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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



472
Anon., 1 Enoch, 104.2-104.6


nanOne: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven


nanye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the


nanrulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal
NaN


nanjudgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

81 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.6, 4.19, 5.10, 11.11, 12.7, 12.12, 12.15, 13.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 5.10. Then Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me. 11.11. and took hold of his father, and he sprinkled the gall upon his fathers eyes, saying, "Be of good cheer, father. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 25.19, 28.13, 28.15, 28.25-28.26, 28.29, 28.31, 28.33, 28.38-28.42, 28.44-28.45, 28.48, 28.51, 28.58, 28.62, 28.64-28.66, 31.17, 31.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃ 28.13. וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה לְרֹאשׁ וְלֹא לְזָנָב וְהָיִיתָ רַק לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא תִהְיֶה לְמָטָּה כִּי־תִשְׁמַע אֶל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לִשְׁמֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 28.15. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ׃ 28.25. יִתֶּנְךָ יְהוָה נִגָּף לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֶיךָ בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶחָד תֵּצֵא אֵלָיו וּבְשִׁבְעָה דְרָכִים תָּנוּס לְפָנָיו וְהָיִיתָ לְזַעֲוָה לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.26. וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 28.29. וְהָיִיתָ מְמַשֵּׁשׁ בַּצָּהֳרַיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר יְמַשֵּׁשׁ הָעִוֵּר בָּאֲפֵלָה וְלֹא תַצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ עָשׁוּק וְגָזוּל כָּל־הַיָּמִים וְאֵין מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 28.31. שׁוֹרְךָ טָבוּחַ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְלֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ חֲמֹרְךָ גָּזוּל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְלֹא יָשׁוּב לָךְ צֹאנְךָ נְתֻנוֹת לְאֹיְבֶיךָ וְאֵין לְךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 28.33. פְּרִי אַדְמָתְךָ וְכָל־יְגִיעֲךָ יֹאכַל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדָעְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ רַק עָשׁוּק וְרָצוּץ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 28.38. זֶרַע רַב תּוֹצִיא הַשָּׂדֶה וּמְעַט תֶּאֱסֹף כִּי יַחְסְלֶנּוּ הָאַרְבֶּה׃ 28.39. כְּרָמִים תִּטַּע וְעָבָדְתָּ וְיַיִן לֹא־תִשְׁתֶּה וְלֹא תֶאֱגֹר כִּי תֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַתֹּלָעַת׃ 28.41. בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת תּוֹלִיד וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ לָךְ כִּי יֵלְכוּ בַּשֶּׁבִי׃ 28.42. כָּל־עֵצְךָ וּפְרִי אַדְמָתֶךָ יְיָרֵשׁ הַצְּלָצַל׃ 28.44. הוּא יַלְוְךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא תַלְוֶנּוּ הוּא יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה לְזָנָב׃ 28.45. וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וּרְדָפוּךָ וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ כִּי־לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ׃ 28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 28.51. וְאָכַל פְּרִי בְהֶמְתְּךָ וּפְרִי־אַדְמָתְךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַשְׁאִיר לְךָ דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר שְׁגַר אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ עַד הַאֲבִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 28.58. אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת הַכְּתוּבִים בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא הַזֶּה אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 28.62. וְנִשְׁאַרְתֶּם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֱיִיתֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לָרֹב כִּי־לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 28.64. וֶהֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ עֵץ וָאָבֶן׃ 28.65. וּבַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם לֹא תַרְגִּיעַ וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלֶךָ וְנָתַן יְהוָה לְךָ שָׁם לֵב רַגָּז וְכִלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם וְדַאֲבוֹן נָפֶשׁ׃ 28.66. וְהָיוּ חַיֶּיךָ תְּלֻאִים לְךָ מִנֶּגֶד וּפָחַדְתָּ לַיְלָה וְיוֹמָם וְלֹא תַאֲמִין בְּחַיֶּיךָ׃ 31.17. וְחָרָה אַפִּי בוֹ בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא וַעֲזַבְתִּים וְהִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי מֵהֶם וְהָיָה לֶאֱכֹל וּמְצָאֻהוּ רָעוֹת רַבּוֹת וְצָרוֹת וְאָמַר בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא הֲלֹא עַל כִּי־אֵין אֱלֹהַי בְּקִרְבִּי מְצָאוּנִי הָרָעוֹת הָאֵלֶּה׃ 31.21. וְהָיָה כִּי־תִמְצֶאןָ אֹתוֹ רָעוֹת רַבּוֹת וְצָרוֹת וְעָנְתָה הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לְפָנָיו לְעֵד כִּי לֹא תִשָּׁכַח מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־יִצְרוֹ אֲשֶׁר הוּא עֹשֶׂה הַיּוֹם בְּטֶרֶם אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבָּעְתִּי׃ 25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget." 28.13. And the LORD will make thee the head, and not the tail; and thou shalt be above only, and thou shalt not be beneath; if thou shalt hearken unto the commandments of the LORD thy God, which I command thee this day, to observe and to do them;" 28.15. But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee." 28.25. The LORD will cause thee to be smitten before thine enemies; thou shalt go out one way against them, and shalt flee seven ways before them; and thou shalt be a horror unto all the kingdoms of the earth." 28.26. And thy carcasses shall be food unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be none to frighten them away." 28.29. And thou shalt grope at noonday, as the blind gropeth in darkness, and thou shalt not make thy ways prosperous; and thou shalt be only oppressed and robbed alway, and there shall be none to save thee." 28.31. Thine ox shall be slain before thine eyes, and thou shalt not eat thereof; thine ass shall be violently taken away from before thy face, and shall not be restored to thee; thy sheep shall be given unto thine enemies; and thou shalt have none to save thee." 28.33. The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed away:" 28.38. Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather little in; for the locust shall consume it." 28.39. Thou shalt plant vineyards and dress them, but thou shalt neither drink of the wine, nor gather the grapes; for the worm shall eat them." 28.40. Thou shalt have olive-trees throughout all thy borders, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olives shall drop off." 28.41. Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be thine; for they shall go into captivity." 28.42. All thy trees and the fruit of thy land shall the locust possess." 28.44. He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him; he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail." 28.45. And all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue thee, and overtake thee, till thou be destroyed; because thou didst not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which He commanded thee." 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee." 28.51. And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy ground, until thou be destroyed; that also shall not leave thee corn, wine, or oil, the increase of thy kine, or the young of thy flock, until he have caused thee to perish." 28.58. If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and awful Name, the LORD thy God;" 28.62. And ye shall be left few in number, whereas ye were as the stars of heaven for multitude; because thou didst not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God." 28.64. And the LORD shall scatter thee among all peoples, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou nor thy fathers, even wood and stone." 28.65. And among these nations shalt thou have no repose, and there shall be no rest for the sole of thy foot; but the LORD shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and languishing of soul." 28.66. And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear night and day, and shalt have no assurance of thy life." 31.17. Then My anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and I will hide My face from them, and they shall be devoured, and many evils and troubles shall come upon them; so that they will say in that day: Are not these evils come upon us because our God is not among us?" 31.21. then it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are come upon them, that this song shall testify before them as a witness; for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed; for I know their imagination how they do even now, before I have brought them into the land which I swore.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.14, 12.23, 14.14, 20.13, 33.18-33.20, 33.23, 34.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת־חַיֵּיהֶם בַּעֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים וּבְכָל־עֲבֹדָה בַּשָּׂדֶה אֵת כָּל־עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ בָהֶם בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 12.23. וְעָבַר יְהוָה לִנְגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְרָאָה אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְעַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וּפָסַח יְהוָה עַל־הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית לָבֹא אֶל־בָּתֵּיכֶם לִנְגֹּף׃ 14.14. יְהוָה יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם וְאַתֶּם תַּחֲרִישׁוּן׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 1.14. And they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field; in all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigour." 12.23. For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." 14.14. The LORD will fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.’" 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’" 33.19. And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’" 33.20. And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’" 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’" 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.9, 35.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 35.17. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃ 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 35.17. And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 7.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.13. אוֹי לָהֶם כִּי־נָדְדוּ מִמֶּנִּי שֹׁד לָהֶם כִּי־פָשְׁעוּ בִי וְאָנֹכִי אֶפְדֵּם וְהֵמָּה דִּבְּרוּ עָלַי כְּזָבִים׃ 7.13. Woe unto them! for they have strayed from Me; Destruction unto them! for they have transgressed against Me; Shall I then redeem them, Seeing they have spoken lies against Me?"
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 14.12, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.12. וְאִישׁ שָׁכַב וְלֹא־יָקוּם עַד־בִּלְתִּי שָׁמַיִם לֹא יָקִיצוּ וְלֹא־יֵעֹרוּ מִשְּׁנָתָם׃ 38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 14.12. So man lieth down and riseth not; Till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, Nor be roused out of their sleep." 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
7. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.13. וְקִרְעוּ לְבַבְכֶם וְאַל־בִּגְדֵיכֶם וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כִּי־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם הוּא אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וְנִחָם עַל־הָרָעָה׃ 2.13. And rend your heart, and not your garments, And turn unto the LORD your God; For He is gracious and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy, And repenteth Him of the evil."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר אָנָּה יְהוָה הֲלוֹא־זֶה דְבָרִי עַד־הֱיוֹתִי עַל־אַדְמָתִי עַל־כֵּן קִדַּמְתִּי לִבְרֹחַ תַּרְשִׁישָׁה כִּי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אַתָּה אֵל־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וְנִחָם עַל־הָרָעָה׃ 4.2. And he prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘I pray Thee, O LORD, was not this my saying, when I was yet in mine own country? Therefore I fled beforehand unto Tarshish; for I knew that Thou art a gracious God, and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy, and repentest Thee of the evil."
9. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 2.1, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. הוֹי חֹשְׁבֵי־אָוֶן וּפֹעֲלֵי רָע עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָם בְּאוֹר הַבֹּקֶר יַעֲשׂוּהָ כִּי יֶשׁ־לְאֵל יָדָם׃ 2.1. קוּמוּ וּלְכוּ כִּי לֹא־זֹאת הַמְּנוּחָה בַּעֲבוּר טָמְאָה תְּחַבֵּל וְחֶבֶל נִמְרָץ׃ 2.3. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי חֹשֵׁב עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הַזֹּאת רָעָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תָמִישׁוּ מִשָּׁם צַוְּארֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא תֵלְכוּ רוֹמָה כִּי עֵת רָעָה הִיא׃ 2.1. Woe to them that devise iniquity And work evil upon their beds! When the morning is light, they execute it, Because it is in the power of their hand." 2.3. Therefore thus saith the LORD: Behold, against this family do I devise an evil, From which ye shall not remove your necks, Neither shall ye walk upright; for it shall be an evil time."
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.24, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth."
11. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.28. אַל־תֹּאמַר לרעיך [לְרֵעֲךָ ] לֵךְ וָשׁוּב וּמָחָר אֶתֵּן וְיֵשׁ אִתָּךְ׃ 3.28. Say not unto thy neighbour: ‘Go, and come again, And to-morrow I will give’; when thou hast it by thee."
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 9.6, 31.16, 37.34, 77.25, 78.25, 95.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.6. גָּעַרְתָּ גוֹיִם אִבַּדְתָּ רָשָׁע שְׁמָם מָחִיתָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 31.16. בְּיָדְךָ עִתֹּתָי הַצִּילֵנִי מִיַּד־אוֹיְבַי וּמֵרֹדְפָי׃ 37.34. קַוֵּה אֶל־יְהוָה וּשְׁמֹר דַּרְכּוֹ וִירוֹמִמְךָ לָרֶשֶׁת אָרֶץ בְּהִכָּרֵת רְשָׁעִים תִּרְאֶה׃ 78.25. לֶחֶם אַבִּירִים אָכַל אִישׁ צֵידָה שָׁלַח לָהֶם לָשֹׂבַע׃ 95.11. אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְאַפִּי אִם־יְבֹאוּן אֶל־מְנוּחָתִי׃ 9.6. Thou hast rebuked the nations, Thou hast destroyed the wicked, Thou hast blotted out their name for ever and ever." 31.16. My times are in Thy hand; Deliver me from the hand of mine enemies, and from them that persecute me." 37.34. Wait for the LORD, and keep His way, and He will exalt thee to inherit the land; when the wicked are cut off, thou shalt see it." 78.25. Man did eat the bread of the mighty; He sent them provisions to the full." 95.11. Wherefore I swore in My wrath, That they should not enter into My arest.'"
13. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.14-1.16, 2.15, 3.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. קָרוֹב יוֹם־יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל קָרוֹב וּמַהֵר מְאֹד קוֹל יוֹם יְהוָה מַר צֹרֵחַ שָׁם גִּבּוֹר׃ 1.15. יוֹם עֶבְרָה הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יוֹם צָרָה וּמְצוּקָה יוֹם שֹׁאָה וּמְשׁוֹאָה יוֹם חֹשֶׁךְ וַאֲפֵלָה יוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 1.16. יוֹם שׁוֹפָר וּתְרוּעָה עַל הֶעָרִים הַבְּצֻרוֹת וְעַל הַפִּנּוֹת הַגְּבֹהוֹת׃ 2.15. זֹאת הָעִיר הָעַלִּיזָה הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת לָבֶטַח הָאֹמְרָה בִּלְבָבָהּ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד אֵיךְ הָיְתָה לְשַׁמָּה מַרְבֵּץ לַחַיָּה כֹּל עוֹבֵר עָלֶיהָ יִשְׁרֹק יָנִיעַ יָדוֹ׃ 3.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא תֵבוֹשִׁי מִכֹּל עֲלִילֹתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר פָּשַׁעַתְּ בִּי כִּי־אָז אָסִיר מִקִּרְבֵּךְ עַלִּיזֵי גַּאֲוָתֵךְ וְלֹא־תוֹסִפִי לְגָבְהָה עוֹד בְּהַר קָדְשִׁי׃ 1.14. The great day of the LORD is near, It is near and hasteth greatly, Even the voice of the day of the LORD, Wherein the mighty man crieth bitterly." 1.15. That day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress, A day of wasteness and desolation, A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness," 1.16. A day of the horn and alarm, Against the fortified cities, and against the high towers." 2.15. This is the joyous city That dwelt without care, That said in her heart: ‘I am, and there is none else beside me’; How is she become a desolation, A place for beasts to lie down in! Every one that passeth by her Shall hiss, and wag his hand." 3.11. In that day shalt thou not be ashamed for all thy doings, Wherein thou hast transgressed against Me; For then I will take away out of the midst of thee Thy proudly exulting ones, And thou shalt no more be haughty In My holy mountain."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.9. הִתְחַזְּקוּ וִהְיוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן תַּעַבְדוּ לָעִבְרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ לָכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם לַאֲנָשִׁים וְנִלְחַמְתֶּם׃ 4.9. Strengthen yourselves and act like men, O Pelishtim, lest you fall slaves to the Hebrews, as they have been slaves to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight."
15. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 6.1, 6.4-6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

6.1. הוֹי הַשַּׁאֲנַנִּים בְּצִיּוֹן וְהַבֹּטְחִים בְּהַר שֹׁמְרוֹן נְקֻבֵי רֵאשִׁית הַגּוֹיִם וּבָאוּ לָהֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.1. וּנְשָׂאוֹ דּוֹדוֹ וּמְסָרְפוֹ לְהוֹצִיא עֲצָמִים מִן־הַבַּיִת וְאָמַר לַאֲשֶׁר בְּיַרְכְּתֵי הַבַּיִת הַעוֹד עִמָּךְ וְאָמַר אָפֶס וְאָמַר הָס כִּי לֹא לְהַזְכִּיר בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 6.4. הַשֹּׁכְבִים עַל־מִטּוֹת שֵׁן וּסְרֻחִים עַל־עַרְשׂוֹתָם וְאֹכְלִים כָּרִים מִצֹּאן וַעֲגָלִים מִתּוֹךְ מַרְבֵּק׃ 6.5. הַפֹּרְטִים עַל־פִּי הַנָּבֶל כְּדָוִיד חָשְׁבוּ לָהֶם כְּלֵי־שִׁיר׃ 6.6. הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ וְלֹא נֶחְלוּ עַל־שֵׁבֶר יוֹסֵף 6.7. לָכֵן עַתָּה יִגְלוּ בְּרֹאשׁ גֹּלִים וְסָר מִרְזַח סְרוּחִים׃ 6.1. Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, And to them that are secure in the mountain of Samaria, The notable men of the first of the nations, To whom the house of Israel come!" 6.4. That lie upon beds of ivory, And stretch themselves upon their couches, And eat the lambs out of the flock, And the calves out of the midst of the stall;" 6.5. That thrum on the psaltery, That devise for themselves instruments of music, like David;" 6.6. That drink wine in bowls, And anoint themselves with the chief ointments; But they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph." 6.7. Therefore now shall they go captive at the head of them that go captive, And the revelry of them that stretched themselves shall pass away."
16. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.13, 2.6, 2.9, 2.15, 2.19 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.13. טְהוֹר עֵינַיִם מֵרְאוֹת רָע וְהַבִּיט אֶל־עָמָל לֹא תוּכָל לָמָּה תַבִּיט בּוֹגְדִים תַּחֲרִישׁ בְּבַלַּע רָשָׁע צַדִּיק מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 2.6. הֲלוֹא־אֵלֶּה כֻלָּם עָלָיו מָשָׁל יִשָּׂאוּ וּמְלִיצָה חִידוֹת לוֹ וְיֹאמַר הוֹי הַמַּרְבֶּה לֹּא־לוֹ עַד־מָתַי וּמַכְבִּיד עָלָיו עַבְטִיט׃ 2.9. הוֹי בֹּצֵעַ בֶּצַע רָע לְבֵיתוֹ לָשׂוּם בַּמָּרוֹם קִנּוֹ לְהִנָּצֵל מִכַּף־רָע׃ 2.15. הוֹי מַשְׁקֵה רֵעֵהוּ מְסַפֵּחַ חֲמָתְךָ וְאַף שַׁכֵּר לְמַעַן הַבִּיט עַל־מְעוֹרֵיהֶם׃ 2.19. הוֹי אֹמֵר לָעֵץ הָקִיצָה עוּרִי לְאֶבֶן דּוּמָם הוּא יוֹרֶה הִנֵּה־הוּא תָּפוּשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וְכָל־רוּחַ אֵין בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 1.13. Thou that art of eyes too pure to behold evil, And that canst not look on mischief, Wherefore lookest Thou, when they deal treacherously, And holdest Thy peace, when the wicked swalloweth up The man that is more righteous than he;" 2.6. Shall not all these take up a parable against him, And a taunting riddle against him, And say: ‘Woe to him that increaseth that which is not his! How long? and that ladeth himself with many pledges! ’" 2.9. Woe to him that gaineth evil gains for his house, That he may set his nest on high, That he may be delivered from the power of evil!" 2.15. Woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink, That puttest thy venom thereto, and makest him drunken also, That thou mayest look on their nakedness!" 2.19. Woe unto him that saith to the wood: ‘Awake’, To the dumb stone: ‘Arise! ’ Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, And there is no breath at all in the midst of it."
17. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 3.9, 3.11, 10.1-10.2, 10.4-10.6, 26.14, 26.19-26.21, 28.4, 30.26, 43.19, 45.23, 54.9, 60.1-60.2, 61.3, 65.17, 66.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם עָנְתָה בָּם וְחַטָּאתָם כִּסְדֹם הִגִּידוּ לֹא כִחֵדוּ אוֹי לְנַפְשָׁם כִּי־גָמְלוּ לָהֶם רָעָה׃ 3.11. אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃ 10.1. כַּאֲשֶׁר מָצְאָה יָדִי לְמַמְלְכֹת הָאֱלִיל וּפְסִילֵיהֶם מִירוּשָׁלִַם וּמִשֹּׁמְרוֹן׃ 10.1. הוֹי הַחֹקְקִים חִקְקֵי־אָוֶן וּמְכַתְּבִים עָמָל כִּתֵּבוּ׃ 10.2. לְהַטּוֹת מִדִּין דַּלִּים וְלִגְזֹל מִשְׁפַּט עֲנִיֵּי עַמִּי לִהְיוֹת אַלְמָנוֹת שְׁלָלָם וְאֶת־יְתוֹמִים יָבֹזּוּ׃ 10.2. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא־יוֹסִיף עוֹד שְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפְלֵיטַת בֵּית־יַעֲקֹב לְהִשָּׁעֵן עַל־מַכֵּהוּ וְנִשְׁעַן עַל־יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 10.4. בִּלְתִּי כָרַע תַּחַת אַסִּיר וְתַחַת הֲרוּגִים יִפֹּלוּ בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה׃ 10.5. הוֹי אַשּׁוּר שֵׁבֶט אַפִּי וּמַטֶּה־הוּא בְיָדָם זַעְמִי׃ 10.6. בְּגוֹי חָנֵף אֲשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ וְעַל־עַם עֶבְרָתִי אֲצַוֶּנּוּ לִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל וְלָבֹז בַּז ולשימו [וּלְשׂוּמוֹ] מִרְמָס כְּחֹמֶר חוּצוֹת׃ 26.14. מֵתִים בַּל־יִחְיוּ רְפָאִים בַּל־יָקֻמוּ לָכֵן פָּקַדְתָּ וַתַּשְׁמִידֵם וַתְּאַבֵּד כָּל־זֵכֶר לָמוֹ׃ 26.19. יִחְיוּ מֵתֶיךָ נְבֵלָתִי יְקוּמוּן הָקִיצוּ וְרַנְּנוּ שֹׁכְנֵי עָפָר כִּי טַל אוֹרֹת טַלֶּךָ וָאָרֶץ רְפָאִים תַּפִּיל׃ 26.21. כִּי־הִנֵּה יְהוָה יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ לִפְקֹד עֲוֺן יֹשֵׁב־הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו וְגִלְּתָה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־דָּמֶיהָ וְלֹא־תְכַסֶּה עוֹד עַל־הֲרוּגֶיהָ׃ 28.4. וְהָיְתָה צִיצַת נֹבֵל צְבִי תִפְאַרְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ גֵּיא שְׁמָנִים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ בְּטֶרֶם קַיִץ אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָרֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּעוֹדָהּ בְּכַפּוֹ יִבְלָעֶנָּה׃ 30.26. וְהָיָה אוֹר־הַלְּבָנָה כְּאוֹר הַחַמָּה וְאוֹר הַחַמָּה יִהְיֶה שִׁבְעָתַיִם כְּאוֹר שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים בְּיוֹם חֲבֹשׁ יְהוָה אֶת־שֶׁבֶר עַמּוֹ וּמַחַץ מַכָּתוֹ יִרְפָּא׃ 43.19. הִנְנִי עֹשֶׂה חֲדָשָׁה עַתָּה תִצְמָח הֲלוֹא תֵדָעוּהָ אַף אָשִׂים בַּמִּדְבָּר דֶּרֶךְ בִּישִׁמוֹן נְהָרוֹת׃ 45.23. בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי יָצָא מִפִּי צְדָקָה דָּבָר וְלֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי־לִי תִּכְרַע כָּל־בֶּרֶךְ תִּשָּׁבַע כָּל־לָשׁוֹן׃ 54.9. כִּי־מֵי נֹחַ זֹאת לִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי־נֹחַ עוֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ כֵּן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מִקְּצֹף עָלַיִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּךְ׃ 60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃ 60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 60.2. לֹא־יָבוֹא עוֹד שִׁמְשֵׁךְ וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף כִּי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וְשָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי אֶבְלֵךְ׃ 60.2. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַחֹשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה־אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח יְהוָה וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 65.17. כִּי־הִנְנִי בוֹרֵא שָׁמַיִם חֲדָשִׁים וָאָרֶץ חֲדָשָׁה וְלֹא תִזָּכַרְנָה הָרִאשֹׁנוֹת וְלֹא תַעֲלֶינָה עַל־לֵב׃ 66.22. כִּי כַאֲשֶׁר הַשָּׁמַיִם הַחֳדָשִׁים וְהָאָרֶץ הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה עֹמְדִים לְפָנַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כֵּן יַעֲמֹד זַרְעֲכֶם וְשִׁמְכֶם׃ 3.9. The show of their countece doth witness against them; And they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! For they have wrought evil unto themselves." 3.11. Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him." 10.1. Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, And to the writers that write iniquity;" 10.2. To turn aside the needy from judgment, And to take away the right of the poor of My people, That widows may be their spoil, And that they may make the fatherless their prey!" 10.4. They can do nought except crouch under the captives, And fall under the slain. For all this His anger is not turned away, But His hand is stretched out still." 10.5. O Asshur, the rod of Mine anger, In whose hand as a staff is Mine indignation!" 10.6. I do send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath do I give him a charge, To take the spoil, and to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets." 26.14. The dead live not, the shades rise not; To that end hast Thou punished and destroyed them, And made all their memory to perish." 26.19. Thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall arise— Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust— For Thy dew is as the dew of light, And the earth shall bring to life the shades." 26.20. Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, And shut thy doors about thee; Hide thyself for a little moment, Until the indignation be overpast." 26.21. For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place To visit upon the inhabitants of the earth their iniquity; The earth also shall disclose her blood, And shall no more cover her slain." 28.4. And the fading flower of his glorious beauty, Which is on the head of the fat valley, Shall be as the first-ripe fig before the summer, Which when one looketh upon it, While it is yet in his hand he eateth it up." 30.26. Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, And the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of the seven days, In the day that the LORD bindeth up the bruise of His people, And healeth the stroke of their wound." 43.19. Behold, I will do a new thing; Now shall it spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, And rivers in the desert." 45.23. By Myself have I sworn, The word is gone forth from My mouth in righteousness, And shall not come back, That unto Me every knee shall bow, Every tongue shall swear." 54.9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee." 60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee." 60.2. For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, And gross darkness the peoples; But upon thee the LORD will arise, And His glory shall be seen upon thee." 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory." 65.17. For, behold, I create new heavens And a new earth; And the former things shall not be remembered, Nor come into mind. ." 66.22. For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before Me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain."
18. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.12, 9.23-9.24, 11.5, 22.13, 23.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.12. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה צָפוֹנָה וְאָמַרְתָּ שׁוּבָה מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה לוֹא־אַפִּיל פָּנַי בָּכֶם כִּי־חָסִיד אֲנִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה לֹא אֶטּוֹר לְעוֹלָם׃ 9.23. כִּי אִם־בְּזֹאת יִתְהַלֵּל הַמִּתְהַלֵּל הַשְׂכֵּל וְיָדֹעַ אוֹתִי כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה בָּאָרֶץ כִּי־בְאֵלֶּה חָפַצְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 9.24. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־כָּל־מוּל בְּעָרְלָה׃ 11.5. לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־הַשְּׁבוּעָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאַעַן וָאֹמַר אָמֵן יְהוָה׃ 22.13. הוֹי בֹּנֶה בֵיתוֹ בְּלֹא־צֶדֶק וַעֲלִיּוֹתָיו בְּלֹא מִשְׁפָּט בְּרֵעֵהוּ יַעֲבֹד חִנָּם וּפֹעֲלוֹ לֹא יִתֶּן־לוֹ׃ 23.1. הוֹי רֹעִים מְאַבְּדִים וּמְפִצִים אֶת־צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 23.1. כִּי מְנָאֲפִים מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־מִפְּנֵי אָלָה אָבְלָה הָאָרֶץ יָבְשׁוּ נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר וַתְּהִי מְרוּצָתָם רָעָה וּגְבוּרָתָם לֹא־כֵן׃ 3.12. Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say: Return, thou backsliding Israel, Saith the LORD; I will not frown upon you; For I am merciful, saith the LORD, I will not bear grudge for ever." 9.23. But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth, and knoweth Me, That I am the LORD who exercise mercy, justice, and righteousness, in the earth; for in these things I delight, Saith the LORD." 9.24. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will punish all them that are circumcised in their uncircumcision:" 11.5. that I may establish the oath which I swore unto your fathers, to give them a land flowing with milk and honey, as at this day.’ Then answered I, and said: ‘Amen, O LORD.’" 22.13. Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, And his chambers by injustice; That useth his neighbour’s service without wages, And giveth him not his hire;" 23.1. Woe unto the shepherds that destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture! saith the LORD."
19. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 5.3-5.5, 5.7, 5.9-5.13, 5.16-5.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.3. יְתוֹמִים הָיִינוּ אין [וְאֵין] אָב אִמֹּתֵינוּ כְּאַלְמָנוֹת׃ 5.4. מֵימֵינוּ בְּכֶסֶף שָׁתִינוּ עֵצֵינוּ בִּמְחִיר יָבֹאוּ׃ 5.5. עַל צַוָּארֵנוּ נִרְדָּפְנוּ יָגַעְנוּ לא [וְלֹא] הוּנַח לָנוּ׃ 5.7. אֲבֹתֵינוּ חָטְאוּ אינם [וְאֵינָם] אנחנו [וַאֲנַחְנוּ] עֲוֺנֹתֵיהֶם סָבָלְנוּ׃ 5.9. בְּנַפְשֵׁנוּ נָבִיא לַחְמֵנוּ מִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב הַמִּדְבָּר׃ 5.11. נָשִׁים בְּצִיּוֹן עִנּוּ בְּתֻלֹת בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה׃ 5.12. שָׂרִים בְּיָדָם נִתְלוּ פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים לֹא נֶהְדָּרוּ׃ 5.13. בַּחוּרִים טְחוֹן נָשָׂאוּ וּנְעָרִים בָּעֵץ כָּשָׁלוּ׃ 5.16. נָפְלָה עֲטֶרֶת רֹאשֵׁנוּ אוֹי־נָא לָנוּ כִּי חָטָאנוּ׃ 5.17. עַל־זֶה הָיָה דָוֶה לִבֵּנוּ עַל־אֵלֶּה חָשְׁכוּ עֵינֵינוּ׃ 5.18. עַל הַר־צִיּוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמֵם שׁוּעָלִים הִלְּכוּ־בוֹ׃ 5.19. אַתָּה יְהוָה לְעוֹלָם תֵּשֵׁב כִּסְאֲךָ לְדֹר וָדוֹר׃ 5.21. הֲשִׁיבֵנוּ יְהוָה אֵלֶיךָ ונשוב [וְנָשׁוּבָה] חַדֵּשׁ יָמֵינוּ כְּקֶדֶם׃ 5.22. כִּי אִם־מָאֹס מְאַסְתָּנוּ קָצַפְתָּ עָלֵינוּ עַד־מְאֹד׃ br small[השיבנו יהוה אליך ונשובה חדש ימינו כקדם] /small 5.3. We are become orphans and fatherless, Our mothers are as widows." 5.4. We have drunk our water for money; Our wood cometh to us for price." 5.5. To our very necks we are pursued; We labour, and have no rest." 5.7. Our fathers have sinned, and are not; And we have borne their iniquities." 5.9. We get our bread with the peril of our lives Because of the sword of the wilderness." 5.10. Our skin is hot like an oven Because of the burning heat of famine." 5.11. They have ravished the women in Zion, The maidens in the cities of Judah." 5.12. Princes are hanged up by their hand; The faces of elders are not honoured." 5.13. The young men have borne the mill, And the children have stumbled under the wood." 5.16. The crown is fallen from our head; Woe unto us! for we have sinned." 5.17. For this our heart is faint, For these things our eyes are dim;" 5.18. For the mountain of Zion, which is desolate, The foxes walk upon it." 5.19. Thou, O LORD, art enthroned for ever, Thy throne is from generation to generation." 5.20. Wherefore dost Thou forget us for ever, And forsake us so long time?" 5.21. Turn Thou us unto Thee, O LORD, and we shall be turned; Renew our days as of old." 5.22. Thou canst not have utterly rejected us, And be exceeding wroth against us! br small[Turn us unto Thee, O Lord, and we shall be turned; Renew our days as of old.] /small"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.11, 10.4-10.5, 13.3, 16.23, 24.6, 24.9, 34.29 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.11. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הַכֵּה בְכַפְּךָ וּרְקַע בְּרַגְלְךָ וֶאֱמָר־אָח אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹת רָעוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר יִפֹּלוּ׃ 10.4. וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 10.5. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃ 13.3. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הוֹי עַל־הַנְּבִיאִים הַנְּבָלִים אֲשֶׁר הֹלְכִים אַחַר רוּחָם וּלְבִלְתִּי רָאוּ׃ 16.23. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי כָּל־רָעָתֵךְ אוֹי אוֹי לָךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 24.6. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים סִיר אֲשֶׁר חֶלְאָתָה בָהּ וְחֶלְאָתָהּ לֹא יָצְאָה מִמֶּנָּה לִנְתָחֶיהָ לִנְתָחֶיהָ הוֹצִיאָהּ לֹא־נָפַל עָלֶיהָ גּוֹרָל׃ 24.9. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים גַּם־אֲנִי אַגְדִּיל הַמְּדוּרָה׃ 34.29. וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃ 6.11. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Smite with thy hand, and stamp with thy foot, and say: Alas! because of all the evil abominations of the house of Israel; for they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence." 10.4. And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory." 10.5. And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh." 13.3. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe unto the vile prophets, that follow their own spirit, and things which they have not seen!" 16.23. And it came to pass after all thy wickedness—woe, woe unto thee! saith the Lord GOD—" 24.6. Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city, to the pot whose filth is therein, and whose filth is not gone out of it! bring it out piece by piece; no lot is fallen upon it." 24.9. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city! I also will make the pile great," 34.29. And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more."
21. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.20, 30.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.9. כִּי בְשׁוּבְכֶם עַל־יְהוָה אֲחֵיכֶם וּבְנֵיכֶם לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שׁוֹבֵיהֶם וְלָשׁוּב לָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת כִּי־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְלֹא־יָסִיר פָּנִים מִכֶּם אִם־תָּשׁוּבוּ אֵלָיו׃ 20.20. And they rose early in the morning, and went forth into the wilderness of Tekoa; and as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood and said: ‘Hear me, O Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem; believe in the LORD your God, so shall ye be established; believe His prophets, so shall ye prosper.’" 30.9. For if ye turn back unto the LORD, your brethren and your children shall find compassion before them that led them captive, and shall come back into this land; for the LORD your God is gracious and merciful, and will not turn away His face from you, if ye return unto Him.’"
22. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.22, 5.18, 8.1, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.22. וְרָאִיתִי כִּי אֵין טוֹב מֵאֲשֶׁר יִשְׂמַח הָאָדָם בְּמַעֲשָׂיו כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ כִּי מִי יְבִיאֶנּוּ לִרְאוֹת בְּמֶה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַחֲרָיו׃ 5.18. גַּם כָּל־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים עֹשֶׁר וּנְכָסִים וְהִשְׁלִיטוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ וְלָשֵׂאת אֶת־חֶלְקוֹ וְלִשְׂמֹחַ בַּעֲמָלוֹ זֹה מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃ 8.1. מִי כְּהֶחָכָם וּמִי יוֹדֵעַ פֵּשֶׁר דָּבָר חָכְמַת אָדָם תָּאִיר פָּנָיו וְעֹז פָּנָיו יְשֻׁנֶּא׃ 8.1. וּבְכֵן רָאִיתִי רְשָׁעִים קְבֻרִים וָבָאוּ וּמִמְּקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ יְהַלֵּכוּ וְיִשְׁתַּכְּחוּ בָעִיר אֲשֶׁר כֵּן־עָשׂוּ גַּם־זֶה הָבֶל׃ 9.6. גַּם אַהֲבָתָם גַּם־שִׂנְאָתָם גַּם־קִנְאָתָם כְּבָר אָבָדָה וְחֵלֶק אֵין־לָהֶם עוֹד לְעוֹלָם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 3.22. Wherefore I perceived that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his works; for that is his portion; for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?" 5.18. Every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him power to eat thereof, and to take his portion, and to rejoice in his labour—this is the gift of God." 8.1. Who is as the wise man? and who knoweth the interpretation of a thing? A man’s wisdom maketh his face to shine, And the boldness of his face is changed." 9.6. As well their love, as their hatred and their envy, is long ago perished; neither have they any more a portion for ever in any thing that is done under the sun."
23. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.17. וַיְמָאֲנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ וְלֹא־זָכְרוּ נִפְלְאֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּהֶם וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם וַיִּתְּנוּ־רֹאשׁ לָשׁוּב לְעַבְדֻתָם בְּמִרְיָם וְאַתָּה אֱלוֹהַּ סְלִיחוֹת חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם אֶרֶךְ־אַפַּיִם וְרַב־וחסד [חֶסֶד] וְלֹא עֲזַבְתָּם׃ 9.17. and refused to hearken, neither were mindful of Thy wonders that Thou didst among them; but hardened their neck, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage; but Thou art a God ready to pardon, gracious and full of compassion, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy, and forsookest them not."
24. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 8.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.13. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר הֱיִיתֶם קְלָלָה בַּגּוֹיִם בֵּית יְהוּדָה וּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל כֵּן אוֹשִׁיעַ אֶתְכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם בְּרָכָה אַל־תִּירָאוּ תֶּחֱזַקְנָה יְדֵיכֶם׃ 8.13. And it shall come to pass that, as ye were a curse among the nations, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so will I save you, and ye shall be a blessing; fear not, but let your hands be strong."
25. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

614b. ince there are not many things to which I would more gladly listen. It is not, let me tell you, said I, the tale to Alcinous told that I shall unfold, but the tale of a warrior bold, Er, the son of Armenius, by race a Pamphylian. He once upon a time was slain in battle, and when the corpses were taken up on the tenth day already decayed, was found intact, and having been brought home, at the moment of his funeral, on the twelfth day as he lay upon the pyre, revived, and after coming to life related what, he said, he had seen in the world beyond. He said that when his soul went forth from his body he journeyed with a great company
26. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

41d. For the rest, do ye weave together the mortal with the immortal, and thereby fashion and generate living creatures, and give them food that they may grow, and when they waste away receive them to yourselves again.
27. Sophocles, Antigone, 361 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.6, 4.19, 5.10, 11.11, 12.7, 12.12, 12.15, 13.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 5.10. Then Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me. 11.11. and took hold of his father, and he sprinkled the gall upon his fathers eyes, saying, "Be of good cheer, father. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous.
29. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1, 1.3, 1.7, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.4, 5.5, 5.7, 5.8, 6, 7, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 8, 8.4, 8.4-9.3, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 10, 10.20, 10.21, 11, 11.1, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 13, 14, 15, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 16, 17, 18, 18.8, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 19, 20, 21, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.10, 22, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.10, 22.11, 22.12, 22.13, 22.14, 23, 24, 25, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.7, 26, 27, 27.4, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 38.2, 38.3, 38.4, 39, 39.5, 39.7, 40, 41, 41.5, 42, 42.1, 42.2, 42.3, 43, 43.2, 44, 45, 45.6, 46, 46.5, 46.6, 46.8, 47, 48, 48.1, 48.7, 48.8, 48.10, 49, 50, 51, 51.5, 52, 53, 54, 54.5, 55, 56, 57, 58, 58.2, 59, 60, 61, 61.4, 62, 62.9, 62.10, 63, 63.5, 63.7, 63.11, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 70.3, 71, 72, 72.1, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 81.1, 81.2, 81.6, 82, 82.2, 82.4, 83, 83.2, 83.3, 84, 85, 86, 86.1, 87, 87.3, 88, 89, 89.51, 89.54, 89.55, 89.56, 89.66, 89.67, 89.74, 90, 90.6, 90.7, 90.19, 90.21, 91, 91.1, 91.2, 91.3, 91.4, 91.5, 91.6, 91.7, 91.8, 91.9, 91.10, 91.11, 91.12, 91.13, 91.14, 91.15, 91.16, 91.17, 91.18, 92.1, 92.2, 92.3, 92.4, 92.5, 93.1, 93.2, 93.8, 93.10, 94.1, 94.3, 94.5, 94.6, 94.7, 94.9, 95.3, 95.4, 95.5, 95.6, 95.7, 96.1, 96.2, 96.3, 96.4, 96.5, 96.7, 97.1, 97.3, 97.4, 97.5, 97.6, 97.7, 97.8, 97.9, 97.10, 98.2, 98.3, 98.4, 98.5, 98.6, 98.7, 98.8, 98.9-99.2, 98.10, 98.11, 98.12, 98.14, 98.15, 98.16, 99.1, 99.2, 99.3, 99.4, 99.5, 99.6, 99.7, 99.8, 99.9, 99.10, 99.11, 99.12, 99.13, 99.14, 99.15, 99.16, 100.1, 100.2, 100.3, 100.4, 100.5, 100.6, 100.7, 100.7-102.3, 100.8, 100.9, 100.10, 100.11, 100.12, 100.13, 101.1, 101.2, 101.3, 101.4, 101.5, 101.6, 101.7, 101.8, 101.9, 102.3, 102.4, 102.4-103.4, 102.4-104.8, 102.5, 102.6, 102.7, 102.8, 102.9, 102.10, 102.11, 103.1, 103.2, 103.3, 103.4, 103.5, 103.6, 103.7, 103.8, 103.9, 103.9-104.6, 103.10, 103.11, 103.12, 103.13, 103.14, 103.15, 104, 104.1, 104.3, 104.4, 104.5, 104.6, 104.7, 104.8, 104.9, 104.9-105.2, 104.10, 104.11, 104.12, 104.13, 105.1, 105.2, 106.7, 106.18, 108, 108.1, 108.2, 108.3, 108.4, 108.5, 108.6, 108.7, 108.8, 108.9, 108.11, 108.12, 108.13, 108.14, 108.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
30. Anon., Jubilees, 1.29, 4.21, 23.30-23.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 4.21. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom 23.30. and they will all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. 23.31. And they will strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince
31. Anon., Testament of Job, 33.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Anon., Testament of Judah, 24.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Cicero, Republic, 6.13-6.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.13. Sed quo sis, Africane, alacrior ad tutandam rem publicam, sic habeto: omnibus, qui patriam conservaverint, adiuverint, auxerint, certum esse in caelo definitum locum, ubi beati aevo sempiterno fruantur; nihil est enim illi principi deo, qui omnem mundum regit, quod quidem in terris fiat, acceptius quam concilia coetusque hominum iure sociati, quae civitates appellantur; harum rectores et conservatores hinc profecti huc revertuntur. 6.14. Hic ego, etsi eram perterritus non tam mortis metu quam insidiarum a meis, quaesivi tamen, viveretne ipse et Paulus pater et alii, quos nos extinctos arbitraremur. Immo vero, inquit, hi vivunt, qui e corporum vinculis tamquam e carcere evolaverunt, vestra vero, quae dicitur, vita mors est. Quin tu aspicis ad te venientem Paulum patrem? Quem ut vidi, equidem vim lacrimarum profudi, ille autem me complexus atque osculans flere prohibebat. 6.15. Atque ego ut primum fletu represso loqui posse coepi, Quaeso, inquam, pater sanctissime atque optime, quoniam haec est vita, ut Africanum audio dicere, quid moror in terris? quin huc ad vos venire propero? Non est ita, inquit ille. Nisi enim deus is, cuius hoc templum est omne, quod conspicis, istis te corporis custodiis liberaverit, huc tibi aditus patere non potest. Homines enim sunt hac lege generati, qui tuerentur illum globum, quem in hoc templo medium vides, quae terra dicitur, iisque animus datus est ex illis sempiternis ignibus, quae sidera et stellas vocatis, quae globosae et rotundae, divinis animatae mentibus, circulos suos orbesque conficiunt celeritate mirabili. Quare et tibi, Publi, et piis omnibus retinendus animus est in custodia corporis nec iniussu eius, a quo ille est vobis datus, ex hominum vita migrandum est, ne munus humanum adsignatum a deo defugisse videamini. 6.16. Sed sic, Scipio, ut avus hic tuus, ut ego, qui te genui, iustitiam cole et pietatem, quae cum magna in parentibus et propinquis, tum in patria maxima est; ea vita via est in caelum et in hunc coetum eorum, qui iam vixerunt et corpore laxati illum incolunt locum, quem vides, (erat autem is splendidissimo candore inter flammas circus elucens) quem vos, ut a Graiis accepistis, orbem lacteum nuncupatis; ex quo omnia mihi contemplanti praeclara cetera et mirabilia videbantur. Erant autem eae stellae, quas numquam ex hoc loco vidimus, et eae magnitudines omnium, quas esse numquam suspicati sumus, ex quibus erat ea minima, quae ultima a caelo, citima a terris luce lucebat aliena. Stellarum autem globi terrae magnitudinem facile vincebant. Iam ipsa terra ita mihi parva visa est, ut me imperii nostri, quo quasi punctum eius attingimus, paeniteret.
34. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 12.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.21, 11.20-11.25, 19.10-19.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.21, 11.20-11.25, 19.10-19.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.15, 7.18, 7.21-7.22, 7.25, 7.27, 8.1, 8.7, 8.10, 8.13, 8.24, 9.17, 12.1-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.15. אֶתְכְּרִיַּת רוּחִי אֲנָה דָנִיֵּאל בְּגוֹא נִדְנֶה וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשִׁי יְבַהֲלֻנַּנִי׃ 7.18. וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃ 7.21. חָזֵה הֲוֵית וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן עָבְדָה קְרָב עִם־קַדִּישִׁין וְיָכְלָה לְהוֹן׃ 7.22. עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 7.27. וּמַלְכוּתָה וְשָׁלְטָנָא וּרְבוּתָא דִּי מַלְכְוָת תְּחוֹת כָּל־שְׁמַיָּא יְהִיבַת לְעַם קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְכֹל שָׁלְטָנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן וְיִשְׁתַּמְּעוּן׃ 8.1. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמַלְכוּת בֵּלְאשַׁצַּר הַמֶּלֶךְ חָזוֹן נִרְאָה אֵלַי אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל אַחֲרֵי הַנִּרְאָה אֵלַי בַּתְּחִלָּה׃ 8.1. וַתִּגְדַּל עַד־צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וַתַּפֵּל אַרְצָה מִן־הַצָּבָא וּמִן־הַכּוֹכָבִים וַתִּרְמְסֵם׃ 8.7. וּרְאִיתִיו מַגִּיעַ אֵצֶל הָאַיִל וַיִּתְמַרְמַר אֵלָיו וַיַּךְ אֶת־הָאַיִל וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֶת־שְׁתֵּי קְרָנָיו וְלֹא־הָיָה כֹחַ בָּאַיִל לַעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיַּשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אַרְצָה וַיִּרְמְסֵהוּ וְלֹא־הָיָה מַצִּיל לָאַיִל מִיָּדוֹ׃ 8.13. וָאֶשְׁמְעָה אֶחָד־קָדוֹשׁ מְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶחָד קָדוֹשׁ לַפַּלְמוֹנִי הַמְדַבֵּר עַד־מָתַי הֶחָזוֹן הַתָּמִיד וְהַפֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס׃ 8.24. וְעָצַם כֹּחוֹ וְלֹא בְכֹחוֹ וְנִפְלָאוֹת יַשְׁחִית וְהִצְלִיחַ וְעָשָׂה וְהִשְׁחִית עֲצוּמִים וְעַם־קְדֹשִׁים׃ 9.17. וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תַּחֲנוּנָיו וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ עַל־מִקְדָּשְׁךָ הַשָּׁמֵם לְמַעַן אֲדֹנָי׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 7.15. As for me Daniel, my spirit was pained in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head affrighted me. . 7.18. But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’" 7.21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;" 7.22. until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High; and the time came, and the saints possessed the kingdom." 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time." 7.27. And the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’" 8.1. In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first." 8.7. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and broke his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him; but he cast him down to the ground, and trampled upon him; and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand." 8.10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled upon them." 8.13. Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke: ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the continual burnt-offering, and the transgression that causes appalment, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled under foot?’" 8.24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper and do; and he shall destroy them that are mighty and the people of the saints." 9.17. Now therefore, O our God, hearken unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplications, and cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever."
39. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 2.9, 2.11, 5.3-5.4, 11.23-11.24, 16.10-16.11, 16.17, 44.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. you who fear the Lord, hope for good things,for everlasting joy and mercy. 2.11. For the Lord is compassionate and merciful;he forgives sins and saves in time of affliction. 5.3. Do not say, "Who will have power over me?" for the Lord will surely punish you. 5.3. You will devour your leaves and destroy your fruit,and will be left like a withered tree. 5.3. Her yoke is a golden ornament,and her bonds are a cord of blue. 5.4. Do not say, "I sinned, and what happened to me?" for the Lord is slow to anger. 5.4. An evil soul will destroy him who has it,and make him the laughingstock of his enemies. 16.11. Even if there is only one stiff-necked person,it will be a wonder if he remains unpunished. For mercy and wrath are with the Lord;he is mighty to forgive, and he pours out wrath. 16.17. Do not say, "I shall be hidden from the Lord,and who from on high will remember me?Among so many people I shall not be known,for what is my soul in the boundless creation? 44.9. And there are some who have no memorial,who have perished as though they had not lived;they have become as though they had not been born,and so have their children after them.
40. Septuagint, Judith, 11.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

11.1. Then Holofernes said to her, "Take courage, woman, and do not be afraid in your heart, for I have never hurt any one who chose to serve Nebuchadnezzar, the king of all the earth.
41. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.2, 2.6-2.11, 3.1, 3.7-3.8, 4.7, 5.3-5.5, 5.16, 11.23, 16.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.2. Because we were born by mere chance,and hereafter we shall be as though we had never been;because the breath in our nostrils is smoke,and reason is a spark kindled by the beating of our hearts. 2.6. Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist,and make use of the creation to the full as in youth. 2.7. Let us take our fill of costly wine and perfumes,and let no flower of spring pass by us. 2.8. Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before they wither. 2.9. Let none of us fail to share in our revelry,everywhere let us leave signs of enjoyment,because this is our portion, and this our lot. 2.10. Let us oppress the righteous poor man;let us not spare the widow nor regard the gray hairs of the aged. 2.11. But let our might be our law of right,for what is weak proves itself to be useless. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.7. In the time of their visitation they will shine forth,and will run like sparks through the stubble. 3.8. They will govern nations and rule over peoples,and the Lord will reign over them for ever. 4.7. But the righteous man, though he die early, will be at rest. 5.3. They will speak to one another in repentance,and in anguish of spirit they will groan, and say 5.4. This is the man whom we once held in derision and made a byword of reproach -- we fools!We thought that his life was madness and that his end was without honor. 5.5. Why has he been numbered among the sons of God?And why is his lot among the saints? 5.16. Therefore they will receive a glorious crown and a beautiful diadem from the hand of the Lord,because with his right hand he will cover them,and with his arm he will shield them. 11.23. But thou art merciful to all, for thou canst do all things,and thou dost overlook mens sins, that they may repent. 16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste.
42. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 17.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.5. The moon in heaven, with the stars, does not stand so august as you, who, after lighting the way of your star-like seven sons to piety, stand in honor before God and are firmly set in heaven with them.
43. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 7.149 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

7.149. Flash lightning after Macedonian spears;
44. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.749, 15.875-15.876 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 149 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

149. And I also admire the things which are spoken under divine inspiration in the books of Kings, according to which those who flourished many generations afterwards and lived in a blameless manner, are spoken of as the sons of David who wrote hymns to God; though, during his lifetime, even their great grandfathers had not yet been born. The truth is, that the birth here spoken of is that of souls made immortal by their virtues, not of perishable bodies, and this birth is naturally referred to the leaders of virtue, as its parents and progenitors. XXIX.
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 154 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV.
47. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.8, 51.5-51.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

49. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.14, 18.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach.
50. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.650, 2.154, 2.162-2.166, 3.372-3.375, 6.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews. 3.372. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, if anyone destroys or abuses a depositum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if anyone cast out of his body this Divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it. 3.373. Moreover, our law justly ordains that slaves which run away from their masters shall be punished, though the masters they run away from may have been wicked masters to them. And shall we endeavor to run away from God, who is the best of all masters, and not think ourselves highly guilty of impiety? 3.374. Do not you know that those who depart out of this life, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame? that their houses and their posterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revolution of ages, they are again sent into pure bodies; 3.375. while the souls of those whose hands have acted madly against themselves are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their Father, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity? 6.47. For what man of virtue is there who does not know, that those souls which are severed from their fleshly bodies in battles by the sword are received by the ether, that purest of elements, and joined to that company which are placed among the stars; that they become good demons, and propitious heroes, and show themselves as such to their posterity afterwards?
51. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before.
52. Mishnah, Avot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. Ben Zoma said:Who is wise? He who learns from every man, as it is said: “From all who taught me have I gained understanding” (Psalms 119:99). Who is mighty? He who subdues his [evil] inclination, as it is said: “He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city” (Proverbs 16:3). Who is rich? He who rejoices in his lot, as it is said: “You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors, you shall be happy and you shall prosper” (Psalms 128:2) “You shall be happy” in this world, “and you shall prosper” in the world to come. Who is he that is honored? He who honors his fellow human beings as it is said: “For I honor those that honor Me, but those who spurn Me shall be dishonored” (I Samuel 2:30)."
53. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.13, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Therefore, prepare your minds for action, be sober and set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ -- 2.2. as newborn babes, long for the pure milk of the Word, that you may grow thereby
54. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.9, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But as it is written,"Things which an eye didn't see, and an ear didn't hear,Which didn't enter into the heart of man,These God has prepared for those who love him. 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men?
55. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 5.6, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.6. so then let's not sleep, as the rest do, but let's watch and be sober. 5.10. who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.
56. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

57. New Testament, Acts, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
58. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.17, 3.21, 5.10, 7.1-7.4, 9.2, 9.4, 12.11, 14.1, 22.4-22.5, 22.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth. 7.1. After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, or on the sea, or on any tree. 7.2. I saw another angel ascend from the sunrise, having the seal of the living God. He cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to harm the earth and the sea 7.3. saying, "Don't harm the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, until we have sealed the bondservants of our God on their foreheads! 7.4. I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: 9.2. He opened the pit of the abyss, and smoke went up out of the pit, like the smoke from a burning furnace. The sun and the air were darkened because of the smoke from the pit. 9.4. They were told that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree, but only those men who don't have God's seal on their foreheads. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 14.1. I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him a number, one hundred forty-four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever. 22.16. I, Jesus, have sent my angel to testify these things to you for the assemblies. I am the root and the offspring of David; the Bright and Morning Star.
59. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God.
60. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.
61. New Testament, Galatians, 3.28, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 6.3. For if a man thinkshimself to be something when he is nothing, he deceives himself.
62. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.7, 5.12-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. of the angels he says, "Who makes his angels winds, And his servants a flame of fire. 5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food. 5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil.
63. New Testament, Philippians, 2.15, 3.19-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. that you may become blameless and harmless, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you are seen as lights in the world 3.19. whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
64. New Testament, Romans, 8.18-8.22, 10.6, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 16.23. Gaius, my host and host of the whole assembly, greets you. Erastus, the treasurer of the city, greets you, as does Quartus, the brother.
65. New Testament, John, 20.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.27. Then he said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see my hands. Reach here your hand, and put it into my side. Don't be unbelieving, but believing.
66. New Testament, Luke, 10.20, 14.11, 15.10, 18.14, 24.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. 14.11. For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. 15.10. Even so, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner repenting. 18.14. I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.
67. New Testament, Mark, 12.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.
68. New Testament, Matthew, 5.16, 12.36, 13.24-13.43, 13.50, 22.30, 25.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.16. Even so, let your light shine before men; that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. 12.36. I tell you that every idle word that men speak, they will give account of it in the day of judgment. 13.24. He set another parable before them, saying, "The Kingdom of Heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field 13.25. but while people slept, his enemy came and sowed darnel also among the wheat, and went away. 13.26. But when the blade sprang up and brought forth fruit, then the darnel appeared also. 13.27. The servants of the householder came and said to him, 'Sir, didn't you sow good seed in your field? Where did this darnel come from?' 13.28. He said to them, 'An enemy has done this.' "The servants asked him, 'Do you want us to go and gather them up?' 13.29. But he said, 'No, lest perhaps while you gather up the darnel, you root up the wheat with them. 13.30. Let both grow together until the harvest, and in the harvest time I will tell the reapers, "First, gather up the darnel, and bind them in bundles to burn them; but gather the wheat into my barn."' 13.31. He set another parable before them, saying, "The Kingdom of Heaven is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field; 13.32. which indeed is smaller than all seeds. But when it is grown, it is greater than the herbs, and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in its branches. 13.33. He spoke another parable to them. "The Kingdom of Heaven is like yeast, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, until it was all leavened. 13.34. Jesus spoke all these things in parables to the multitudes; and without a parable, he didn't speak to them 13.35. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, "I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. 13.36. Then Jesus sent the multitudes away, and went into the house. His disciples came to him, saying, "Explain to us the parable of the darnel of the field. 13.37. He answered them, "He who sows the good seed is the Son of Man 13.38. the field is the world; and the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the darnel are the sons of the evil one. 13.39. The enemy who sowed them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels. 13.40. As therefore the darnel is gathered up and burned with fire; so will it be at the end of this age. 13.41. The Son of Man will send out his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and those who do iniquity 13.42. and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 13.43. Then the righteous will shine forth like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears to hear, let him hear. 13.50. and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world;
69. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 19.3, 19.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

70. Seneca The Younger, De Consolatione Ad Marciam, 25.3, 26.6-26.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

71. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3. Therefore when the Saviour came, he awakened the soul and kindled the spark. For the words of the Lord are power. Therefore he said, 'Let your light shine before men.' And after the Resurrection, by breathing the Spirit on the apostles, he was blowing off and re moving dust like ashes, but kindling and giving life to the spark.
72. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.24.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

73. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
74. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

75b. לחם ששאלו כהוגן ניתן להם כהוגן מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בלילה והאמר אביי האי מאן דאית ליה סעודתא לא לאכלי' אלא ביממא כעין יממא קא אמרינן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב בתחלה היו ישראל דומין כתרנגולים שמנקרין באשפה עד שבא משה וקבע להם זמן סעודה,(במדבר יא, לג) הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם וכתיב (במדבר יא, כ) עד חדש ימים הא כיצד בינונים לאלתר מתו רשעים מצטערין והולכין עד חדש ימים,וישטחו אמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי וישטחו אלא וישחטו מלמד שנתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שחיטה שטוח תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה אל תיקרי שטוח אלא שחוט מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן דבר שטעון שחיטה אמר רבי וכי מכאן אתה למד והלא כבר נאמר (תהלים עח, כז) וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול (הים) עוף כנף,ותניא רבי אומר (דברים יב, כא) וזבחת כאשר צויתיך מלמד שנצטוה משה על הושט ועל הקנה על רוב אחד בעוף ועל רוב שנים בבהמה אלא מה תלמוד לומר שטוח מלמד שירד להם משטיחין משטיחין,כתיב לחם וכתיב שמן וכתיב (שמות טז, לא) דבש אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא לנערים לחם לזקנים שמן לתינוקות דבש,כתיב שליו וקרינן סליו אמר רבי חנינא צדיקים אוכלין אותו בשלוה רשעים אוכלין אותו ודומה להן כסילוין,א"ר חנן בר רבא ד' מיני סליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיבלי ופסיוני ושליו מעליא דכולהו שיכלי גריעא דכולהו שליו והוי כציפורתא ומותבינן לה בתנורא ותפח והוה מלי תנורא ומסקינן ליה אתליסר ריפי ואחרונה אינה נאכלת אלא ע"י תערובת,רב יהודה משתכח ליה בי דני רב חסדא משתכח ליה בי ציבי רבא מייתי ליה אריסיה כל יומא יומא חד לא אייתי אמר מאי האי סליק לאיגרא שמעיה לינוקא דקאמר (חבקוק ג, טז) שמעתי ותרגז בטני אמר שמע מניה נח נפשיה דרב חסדא ובדיל רבה אכיל תלמידא,כתיב (שמות טז, יד) ותעל שכבת הטל וכתיב (במדבר יא, ט) וברדת הטל אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא טל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה ודומה כמו שמונח בקופסא,דק מחוספס אמר ר"ל דבר שנימוח על פיסת היד רבי יוחנן אמר דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים מחוספס טובא הוי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מחספס כתיב,תנו רבנן (תהלים עח, כה) לחם אבירים אכל איש לחם שמלאכי השרת אוכלין אותו דברי ר"ע וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם צאו ואמרו לו לעקיבא עקיבא טעית וכי מלאכי השרת אוכלין לחם והלא כבר נאמר (דברים ט, ט) לחם לא אכלתי ומים לא שתיתי אלא מה אני מקיים אבירים לחם שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים,אלא מה אני מקיים (דברים כג, יד) ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך (ויצאת שמה חוץ) דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין אותן להם,ר"א בן פרטא אומר אף דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין להן מן מפיגן אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך לאחר שסרחו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי יהיו כמלאכי השרת עכשיו אני מטריח אותם שלש פרסאות,דכתיב (במדבר לג, מט) ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות עד אבל השטים ואמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא תלתא פרסי ותנא כשנפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהן ולא לצדדיהן אלא לאחוריהן,(במדבר יא, ו) ועתה נפשנו יבשה אין כל אמרו עתיד מן זה שתיפח במעיהם כלום יש ילוד אשה שמכניס ואינו מוציא,וכשנאמרו דברים לפני ר' ישמעאל אמר להם אל תקרי אבירים אלא איברים דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה איברים אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך בדברים שבאין להם ממדינת הים,דבר אחר לחם אבירים אכל איש 75b. However, bbread,which is essential, bthey asked for appropriately.Therefore, it bwas given to them appropriately,in the morning, when there was time to prepare it. The Gemara comments: bFrom here, the Torah teaches etiquette, thatit is proper bto eat meat only at night,as Moses said to the children of Israel: “This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat” (Exodus 16:8). The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Abaye saythat bsomeone who has a meal should eat it only in the day?The Gemara answers: bWe mean to say: Like day.It is not necessary to eat the food in the daytime, as long as one can see what he eats. bRabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: At the beginning, the Jewish people were like chickens pecking at the garbage;any time there was food they grabbed it and ate it, buntil Moses came and set specific times to eat,as the verse implies. He set mealtimes for them in the morning and in the evening.,It was stated with regard to the quail: b“While the meat was yet between their teeth,before it was chewed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people” (Numbers 11:33), which means that they died immediately. However, it also states: “You shall not eat it for only one day…but for ban entire monthuntil it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you” (Numbers 11:19–20). bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bThe average people died immediately,but bthe wicked continued to sufferin pain bfor a monthand then died.,The verse states: b“And they spread them [ ivayishteḥu /i]out for themselves round about the camp” (Numbers 11:32). bReish Lakish said: Do not read itas ivayishteḥu /i. Rather,read it as ivayishḥatu /i.This bteaches thatthe benemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwere liable toreceive the punishment of bslaughterdue to their demand. The verse states: b“Spread out [ ishato’aḥ /i]”(Numbers 11:32). A itanna btaught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Do not read itas ishato’aḥbutas ishaḥot /i.This bteaches thatother food bfell for the Jewish peoplealong bwith the manna.The food was something bthat requires ritual slaughtering [ isheḥita /i],referring to birds. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: And do you learnthis bfrom here?Do we need to alter the word for this purpose? bIsn’t it already statedexplicitly: b“And he rained meat upon them like dust, and winged birds like the sand of the seas”(Psalms 78:27)?, bAnd it was taughtin a related ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The verse states: b“Then you shall slaughterof your herd and of your flock which the Lord has given you, bas I have commanded you”(Deuteronomy 12:21). bThis teaches that Moses was commanded inthe laws of ritual slaughter to cut the bgullet and the windpipein the neck. bAnd with a birdone must cut through bthe majorityof bonepipe, band with an animalone must cut through bthe majority ofboth pipes. Moses was commanded these laws along with the other details of slaughtering. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the word ishatoaḥdoes not teach us about ritual slaughter. bRather, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states: iShatoaḥ /i?It bteaches thatthe manna bfell in layers [ imashtiḥin /i]in a straight row.,With regard to the manna, bit is written “bread”(Exodus 16:4), band it is written “oil”(Numbers 11:8), band it is written “honey”(Exodus 16:31). How can we reconcile these verses? bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: For the youthit was like bbread, for the elderlyit was like boil,and bfor the childrenit was like bhoney.Each received what was appropriate.,The Gemara comments further: The word quail bis written ishlav /i,with the letter ishin /i, bbut we readit as islav /i,with the letter isamekh /i. What does this teach us? bRabbi Ḥanina said: The righteous eat it in peace [ ishalva /i],based on the written form of the word; whereas bthe wicked eat it, and it seems to them like thorns [ isilvin /i],based on the way the word is read.,Furthermore, with regard to the quail: bRav Ḥa bar Rava said: There are four types of quail and these are they: iSikhli /i, and ikivli /i, and ipasyoni /i, and islav /i. The besttasting bof allis the isikhli /i. The worst of allis the islav /i.The Gemara relates how tasty even the quail was that the Jews ate in the desert: bIt wasas small bas a sparrow, and they would place it in the ovento roast, band it expanded until it filled theentire boven. They would place it upon thirteen loavesof bread, and even the blastloaf on the bottom bcould be eaten onlywhen bmixed with other food,due to all the fat it had absorbed from the quail.,It is told that bRav Yehuda foundquail bamong his barrels of wine,and bRav Ḥisda foundquail bamong logs of woodin his storeroom. bEvery day Rava’s sharecropper brought hima quail that he found in his fields. bOne day, he did not bringhim one because he failed to find any. Rava bsaidto himself: bWhat is this,why is today different? bHe went up to the roofto think about it. bHe heard a child saythe verse: b“When I heard, my innards trembled,my lips quivered at the voice, rottenness enters into my bones, and I tremble where I stand; that I should wait for the day of trouble when he comes up against the people that he invades” (Habakkuk 3:16). Rava bsaid: Learn from this that Rav Ḥisda has died.I am therefore not worthy to receive the quail anymore, since it is on baccount of the teacherthat bthe student eats.When Rav Ḥisda was alive, Rava received the quail due to Rav Ḥisda’s merit; now that he had died, Rava was not worthy to receive the quail.,§ Furthermore, with regard to the manna bit is written: “And when the layer of dew lifted,behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a fine flaky substance, as fine as frost on the ground” (Exodus 16:14), indicating that the dew covered the manna. bAnd it is written:“ bAnd when the dew fellupon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9), meaning that the manna fell on top of the dew. How can these verses be reconciled? bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:There was bdew above and dew below,with the manna in between, bandthe manna bappeared as ifit were bplaced in a box [ ikufsa /i]of dew.,The verse describes the manna as b“a fine flaky [ imeḥuspas /i]substance” (Exodus 16:14). bReish Lakish said: iMeḥuspasmeans it was ba substance that dissolved [imaḥb] on the palm [ipasb] of the hand.Since it was so fine, it dissolved upon contact. bRabbi Yoḥa said: It was a substance that was absorbed inall b248 limbs,the numerical equivalent of the word imeḥuspas /i. The Gemara expresses surprise at this: If one calculates the value of the letters in the word imeḥuspas /i,it bis more,totaling 254. bRabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: iMeḥuspasis writtenin the Torah without the letter ivav /i. Therefore, the total is exactly 248., bThe Sages taught:The Torah states: “And He caused manna to rain upon them for food, and He gave them of the grain of heaven. bMan did eat the bread of the mighty [ iabirim /i]”(Psalms 78:24–25). “Bread of the mighty” is bbread that the ministering angels eat;this is the bstatement of Rabbi Akiva. When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to themto bgo and tell Akiva: Akiva you have erred. Do the ministering angels eat bread? It is already statedabout Moses, when he ascended on high: b“Bread I did not eat and water I did not drink”(Deuteronomy 9:9). If even a man who ascends on high does not need to eat, certainly the ministering angels do not need to eat. bRather, how do I establishthe meaning of the word iabirim /i?It can be explained as bbread that was absorbed intoall b248 limbs [ ieivarim /i],so that there was no waste.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, bhow do I establishthe verses: b“And you shall have a spade among your weapons,and it shall be that when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement” (Deuteronomy 23:14) and “You shall have a place also outside the camp bwhere you can relieve yourself” (Deuteronomy 23:13). From here we learn that there was waste in their bowels, as they had to leave the camp to relieve themselves. The Gemara explains: This waste was not a byproduct of the manna; it was from food bitems that the gentile merchants sold them. /b, bRabbi Elazar ben Peratadisagrees and bsays: The manna caused even items that the gentile merchants sold them to becompletely bdigested,so that even other food that they ate produced no waste. bButthen bhow do I establishthe verse: b“And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? After they sinned,the manna was not as effective. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Iinitially bsaidthat bthey would be like ministering angelswho do not produce waste; bnow I will trouble them to walk three parasangsto leave the camp in order to relieve themselves.,How do we know that the Israelite camp was three parasangs? bAs it is written: “And they camped by the Jordan from Beth-Jeshimoth to Abel-shittim”(Numbers 33:49), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw that site and it was three parasangsin length. bAnda ibaraita btaught: Whenthe Jews brelieved themselvesin the desert, bthey did not relievethemselves bahead of themselves,i.e., in the direction of their travel, bnor to the sideof the camp, bbut behindthe camp, in a place that they had already traveled. Consequently, those near the front of the camp had to walk a distance of three parasangs from their homes to leave the camp.,Furthermore, with regard to the manna, the verse states Israel’s complaint: b“But now our soul is dry, there is nothing at all;we have nothing beside this manna to look to” (Numbers 11:6). bThey said: This manna will eventually swell in our stomachsand kill us; bis thereanyone bborn of a woman who ingestsfood bbut does not expelwaste? This supports the Gemara’s claim that the manna did not create waste., bWhen these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them: Do not readit as iabirim /i. Rather,read it as ieivarim /i,limbs. The manna was bsomething that was absorbed by 248 limbs. But, how do I establish “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? From thefood bitems that came to them from overseas lands.Rabbi Yishmael disagrees with Rabbi Elazar ben Perata with regard to the effect the manna had on the digestion of other foods., bAlternatively, “Man [ iish /i] did eat the bread of the mighty”(Psalms 78:25);
75. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 114 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

76. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 118 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

77. Porphyry, On The Cave of The Nymphs, 28 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

78. Macrobius, Commentary On The Dream of Scipio, 1.12.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

79. Anon., 4 Ezra, 5.29, 7.97, 7.125, 8.31-8.32, 8.36, 10.20-10.24

5.29. And those who opposed thy promises have trodden down those who believed thy covets. 7.97. The sixth order, when it is shown to them how their face is to shine like the sun, and how they are to be made like the light of the stars, being incorruptible from then on. 8.31. For we and our fathers have passed our lives in ways that bring death, but thou, because of us sinners, are called merciful. 8.32. For if thou hast desired to have pity on us, who have no works of righteousness, then thou wilt be called merciful. 8.36. For in this, O Lord, thy righteousness and goodness will be declared, when thou art merciful to those who have no store of good works. 10.20. Do not say that, but let yourself be persuaded because of the troubles of Zion, and be consoled because of the sorrow of Jerusalem. 10.21. For you see that our sanctuary has been laid waste, our altar thrown down, our temple destroyed; 10.22. our harp has been laid low, our song has been silenced, and our rejoicing has been ended; the light of our lampstand has been put out, the ark of our covet has been plundered, our holy things have been polluted, and the name by which we are called has been profaned; our free men have suffered abuse, our priests have been burned to death, our Levites have gone into captivity, our virgins have been defiled, and our wives have been ravished; our righteous men have been carried off, our little ones have been cast out, our young men have been enslaved and our strong men made powerless. 10.23. And, what is more than all, the seal of Zion -- for she has now lost the seal of her glory, and has been given over into the hands of those that hate us. 10.24. Therefore shake off your great sadness and lay aside your many sorrows, so that the Mighty One may be merciful to you again, and the Most High may give you rest, a relief from your troubles.
80. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 114

81. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 108, 110, 107



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron, aaronic blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 230, 231
abel Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 91
accursed/cursed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 200, 209, 231, 336, 496, 497, 568, 692
afterlife, resurrection Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228, 229, 497, 523, 524, 570, 575
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200, 203, 315, 364, 496, 497, 523, 524, 570, 572, 573, 716, 723, 728, 741
afterlife Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 336, 524, 573, 692
age/era, present Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 287, 572
alexandria Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
angelic Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
angelic status Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 512, 524, 573, 577, 723, 740, 741
angelification Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 230, 497, 512, 523, 524, 570, 577, 723
angels, abode of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
angels, angels of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 575
angels, angelus interpres interpreting angel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 741
angels, bearers of petition Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 315, 548
angels, elohim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 570
angels, fellowship with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 568, 570, 640
angels, food of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
angels, holy angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
angels, interaction of enoch with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
angels, joy of/with Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 575
angels, raphael Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
angels, stars/heavenly bodies Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 568, 741
angels, witnesses of piety Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 570
angels, witnesses of sin Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
angels Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 176, 291; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
animal apocalypse Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 85
ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552
apocalypses Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 176, 291
apocalypticism, and gender binariness Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
ascent Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
authority, of/for the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 230, 286, 315
barrenness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
beasts, fourth beast in daniel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
birds, of prey Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
blasphemy/blasphemers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
blessing, aaronic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 230
blessing, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 294
blessing, eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
blessing, praise Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716, 728
blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 229, 294, 497
blindness, sheep israel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
books, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 716
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
build/building activity, eschatological temple Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150
burial Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
cain Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
calendar Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229
canon, muratorian Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
chain of mediation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 692
chariot Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
children/offspring, as addressees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 287, 640
children/offspring, dying without Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
children/offspring, humanity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 209
children/offspring, of the wicked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 285, 287
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 523, 524, 549, 550
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
community, enochic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 304
companions, of angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 568, 577
companions, of sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577
complaint Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 548, 550, 552, 568
cosmology, ancient Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 131
cosmos Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 640, 692
covenant, blessings Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
covenant, curses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
covenant, disobedience to Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548, 550, 552, 568
covenant, obedience/faithfulness/loyalty Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577, 741
covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 728
creation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 190
curse, covenant Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 60
curses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 198, 304, 336, 548
darkness, day of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
darkness, sons of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231
darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231, 741
day, of bloodshed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of cursing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496
day, of cursing and punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496
day, of darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of great judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 200, 209, 286, 315, 364
day, of great shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 364
day, of iniquity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 304
day, of the lord Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
day, of tribulation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286, 287, 364, 550
day, of unceasing blood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 203, 229, 294, 315, 568
deification Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
diet, vegetarian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
dreams/dream visions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
dualism/dualistic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231
eagles Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
empedocles Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
enoch, as father Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
enoch, interpreter Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
eschatology/eschatological, age of blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 294
eschatology/eschatological, community Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 230, 294
eschatology/eschatological, events Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 230
eschatology/eschatological, judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 287, 496
eschatology/eschatological, punishment/destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231, 364, 572, 692
eschatology/eschatological, reversal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 230, 286, 315, 550
eschatology/eschatological, rewards Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 294, 568, 570, 573, 577, 723, 728, 741
eschatology/eschatological, woes/conflict/tumult Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 315
exile babylonian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 364
eyes Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228
face Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
fasting Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
fear, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 285, 577, 716
fear Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200, 228, 286, 304, 568, 577
feet Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
fire Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
flesh, disdain towards Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 728
flesh, human Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
flesh, of the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
flood/deluge, great/noahs, as punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
food, angelic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
food, gentile Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
food, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716, 723
food, righteous as Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 550
food Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
fools/foolishness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 570
fountain Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
gender, disruption of, as feature of dystopian apocalypticism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
gender transcendence, as postapocalyptic state Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
genderlessness, and apocalypticism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577, 723
giants, hahyah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
giants, hybrids Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
giants, ohyah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209, 640
glory, crown of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
glory, lord, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 209, 315, 570
god, face of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
god, goodness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
god, great holy one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
god, great one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 209, 524, 570, 572
god, holy great one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
god, holy one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231, 315
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 230, 315, 336
god, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716
goodness eschatological reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 209, 229, 230, 285, 294, 523, 570
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
hands Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 336
healing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 199, 285
hearts, double hearted Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229
hearts, hard-hearted Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 364
hearts Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294, 336, 364
heavens, new Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150
heavens, windows/gates of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 209, 572
heavens Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 198, 199, 200
help, lack of for the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552
help Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 552, 575
hide Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190
hills Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 336
homer Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
homoioarcton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 568
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523, 570, 740
honour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 315
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 199, 200, 230, 285, 304, 570, 572, 575, 577
idolatry Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 199
ignatius Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 728
immortality Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
immortality of the soul Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 496, 524, 573
inheritance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
instruction/teaching, by angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
instruction/teaching, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199
instruction/teaching, false Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 197
instruction/teaching, sevenfold eschatological Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150
instruction/teaching Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 723
irony/ironical Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 548
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
israel, punishment for sins of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
jerusalem Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229
journeys/voyages, heavenly, by enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 209
journeys/voyages Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229
joy, for the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 285
joy, of angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 575
jubilees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
judaeans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
judgement Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
justice, divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 496, 497, 523, 524, 548, 741
justice, execution of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 364
justice, lack of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
labour Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523, 550
lamech Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
lament Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203, 209, 548, 568
landowners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
life / afterlife, angelic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 568
life / afterlife, earthly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 200, 497, 512, 523, 548, 549, 550, 716, 728
life / afterlife, eternal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228, 524
life / afterlife, fountain of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
life / afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497, 523, 524, 549, 550, 723
light Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 176
lights, eschatological reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199
lights, eternal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228, 230, 231
lights, heavenly bodies Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 573
lights, of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 200, 230, 572, 740
lights, of the sun Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150
lights, place of angelike existence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200
lights, sevenfold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 150, 230
lights, sons of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231
lights, versus darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231
lights Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 570, 740, 741
lord see god, spirits, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
lot i.e. destiny, of the dead Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
lot i.e. destiny, of the holy ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
lot i.e. destiny, of the living Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
love, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716, 728
love, of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716
love, of life Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 728
love of, salvation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 524
love of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 728
makarism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 203
makîlîm (wise teachers) Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 140
manifestations Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 176
maturation Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 176
memorial/remembrance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 209, 315, 570
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229, 285
methuselah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 692
milky way Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 573
mithras Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
mono-genderedness, and apocalypticism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 173
monotheism Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 209, 336, 524
mystery/mysteries Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
nations Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
neck, stiff-necked Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 364
nero Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
noah, birth of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 640
nock, a. d. Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
obedience, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 692
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
oppression Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 197, 294, 336, 548, 550, 552, 692
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 199, 209, 286, 294, 552, 575
oracles, sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
passover Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 287
peace, lack of for the sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 197
peace Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 190, 200, 203, 315, 728
petitions / prayers, by the oppressed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 575
pharisees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548, 573
polytheism Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 71
poverty Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198
power/prestige, social Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
praise/glorify Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 229
prayers, of the righteous ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
prepared, for punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 198, 364
prepared, for reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 523
prophetic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
prophetic oath formula Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 60
prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 286
protection Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286, 287, 552
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 200, 209, 231, 286, 287, 336, 496, 497, 523, 568, 692
pure Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716, 723
pythagoras Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 573
qumran, community/group Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 231, 568, 570, 640
refuge Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
rest Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 122
resurrection Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 291
resurrectionin daniel Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 140
resurrectionjesus and christian apocalypticism Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 140
reversal of fortunes Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 60
reward Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 91
rhetoric, pauls use of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 31
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 131
rich, the, denunciation of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 60
righteous Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 42
righteousness; righteous one; teacher of righteousness Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 86
rock Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
roots Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 294
sadducees Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 140; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 548
safety Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 286
sarah in the book of tobit Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315
sealing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 287
sectarian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 570
servitude/slavery Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 336, 523, 550
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 198, 200, 228, 286, 315, 364, 524, 572, 716, 740
sheol Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 60; Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 86; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 200, 497, 512, 552
sibylline oracles, sib. or. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
sibylline oracles Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 293
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 716
sinner; sin Nicklas et al., Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions (2010) 91
sins / iniquity, recording of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 315, 336
sins / iniquity, support of/aid to Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 577
sleep afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228, 229, 496, 512
social status Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 31, 131
speech, imputed Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 60
spirit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 822
spirits, demonic/giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 497
spirits, resurrection of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 228, 524