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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



138
Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1073-1177


Ὦπολλον Ὦπολλον. ΧορόςApollon, Apollon! CHOROS.


τί ταῦτʼ ἀνωτότυξας ἀμφὶ Λοξίου;Why didst thou


οὐ γὰρ τοιοῦτος ὥστε θρηνητοῦ τυχεῖν. ΚασάνδραSince he is none such as to suit a mourner. KASSANDRA.


ὀτοτοτοῖ πόποι δᾶ.Otototoi, Gods, Earth, —


Ὦπολλον Ὦπολλον. ΧορόςApollon, Apollon! CHOROS.


ἡ δʼ αὖτε δυσφημοῦσα τὸν θεὸν καλεῖIll-boding here again the god invokes she


οὐδὲν προσήκοντʼ ἐν γόοις παραστατεῖν. Κασάνδρα— Nowise empowered in woes to stand by helpful. KASSANDRA.


Ἄπολλον ἌπολλονApollon, Apollon


ἀγυιᾶτʼ, ἀπόλλων ἐμός.Guard of the ways, my destroyer!


ἀπώλεσας γὰρ οὐ μόλις τὸ δεύτερον. ΧορόςFor thou hast quite, this second time, destroyed me. CHOROS.


χρήσειν ἔοικεν ἀμφὶ τῶν αὑτῆς κακῶν.To prophesy she seems of her own evils:


μένει τὸ θεῖον δουλίᾳ περ ἐν φρενί. ΚασάνδραRemains the god-gift to the slave-soul present. KASSANDRA.


Ἄπολλον ἌπολλονApollon, Apollon


ἀγυιᾶτʼ, ἀπόλλων ἐμός.Guard of the ways, my destroyer!


ἆ ποῖ ποτʼ ἤγαγές με; πρὸς ποίαν στέγην; ΧορόςHa, whither hast thou led me? to what roof now? CHOROS.


πρὸς τὴν Ἀτρειδῶν· εἰ σὺ μὴ τόδʼ ἐννοεῖςTo the Atreidai’s roof: if this thou know’st not


ἐγὼ λέγω σοι· καὶ τάδʼ οὐκ ἐρεῖς ψύθη. ΚασάνδραI tell it thee, nor this wilt thou call falsehood. KASSANDRA.


μισόθεον μὲν οὖν, πολλὰ συνίστοραHow! How!


μισόθεον μὲν οὖν, πολλὰ συνίστοραGod-hated, then! Of many a crime it knew —


αὐτόφονα κακὰ καρατόμαSelf-slaying evils, halters too:


ἀνδροσφαγεῖον καὶ πεδορραντήριον. ΧορόςMan’s-shambles, blood-besprinkler of the ground! CHOROS.


ἔοικεν εὔρις ἡ ξένη κυνὸς δίκηνShe seems to be good-nosed, the stranger: dog-like


εἶναι, ματεύει δʼ ὧν ἀνευρήσει φόνον. ΚασάνδραShe snuffs indeed the victims she will find there. KASSANDRA.


μαρτυρίοισι γὰρ τοῖσδʼ ἐπιπείθομαι·How! How!


μαρτυρίοισι γὰρ τοῖσδʼ ἐπιπείθομαι·By the witnesses here I am certain now!


κλαιόμενα τάδε βρέφη σφαγάςThese children bewailing their slaughters — flesh dressed in the fire


ὀπτάς τε σάρκας πρὸς πατρὸς βεβρωμένας. ΧορόςAnd devoured by their sire! CHOROS.


τὸ μὲν κλέος σοῦ μαντικὸν πεπυσμένοιAy, we have heard of thy soothsaying glory


ἦμεν· προφήτας δʼ οὔτινας ματεύομεν. ΚασάνδραDoubtless: but prophets none are we in scent of! KASSANDRA.


ἰὼ πόποι, τί ποτε μήδεται;Ah, gods, what ever does she meditate?


ἰὼ πόποι, τί ποτε μήδεται;What this new anguish great?


τί τόδε νέον ἄχος μέγαGreat in the house here she meditates ill


μέγʼ ἐν δόμοισι τοῖσδε μήδεται κακὸνSuch as friends cannot bear, cannot cure it: and still


ἄφερτον φίλοισιν, δυσίατον; ἀλκὰ δʼOff stands all Resistance


ἑκὰς ἀποστατεῖ. ΧορόςAfar in the distance! CHOROS.


τούτων ἄιδρίς εἰμι τῶν μαντευμάτων.Of these I witless am — these prophesyings.


ἐκεῖνα δʼ ἔγνων· πᾶσα γὰρ πόλις βοᾷ. ΚασάνδραBut those I knew: for the whole city bruits them. KASSANDRA.


ἰὼ τάλαινα, τόδε γὰρ τελεῖςAh, unhappy one, this thou consummatest?


ἰὼ τάλαινα, τόδε γὰρ τελεῖςThy husband, thy bed’s common guest


τὸν ὁμοδέμνιον πόσινIn the bath having brightened. .. How shall I declare


λουτροῖσι φαιδρύνασα—πῶς φράσω τέλος;Consummation? It soon will be there:


τάχος γὰρ τόδʼ ἔσται· προτείνει δὲ χεὶρ ἐκFor hand after hand she outstretches


χερὸς ὀρέγματα. ΧορόςAt life as she reaches! CHOROS.


οὔπω ξυνῆκα· νῦν γὰρ ἐξ αἰνιγμάτωνNor yet I’ve gone with thee! for — after riddles —


ἐπαργέμοισι θεσφάτοις ἀμηχανῶ. ΚασάνδραNow, in blind oracles, I feel resourceless. KASSANDRA.


ἒ ἔ, παπαῖ παπαῖ, τί τόδε φαίνεται;Eh, eh, papai, papai


ἒ ἔ, παπαῖ παπαῖ, τί τόδε φαίνεται;What this, I espy?


ἦ δίκτυόν τί γʼ Ἅιδου;Some net of Haides undoubtedly


ἀλλʼ ἄρκυς ἡ ξύνευνος, ἡ ξυναιτίαNay, rather, the snare


ἀλλʼ ἄρκυς ἡ ξύνευνος, ἡ ξυναιτίαIs she who has share


ἀλλʼ ἄρκυς ἡ ξύνευνος, ἡ ξυναιτίαIn his bed, who takes part in the murder there!


φόνου. στάσις δʼ ἀκόρετος γένειBut may a revolt —


φόνου. στάσις δʼ ἀκόρετος γένειUnceasing assault —


φόνου. στάσις δʼ ἀκόρετος γένειOn the Race, raise a shout


κατολολυξάτω θύματος λευσίμου. ΧορόςSacrificial, about


κατολολυξάτω θύματος λευσίμου. ΧορόςA victim — by stoning —


κατολολυξάτω θύματος λευσίμου. ΧορόςFor murder atoning! CHOROS.


ποίαν Ἐρινὺν τήνδε δώμασιν κέλῃWhat this Erinus which i’ the house thou callest


ἐπορθιάζειν; οὔ με φαιδρύνει λόγος.To raise her cry? Not me thy word enlightens!


ἐπὶ δὲ καρδίαν ἔδραμε κροκοβαφὴςTo my heart has run


σταγών, ἅτε καιρία πτώσιμοςA drop of the crocus-dye:


σταγών, ἅτε καιρία πτώσιμοςWhich makes for those


ξυνανύτει βίου δύντος αὐγαῖς·On earth by the spear that lie


ξυνανύτει βίου δύντος αὐγαῖς·A common close


ξυνανύτει βίου δύντος αὐγαῖς·With life’s descending sun.


ταχεῖα δʼ ἄτα πέλει. ΚασάνδραSwift is the curse begun! KASSANDRA.


ἆ ἆ, ἰδοὺ ἰδού· ἄπεχε τῆς βοὸςHow! How!


ἆ ἆ, ἰδοὺ ἰδού· ἄπεχε τῆς βοὸςSee — see quick!


ἆ ἆ, ἰδοὺ ἰδού· ἄπεχε τῆς βοὸςKeep the bull from the cow!


τὸν ταῦρον· ἐν πέπλοισιIn the vesture she catching him, strikes him now


μελαγκέρῳ λαβοῦσα μηχανήματιWith the black-horned trick


τύπτει· πίτνει δʼ ἐν ἐνύδρῳ τεύχει.And he falls in the watery vase!


δολοφόνου λέβητος τύχαν σοι λέγω. ΧορόςOf the craft-killing cauldron I tell thee the case! CHOROS.


οὐ κομπάσαιμʼ ἂν θεσφάτων γνώμων ἄκροςI would not boast to be a topping critic


εἶναι, κακῷ δέ τῳ προσεικάζω τάδε.Of oracles: but to some sort of evil


ἀπὸ δὲ θεσφάτων τίς ἀγαθὰ φάτιςI liken these. From oracles, what good speech


βροτοῖς τέλλεται; κακῶν γὰρ διαὶTo mortals, beside, is sent?


πολυεπεῖς τέχναι θεσπιῳδὸνIt comes of their evils: these arts word-abounding that sing the event


φόβον φέρουσιν μαθεῖν. ΚασάνδραBring the fear’t is their office to teach. KASSANDRA.


ἰὼ ἰὼ ταλαίνας κακόποτμοι τύχαι·Ah me, ah me —


ἰὼ ἰὼ ταλαίνας κακόποτμοι τύχαι·Of me unhappy, evil-destined fortunes!


τὸ γὰρ ἐμὸν θροῶ πάθος ἐπεγχύδαν.For I bewail my proper woe


τὸ γὰρ ἐμὸν θροῶ πάθος ἐπεγχύδαν.As, mine with his, all into one I throw.


ποῖ δή με δεῦρο τὴν τάλαιναν ἤγαγες;Why hast thou hither me unhappy brought?


οὐδέν ποτʼ εἰ μὴ ξυνθανουμένην. τί γάρ; Χορός— Unless that I should die with him — for nought!


οὐδέν ποτʼ εἰ μὴ ξυνθανουμένην. τί γάρ; ΧορόςWhat else was sought? CHOROS.


φρενομανής τις εἶ θεοφόρητος, ἀμ-Thou art some mind-mazed creature, god-possessed:


φὶ δʼ αὑτᾶς θροεῖςAnd all about thyself dost wail


νόμον ἄνομον, οἷά τις ξουθὰA lay — no lay!


νόμον ἄνομον, οἷά τις ξουθὰLike some brown nightingale


ἀκόρετος βοᾶς, φεῦ, ταλαίναις φρεσίνInsatiable of noise, who — well-away! —


Ἴτυν Ἴτυν στένουσʼ ἀμφιθαλῆ κακοῖςFrom her unhappy breast


Ἴτυν Ἴτυν στένουσʼ ἀμφιθαλῆ κακοῖςKeeps moaning Itus, Itus, and his life


ἀηδὼν βίον. ΚασάνδραWith evils, flourishing on each side, rife. KASSANDRA.


ἰὼ ἰὼ λιγείας μόρον ἀηδόνος·Ah me, ah me


ἰὼ ἰὼ λιγείας μόρον ἀηδόνος·The fate o’ the nightingale, the clear resounder!


περέβαλον γάρ οἱ πτεροφόρον δέμαςFor a body wing-borne have the gods cast round her


θεοὶ γλυκύν τʼ αἰῶνα κλαυμάτων ἄτερ·And sweet existence, from misfortunes free:


ἐμοὶ δὲ μίμνει σχισμὸς ἀμφήκει δορί. ΧορόςBut for myself remains a sundering


ἐμοὶ δὲ μίμνει σχισμὸς ἀμφήκει δορί. ΧορόςWith spear, the two-edged thing! CHOROS.


πόθεν ἐπισσύτους θεοφόρους τʼ ἔχειςWhence hast thou this on-rushing god-involving pain


πόθεν ἐπισσύτους θεοφόρους τʼ ἔχειςAnd spasms in vain?


ματαίους δύαςFor, things that terrify


ματαίους δύαςWith changing unintelligible cry


τὰ δʼ ἐπίφοβα δυσφάτῳ κλαγγᾷThou strikest up in tune, yet all the while


μελοτυπεῖς ὁμοῦ τʼ ὀρθίοις ἐν νόμοις;After that Orthian style!


πόθεν ὅρους ἔχεις θεσπεσίας ὁδοῦWhence hast thou limits to the oracular road


κακορρήμονας; ΚασάνδραThat evils bode? KASSANDRA.


ἰὼ γάμοι γάμοι Πάριδος ὀλέθριοι φίλων.Ah me, the nuptials, the nuptials of Paris, the deadly to friends!


ἰὼ Σκαμάνδρου πάτριον ποτόν.Ah me, of Skamandros the draught


τότε μὲν ἀμφὶ σὰς ἀϊόνας τάλαινʼPaternal! There once, to these ends


ἠνυτόμαν τροφαῖς·On thy banks was I brought


νῦν δʼ ἀμφὶ Κωκυτόν τε κἀχερουσίουςThe unhappy! And now, by Kokutos and Acheron’s shore


ὄχθας ἔοικα θεσπιῳδήσειν τάχα. ΧορόςI shall soon be, it seems, these my oracles singing once more! CHOROS.


τί τόδε τορὸν ἄγαν ἔπος ἐφημίσω;Why this word, plain too much


νεόγονος ἂν ἀΐων μάθοι.Hast thou uttered? A babe might learn of such!


πέπληγμαι δʼ ὑπαὶ δάκει φοινίῳI am struck with a bloody bite — here under —


δυσαλγεῖ τύχᾳ μινυρὰ κακὰ θρεομέναςAt the fate woe-wreaking


θραύματʼ ἐμοὶ κλύειν. ΚασάνδραOf thee shrill shrieking:


θραύματʼ ἐμοὶ κλύειν. ΚασάνδραTo me who hear — a wonder! KASSANDRA.


ἰὼ πόνοι πόνοι πόλεος ὀλομένας τὸ πᾶν.Ah me, the toils — the toils of the city


ἰὼ πόνοι πόνοι πόλεος ὀλομένας τὸ πᾶν.The wholly destroyed: ah, pity


ἰὼ πρόπυργοι θυσίαι πατρὸςOf the sacrificings my father made


ἰὼ πρόπυργοι θυσίαι πατρὸςIn the ramparts’ aid —


πολυκανεῖς βοτῶν ποιονόμων· ἄκος δʼMuch slaughter of grass-fed flocks — that afforded no cure


οὐδὲν ἐπήρκεσανThat the city should not, as it does now, the burthen endure!


τὸ μὴ πόλιν μὲν ὥσπερ οὖν ἔχει παθεῖν.But I, with the soul on fire


ἐγὼ δὲ θερμόνους τάχʼ ἐν πέδῳ βαλῶ. ΧορόςSoon to the earth shall cast me and expire. CHOROS.


ἑπόμενα προτέροισι τάδʼ ἐφημίσω.To things, on the former consequent


καί τίς σε κακοφρονῶν τίθη-Again hast thou given vent:


σι δαίμων ὑπερβαρὴς ἐμπίτνωνAnd ’t is some evil-meaning fiend doth move thee


σι δαίμων ὑπερβαρὴς ἐμπίτνωνHeavily falling from above thee


μελίζειν πάθη γοερὰ θανατοφόρα.To melodize thy sorrows — else, in singing


μελίζειν πάθη γοερὰ θανατοφόρα.Calamitous, death-bringing!


τέρμα δʼ ἀμηχανῶ. ΚασάνδραAnd of all this the end


τέρμα δʼ ἀμηχανῶ. ΚασάνδραI am without resource to apprehend KASSANDRA.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Homer, Odyssey, 20.350-20.358 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1036-1072, 1074-1330, 891-894, 1035 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1035. εἴσω κομίζου καὶ σύ, Κασάνδραν λέγω 1035. Take thyself in, thou too — I say, Kassandra!
3. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 524-552, 523 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

523. οἶδʼ, ὦ τέκνον, παρῆ γάρ· ἔκ τʼ ὀνειράτων 523. I know, my child, for I was there. It was because she was shaken by dreams and wandering terrors of the night
4. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 101-104, 94-100 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

100. παθοῦσα δʼ οὕτω δεινὰ πρὸς τῶν φιλτάτων 100. And yet, although I have suffered cruelly in this way from my nearest kin, no divine power is angry on my behalf, slaughtered as I have been by the hands of a matricide. See these gashes in my heart, and from where they came! For the sleeping mind has clear vision
5. Aeschylus, Persians, 177-200, 205, 176 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

176. πολλοῖς μὲν αἰεὶ νυκτέροις ὀνείρασιν 176. I have been haunted by a multitude of dreams at night since the time when my son, having despatched his army, departed with intent to lay waste the land of the Ionians. But never yet have I beheld so distinct a vision
6. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 641-686, 640 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

640. οὐκ οἶδʼ ὅπως ὑμῖν ἀπιστῆσαί με χρή 640. I do not know how to refuse you. You shall learn in truthful speech all that you would like to know. Yet I am ashamed to tell about the storm of calamity sent by Heaven, of the marring of my form, and of the source from which it swooped upon me, wretched that I am.
7. Euripides, Iphigenia Among The Taurians, 43-60, 42 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Euripides, Rhesus, 781-789, 780 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

69c. from all these things, and self-restraint and justice and courage and wisdom itself are a kind of purification. And I fancy that those men who established the mysteries were not unenlightened, but in reality had a hidden meaning when they said long ago that whoever goes uninitiated and unsanctified to the other world will lie in the mire, but he who arrives there initiated and purified will dwell with the gods. For as they say in the mysteries, the thyrsus-bearers are many, but the mystics few ;
10. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

20b. Soc. I need no longer anticipate anything terrible, since you put it in that way; for the words in case you are willing relieve me of all fear. And besides, I think some god has given me a vague recollection. Pro. How is that, and what is the recollection about? Soc. I remember now having heard long ago in a dream, or perhaps when I was awake, some talk about pleasure and wisdom to the effect that neither of the two is the good, but some third thing, different from them and better than both.
11. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Sophocles, Electra, 411, 417-425, 431-437, 449-452, 459, 472-501, 410 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 4.3.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.3.8. That day and night, accordingly, they remained there, in great perplexity. But Xenophon had a dream; he thought that he was bound in fetters, but that the fetters fell off from him of their own accord, so that he was released and could take as long steps διαβαίνειν, which also means to cross a river (see above). Here lay the good omen of the dream. as he pleased. When dawn came, he went to Cheirisophus, told him he had hopes that all would be well, and related to him his dream.
14. Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 3.616-3.635, 4.664-4.669 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.616. κούρην δʼ ἐξ ἀχέων ἀδινὸς κατελώφεεν ὕπνος 3.617. λέκτρῳ ἀνακλινθεῖσαν. ἄφαρ δέ μιν ἠπεροπῆες 3.618. οἷά τʼ ἀκηχεμένην, ὀλοοὶ ἐρέθεσκον ὄνειροι. 3.619. τὸν ξεῖνον δʼ ἐδόκησεν ὑφεστάμεναι τὸν ἄεθλον 3.620. οὔτι μάλʼ ὁρμαίνοντα δέρος κριοῖο κομίσσαι 3.621. οὐδέ τι τοῖο ἕκητι μετὰ πτόλιν Αἰήταο 3.622. ἐλθέμεν, ὄφρα δέ μιν σφέτερον δόμον εἰσαγάγοιτο 3.623. κουριδίην παράκοιτιν· ὀίετο δʼ ἀμφὶ βόεσσιν 3.624. αὐτὴ ἀεθλεύουσα μάλʼ εὐμαρέως πονέεσθαι· 3.625. σφωιτέρους δὲ τοκῆας ὑποσχεσίης ἀθερίζειν 3.626. οὕνεκεν οὐ κούρῃ ζεῦξαι βόας, ἀλλά οἱ αὐτῷ 3.627. προύθεσαν· ἐκ δʼ ἄρα τοῦ νεῖκος πέλεν ἀμφήριστον 3.628. πατρί τε καὶ ξείνοις· αὐτῇ δʼ ἐπιέτρεπον ἄμφω 3.629. τὼς ἔμεν, ὥς κεν ἑῇσι μετὰ φρεσὶν ἰθύσειεν. 3.630. ἡ δʼ ἄφνω τὸν ξεῖνον, ἀφειδήσασα τοκήων 3.631. εἵλετο· τοὺς δʼ ἀμέγαρτον ἄχος λάβεν, ἐκ δʼ ἐβόησαν 3.632. χωόμενοι· τὴν δʼ ὕπνος ἅμα κλαγγῇ μεθέηκεν. 3.633. παλλομένη δʼ ἀνόρουσε φόβῳ, περί τʼ ἀμφί τε τοίχους 3.634. πάπτηνεν θαλάμοιο· μόλις δʼ ἐσαγείρατο θυμὸν 3.635. ὡς πάρος ἐν στέρνοις, ἀδινὴν δʼ ἀνενείκατο φωνήν· 4.664. τοῖον γὰρ νυχίοισιν ὀνείρασιν ἐπτοίητο. 4.665. αἵματί οἱ θάλαμοί τε καὶ ἕρκεα πάντα δόμοιο 4.666. μύρεσθαι δόκεον· φλὸξ δʼ ἀθρόα φάρμακʼ ἔδαπτεν 4.667. οἷσι πάρος ξείνους θέλγʼ ἀνέρας, ὅστις ἵκοιτο· 4.668. τὴν δʼ αὐτὴ φονίῳ σβέσεν αἵματι πορφύρουσαν 4.669. χερσὶν ἀφυσσαμένη· λῆξεν δʼ ὀλοοῖο φόβοιο.
15. Cicero, On Divination, 1.23, 1.25, 1.30, 1.53, 1.66-1.68, 2.112-2.113 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.23. Quid? quaeris, Carneades, cur haec ita fiant aut qua arte perspici possint? Nescire me fateor, evenire autem te ipsum dico videre. Casu, inquis. Itane vero? quicquam potest casu esse factum, quod omnes habet in se numeros veritatis? Quattuor tali iacti casu Venerium efficiunt; num etiam centum Venerios, si quadringentos talos ieceris, casu futuros putas? Aspersa temere pigmenta in tabula oris liniamenta efficere possunt; num etiam Veneris Coae pulchritudinem effici posse aspersione fortuita putas? Sus rostro si humi A litteram inpresserit, num propterea suspicari poteris Andromacham Ennii ab ea posse describi? Fingebat Carneades in Chiorum lapicidinis saxo diffisso caput extitisse Panisci; credo, aliquam non dissimilem figuram, sed certe non talem, ut eam factam a Scopa diceres. Sic enim se profecto res habet, ut numquam perfecte veritatem casus imitetur. 1.25. Ea fallit fortasse non numquam, sed tamen ad veritatem saepissime derigit; est enim ab omni aeternitate repetita, in qua cum paene innumerabiliter res eodem modo evenirent isdem signis antegressis, ars est effecta eadem saepe animadvertendo ac notando. Auspicia vero vestra quam constant! quae quidem nunc a Romanis auguribus ignorantur (bona hoc tua venia dixerim), a Cilicibus, Pamphyliis, Pisidis, Lyciis tenentur. 1.30. Non igitur obnuntiatio Ateii causam finxit calamitatis, sed signo obiecto monuit Crassum, quid eventurum esset, nisi cavisset. Ita aut illa obnuntiatio nihil valuit aut, si, ut Appius iudicat, valuit, id valuit, ut peccatum haereat non in eo, qui monuerit, sed in eo, qui non obtemperarit. Quid? lituus iste vester, quod clarissumum est insigne auguratus, unde vobis est traditus? Nempe eo Romulus regiones direxit tum, cum urbem condidit. Qui quidem Romuli lituus, id est incurvum et leviter a summo inflexum bacillum, quod ab eius litui, quo canitur, similitudine nomen invenit, cum situs esset in curia Saliorum, quae est in Palatio, eaque deflagravisset, inventus est integer. 1.53. Mentiri Xenophontem an delirare dicemus? Quid? singulari vir ingenio Aristoteles et paene divino ipsene errat an alios vult errare, cum scribit Eudemum Cyprium, familiarem suum, iter in Macedoniam facientem Pheras venisse, quae erat urbs in Thessalia tum admodum nobilis, ab Alexandro autem tyranno crudeli dominatu tenebatur; in eo igitur oppido ita graviter aegrum Eudemum fuisse, ut omnes medici diffiderent; ei visum in quiete egregia facie iuvenem dicere fore ut perbrevi convalesceret, paucisque diebus interiturum Alexandrum tyrannum, ipsum autem Eudemum quinquennio post domum esse rediturum. Atque ita quidem prima statim scribit Aristoteles consecuta, et convaluisse Eudemum, et ab uxoris fratribus interfectum tyrannum; quinto autem anno exeunte, cum esset spes ex illo somnio in Cyprum illum ex Sicilia esse rediturum, proeliantem eum ad Syracusas occidisse; ex quo ita illud somnium esse interpretatum, ut, cum animus Eudemi e corpore excesserit, tum domum revertisse videatur. 1.66. Inest igitur in animis praesagitio extrinsecus iniecta atque inclusa divinitus. Ea si exarsit acrius, furor appellatur, cum a corpore animus abstractus divino instinctu concitatur. H. Séd quid oculis rábere visa es dérepente ardéntibus? U/bi paulo ante sápiens illa vírginalis modéstia? C. Máter, optumárum multo múlier melior múlierum, Míssa sum supérstitiosis háriolatiónibus; Námque Apollo fátis fandis démentem invitám ciet. Vírgines vereór aequalis, pátris mei meum factúm pudet, O/ptumi viri/; mea mater, túi me miseret, méi piget. O/ptumam progéniem Priamo péperisti extra me; hóc dolet. Mén obesse, illós prodesse, me óbstare, illos óbsequi? O poe+ma tenerum et moratum atque molle! Sed hoc minus ad rem; 1.67. illud, quod volumus, expressum est, ut vaticinari furor vera soleat. A/dest, adest fax óbvoluta sánguine atque íncendio! Múltos annos látuit; cives, férte opem et restínguite. Deus inclusus corpore humano iam, non Cassandra loquitur. Iámque mari magnó classis cita Téxitur; exitium éxamen rapit; A/dveniet, fera vélivolantibus Návibus complebít manus litora. Tragoedias loqui videor et fabulas. 1.68. At ex te ipso non commenticiam rem, sed factam eiusdem generis audivi: C. Coponium ad te venisse Dyrrhachium, cum praetorio imperio classi Rhodiae praeesset, cumprime hominem prudentem atque doctum, eumque dixisse remigem quendam e quinqueremi Rhodiorum vaticinatum madefactum iri minus xxx diebus Graeciam sanguine, rapinas Dyrrhachii et conscensionem in naves cum fuga fugientibusque miserabilem respectum incendiorum fore, sed Rhodiorum classi propinquum reditum ac domum itionem dari; tum neque te ipsum non esse commotum Marcumque Varronem et M. Catonem, qui tum ibi erant, doctos homines, vehementer esse perterritos; paucis sane post diebus ex Pharsalia fuga venisse Labienum; qui cum interitum exercitus nuntiavisset, reliqua vaticinationis brevi esse confecta. 2.112. Atque in Sibyllinis ex primo versu cuiusque sententiae primis litteris illius sententiae carmen omne praetexitur. Hoc scriptoris est, non furentis, adhibentis diligentiam, non insani. Quam ob rem Sibyllam quidem sepositam et conditam habeamus, ut, id quod proditum est a maioribus, iniussu senatus ne legantur quidem libri valeantque ad deponendas potius quam ad suscipiendas religiones; cum antistitibus agamus, ut quidvis potius ex illis libris quam regem proferant, quem Romae posthac nec di nec homines esse patientur. At multi saepe vera vaticinati, ut Cassandra: Iamque mari magno eademque paulo post: Eheu videte Num igitur me cogis etiam fabulis credere? 2.113. quae delectationis habeant, quantum voles, verbis sententiis, numeris cantibus adiuventur; auctoritatem quidem nullam debemus nec fidem commenticiis rebus adiungere. Eodemque modo nec ego Publicio nescio cui nec Marciis vatibus nec Apollinis opertis credendum existimo; quorum partim ficta aperte, partim effutita temere numquam ne mediocri quidem cuiquam, non modo prudenti probata sunt. 1.23. But what? You ask, Carneades, do you, why these things so happen, or by what rules they may be understood? I confess that I do not know, but that they do so fall out I assert that you yourself see. Mere accidents, you say. Now, really, is that so? Can anything be an accident which bears upon itself every mark of truth? Four dice are cast and a Venus throw results — that is chance; but do you think it would be chance, too, if in one hundred casts you made one hundred Venus throws? It is possible for paints flung at random on a canvasc to form the outlines of a face; but do you imagine that an accidental scattering of pigments could produce the beautiful portrait of Venus of Cos? Suppose that a hog should form the letter A on the ground with its snout; is that a reason for believing that it would write out Enniuss poem The Andromache?Carneades used to have a story that once in the Chian quarries when a stone was split open there appeared the head of the infant god Pan; I grant that the figure may have borne some resemblance to the god, but assuredly the resemblance was not such that you could ascribe the work to a Scopas. For it is undeniably true that no perfect imitation of a thing was ever made by chance. [14] 1.25. It sometimes misleads perhaps, but none the less in most cases it guides us to the truth. For this same conjectural divination is the product of boundless eternity and within that period it has grown into an art through the repeated observation and record of almost countless instances in which the same results have been preceded by the same signs.[15] Indeed how trustworthy were the auspices taken when you were augur! At the present time — pray pardon me for saying so — Roman augurs neglect auspices, although the Cilicians, Pamphylians, Pisidians, and Lycians hold them in high esteem. 1.53. And Aristotle, who was endowed with a matchless and almost godlike intellect, — is he in error, or is he trying to lead others into error in the following account of his friend, Eudemus the Cyprian? Eudemus, while on his way to Macedonia, reached Pherae, then a very famous city of Thessaly, but groaning under the cruel sway of the tyrant, Alexander. There he became so violently ill that the physicians despaired of his recovery. While sick he had a dream in which a youth of striking beauty told him that he would speedily get well; that the despot Alexander would die in a few days, and that he himself would return home five years later. And so, indeed, the first two prophecies, as Aristotle writes, were immediately fulfilled by the recovery of Eudemus and by the death of the tyrant at the hands of his wifes brothers. But at the end of five years, when, in reliance upon the dream, he hoped to return to Cyprus from Sicily, he was killed in battle before Syracuse. Accordingly the dream was interpreted to mean that when his soul left the body it then had returned home. 1.66. Therefore the human soul has an inherent power of presaging or of foreknowing infused into it from without, and made a part of it by the will of God. If that power is abnormally developed, it is called frenzy or inspiration, which occurs when the soul withdraws itself from the body and is violently stimulated by a divine impulse, as in the following instance, where Hecuba says to Cassandra:But why those flaming eyes, that sudden rage?And whither fled that sober modesty,Till now so maidenly and yet so wise?and Cassandra answers:O mother, noblest of thy noble sex!I have been sent to utter prophecies:Against my will Apollo drives me madTo revelation make of future ills.O virgins! comrades of my youthful hours,My mission shames my father, best of men.O mother dear! great loathing for myselfAnd grief for thee I feel. For thou hast borneTo Priam goodly issue — saving me,Tis sad that unto thee the rest bring weal,I woe; that they obey, but I oppose.What a tender and pathetic poem, and how suitable to her character! though it is not altogether relevant, I admit. 1.67. However, the point which I wish to press, that true prophecies are made during frenzy, has found expression in the following lines:It comes! it comes! that bloody torch, in fireEnwrapped, though hid from sight these many years!Bring aid, my countrymen, and quench its flames!It is not Cassandra who next speaks, but a god in human form:Already, on the mighty deep is builtA navy swift that hastes with swarms of woe,80ºIts ships are drawing nigh with swelling sails,And bands of savage men will fill our shores. [32] 1.68. I seem to be relying for illustrations on myths drawn from tragic poets. But you yourself are my authority for an instance of the same nature, and yet it is not fiction but a real occurrence. Gaius Coponius, a man of unusual capacity and learning, came to you at Dyrrachium while he, as praetor, was in command of the Rhodian fleet, and told you of a prediction made by a certain oarsman from one of the Rhodian quinqueremes. The prediction was that in less than thirty days Greece would be bathed in blood; Dyrrachium would be pillaged; its defenders would flee to their ships and, as they fled, would see behind them the unhappy spectacle of a great conflagration; but the Rhodian fleet would have a quick passage home. This story gave you some concern, and it caused very great alarm to those cultured men, Marcus Varro and Marcus Cato, who were at Dyrrachium at the time. In fact, a few days later Labienus reached Dyrrachium in flight from Pharsalus, with the news of the loss of the army. The rest of the prophecy was soon fulfilled. 2.112. And in the Sibylline books, throughout the entire work, each prophecy is embellished with an acrostic, so that the initial letters of each of the lines give the subject of that particular prophecy. Such a work comes from a writer who is not frenzied, who is painstaking, not crazy. Therefore let us keep the Sibyl under lock and key so that in accordance with the ordices of our forefathers her books may not even be read without permission of the Senate and may be more effective in banishing rather than encouraging superstitious ideas. And let us plead with the priests to bring forth from those books anything rather than a king, whom henceforth neither gods nor men will suffer to exist in Rome.[55] But many persons in a frenzy often utter true prophecies, as Cassandra did when she saidAlready on the mighty deep . . .and when, a little later, she exclaimed,Alas! behold! . . . 2.113. Then, I suppose you are going to force me to believe in myths? Let them be as charming as you please and as finished as possible in language, thought, rhythm, and melody, still we ought not to give credence to fictitious incidents or to quote them as authority. On that principle no reliance, in my opinion, should be placed in the prophecies of your Publicius — whoever he may have been — or in those of the Marcian bards or in those of the hazy oracles of Apollo: some were obviously false and others mere senseless chatter and none of them were ever believed in by any man of ordinary sense, much less by any person of wisdom.
16. Horace, Odes, 2.1, 2.1.17-2.1.18, 2.1.21-2.1.24, 2.1.29-2.1.32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.1. 1. Now the necessity which Archelaus was under of taking a journey to Rome was the occasion of new disturbances; for when he had mourned for his father seven days, and had given a very expensive funeral feast to the multitude (which custom is the occasion of poverty to many of the Jews, because they are forced to feast the multitude; for if anyone omits it, he is not esteemed a holy person), he put on a white garment, and went up to the temple 2.1. And, indeed, at the feast of unleavened bread, which was now at hand, and is by the Jews called the Passover, and used to be celebrated with a great number of sacrifices, an innumerable multitude of the people came out of the country to worship; some of these stood in the temple bewailing the Rabbins [that had been put to death], and procured their sustece by begging, in order to support their sedition. 2.1. but after this family distribution, he gave between them what had been bequeathed to him by Herod, which was a thousand talents, reserving to himself only some inconsiderable presents, in honor of the deceased.
17. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.45-6.50 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.45. To shape thy fall, and twice they strove in vain. 6.46. Aeneas long the various work would scan; 6.47. But now Achates comes, and by his side 6.48. Deiphobe, the Sibyl, Glaucus' child. 6.49. Thus to the prince she spoke : 6.50. “Is this thine hour
18. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 23.2-23.5 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 1.2.1, 1.2.3, 5.58 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Lucan, Pharsalia, 5.147-5.196 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, Acts, 9.12, 10.7, 10.17-10.20, 11.17, 15.8-15.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.12. and in a vision he has seen a man named Aias coming in, and laying his hands on him, that he might receive his sight. 10.7. When the angel who spoke to him had departed, Cornelius called two of his household servants and a devout soldier of those who waited on him continually. 10.17. Now while Peter was very perplexed in himself what the vision which he had seen might mean, behold, the men who were sent by Cornelius, having made inquiry for Simon's house, stood before the gate 10.18. and called and asked whether Simon, who was surnamed Peter, was lodging there. 10.19. While Peter thought about the vision, the Spirit said to him, "Behold, three men seek you. 10.20. But arise, get down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them. 11.17. If then God gave to them the same gift as us, when we believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I, that I could withstand God? 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith.
22. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

431e. For if the souls which have been severed from a body, or have had no part with one at all, are demigods according to you and the divine Hesiod, Holy dwellers on earth and the guardian spirits of mortals, why deprive souls in bodies of that power by virtue of which the demigods possess the natural faculty of knowing and revealing future events before they happen? For it is not likely that any power or portion accrues to souls when they have left the body, if they did not possess them before; but the souls always possess them; only they possess them to a slight degree while conjoined with the body, some of them being completely imperceptible and hidden, others weak and dim, and about as ineffectual and slow in operation as person
23. Plutarch, Oracles At Delphi No Longer Given In Verse, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 2.23.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 38.1-38.3, 38.24, 41.1, 42.11, 47.26, 48.1-48.3, 50.25-50.26, 50.31 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.37 (2nd cent. CE

2.37. And more than this, as a faculty of divination by means of dreams, which is the divines and most godlike of human faculties, the soul detects the truth all the more easily when it is not muddied by wine, but accepts the message unstained and scans it carefully. Anyhow, the explains of dreams and visions, those whom the poets call interpreters of dreams, will never undertake to explain any vision to anyone without having first asked the time when it was seen. For if it was at dawn and in the sleep of morning tide, they calculate its meaning on the assumption that the soul is then in a condition to divine soundly and healthily, because by then it has cleansed itself of the stains of wine. But if the vision was seen in the first sleep or at midnight, when the soul is still immersed in the lees of wine and muddied thereby, they decline to make any suggestions, and they are wise. And that the gods also are of this opinion, and that they commit the faculty of oracular response to souls which are sober, I will clearly show. There was, O king, a seer among the Greeks called Amphiaros. I know, said the other; for you allude, I imagine, to the son of Oecles, who was swallowed up alive by the earth on his way back from Thebes. This man, O king, said Apollonius, still divines in Attica, inducing dreams in those who consult him, and the priests take a man who wishes to consult him, and they prevent his eating for one day, and from drinking wine for three, in order that he may imbibe the oracles with his soul in a condition of utter transparency. But if wine were a good drug of sleep, then the wise Amphiaros would have bidden his votaries to adopt the opposite regimen, and would have had them carried into his shrine as full of wine as leather flagons. And I could mention many oracles, held in repute by Greeks and barbarians alike, where the priest utters his responses from the tripod after imbibing water and not wine. So you may consider me also as a fit vehicle of the god, O king, along with all who drink water. For we are rapt by the nymphs and are bacchantic revelers in sobriety. Well, then, said the king, you must make me too, O Apollonius, a member of your religious brotherhood. I would do so, said the other, provided only you will not be esteemed vulgar and held cheap by your subjects. For in the case of a king a philosophy that is at once moderate and indulgent makes a good mixture, as is seen in your own case; but an excess of rigor and severity would seem vulgar, O king, and beneath your august station; and, what is more, it might be construed by the envious as due to pride.
28. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. bAnyone who prolongs his prayer and expects itto be answered, bwill ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are:Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an binclined wallthat is about to collapse, bexpecting prayerto be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, band passing a case against another to Heaven,as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult. This,where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one bexpectshis prayer to be accepted, bwhile this,where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does bnot expecthis prayer to be accepted. bHow does heprolong his prayer? By bincreasinghis bsupplication. /b,As for the virtue of bprolonging one’smealtime at the btable,which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: bPerhaps a poor person will comeduring the meal and the host will be in a position to bgive himfood immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, bas it is written: “The altar, three cubits highand the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), band it is writtenin the continuation of that verse: b“And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.”The language of this verse is difficult, as it bbegins with the altar and concludes with the table.Rather, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’stransgressions. bNowthat it is destroyed, ba person’s table atones for histransgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of bone who prolongshis time bin the bathroom,the Gemara asks: bIs that a virtue? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTen things bring a person tosuffer from bhemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal,as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, bthe spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay,the materials from which earthenware is made, band one who wipes himself with a stone with which anotherperson bwiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well.This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where bone prolongshis time there band suspendshimself, while bthisstatement of Rav Yehuda refers to where bone prolongshis time there band does not suspendhimself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. bLike thatincident bwhen a matron [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face isfat and full, blikethe faces of bpig farmers and usurerswho do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. bHe said to her: Honestly, those twooccupations bare prohibited to me; rather,why is it that my face is nice? Because bthere are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk Istop and bexamine myself in all of them. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who isinvited and bgiven the Torah scroll to read and he does not read,one who is given ba cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority. /b,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the bTorah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is writtenof the Torah: b“It is your life and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bA cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you”(Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. bAndwith regard to bone who conducts himself withan air of bsuperiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers,as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? bBecause he conducted himself withan air of bsuperiority,and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Threematters brequirea plea for bmercyto bring them about: bA good king, a good year, and a good dream.These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bA good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses:He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A bgood year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year”(Deuteronomy 11:12). And a bgood dream, as it is written:“O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore bYou will recover me [ ivataḥlimeni /i], and make me to live”(Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word itaḥlimeniis interpreted as deriving from the word iḥalom /i, dream.,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader.The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: bFamine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine;and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). bPlenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you”(Ezekiel 36:29). And ba good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the communityand they agree to the appointment, bas it is stated:“And Moses said unto the children of Israel: bSee, the Lord has called by name Bezalel,son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). bThe Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalela bsuitableappointment in byoureyes? Moses bsaid to Him: Master of the universe, if he isa bsuitableappointment in bYoureyes, bthen all the more soin bmyeyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to him: Nevertheless, go and tellIsrael and ask their opinion. Moses bwent and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitablein byoureyes? bThey said to him: If he is suitablein the eyes of bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, andin byoureyes, ball the more sohe is suitable in boureyes., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was calledby that name bon account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 31:7–11), bMoses went and reversedthe order band toldBezalel: b“Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle”(see Exodus 25–26). bHe said toMoses: bMoses, our teacher, thestandard bpracticethroughout the bworldis that ba person builds a house andonly bafterward places the vesselsin the house, band you sayto me: bMake an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle.If I do so in the order you have commanded, bthe vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels”(see Exodus 36). Moses bsaid toBezalel: bPerhaps you were in God’s shadow [ ibetzel El /i], and you knewprecisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Bezalel knewhow bto jointhe bletters with which heaven and earth were created.From where do we derive this? bIt is written herein praise of Bezalel: b“And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge,and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); band it is written therewith regard to creation of heaven and earth: b“The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens”(Proverbs 3:19), band it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew”(Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one whoalready bpossesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding”(Daniel 2:21). bRav Taḥalifa, from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bheardthis band repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him: You learnedproof for this idea bfrom there; we learn it from here: As it is writtenin praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b“And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom”(Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. bRav Ḥisda said:One should see bany dream, and not a fast.In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read.As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream,as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him.This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, bRav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it.Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him”(Ecclesiastes 3:14), band Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dreamthat causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b“The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: bWhat do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grainto grow bwithout straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters.Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, bRabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do wederive this? bFromthe story of bJoseph’sdream, bas it is written:“And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: band, behold, the sun and the moon /b
29. Iamblichus, Concerning The Mysteries, 3.4-3.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeschylus, nonsense Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
aeschylus, oresteia Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
aeschylus, relationship of cassandra with apollo Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
anxiety dreams and nightmares, anxiously imagined futures Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 187
anxiety dreams and nightmares, murder and blood Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 187
anxiety dreams and nightmares Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 187, 383
apollo, in cassandras speech Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
autobiography, autobiographical Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 136
caesar, julius Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
cassandra, voice Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
cassandra Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135, 136; Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
cato, the younger Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
choral poetry, and the posture of the vates Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
chorus, response to prophecy Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
civil wars, as subject of poetry Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
contest Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 187
delphi Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
divination Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
divine speech, enigmatic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 156
dream figures, human Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 156
dreams and visions, deixis Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 176
dreams and visions, examples, apocrypha and non-apocalyptic pseudepigrapha Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 156
dreams and visions, examples, josephus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 156
dreams and visions, examples, tragedy Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 383
dreams and visions, form criticism/classification, message dreams Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 156
dreams and visions, prescient Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 171, 176
dreams and visions, repeated internal features Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 176
dreams and visions, theorematic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 176, 187
emotional responses to dreams, perplexity Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 187
ennius Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
genre, historiography Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
genre, history as tragedy Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
hecuba Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
iamblichus Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
inspired prophecy Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
io Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135, 136
irony Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 176
julius caesar, gaius Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
leaping Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 136
literature, greek, ancient Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135, 136
liver Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
loxias (apollo) Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
lucan Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
masculinity Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
narrative, dramatic Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135
narrative, fragmented Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135
natural dreaming, prescience and cognition Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 171
natural dreaming Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 171
neoplatonism Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
non-linear Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135, 136
nonsense' Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45
oneiromancy Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
oracles Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
plato Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
platonic Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
plutarch Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
pollio, asinius, and historiography Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
pompeius magnus, gnaeus (pompey) Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
pregnancy Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
prophet Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
pythia Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
republic, the, representations of its fall Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
sibyl Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
soul Edmonds, Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World (2019) 196
temporality Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135
tragedy, aeschylean allusions Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
tragedy, aristotelian principles of Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
tragedy, as vision of history Bowditch, Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination (2001) 80
tragedy, attic/greek Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach, Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond (2021) 135, 136
tullius cicero, marcus Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
tullius cicero, quintus Mowat, Engendering the Future: Divination and the Construction of Gender in the Late Roman Republic (2021) 45
venuti, lawrence Pillinger, Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature (2019) 45