַעְנוּ לא [וְלֹא] הוּנַח לָנוּ׃ 5.7. אֲבֹתֵינוּ חָטְאוּ אינם [וְאֵינָם] אנחנו [וַאֲנַחְנוּ] עֲוֺנֹתֵיהֶם סָבָלְנוּ׃ 5.9. בְּנַפְשֵׁנוּ נָבִיא לַחְמֵנוּ מִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 5.11. נָשִׁים בְּצִיּוֹן עִנּוּ בְּתֻלֹת בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה׃ 5.12. שָׂרִים בְּיָדָם נִתְלוּ פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים לֹא נֶהְדָּרוּ׃ 5.13. בַּחוּרִים טְחוֹן נָשָׂאוּ וּנְעָרִים בָּעֵץ כָּשָׁלוּ׃ 5.16. נָפְלָה עֲטֶרֶת רֹאשֵׁנוּ אוֹי־נָא לָנוּ כִּי חָטָאנוּ׃ 5.17. עַל־זֶה הָיָה דָוֶה לִבֵּנוּ עַל־אֵלֶּה חָשְׁכוּ עֵינֵינוּ׃ 5.18. עַל הַר־צִיּוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמֵם שׁוּעָלִים הִלְּכוּ־בוֹ׃ 5.19. אַתָּה יְהוָה לְעוֹלָם תֵּשֵׁב כִּסְאֲךָ לְדֹר וָדוֹר׃ 5.21. הֲשִׁיבֵנוּ יְהוָה אֵלֶיךָ ונשוב [וְנָשׁוּבָה] חַדֵּשׁ יָמֵינוּ כְּקֶדֶם׃ 5.22. כִּי אִם־מָאֹס מְאַסְתָּנוּ קָצַפְתָּ עָלֵינוּ עַד־מְאֹד׃ br small[השיבנו יהוה אליך ונשובה חדש ימינו כקדם] /small 5.3. We are become orphans and fatherless, Our mothers are as widows." 5.4. We have drunk our water for money; Our wood cometh to us for price." 5.5. To our very necks we are pursued; We labour, and have no rest." 5.7. Our fathers have sinned, and are not; And we have borne their iniquities." 5.9. We get our bread with the peril of our lives Because of the sword of the wilderness." 5.10. Our skin is hot like an oven Because of the burning heat of famine." 5.11. They have ravished the women in Zion, The maidens in the cities of Judah." 5.12. Princes are hanged up by their hand; The faces of elders are not honoured." 5.13. The young men have borne the mill, And the children have stumbled under the wood." 5.16. The crown is fallen from our head; Woe unto us! for we have sinned." 5.17. For this our heart is faint, For these things our eyes are dim;" 5.18. For the mountain of Zion, which is desolate, The foxes walk upon it." 5.19. Thou, O LORD, art enthroned for ever, Thy throne is from generation to generation." 5.20. Wherefore dost Thou forget us for ever, And forsake us so long time?" 5.21. Turn Thou us unto Thee, O LORD, and we shall be turned; Renew our days as of old." 5.22. Thou canst not have utterly rejected us, And be exceeding wroth against us! br small[Turn us unto Thee, O Lord, and we shall be turned; Renew our days as of old.] /small"
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.11, 13.3, 16.23, 24.6, 24.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.11. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הַכֵּה בְכַפְּךָ וּרְקַע בְּרַגְלְךָ וֶאֱמָר־אָח אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹת רָעוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר יִפֹּלוּ׃ 13.3. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הוֹי עַל־הַנְּבִיאִים הַנְּבָלִים אֲשֶׁר הֹלְכִים אַחַר רוּחָם וּלְבִלְתִּי רָאוּ׃ 16.23. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי כָּל־רָעָתֵךְ אוֹי אוֹי לָךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 24.6. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים סִיר אֲשֶׁר חֶלְאָתָה בָהּ וְחֶלְאָתָהּ לֹא יָצְאָה מִמֶּנָּה לִנְתָחֶיהָ לִנְתָחֶיהָ הוֹצִיאָהּ לֹא־נָפַל עָלֶיהָ גּוֹרָל׃ 24.9. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים גַּם־אֲנִי אַגְדִּיל הַמְּדוּרָה׃ 6.11. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Smite with thy hand, and stamp with thy foot, and say: Alas! because of all the evil abominations of the house of Israel; for they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence." 13.3. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe unto the vile prophets, that follow their own spirit, and things which they have not seen!" 16.23. And it came to pass after all thy wickedness—woe, woe unto thee! saith the Lord GOD—" 24.6. Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city, to the pot whose filth is therein, and whose filth is not gone out of it! bring it out piece by piece; no lot is fallen upon it." 24.9. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city! I also will make the pile great,"
16. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.22, 5.18, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.22. וְרָאִיתִי כִּי אֵין טוֹב מֵאֲשֶׁר יִשְׂמַח הָאָדָם בְּמַעֲשָׂיו כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ כִּי מִי יְבִיאֶנּוּ לִרְאוֹת בְּמֶה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַחֲרָיו׃ 5.18. גַּם כָּל־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׁר וּנְכָסִים וְהִשְׁלִיטוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ וְלָשֵׂאת אֶת־חֶלְקוֹ וְלִשְׂמֹחַ בַּעֲמָלוֹ זֹה מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃ 9.6. גַּם אַהֲבָתָם גַּם־שִׂנְאָתָם גַּם־קִנְאָתָם כְּבָר אָבָדָה וְחֵלֶק אֵין־לָהֶם עוֹד לְעוֹלָם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 3.22. Wherefore I perceived that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his works; for that is his portion; for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?" 5.18. Every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him power to eat thereof, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labour—this is the gift of God." 9.6. As well their love, as their hatred and their envy, is long ago perished; neither have they any more a portion for ever in any thing that is done under the sun."
17. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.6, 4.19 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind.
18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6, 7, 7.3, 8, 8.4, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 11, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 13, 14, 15, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 23, 24, 25, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.7, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 42.1, 42.2, 42.3, 51.5, 54.5, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 81.4, 81.6, 82, 82.2, 82.4, 82.5, 82.6, 82.7, 82.8, 82.9, 82.10, 82.11, 82.12, 82.13, 82.14, 82.15, 82.16, 82.17, 82.18, 82.19, 82.20, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 90.19, 91, 91.3, 91.4, 91.5, 91.9, 91.11, 91.12, 91.13, 91.14, 91.15, 91.16, 91.17, 92.2, 92.3, 92.4, 92.5, 93.1, 93.2, 93.3, 93.4, 93.5, 93.6, 93.7, 93.8, 93.9, 93.10, 94.1, 94.3, 94.5, 94.6, 94.7, 94.9, 95.3, 95.4, 95.5, 95.6, 96.1, 96.2, 96.3, 96.4, 96.5, 96.7, 97.1, 97.2, 97.3, 97.4, 97.7, 97.8, 97.9, 97.10, 98.2, 98.3, 98.4, 98.5, 98.6, 98.7, 98.8, 98.9-99.2, 98.10, 98.11, 98.12, 98.14, 98.15, 98.16, 99.1, 99.2, 99.3, 99.4, 99.5, 99.6, 99.7, 99.8, 99.9, 99.10, 99.11, 99.12, 99.13, 99.14, 99.15, 99.16, 100.1, 100.2, 100.3, 100.4, 100.5, 100.6, 100.7, 100.7-102.3, 100.8, 100.9, 100.10, 100.11, 100.12, 100.13, 101.1, 101.2, 101.3, 101.4, 101.5, 101.6, 101.7, 101.8, 101.9, 102.3, 102.4, 102.4-103.4, 102.4-104.8, 102.5, 102.6, 102.7, 102.8, 102.9, 102.10, 102.11, 103.1, 103.2, 103.3, 103.4, 103.5, 103.6, 103.7, 103.8, 103.9, 103.9-104.6, 103.10, 103.11, 103.12, 103.13, 103.14, 103.15, 104.1, 104.2, 104.3, 104.5, 104.6, 104.7, 104.8, 104.9, 104.9-105.2, 104.10, 104.11, 104.12, 104.13, 105.1, 105.2, 106.7, 106.18, 108.1, 108.3, 108.5, 108.6, 108.7, 108.13, 108.14, 108.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.
19. Anon., Jubilees, 4.21, 23.30-23.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.21. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom 23.30. and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. 23.31. And they will strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince
20. Anon., Testament of Judah, 24.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.1-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever."
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 2.9, 44.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. you who fear the Lord, hope for good things,for everlasting joy and mercy. 44.9. And there are some who have no memorial,who have perished as though they had not lived;they have become as though they had not been born,and so have their children after them.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.2, 3.1, 5.5, 16.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.2. Because we were born by mere chance,and hereafter we shall be as though we had never been;because the breath in our nostrils is smoke,and reason is a spark kindled by the beating of our hearts. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 5.5. Why has he been numbered among the sons of God?And why is his lot among the saints? 16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste.
24. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 7.149 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

7.149. Flash lightning after Macedonian spears;
25. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.749, 15.875-15.876 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 149 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

149. And I also admire the things which are spoken under divine inspiration in the books of Kings, according to which those who flourished many generations afterwards and lived in a blameless manner, are spoken of as the sons of David who wrote hymns to God; though, during his lifetime, even their great grandfathers had not yet been born. The truth is, that the birth here spoken of is that of souls made immortal by their virtues, not of perishable bodies, and this birth is naturally referred to the leaders of virtue, as its parents and progenitors. XXIX.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 154 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV.
28. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.14, 18.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach.
31. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.650, 2.154, 3.372 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 3.372. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, if anyone destroys or abuses a depositum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if anyone cast out of his body this Divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it.
32. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.13, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Therefore, prepare your minds for action, be sober and set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 2.2. as newborn babes, long for the pure milk of the Word, that you may grow thereby
33. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.9, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men?
34. New Testament, Acts, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
35. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.17, 9.2, 22.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it. 9.2. He opened the pit of the abyss, and smoke went up out of the pit, like the smoke from a burning furnace. The sun and the air were darkened because of the smoke from the pit. 22.16. I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify these things to you for the assemblies. I am the root and the offspring of David; the Bright and Morning Star.
36. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.7, 5.12-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. of the angels he says, "Who makes his angels winds, And his servants a flame of fire. 5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food. 5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil.
37. New Testament, Philippians, 3.20-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
38. New Testament, John, 20.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.27. Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing.
39. New Testament, Luke, 10.20, 15.10, 24.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. 15.10. Even so, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner repenting. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
40. New Testament, Mark, 12.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.
41. New Testament, Matthew, 13.43, 13.50, 22.30, 25.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.43. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 13.50. and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;
42. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 19.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
44. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

75b. לחם ששאלו כהוגן ניתן להם כהוגן מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בלילה והאמר אביי האי מאן דאית ליה סעודתא לא לאכלי' אלא ביממא כעין יממא קא אמרינן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב בתחלה היו ישראל דומין כתרנגולים שמנקרין באשפה עד שבא משה וקבע להם זמן סעודה,(במדבר יא, לג) הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם וכתיב (במדבר יא, כ) עד חדש ימים הא כיצד בינונים לאלתר מתו רשעים מצטערין והולכין עד חדש ימים,וישטחו אמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי וישטחו אלא וישחטו מלמד שנתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שחיטה שטוח תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה אל תיקרי שטוח אלא שחוט מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן דבר שטעון שחיטה אמר רבי וכי מכאן אתה למד והלא כבר נאמר (תהלים עח, כז) וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול (הים) עוף כנף,ותניא רבי אומר (דברים יב, כא) וזבחת כאשר צויתיך מלמד שנצטוה משה על הושט ועל הקנה על רוב אחד בעוף ועל רוב שנים בבהמה אלא מה תלמוד לומר שטוח מלמד שירד להם משטיחין משטיחין,כתיב לחם וכתיב שמן וכתיב (שמות טז, לא) דבש אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא לנערים לחם לזקנים שמן לתינוקות דבש,כתיב שליו וקרינן סליו אמר רבי חנינא צדיקים אוכלין אותו בשלוה רשעים אוכלין אותו ודומה להן כסילוין,א"ר חנן בר רבא ד' מיני סליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיבלי ופסיוני ושליו מעליא דכולהו שיכלי גריעא דכולהו שליו והוי כציפורתא ומותבינן לה בתנורא ותפח והוה מלי תנורא ומסקינן ליה אתליסר ריפי ואחרונה אינה נאכלת אלא ע"י תערובת,רב יהודה משתכח ליה בי דני רב חסדא משתכח ליה בי ציבי רבא מייתי ליה אריסיה כל יומא יומא חד לא אייתי אמר מאי האי סליק לאיגרא שמעיה לינוקא דקאמר (חבקוק ג, טז) שמעתי ותרגז בטני אמר שמע מניה נח נפשיה דרב חסדא ובדיל רבה אכיל תלמידא,כתיב (שמות טז, יד) ותעל שכבת הטל וכתיב (במדבר יא, ט) וברדת הטל אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא טל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה ודומה כמו שמונח בקופסא,דק מחוספס אמר ר"ל דבר שנימוח על פיסת היד רבי יוחנן אמר דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים מחוספס טובא הוי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מחספס כתיב,תנו רבנן (תהלים עח, כה) לחם אבירים אכל איש לחם שמלאכי השרת אוכלין אותו דברי ר"ע וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם צאו ואמרו לו לעקיבא עקיבא טעית וכי מלאכי השרת אוכלין לחם והלא כבר נאמר (דברים ט, ט) לחם לא אכלתי ומים לא שתיתי אלא מה אני מקיים אבירים לחם שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים,אלא מה אני מקיים (דברים כג, יד) ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך (ויצאת שמה חוץ) דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין אותן להם,ר"א בן פרטא אומר אף דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין להן מן מפיגן אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך לאחר שסרחו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי יהיו כמלאכי השרת עכשיו אני מטריח אותם שלש פרסאות,דכתיב (במדבר לג, מט) ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות עד אבל השטים ואמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא תלתא פרסי ותנא כשנפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהן ולא לצדדיהן אלא לאחוריהן,(במדבר יא, ו) ועתה נפשנו יבשה אין כל אמרו עתיד מן זה שתיפח במעיהם כלום יש ילוד אשה שמכניס ואינו מוציא,וכשנאמרו דברים לפני ר' ישמעאל אמר להם אל תקרי אבירים אלא איברים דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה איברים אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך בדברים שבאין להם ממדינת הים,דבר אחר לחם אבירים אכל איש 75b. However, bbread,which is essential, bthey asked for appropriately.Therefore, it bwas given to them appropriately,in the morning, when there was time to prepare it. The Gemara comments: bFrom here, the Torah teaches etiquette, thatit is proper bto eat meat only at night,as Moses said to the children of Israel: “This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat” (Exodus 16:8). The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Abaye saythat bsomeone who has a meal should eat it only in the day?The Gemara answers: bWe mean to say: Like day.It is not necessary to eat the food in the daytime, as long as one can see what he eats. bRabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: At the beginning, the Jewish people were like chickens pecking at the garbage;any time there was food they grabbed it and ate it, buntil Moses came and set specific times to eat,as the verse implies. He set mealtimes for them in the morning and in the evening.,It was stated with regard to the quail: b“While the meat was yet between their teeth,before it was chewed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people” (Numbers 11:33), which means that they died immediately. However, it also states: “You shall not eat it for only one day…but for ban entire monthuntil it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you” (Numbers 11:19–20). bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bThe average people died immediately,but bthe wicked continued to sufferin pain bfor a monthand then died.,The verse states: b“And they spread them [ ivayishteḥu /i]out for themselves round about the camp” (Numbers 11:32). bReish Lakish said: Do not read itas ivayishteḥu /i. Rather,read it as ivayishḥatu /i.This bteaches thatthe benemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwere liable toreceive the punishment of bslaughterdue to their demand. The verse states: b“Spread out [ ishato’aḥ /i]”(Numbers 11:32). A itanna btaught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Do not read itas ishato’aḥbutas ishaḥot /i.This bteaches thatother food bfell for the Jewish peoplealong bwith the manna.The food was something bthat requires ritual slaughtering [ isheḥita /i],referring to birds. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: And do you learnthis bfrom here?Do we need to alter the word for this purpose? bIsn’t it already statedexplicitly: b“And he rained meat upon them like dust, and winged birds like the sand of the seas”(Psalms 78:27)?, bAnd it was taughtin a related ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The verse states: b“Then you shall slaughterof your herd and of your flock which the Lord has given you, bas I have commanded you”(Deuteronomy 12:21). bThis teaches that Moses was commanded inthe laws of ritual slaughter to cut the bgullet and the windpipein the neck. bAnd with a birdone must cut through bthe majorityof bonepipe, band with an animalone must cut through bthe majority ofboth pipes. Moses was commanded these laws along with the other details of slaughtering. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the word ishatoaḥdoes not teach us about ritual slaughter. bRather, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: iShatoaḥ /i?It bteaches thatthe manna bfell in layers [ imashtiḥin /i]in a straight row.,With regard to the manna, bit is written “bread”(Exodus 16:4), band it is written “oil”(Numbers 11:8), band it is written “honey”(Exodus 16:31). How can we reconcile these verses? bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: For the youthit was like bbread, for the elderlyit was like boil,and bfor the childrenit was like bhoney.Each received what was appropriate.,The Gemara comments further: The word quail bis written ishlav /i,with the letter ishin /i, bbut we readit as islav /i,with the letter isamekh /i. What does this teach us? bRabbi Ḥanina said: The righteous eat it in peace [ ishalva /i],based on the written form of the word; whereas bthe wicked eat it, and it seems to them like thorns [ isilvin /i],based on the way the word is read.,Furthermore, with regard to the quail: bRav Ḥa bar Rava said: There are four types of quail and these are they: iSikhli /i, and ikivli /i, and ipasyoni /i, and islav /i. The besttasting bof allis the isikhli /i. The worst of allis the islav /i.The Gemara relates how tasty even the quail was that the Jews ate in the desert: bIt wasas small bas a sparrow, and they would place it in the ovento roast, band it expanded until it filled theentire boven. They would place it upon thirteen loavesof bread, and even the blastloaf on the bottom bcould be eaten onlywhen bmixed with other food,due to all the fat it had absorbed from the quail.,It is told that bRav Yehuda foundquail bamong his barrels of wine,and bRav Ḥisda foundquail bamong logs of woodin his storeroom. bEvery day Rava’s sharecropper brought hima quail that he found in his fields. bOne day, he did not bringhim one because he failed to find any. Rava bsaidto himself: bWhat is this,why is today different? bHe went up to the roofto think about it. bHe heard a child saythe verse: b“When I heard, my innards trembled,my lips quivered at the voice, rottenness enters into my bones, and I tremble where I stand; that I should wait for the day of trouble when he comes up against the people that he invades” (Habakkuk 3:16). Rava bsaid: Learn from this that Rav Ḥisda has died.I am therefore not worthy to receive the quail anymore, since it is on baccount of the teacherthat bthe student eats.When Rav Ḥisda was alive, Rava received the quail due to Rav Ḥisda’s merit; now that he had died, Rava was not worthy to receive the quail.,§ Furthermore, with regard to the manna bit is written: “And when the layer of dew lifted,behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a fine flaky substance, as fine as frost on the ground” (Exodus 16:14), indicating that the dew covered the manna. bAnd it is written:“ bAnd when the dew fellupon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9), meaning that the manna fell on top of the dew. How can these verses be reconciled? bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:There was bdew above and dew below,with the manna in between, bandthe manna bappeared as ifit were bplaced in a box [ ikufsa /i]of dew.,The verse describes the manna as b“a fine flaky [ imeḥuspas /i]substance” (Exodus 16:14). bReish Lakish said: iMeḥuspasmeans it was ba substance that dissolved [imaḥb] on the palm [ipasb] of the hand.Since it was so fine, it dissolved upon contact. bRabbi Yoḥa said: It was a substance that was absorbed inall b248 limbs,the numerical equivalent of the word imeḥuspas /i. The Gemara expresses surprise at this: If one calculates the value of the letters in the word imeḥuspas /i,it bis more,totaling 254. bRabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: iMeḥuspasis writtenin the Torah without the letter ivav /i. Therefore, the total is exactly 248., bThe Sages taught:The Torah states: “And He caused manna to rain upon them for food, and He gave them of the grain of heaven. bMan did eat the bread of the mighty [ iabirim /i]”(Psalms 78:24–25). “Bread of the mighty” is bbread that the ministering angels eat;this is the bstatement of Rabbi Akiva. When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to themto bgo and tell Akiva: Akiva you have erred. Do the ministering angels eat bread? It is already statedabout Moses, when he ascended on high: b“Bread I did not eat and water I did not drink”(Deuteronomy 9:9). If even a man who ascends on high does not need to eat, certainly the ministering angels do not need to eat. bRather, how do I establishthe meaning of the word iabirim /i?It can be explained as bbread that was absorbed intoall b248 limbs [ ieivarim /i],so that there was no waste.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, bhow do I establishthe verses: b“And you shall have a spade among your weapons,and it shall be that when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement” (Deuteronomy 23:14) and “You shall have a place also outside the camp bwhere you can relieve yourself” (Deuteronomy 23:13). From here we learn that there was waste in their bowels, as they had to leave the camp to relieve themselves. The Gemara explains: This waste was not a byproduct of the manna; it was from food bitems that the gentile merchants sold them. /b, bRabbi Elazar ben Peratadisagrees and bsays: The manna caused even items that the gentile merchants sold them to becompletely bdigested,so that even other food that they ate produced no waste. bButthen bhow do I establishthe verse: b“And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? After they sinned,the manna was not as effective. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Iinitially bsaidthat bthey would be like ministering angelswho do not produce waste; bnow I will trouble them to walk three parasangsto leave the camp in order to relieve themselves.,How do we know that the Israelite camp was three parasangs? bAs it is written: “And they camped by the Jordan from Beth-Jeshimoth to Abel-shittim”(Numbers 33:49), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw that site and it was three parasangsin length. bAnda ibaraita btaught: Whenthe Jews brelieved themselvesin the desert, bthey did not relievethemselves bahead of themselves,i.e., in the direction of their travel, bnor to the sideof the camp, bbut behindthe camp, in a place that they had already traveled. Consequently, those near the front of the camp had to walk a distance of three parasangs from their homes to leave the camp.,Furthermore, with regard to the manna, the verse states Israel’s complaint: b“But now our soul is dry, there is nothing at all;we have nothing beside this manna to look to” (Numbers 11:6). bThey said: This manna will eventually swell in our stomachsand kill us; bis thereanyone bborn of a woman who ingestsfood bbut does not expelwaste? This supports the Gemara’s claim that the manna did not create waste., bWhen these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them: Do not readit as iabirim /i. Rather,read it as ieivarim /i,limbs. The manna was bsomething that was absorbed by 248 limbs. But, how do I establish “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? From thefood bitems that came to them from overseas lands.Rabbi Yishmael disagrees with Rabbi Elazar ben Perata with regard to the effect the manna had on the digestion of other foods., bAlternatively, “Man [ iish /i] did eat the bread of the mighty”(Psalms 78:25);
45. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 108, 110, 107



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 91
accursed/cursed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 200, 216, 336, 488, 496, 497, 525
afterlife, resurrection Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497, 522, 523, 524, 525, 575
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200, 203, 216, 496, 497, 522, 523, 524, 525, 723
afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336, 524, 525
angelic Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
angelic status Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 512, 522, 524, 577, 723, 740
angelification Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 497, 512, 522, 523, 524, 577, 723
angels, abode of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
angels, angels of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 575
angels, bearers of petition Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548
angels, fellowship with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
angels, food of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
angels, interaction of enoch with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
angels, joy of/with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 522, 575
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216
angels, witnesses of sin Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
angels Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
animal apocalypse Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 85
ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552
apocalypses Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
apocalypticism, and gender binariness Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
authority, of/for the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 286
barrenness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
birds, of prey Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
blessing, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
blessing, eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216
blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 216, 497
books, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 522
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
books, prophetic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216
burning, of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 488
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 640
children/offspring, dying without Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
children/offspring, humanity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 488
children/offspring, of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 285
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523, 524, 549
companions, of angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577
companions, of sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577
complaint Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548, 552, 574
cosmology, ancient Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 131
cosmos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216, 640
covenant, blessings Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
covenant, curses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
covenant, disobedience to Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548, 552
covenant, obedience/faithfulness/loyalty Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216, 577
creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 488
curses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 198, 336, 548
darkness, day of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of bloodshed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of cursing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496
day, of cursing and punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496
day, of darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of great judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 200, 286
day, of iniquity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200
day, of the lord Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of tribulation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of unceasing blood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 203, 216, 525
diet, vegetarian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
disclosure formulae Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216
dreams/dream visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
enoch, as father Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
enoch, interpreter Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
eschatology/eschatological, age of blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 216
eschatology/eschatological, judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 216, 496
eschatology/eschatological, punishment/destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 522
eschatology/eschatological, reversal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286, 488
eschatology/eschatological, rewards Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 522, 577, 723
eschatology/eschatological, woes/conflict/tumult Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 488
fasting Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
fear, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 285, 488, 577
fear Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200, 286, 525, 577
fire Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336, 488
flesh, human Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
flesh, of the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
flood/deluge, great/noahs, as punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
food, angelic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
food, gentile Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
food, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
food Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
gender, disruption of, as feature of dystopian apocalypticism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
gender transcendence, as postapocalyptic state Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
genderlessness, and apocalypticism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577, 723
giants, hahyah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
giants, hybrids Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
giants, ohyah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199
god, great one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 524, 525
god, holy great one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 336
goodness eschatological reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 285, 522, 523
hands Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
healing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 285
hearts Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
heavens, windows/gates of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 574
heavens Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200
help, lack of for sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 488
help, lack of for the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552
help Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552, 574, 575
hide Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190
hills Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 336
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523, 740
honour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 522
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200, 285, 525, 575, 577
idolatry Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 199
immortality of the soul Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496, 524
inheritance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
instruction/teaching, by angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
instruction/teaching, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199
instruction/teaching, false Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 197
instruction/teaching Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
irony/ironical Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 488, 548
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
joy, for the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 285, 522, 525
joy, of angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 575
jubilees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
judaeans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
justice, divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 496, 497, 523, 524, 525, 548
justice, lack of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
justice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216
labour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
lamech Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
lament Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 548
life / afterlife, angelic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200
life / afterlife, earthly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 497, 512, 523, 525, 548, 549
life / afterlife, eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 525
life / afterlife, eternal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 524, 525
life / afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497, 523, 524, 525, 549, 723
lights, eschatological reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199
lights, of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 740
lights, place of angelike existence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200
lights Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 740
lot i.e. destiny, of the dead Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
lot i.e. destiny, of the holy ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
lot i.e. destiny, of the living Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
love of, salvation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 524
makarism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
memorial/remembrance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 525, 574
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 285
mithras Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
mono-genderedness, and apocalypticism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 336, 524
mystery/mysteries Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
nero Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
oppression Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 197, 216, 336, 548, 552
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 286, 552, 574, 575
oracles, sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
peace, lack of for the sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 197
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 200, 203
petitions / prayers, by the oppressed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 574, 575
pharisees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548
poverty Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
power/prestige, social Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
prayers, of the righteous ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 574
prepared, for punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 198
prepared, for reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 522, 523
prophetic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 216
prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 216, 286
protection Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286, 552
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 200, 216, 286, 336, 488, 496, 497, 523, 525
pure Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
qumran, community/group Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
record of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 522
refuge Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
remember Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 216, 525
resurrection Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
reward Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 91
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 131
righteous Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
righteousness; righteous one; teacher of righteousness Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 86
sadducees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548
safety Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286, 488
servitude/slavery Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 336, 523
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 200, 286, 524, 740
sheol Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 86; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 497, 512, 552
sibylline oracles, sib. or. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
sinner; sin Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 91
sins / iniquity, recording of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336, 525
sins / iniquity, support of/aid to Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577
sleep afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496, 512
social status Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 131
spirits, demonic/giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
spirits, resurrection of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 522, 524
splendour Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
stars, righteous ones as Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 574, 740
stars Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
sudden/quick destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 199, 285, 286
suffering of the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 200, 216, 497, 574, 740
suffering of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548, 574
sun, as a heavenly body Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
syncellus, chronography of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
temple, jerusalem, destruction Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
torah Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
trees, of life Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 524
truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
two spirits treatise Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 522, 524
two ways instruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 203
visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
voice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 488
ways/paths, of righteousness/truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
ways/paths, of wrongdoing/iniquity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
wealth/prosperity, unjust gain of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190
wealth/prosperity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 203, 497, 577
wealthy/rich ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
wicked Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
wilderness/desert, israel in Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
wisdom Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 577
woman/women, handmaid Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 336
worship' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 488