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29 results for "exordium"
1. Homer, Iliad, 9.526 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 204
9.526. / that were warriors, whenso furious wrath came upon any; won might they be by gifts, and turned aside by pleadings. Myself I bear in mind this deed of old days and not of yesterday, how it was; and I will tell it among you that are all my friends. The Curetes on a time were fighting and the Aetolians staunch in battle
2. Aristotle, Rhetoric, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201
3. Anaximenes of Lampsacus, Rhetoric To Alexander, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201, 202
4. Cicero, Brutus, 149, 33-34, 162 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201
162. erit, inquit [M.] Brutus M. secl. Heusinger , aut iam est iste quem exspectas? Nescio, inquam. Sed est etiam L. Crassi in consulatu pro Q. Caepione† defensione iuncta† in consulatu pro Q. Caepione defensione iuncta L : ex consulatu (peculatus) r(ei) Q. Caepionis defensio minuta Stangl, qui et conicit in c. pro Q. C. (testimonii loco oratio) defensione tincta non brevis ut laudatio, ut oratio autem brevis; postrema censoris oratio, qua anno duodequinquagesimo usus est. In his omnibus inest quidam sine ullo fuco veritatis color; quin etiam comprehensio et ambitus ille verborum, si sic peri/odon perhiodorum L, corr. vulg. appellari placet, erat apud illum contractus et brevis, et in membra quaedam, quae kw=la Graeci vocant, dispertiebat orationem dispertibat oratione L, corr. vulg. libentius.
5. Cicero, On Invention, 1.20, 1.22-1.25, 1.34-1.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195, 196, 212
1.20. Exordium est oratio animum auditoris idonee com- parans ad reliquam dictionem: quod eveniet, si eum benivolum, attentum, docilem confecerit. quare qui bene exordiri causam volet, eum necesse est genus suae causae diligenter ante cognoscere. Genera causarum quinque sunt: honestum, admirabile, humile, anceps, obscurum. honestum causae genus est, cui statim sine oratione nostra favet auditoris animus; admirabile, a quo est alienatus animus eorum, qui audituri sunt; humile, quod neglegitur ab auditore et non magno opere adtendendum videtur; anceps, in quo aut iudicatio dubia est aut causa et honestatis et turpitudinis parti- ceps, ut et benivolentiam pariat et offensionem; obscu- rum, in quo aut tardi auditores sunt aut difficilioribus ad cognoscendum negotiis causa est implicata. quare cum tam diversa sint genera causarum, exordiri quo- que dispari ratione in uno quoque genere necesse est. igitur exordium in duas partes dividitur, in principium et insinuationem. principium est oratio perspicue et protinus perficiens auditorem benivolum aut docilem aut attentum. insinuatio est oratio quadam dissimu- latione et circumitione obscure subiens auditoris animum. 1.22. Benivolentia quattuor ex locis comparatur: ab nostra, ab adversariorum, ab iudicum persona, a causa. ab nostra, si de nostris factis et officiis sine arrogantia dicemus; si crimina inlata et aliquas minus honestas suspiciones iniectas diluemus; si, quae incommoda acci- derint aut quae instent difficultates, proferemus; si prece et obsecratione humili ac supplici utemur. ab ad- versariorum autem, si eos aut in odium aut in invidiam aut in contemptionem adducemus. in odium ducentur, si quod eorum spurce, superbe, crudeliter, malitiose factum proferetur; in invidiam, si vis eorum, potentia, divitiae, cognatio pecuniae proferentur atque eorum usus arrogans et intolerabilis, ut his rebus magis vi- deantur quam causae suae confidere; in contemp- tionem adducentur, si eorum inertia, neglegentia, igna- via, desidiosum studium et luxuriosum otium profe- retur. ab auditorum persona benivolentia captabitur, si res ab iis fortiter, sapienter, mansuete gestae profe- rentur, ut ne qua assentatio nimia significetur, si de iis quam honesta existimatio quantaque eorum iudicii et auctoritatis exspectatio sit ostendetur; ab rebus, si nostram causam laudando extollemus, adversariorum causam per contemptionem deprimemus. 1.23. Attentos autem faciemus, si demonstrabimus ea, quae dicturi erimus, magna, nova, incredibilia esse, aut ad omnes aut ad eos, qui audient, aut ad aliquos inlustres ho- mines aut ad deos inmortales aut ad summam rem pu- blicam pertinere; et si pollicebimur nos brevi nostram causam demonstraturos atque exponemus iudica- tionem aut iudicationes, si plures erunt. Dociles audi- tores faciemus, si aperte et breviter summam causae exponemus, hoc est, in quo consistat controversia. nam et, cum docilem velis facere, simul attentum facias oportet. nam is est maxime docilis, qui attentissime est paratus audire. Nunc insinuationes quemadmodum tractari con- veniat, deinceps dicendum videtur. insinuatione igitur utendum est, cum admirabile genus causae est, hoc est, ut ante diximus, cum animus auditoris infestus est. id autem tribus ex causis fit maxime: si aut inest in ipsa causa quaedam turpitudo aut ab iis, qui ante dixerunt, iam quiddam auditori persuasum videtur aut eo tempore locus dicendi datur, cum iam illi, quos audire oportet, defessi sunt audiendo. nam ex hac quoque re non minus quam ex primis duabus in oratore nonnumquam animus auditoris offenditur. 1.24. Si causae turpitudo contrahit offensionem, aut pro eo homine, in quo offenditur, alium hominem, qui dili- gitur, interponi oportet; aut pro re, in qua offenditur, aliam rem, quae probatur; aut pro re hominem aut pro homine rem, ut ab eo, quod odit, ad id, quod diligit, auditoris animus traducatur; et dissimulare te id defensurum, quod existimeris; deinde, cum iam mi- tior factus erit auditor, ingredi pedetemptim in defen- sionem et dicere ea, quae indignentur adversarii, tibi quoque indigna videri; deinde, cum lenieris eum, qui audiet, demonstrare, nihil eorum ad te pertinere et ne- gare quicquam de adversariis esse dicturum, neque hoc neque illud, ut neque aperte laedas eos, qui diliguntur, et tamen id obscure faciens, quoad possis, alienes ab eis auditorum voluntatem; et aliquorum iudicium simili de re aut auctoritatem proferre imitatione dignam; deinde eandem aut consimilem aut maiorem aut minorem agi rem in praesenti demonstrare. 1.25. Sin oratio adversariorum fidem videbitur auditoribus fecisse—id quod ei, qui intellegit, quibus rebus fides fiat, facile erit cognitu— oportet aut de eo, quod adversarii firmissimum sibi pu- tarint et maxime ii, qui audient, probarint, primum te dicturum polliceri, aut ab adversarii dicto exordiri et ab eo potissimum, quod ille nuperrime dixerit, aut du- bitatione uti, quid primum dicas aut cui potissimum loco respondeas, cum admiratione. nam auditor cum eum, quem adversarii perturbatum putat oratione, vi- det animo firmissimo contra dicere paratum, plerum- que se potius temere assensisse quam illum sine causa confidere arbitratur. Sin auditoris studium defatigatio abalienavit a causa, te brevius, quam paratus fueris, esse dicturum commodum est polliceri; non imitaturum adversarium. sin res dabit, non inutile est ab aliqua re nova aut ridicula incipere aut ex tempore quae nata sit, quod genus strepitu, acclamatione; aut iam parata, quae vel apologum vel fabulam vel aliquam contineat inrisionem; aut si rei dignitas adimet iocandi facul- tatem, aliquid triste, novum, horribile statim non in- commodum est inicere. nam, ut cibi satietas et fasti- dium aut subamara aliqua re relevatur aut dulci miti- gatur, sic animus defessus audiendo aut admiratione integratur aut risu novatur. Ac separatim quidem, quae de principio et de insi- nuatione dicenda videbantur, haec fere sunt: nunc quiddam brevi communiter de utroque praecipiendum videtur. Exordium sententiarum et gravitatis plurimum debet habere et omnino omnia, quae pertinent ad dignitatem, in se continere, propterea quod id optime faciendum est, quod oratorem auditori maxime commendat; splendoris et festivitatis et concinnitudinis minimum, propterea quod ex his suspicio quaedam apparationis atque artificiosae diligentiae nascitur, quae maxime orationi fidem, oratori adimit auctoritatem. 1.34. Confirmatio est, per quam argumentando nostrae causae fidem et auctoritatem et firmamentum adiungit oratio. huius partis certa sunt praecepta, quae in singula causarum genera dividentur. verumtamen non incommodum videtur quandam silvam atque materiam universam ante permixtim et confuse exponere omnium argumentationum, post autem tradere, quemadmodum unum quodque causae genus hinc omnibus argumen- tandi rationibus tractis confirmari oporteat. Omnes res argumentando confirmantur aut ex eo, quod personis, aut ex eo, quod negotiis est adtributum. Ac personis has res adtributas putamus: nomen, na- turam, victum, fortunam, habitum, affectionem, studia, consilia, facta, casus, orationes. nomen est, quod uni cuique personae datur, quo suo quaeque proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur. naturam ipsam definire difficile est; 1.35. partes autem eius enumerare eas, quarum indigemus ad hanc praeceptionem, facilius est. eae autem partim divino, partim mortali in genere ver- santur. mortalium autem pars in hominum, pars in bestiarum genere numerantur. atque hominum genus et in sexu consideratur, virile an muliebre sit, et in natione, patria, cognatione, aetate. natione, Graius an barbarus; patria, Atheniensis an Lacedaemonius; co- gnatione, quibus maioribus, quibus consanguineis; aetate, puer an adulescens, natu grandior an senex. praeterea commoda et incommoda considerantur ab natura data animo aut corpori, hoc modo: valens an inbecillus, longus an brevis, formonsus an deformis, velox an tardus sit, acutus an hebetior, memor an obli- viosus, comis officiosus an infacetus, pudens, patiens an contra; et omnino quae a natura dantur animo et corpori considerabuntur et haec in natura conside- randa . nam quae industria comparantur, ad habitum pertinent, de quo posterius est dicendum. in victu con- siderare oportet, apud quem et quo more et cuius arbitratu sit educatus, quos habuerit artium liberalium magistros, quos vivendi praeceptores, quibus amicis utatur, quo in negotio, quaestu, artificio sit occupatus, quo modo rem familiarem administret, qua consuetu- dine domestica sit. in fortuna quaeritur, servus sit an liber, pecuniosus an tenuis, privatus an cum potestate: si cum potestate, iure an iniuria; felix, clarus an con- tra; quales liberos habeat. ac si de non vivo quaeretur, etiam quali morte sit affectus, erit considerandum. 1.36. habitum autem hunc appellamus animi aut corporis constantem et absolutam aliqua in re perfectionem, ut virtutis aut artis alicuius perceptionem aut quamvis scientiam et item corporis aliquam commoditatem non natura datam, sed studio et industria partam. affectio est animi aut corporis ex tempore aliqua de causa commutatio, ut laetitia, cupiditas, metus, molestia, morbus, debilitas et alia, quae in eodem genere re- periuntur. studium est autem animi assidua et vehe- menter ad aliquam rem adplicata magna cum voluptate occupatio, ut philosophiae, poe+ticae, geometricae, lit- terarum. consilium est aliquid faciendi aut non fa- ciendi excogitata ratio. facta autem et casus et ora- tiones tribus ex temporibus considerabuntur: quid fecerit aut quid ipsi acciderit aut quid dixerit; aut quid faciat, quid ipsi accidat, quid dicat; aut quid fac- turus sit, quid ipsi casurum sit, qua sit usurus oratione. Ac personis quidem haec videntur esse adtributa:
6. Cicero, De Oratore, 2.337, 3.184-3.192 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201, 209, 255
2.337. Ad consilium autem de re publica dandum caput est nosse rem publicam; ad dicendum vero probabiliter nosse mores civitatis, qui quia crebro mutantur, genus quoque orationis est saepe mutandum; et quamquam una fere vis est eloquentiae, tamen quia summa dignitas est populi, gravissima causa rei publicae, maximi motus multitudinis, genus quoque dicendi grandius quoddam et inlustrius esse adhibendum videtur; maximaque pars orationis admovenda est ad animorum motus non numquam aut cohortatione aut commemoratione aliqua aut in spem aut in metum aut ad cupiditatem aut ad gloriam concitandos, saepe etiam a temeritate, iracundia, spe, iniuria, invidia, crudelitate revocandos. 3.184. Neque vero haec tam acrem curam diligentiamque desiderant, quam est illa poetarum; quos necessitas cogit et ipsi numeri ac modi sic verba versu includere, ut nihil sit ne spiritu quidem minimo brevius aut longius, quam necesse est. Liberior est oratio et plane, ut dicitur, sic est vere soluta, non ut fugiat tamen aut erret, sed ut sine vinculis sibi ipsa moderetur. Namque ego illud adsentior Theophrasto, qui putat orationem, quae quidem sit polita atque facta quodam modo, non astricte, sed remissius numerosam esse oportere. 3.185. Etenim, sicut ille suspicatur, et ex istis modis, quibus hic usitatus versus efficitur, post anapaestus, procerior quidam numerus, effloruit, inde ille licentior et divitior fluxit dithyrambus, cuius membra et pedes, ut ait idem, sunt in omni locupleti oratione diffusa; et, si numerosum est in omnibus sonis atque vocibus, quod habet quasdam impressiones et quod metiri possumus intervallis aequalibus, recte genus hoc numerorum, dum modo ne continui sint, in orationis laude ponitur. Nam si rudis et impolita putanda est illa sine intervallis loquacitas perennis et profluens, quid est aliud causae cur repudietur, nisi quod hominum auribus vocem natura modulatur ipsa? Quod fieri, nisi inest numerus in voce, non potest. 3.186. Numerus autem in continuatione nullus est; distinctio et aequalium aut saepe variorum intervallorum percussio numerum conficit, quem in cadentibus guttis, quod intervallis distinguuntur, notare possumus, in amni praecipitante non possumus. Quod si continuatio verborum haec soluta multo est aptior atque iucundior, si est articulis membrisque distincta, quam si continuata ac producta, membra illa modificata esse debebunt; quae si in extremo breviora sunt, infringitur ille quasi verborum ambitus; sic enim has orationis conversiones Graeci nomit. Qua re aut paria esse debent posteriora superioribus, et extrema primis aut, quod etiam est melius et iucundius, longiora. 3.187. Atque haec quidem ab eis philosophis, quos tu maxime diligis, Catule, dicta sunt; quod eo saepius testificor, ut auctoribus laudandis ineptiarum crimen effugiam.' 'Quarum tandem?' inquit Catulus 'aut quid disputatione ista adferri potest elegantius aut omnino dici subtilius?' 3.188. 'At enim vereor,' inquit Crassus 'ne haec aut difficiliora istis ad persequendum esse videantur aut, quia non traduntur in vulgari ista disciplina, nos ea maiora ac difficiliora videri velle videamur.' Tum Catulus 'erras,' inquit 'Crasse, si aut me aut horum quemquam putas a te haec opera cotidiana et pervagata exspectare. Ista, quae dicis, dici volumus; neque tam dici quam isto dici modo; neque tibi hoc pro me solum, sed pro his omnibus sine ulla dubitatione respondeo.' 3.189. 'Ego vero' inquit Antonius 'inveni iam, quem negaram in eo, quem scripsi, libello me invenisse eloquentem. Sed eo te ne laudandi quidem causa interpellavi, ne quid de hoc tam exiguo sermonis tui tempore verbo uno meo deminueretur.' 3.190. 'Hanc igitur' Crassus inquit 'ad legem cum exercitatione tum stilo, qui et alia et hoc maxime ornat ac limat, formanda nobis oratio est. Neque tamen hoc tanti laboris est, quanti videtur, nec sunt haec rhythmicorum aut musicorum acerrima norma dirigenda; efficiendum est illud modo nobis, ne fluat oratio, ne vagetur, ne insistat interius, ne excurrat longius, ut membris distinguatur, ut conversiones habeat absolutas. Neque semper utendum est perpetuitate et quasi conversione verborum, sed saepe carpenda membris minutioribus oratio est, quae tamen ipsa membra sunt numeris vincienda. 3.191. Neque vos paean aut herous ille conturbet: ipsi occurrent orationi; ipsi, inquam, se offerent et respondebunt non vocati. Consuetudo modo illa sit scribendi atque dicendi, ut sententiae verbis finiantur eorumque verborum iunctio nascatur ab proceris numeris ac liberis, maxime heroo aut paeane priore aut cretico, sed varie distincteque considat. Notatur enim maxime similitudo in conquiescendo. Et, si primi et postremi illi pedes sunt hac ratione servati, medii possunt latere, modo ne circuitus ipse verborum sit aut brevior, quam aures exspectent, aut longior, quam vires atque anima patiatur. 3.192. Clausulas autem diligentius etiam servandas esse arbitror quam superiora, quod in eis maxime perfectio atque absolutio iudicatur. Nam versus aeque prima et media et extrema pars attenditur, qui debilitatur, in quacumque est parte titubatum; in oratione autem pauci prima cernunt, postrema plerique: quae quoniam apparent et intelleguntur, varianda sunt, ne aut animorum iudiciis repudientur aut aurium satietate.
7. Cicero, Letters, 174-176, 198-217, 219-225, 218 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201
8. Cicero, Pro Murena, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 197
7. sed me, iudices, non minus hominis sapientissimi atque ornatissimi, Ser. Sulpici, conquestio quam Catonis accusatio commovebat accusatio commovebat cattio acommovebat S : captio commovebat A qui gravissime et acerbissime se ferre se ferre Lambinus : ferme codd. dixit me familiaritatis necessitudinisque oblitum causam L. Lucii Murenae contra se defendere. huic ego, iudices, satis facere cupio vosque adhibere arbitros. nam cum grave est vere accusari in amicitia, tum, etiam si falso accuseris, non est neglegendum. ego, Ser. Sulpici, me in petitione tua tibi omnia studia atque officia pro nostra necessitudine et debuisse confiteor et praestitisse arbitror. nihil tibi consulatum petenti a me defuit quod esset aut ab amico aut a gratioso aut a consule postulandum. abiit abiit xyw : abit cett. illud tempus; mutata ratio est. sic existimo, sic mihi persuadeo, me tibi contra honorem Murenae L. Murenae Lambinus quantum tu a me postulare ausus sis, tantum debuisse, contra salutem nihil debere.
9. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 1.6-1.11, 4.19, 4.26-4.32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195, 196, 197, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205
4.19.  Epanaphora occurs when one and the same word forms successive beginnings for phrases expressing like and different ideas, as follows: "To you must go the credit for this, to you are thanks due, to you will this act of yours bring glory." Again: "Scipio razed Numantia, Scipio destroyed Carthage, Scipio brought peace, Scipio saved the state." Again: "You venture to enter the Forum? You venture to face the light? You venture to come into the sight of these men? Dare you say a word? Dare you make a request of them? Dare you beg off punishment? What can you say in your defence? What do you dare to demand? What do you think should be granted to you? Have you not violated your oath? Have you not betrayed your friends? Have you not raised your hand against your father? Have you not, I ask, wallowed in every shame?" This figure has not only much charm, but also impressiveness and vigour in highest degree; I therefore believe that it ought to be used for both the embellishment and the amplification of style. In Antistrophe we repeat, not the first word in successive phrases, as in Epanaphora, but the last, as follows: "It was by the justice of the Roman people that the Carthaginians were conquered, by its force of arms that they were conquered, by its generosity that they were conquered." Again: "Since the time when from our state concord disappeared, liberty disappeared, good faith disappeared, friendship disappeared, the common weal disappeared." Again: "Gaius Laelius was a self-made man, a talented man, a learned man, to good men and good endeavour a friendly man; and so in the state he was the first man." Again: "Is it acquittal by these men that you are demanding? Then it is their perjury that you are demanding, it is their neglect of their reputation that you are demanding, it is the surrender of the laws of the Roman people to your caprice that you are demanding." 4.26.  This figure ought to be brief, and completed in an unbroken period. Furthermore, it is not only agreeable to the ear on account of its brief and complete rounding-off, but by means of the contrary statement it also forcibly proves what the speaker needs to prove; and from a statement which is not open to question it draws a thought which is in question, in such a way that the inference cannot be refuted, or can be refuted only with much the greatest difficulty. Colon or Clause is the name given to a sentence member, brief and complete, which does not express the entire thought, but is in turn supplemented by another colon, as follows: "On the one hand you were helping your enemy." That is one so‑called colon; it ought then to be supplemented by a second: "And on the other you were hurting your friend." This figure can consist of two cola, but it is neatest and most complete when composed of three, as follows: "You were helping your enemy, you were hurting your friend, and you were not consulting your own best interests." Again: "You have not consulted the welfare of the republic, nor have you helped your friends, nor have you resisted your enemies." It is called a Comma or Phrase when single words are set apart by pauses in staccato speech, as follows: "By your vigour, voice, looks you have terrified your adversaries." Again: "You have destroyed your enemies by jealousy, injuries, influence, perfidy." There is this difference in onset between the last figure and the one preceding: the former moves upon its object more slowly and less often, the latter strikes more quickly and frequently. Accordingly in the first figure it seems that the arm draws back and the hand whirls about to bring the sword to the adversary's body, while in the second his body is as it were pierced with quick and repeated thrusts. 4.27.  A Period is a close-packed and uninterrupted group of words embracing a complete thought. We shall best use it in three places: in a Maxim, in a Contrast, and in Conclusion. In a Maxim as follows: "Fortune cannot much harm him who has built his support more firmly upon virtue than upon chance." In a Contrast, as follows: "For if a person has not placed much hope in chance, what great harm can chance do to him?" In a Conclusion, as follows: "But if Fortune has her greatest power over those who have committed all their plans to chance, we should not entrust our all with her, lest she gain too great a domination over us." In these three types a compact style is so necessary for the force of the period that the orator's power seems inadequate if he fails to present the Maxim, Contrast, or Conclusion in a press of words. But in other cases as well it is often proper, although not imperative, to express certain thoughts by means of periods of this sort. We call Isocolon the figure comprised of cola (discussed above) which consist of a virtually equal number of syllables. To effect the isocolon we shall not count the syllables — for that is surely childish — but experience and practice will bring such a facility that by a sort of instinct we can produce again a colon of equal length to the one before it, as follows: "The father was meeting death in battle; the son was planning marriage at his home. These omens wrote grievous disasters." Again: "Another man's prosperity is the gift of fortune, but this man's good character has been won by hard work." 4.28.  In this figure it may often happen that the number of syllables seems equal without being precisely so — as when one colon is shorter than the other by one or even two syllables, or when one colon contains more syllables, and the other contains one or more longer or fuller-sounding syllables, so that the length or fullness of sound of these matches and counterbalances the greater number of syllables in the other. The figure called Homoeoptoton occurs when in the same period two or more words appear in the same case, and with like termination, as follows: "Hominem laudem egentem virtutis, abundantem felicitatis?" Again: "Huic omnis in pecunia spes est, a sapientia est animus remotus; diligentia conparat divitias, neglegentia corrumpit animum, et tamen, cum ita vivit, neminem prae se ducit hominem." Homoeoteleuton occurs when the word endings are similar, although the words are indeclinable, as follows: "You dare to act dishonourably, you strive to talk despicably; you live hatefully, you sin zealously, you speak offensively." Again: "Blusteringly you threaten; cringingly you appease." These two figures, of which one depends on like word endings and the other on like case endings, are very much of a piece. And that is why those who use them well generally set them together in the same passage of a discourse. One should effect this in the following way: "Perditissima ratio est amorem petere, pudorem fugere, diligere formam, neglegere famam." Here the declinable words close with like case endings, and those lacking cases close with like terminations. 4.29.  Paronomasia is the figure in which, by means of a modification in sound, or change of letters, a close resemblance to a given verb or noun is produced, so that similar words express dissimilar things. This is accomplished by many different methods: (1) by thinning or contracting the same letter, as follows: "Hic qui se magnifice iactat atque ostentat, venÄ«t antequam Romam venÄ­t;" (2) and by the reverse: "Hic quos homines alea vincÄ­t, eos ferro statim vincÄ«t;" (3) by lengthening the same letter, as follows: "Hinc ăvium dulcedo ducit ad āvium;" (4) by shortening the same letter: "Hic, tametsi videtur esse honoris cupidus, tantum tamen cÅ«riam diligit quantum CÅ­riam?"; (5) by adding letters, as follows: "Hic sibi posset temperare, nisi amori mallet obtemperare"; (6) and now by omitting letters, as follows: "Si lenones vitasset tamquam leones, vitae tradidisset se"; (7) by transposing letters, as follows: "Videte, iudices, utrum homini navo an vano credere malitis"; (8) by changing letters, as follows: "Deligere oportet quem velis diligere." These are word-plays which depend on a slight change or lengthening or transposition of letters, and the like.   4.30.  There are others also in which the words lack so close a resemblance, and yet are not dissimilar. Here is an example of one kind of such word-plays: "Quid veniam, qui sim, quem insimulem, cui prosim, quae postulem, brevi cognoscetis." For in this example there is a sort of resemblance among certain words, not so complete, to be sure, as in the instances above, yet sometimes serviceable. An example of another kind: "Demus operam, Quirites, ne omnino patres conscripti circumscripti putentur." In this paronomasia the resemblance is closer than in the preceding, yet is not so close as in those above, because some letters are added and some at the same time removed. There is a third form of paronomasia, depending on a change of case in one or more proper nouns. 4.31.  In one noun, as follows: "Alexander of Macedon with consummate toil from boyhood trained his mind to virtue. Alexander's virtues have been broadcast with fame and glory throughout world. All men greatly feared Alexander, yet deeply loved him. Had longer life been granted Alexander, the Macedonian lances would have flown across the ocean." Here a single noun has been inflected, undergoing changes of case. Several different nouns, with change of case, will produce a paronomasia, as follows: "An undeserved death by violence prevented Tiberius Gracchus, while guiding the republic, from abiding longer therein. There befell Gaius Gracchus a like fate, which of a sudden tore from the bosom of the state a hero and staunch patriot. Saturninus, victim of his faith in wicked men, a treacherous crime deprived of life. O Drusus, your blood bespattered the walls of your home, and your mother's face. They were only now granting to Sulpicius every concession, yet soon they suffered him not to live, nor even to be buried." 4.32.  These last three figures — the first based on like case inflections, the second on like word endings, and the third on paronomasia — are to be used very sparingly when we speak in an actual cause, because their invention seems impossible without labour and pains. Such endeavours, indeed, seem more suitable for a speech of entertainment than for use in an actual cause. Hence the speaker's credibility, impressiveness, and seriousness are lessened by crowding these figures together. Furthermore, apart from destroying the speaker's authority, such a style gives offence because these figures have grace and elegance, but not impressiveness and beauty. Thus the grand and beautiful can give pleasure for a long time, but the neat and graceful quickly sate the hearing, the most fastidious of the senses. If, then, we crowd these figures together, we shall seem to be taking delight in a childish style; but if we insert them infrequently and scatter them with variations throughout the whole discourse, we shall brighten our style agreeably with striking ornaments.
10. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 10.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 212
11. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 12.53.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 210
12.53.4.  For he was the first to use the rather unusual and carefully devised structures of space, such as antithesis, sentences with equal members or balanced clauses or similar endings, and the like, all of which at that time was enthusiastically received because the advice was exotic, but is now looked upon as laboured and to be ridiculed when employed too frequently and tediously.
12. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 3.7.7-3.7.9, 3.8.8, 3.8.66, 4.1.1-4.1.39, 4.1.42, 4.1.44-4.1.50, 4.1.73-4.1.77, 4.3.9-4.3.11, 5.11.8, 9.3.30, 9.3.36-9.3.37, 9.3.77, 9.3.80, 9.3.91, 9.4.19-9.4.22, 9.4.122-9.4.130, 10.1.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 208, 212, 214, 255
3.7.7.  In praising the gods our first step will be to express our veneration of the majesty of their nature in general terms: next we shall proceed to praise the special power of the individual god and the discoveries whereby he has benefited the human race. 3.7.8.  For example, in the case of Jupiter, we shall extol his power as manifested in the goverce of all things, with Mars we shall praise his power in war, with Neptune his power over the sea; as regards inventions we shall celebrate Minerva's discovery of the arts, Mercury's discovery of letters, Apollo's of medicine, Ceres' of the fruits of the earth, Bacchus' of wine. Next we must record their exploits as handed down from antiquity. Even gods may derive honour from their descent, as for instance is the case with the sons of Jupiter, or from their antiquity, as in the case of the children of Chaos, or from their offspring, as in the case of Latona, the mother of Apollo and Diana. 3.7.9.  Some again may be praised because they were born immortal, others because they won immortality by their valour, a theme which the piety of our sovereign has made the glory even of these present times. 3.8.8.  Aristotle, it is true, holds, not without reason, that in deliberative speeches we may often begin with a reference either to ourselves or to our opponent, borrowing this practice from forensic oratory, and sometimes producing the impression that the subject is of greater or less importance than it actually is. On the other hand he thinks that in demonstrative oratory the exordium may be treated with the utmost freedom, 3.8.66.  As regards the use of examples practically all authorities are with good reason agreed that there is no subject to which they are better suited, since as a rule history seems to repeat itself and the experience of the past is a valuable support to reason. 4.3.9.  But, though such digressions are not always necessary at the end of the statement, they may form a very useful preparation for the examination of the main question, more especially if at first sight it presents an aspect unfavourable to our case, if we have to support a harsh law or demand severe punishment. For this is the place for inserting what may be regarded as a second exordium with a view to exciting or mollifying the judge or disposing him to lend a favouring ear to our proofs. Moreover we can do this with all the greater freedom and vehemence at this stage of the proceedings since the case is already known to the judge. 4.3.10.  We shall therefore employ such utterances as emollients to soften the harder elements of our statement, in order that the ears of the jury may be more ready to take in what we have to say in the sequel and to grant us the justice which we ask. For it is hard to persuade a man to do anything against the grain. 4.3.11.  It is also important on such occasions to know whether the judge prefers equity or a strict interpretation of the law, since the necessity for such digression will vary accordingly. Such passages may also serve as a kind of peroration after the main question. 5.11.8.  It will also be found useful when we are speaking of what is likely to happen to refer to historical parallels: for instance if the orator asserts that Dionysius is asking for a bodyguard that with their armed assistance he may establish himself as tyrant, he may adduce the parallel case of Pisistratus who secured the supreme power by similar means.
13. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 214
1.15. ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως, 1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
14. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 214
3.16. καὶ ὁμολογουμένως μέγα ἐστὶν τὸ τῆς εὐσεβείας μυστήριον· 3.16. Without controversy, the mystery of godliness is great: God was revealed in the flesh, Justified in the spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, And received up in glory.
15. New Testament, Philippians, 2.6-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 214
2.6. ὃς ἐν μορφῇ θεοῦ ὑπάρχων οὐχ ἁρπαγμὸν ἡγήσατο τὸ εἶναι ἴσα θεῷ, 2.7. ἀλλὰ ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσεν μορφὴν δούλου λαβών, ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος· καὶ σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος 2.8. ἐταπείνωσεν ἑαυτὸν γενόμενος ὑπήκοος μέχρι θανάτου, θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ· 2.9. διὸ καὶ ὁ θεὸς αὐτὸν ὑπερύψωσεν, καὶ ἐχαρίσατο αὐτῷ τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα, 2.10. ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦπᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃἐπουρανίων καὶ ἐπιγείων καὶ καταχθονίων, 2.11. καὶ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσηταιὅτι ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ εἰς δόξανθεοῦπατρός. 2.6. who, existing in the form of God, didn't consider it robbery to be equal with God, 2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. 2.8. And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, yes, the death of the cross. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth, 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
16. Theon Aelius, Exercises, 110-115, 109 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 212
17. New Testament, Hebrews, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201, 207, 209, 210
1.13. πρὸς τίνα δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων εἴρηκέν ποτε 1.13. But of which of the angels has he said at any time, "Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet?"
18. Menander of Laodicea, Rhet., 368-377 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 212
19. Aphthonius, Progymnasmata, 36-44, 35 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 212
20. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Comp., 2, 22-23, 33, 9  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 201
21. Ps. Hermogenes, Progymnasmata, 18-20  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 212
23. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Dem., 25  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 210
24. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Is., 19  Tagged with subjects: •exordium, primary exordium Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 210
25. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Lys., 2-3  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 210
29. Anon., Anonymous Seguerianus, 11-18, 10  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195, 196