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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



111
Aelius Aristides, Orations, 47.59
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

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1. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. It is true that most people are unaware of this very ordinary and minor matter: the reason why the priests remove their hair and wear linen garments. Cf. Herodotus, ii. 37 and 81. Some persons do not care at all to have any knowledge about such things, while others say that the priests, because they revere the sheep, In Saïs and Thebaïs according to Strabo, xvii. 40 (p. 812). abstain from using its wool, as well as its flesh; and that they shave their heads as a sign of mourning, and that they wear their linen garments because of the colour which the flax displays when in bloom, and which is like to the heavenly azure which enfolds the universe. But for all this there is only one true reason, which is to be found in the words of Plato Phaedo, 67 b; Cf. Moralia, 108 d. ; for the Impure to touch the Pure is contrary to divine ordice. No surplus left over from food and no excrementitious matter is pure and clean; and it is from forms of surplus that wool, fur, hair, and nails originate and grow. Cf. Apuleius, Apology, chap. 26. So it would be ridiculous that these persons in their holy living should remove their own hair by shaving and making their bodies smooth all over, Cf. Herodotus, ii. 37. and then should put on and wear the hair of domestic animals. We should believe that when Hesiod Works and Days, 742-743. The meaning of these somewhat cryptic lines is, of course, that one should not pare one’s nails at table; Cf. also Moralia, ed. Bernardakis, vol. vii. p. 90. said, Cut not the sere from the green when you honour the gods with full feasting, Paring with glittering steel the member that hath the five branches, he was teaching that men should be clean of such things when they keep high festival, and they should not amid the actual ceremonies engage in clearing away and removing any sort of surplus matter. But the flax springs from the earth which is immortal; it yields edible seeds, and supplies a plain and cleanly clothing, which does not oppress by the weight required for warmth. It is suitable for every season and, as they say, is least apt to breed lice; but this topic is treated elsewhere. Plutarch touches briefly on this subject in Moralia, 642 c. 4. It is true that most people are unaware of this very ordinary and minor matter: the reason why the priests remove their hair and wear linen garments. Some persons do not care at all to have any knowledge about such things, while others say that the priests, because they revere the sheep, abstain from using its wool, as well as its flesh; and that they shave their heads as a sign of mourning, and that they wear their linen garments because of the colour which the flax displays when in bloom, and which is like to the heavenly azure which enfolds the universe. But for all this there is only one true reason, which is to be found in the words of Plato: "for the Impure to touch the Pure is contrary to divine ordice." No surplus left over from food and no excrementitious matter is pure and clean; and it is from forms of surplus that wool, fur, hair, and nails originate and grow. So it would be ridiculous that these persons in their holy living should remove their own hair by shaving and making their bodies smooth all over, and then should put on and wear the hair of domestic animals. We should believe that when Hesiod said, Cut not the sere from the green when you honour the gods with full feasting, Paring with glittering steel the member that hath the five branches, he was teaching that men should be clean of such things when they keep high festival, and they should not amid the actual ceremonies engage in clearing away and removing any sort of surplus matter. But the flax springs from the earth which is immortal; it yields edible seeds, and supplies a plain and cleanly clothing, which does not oppress by the weight required for warmth. It is suitable for every season and, as they say, is least apt to breed lice; but this topic is treated elsewhere.
2. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 19.5, 39.1, 39.17, 47.3, 47.36-47.39, 47.42, 47.61-47.68, 48.18-48.23, 48.50-48.51, 48.54-48.55, 48.71, 48.74, 48.78-48.79, 48.82, 50.10-50.11, 50.14-50.20, 50.25-50.31, 50.78-50.79, 51.1, 51.16, 51.31, 51.35-51.36, 51.38 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 49-50, 52, 54, 60, 45 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. There is too a lake in the same place, not far from the temple in which many sacred fishes of different kinds are reared. Some of these grow to a great size; they are called by names, and approach when called. I saw one of these ornamented with gold, and on its back fin a golden design was dedicated to the temple. I have often seen this fish, and he certainly carried this design.
4. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.34.4-1.34.5, 9.39.5, 10.4.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.34.4. The Oropians have near the temple a spring, which they call the Spring of Amphiaraus; they neither sacrifice into it nor are wont to use it for purifications or for lustral water. But when a man has been cured of a disease through a response the custom is to throw silver and coined gold into the spring, for by this way they say that Amphiaraus rose up after he had become a god. Iophon the Cnossian, a guide, produced responses in hexameter verse, saying that Amphiaraus gave them to the Argives who were sent against Thebes . These verses unrestrainedly appealed to popular taste. Except those whom they say Apollo inspired of old none of the seers uttered oracles, but they were good at explaining dreams and interpreting the flights of birds and the entrails of victims. 1.34.5. My opinion is that Amphiaraus devoted him self most to the exposition of dreams. It is manifest that, when his divinity was established, it was a dream oracle that he set up. One who has come to consult Amphiaraus is wont first to purify himself. The mode of purification is to sacrifice to the god, and they sacrifice not only to him but also to all those whose names are on the altar. And when all these things have been first done, they sacrifice a ram, and, spreading the skin under them, go to sleep and await enlightenment in a dream. 9.39.5. What happens at the oracle is as follows. When a man has made up his mind to descend to the oracle of Trophonius, he first lodges in a certain building for an appointed number of days, this being sacred to the good Spirit and to good Fortune. While he lodges there, among other regulations for purity he abstains from hot baths, bathing only in the river Hercyna. Meat he has in plenty from the sacrifices, for he who descends sacrifices to Trophonius himself and to the children of Trophonius, to Apollo also and Cronus, to Zeus surnamed King, to Hera Charioteer, and to Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonius. 10.4.4. At Panopeus there is by the roadside a small building of unburnt brick, in which is an image of Pentelic marble, said by some to be Asclepius, by others Prometheus. The latter produce evidence of their contention. At the ravine there lie two stones, each of which is big enough to fill a cart. They have the color of clay, not earthy clay, but such as would be found in a ravine or sandy torrent, and they smell very like the skin of a man. They say that these are remains of the clay out of which the whole race of mankind was fashioned by Prometheus.
5. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 8.15 (2nd cent. CE

8.15. They then said farewell to Demetrius, who was despondent about them, but they bade him hope for the best, as one brave man should for others as brave as himself, and then they sailed for Sicily with a favorable wind, and having passed Messina they reached Tauromenium on the third day. After that they arrived at Syracuse and put out for the Peloponnese about the beginning of the autumn; and having traversed the gulf they arrived after six days at the mouth of the Alpheus, where that river pours its waters, still sweet, into the Adriatic and Sicilian Sea. Here then they disembarked, and thinking it well worth their while to go to Olympia, they went and stayed there in the sanctuary of Zeus, though without ever going further away than Scillus. A rumor as sudden as insistent now ran through the Hellenic world that the sage was alive and had arrived at Olympia. At first the rumor seemed unreliable; for besides that they were humanly speaking unable to entertain any hope for him inasmuch as they heard that he was cast into prison, they had also heard such rumors as that he had been burnt alive, or dragged about alive with grapnels fixed in his neck, or cast into a deep pit, or into a well. But when the rumor of his arrival was confirmed, they all flocked to see him from the whole of Greece, and never did any such crowd flock to any Olympic festival as then, all full of enthusiasm and expectation. People came straight from Elis and Sparta, and from Corinth away at the limits of the Isthmus; and the Athenians too, although they are outside the Peloponnese; nor were they behind the cities which are at the gates of Pisa, for it was especially the most celebrated of the Athenians that hurried to the sanctuary, together with the young men who flocked to Athens from all over the earth. Moreover there were people from Megara just then staying at Olympia, as well as many from Boeotia, and from Argos, and all the leading people of Phocis and Thessaly. Some of them had already made Apollonius' acquaintance anxious to pick up his wisdom afresh, for they were convinced that there remained much to learn, more striking than what they had so far heard; but those who were not acquainted with him thought it a shame that they should seem never to have heard so great a man discourse. In answer to their questions then, of how he had escaped the clutches of the tyrant, he did not deem it right to say anything boastful; but he merely told them that he had made his defense and got away safely. However when several people arrived from Italy, who bruited abroad the episode of the lawcourt, the attitude of Hellas came near to that of actual worship; the main reason why they thought him divine was this, that he never made the least parade about the matter.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aelius aristides, and asclepius Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
aelius aristides, comments on bathing and hydrotherapy at pergamon asklepieion Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
aelius aristides, relationship with priests of asclepius at pergamum Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
aelius aristides, sacred tales Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
aelius aristides, sacred well Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
aelius aristides Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
aristides Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
asclepieion in pergamum Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
asclepius Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59; Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
asklepieia, purity requirements for incubation Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
asklepieia, use of seawater for purification Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245
asklepieia, uses and sources of water at asklepieia Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
asklepios Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
avidius cassius Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
bathing, abstinence from Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
behr, c. Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
commodus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
corinth asklepieion, lerna complex Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245
cyzicus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
diophantus of sphettus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
dream Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
dreams, including priests Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
dreams (in greek and latin literature), aelius aristides, sacred tales Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
festivals Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
gods Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
hydrotherapy, in cult of asklepios Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
incubation Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
julius apellas (m.) Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
lebena asklepieion, use of seawater forpurification(?) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245
lucian, de dea syria Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
marcus aurelius Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
mylasa Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
naturalism, ritual-centered Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
oratory Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
oropos amphiareion, sacred spring (spring of amphiaraos) Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245
panopeus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
pergamon asklepieion, hydrotherapy Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
pergamon asklepieion, sacred well and other water sources Renberg, Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World (2017) 245, 247
pergamum Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
philostratus, life of apollonius Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
philostratus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
priesthood as inferior to informal communication with the divine Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
priests adolescent, in aristides' sacred tales" Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
priests adolescent, in dreams Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
prometheus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
prophets and priests at rome, prophecy superior to priesthood' Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59
publius granius rufus Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
ritual, personal aspects Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
ritual, setting for Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
ritual Elsner, Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text (2007) 18
rome Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62
smyrna Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 59; Trapp et al., In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns (2016) 62