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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
element, air Iribarren and Koning (2022) 43, 85, 91, 92, 145, 153, 162, 182, 215, 273, 299, 321, 325, 326, 329, 330, 331
element, earth Iribarren and Koning (2022) 43, 60, 69, 85, 149, 153, 161, 162, 201, 209, 215, 222, 273, 298, 299, 300, 306
element, female, as Trott (2019) 132
element, fifth Geljon and Runia (2019) 30
element, fire Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 174, 186, 535, 540, 597
Iribarren and Koning (2022) 43, 146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 155, 161, 162, 215, 273, 325
van der EIjk (2005) 128, 231
element, fire, as hot Graver (2007) 225
element, four education, paideia, παιδεία‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 61, 71, 114, 127, 133, 134, 138, 147, 148, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168, 216, 217, 245, 246, 252
element, in africa, libyan inscriptions Griffiths (1975) 61
element, in africa, moorish Griffiths (1975) 61
element, in exempla, intensification of religious Mueller (2002) 37, 38, 39, 90, 126, 127, 215
element, in necessity, in thucydides, impersonal Joho (2022) 81, 89, 90, 109, 124, 137, 143, 162, 163, 192, 193, 293, 294
element, in soul ineradicable, posidonius, stoic, platonic emotional Sorabji (2000) 105, 106, 107
element, in soul, nameless Inwood and Warren (2020) 95, 96, 97, 110
element, in soul, plutarch of chaeroneia, middle platonist, music comforts non-rational Sorabji (2000) 91
element, in the, soul, divine, immortal Dillon and Timotin (2015) 17, 19, 116, 153
element, of emotion, cognition, as Kaster(2005) 10, 67, 68, 77, 104, 105, 188, 189
element, of music d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 170
element, of numbers, indefinite dyad, as an Carter (2019) 105
element, of plot, myth, as constituent Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 14
element, of poetry, aural Johnson and Parker (2009) 192
element, of the soul, posidonius, stoic, the last two capacities called the emotional, pathētikon Sorabji (2000) 95
element, predominance, of one over, another Jouanna (2012) 200, 201
element, soul, appetitive Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 230, 231, 232, 233, 235, 238, 368
element, soul, divine Frede and Laks (2001) 11
element, stoicheion Jouanna (2012) 298, 325, 328
element, suol, spirited Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 230, 231, 232, 235, 239, 368
element, theory of plato, also platonic, academy Singer and van Eijk (2018) 35, 51
element, water Iribarren and Koning (2022) 42, 43, 67, 153, 162, 168, 181, 215, 273, 278, 295, 296, 297, 303, 308
Rasimus (2009) 86, 249, 250, 252, 258, 263, 269, 270
van der EIjk (2005) 128
element, water, as cosmogonic de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 134, 153, 156, 161, 165, 168, 186, 190, 215
elementa, or principia= gr. elements, lat. stoicheia Tsouni (2019) 54, 67, 68
elemental, as material, elements Trott (2019) 89, 110, 112, 144, 159, 206, 239
elemental, bodies, scientific knowledge, episteme, of the four Carter (2019) 68
elemental, body, as Carter (2019) 69
elemental, change Trott (2019) 85, 95, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 134, 136, 147, 150, 152
elemental, change, contrary, contraries, in Trott (2019) 99, 103, 104, 105, 107, 132, 150, 151, 152
elemental, change, empedocles, denial of Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 160
elemental, change, form, formal principle, εἶδος, in Trott (2019) 96, 140, 147, 148
elemental, change, heat hot, in Trott (2019) 101, 104, 105, 147, 148
elemental, change, material, matter, ὑλή, in Trott (2019) 96
elemental, cold, quality Jouanna (2012) 240
elemental, common matter of elements Trott (2019) 92, 94
elemental, contraries Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 11, 15, 105, 118, 124, 158
elemental, force of cold Trott (2019) 89, 97, 101, 102, 104, 105, 107, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156
elemental, force of moisture, moist Trott (2019) 101, 104, 105, 107, 109, 144, 220, 232, 239
elemental, force, air, as vital Williams (2012) 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183
elemental, forces in elements, elemental Trott (2019) 133, 148
elemental, forces, elements, powers, as constituent parts of Trott (2019) 89, 159, 161, 180
elemental, forces, powers, hippocratic view of Trott (2019) 133, 134, 135, 140
elemental, forces, powers, in sense perception Trott (2019) 58
elemental, forces, powers, in sexual reproduction Trott (2019) 110, 144, 146, 147, 148, 152, 156, 183, 239
elemental, forces, powers, pre-socratic views of Trott (2019) 134, 135, 136
elemental, form, formal principle, εἶδος Trott (2019) 96, 103, 104, 105, 107, 109, 150, 151, 161
elemental, generation of elements Trott (2019) 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 109, 150, 161, 177, 178
elemental, generation, elemental, forces, powers, in Trott (2019) 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 107, 150
elemental, generation, γενέσις Trott (2019) 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 107, 136, 181
elemental, hippocratic view of elements Trott (2019) 133, 134, 135
elemental, hot quality Jouanna (2012) 240
elemental, mixture Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 7, 16, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180
elemental, motion, movement Trott (2019) 95, 96, 97
elemental, motion/change, kinêsis, κίνησις‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 154
elemental, pre-socratic views of elements Trott (2019) 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140
elemental, processes Harte (2017) 18, 20, 24, 28
elemental, transformation, cometary theory, on Williams (2012) 18
elements Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 7, 8, 10, 12, 60, 61, 65, 121, 181
Frede and Laks (2001) 9, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 102, 130
Geljon and Runia (2013) 149, 218
Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 32, 292, 293
Harte (2017) 21, 214, 215, 223, 224, 225, 226, 233, 234, 235, 236
Joosse (2021) 19, 22
Jouanna (2012) 165, 200, 205, 211, 219, 288, 298, 320
King (2006) 28, 40, 41, 53, 55, 86, 97, 144, 189, 192, 250
Rohmann (2016) 47, 60, 83, 87, 90, 124, 157, 158, 159, 161, 170, 186, 190, 222
Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 71, 187, 189, 190, 197, 198, 207, 209, 210, 213, 263, 264, 266
Singer and van Eijk (2018) 7, 25, 28, 29, 32, 51, 57, 94, 98, 99, 157, 161
Williams (2009) 367
d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 50, 61, 170, 171, 175, 208
elements, adonai, jewish magic and ritual, and jewish Bortolani et al (2019) 100, 119, 120, 200
elements, aether King (2006) 62
elements, air Frede and Laks (2001) 199, 205
elements, and geometric proportion Hoenig (2018) 260
elements, aramaic magic and Bortolani et al (2019) 65, 120, 198
elements, archedemus, on Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 13
elements, aristotle on d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 154
elements, as legacy of presocratics Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 114
elements, athena itonia in boiotia, putative chthonic Lalone (2019) 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130
elements, bacchic rites, gendered Kraemer (2010) 29
elements, body, of christ, taken from the Williams (2009) 367, 368
elements, carried through all, in initiation Griffiths (1975) 301
elements, carried through all, in initiation, mystery-cult of at colossae Griffiths (1975) 303
elements, causal role in earthquakes Williams (2012) 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247
elements, chance, as a cause of a ratio of Carter (2019) 135
elements, christian tradition, and christian Bortolani et al (2019) 13, 21, 48, 92, 100, 103, 122, 130, 219, 223, 279, 280, 281, 283, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 296
elements, combinability Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 181
elements, compared to cleanthes and zeno, on Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 13
elements, comparison of Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137
elements, concord, created out of discordant Pinheiro et al (2015) 39
elements, contents, wisdom Trudinger (2004) 263, 264
elements, corruption Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 5, 7, 9, 12
elements, cosmological Seaford (2018) 194, 196, 201, 205, 206, 218, 358, 359
elements, creation of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 153, 160, 163
elements, definition of Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 61, 63
elements, differentiae Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 61, 62, 64, 65, 81
elements, dramatic Pinheiro et al (2018) 33
elements, egyptian Griffiths (1975) 351
elements, empedoclean Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 115
elements, empedocleo-lucretian background in metamorphoses, four Williams and Vol (2022) 106, 176, 310
elements, empedocles, and four Griffiths (1975) 141
elements, empedocles, as making soul the Carter (2019) 150
elements, ether, fifth substance Frede and Laks (2001) 14, 15, 16, 17
elements, eucharist Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 57, 208, 210, 211, 212, 216, 219, 342, 398, 399, 401
elements, euclid Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 362, 363, 367, 380, 391, 392, 394, 395
elements, fire Frede and Laks (2001) 17, 21, 44, 57, 58, 59, 79, 80, 97, 101, 104
elements, fire, one of the four Brouwer (2013) 74
elements, first/fifth, element, Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 8, 10, 22
elements, four Geljon and Runia (2019) 30, 88, 93, 94, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 147, 234, 237
Inwood and Warren (2020) 47, 129, 173, 174
Jouanna (2012) 230
Van der Horst (2014) 105
elements, four in universe Hoenig (2018) 155, 178
elements, four, of foodstuffs van der EIjk (2005) 83
elements, generated first in stoic cosmogony Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 17, 23, 29
elements, generation, of Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 7, 9, 41, 80, 82, 86, 92, 103
elements, homer, ethnographic Wolfsdorf (2020) 498
elements, homer, mycenean in Marincola et al (2021) 23, 24
elements, imbalance, of the Jouanna (2012) 215
elements, in aristotle Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 111
elements, in creation of cosmos Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 13
elements, in exempla, visual Langlands (2018) 21
elements, in john chrysostom, theatrical Azar (2016) 106, 118, 119, 120, 121
elements, in mystery cult, cosmological Seaford (2018) 196
elements, in pseudo-eupolemus, alleged samaritan historian who wrote in greek, un-jewish Feldman (2006) 125
elements, in stoicism, deities and Taylor and Hay (2020) 119, 120, 127, 128, 129
elements, in the body, hippocratics, on Trott (2019) 132, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 140
elements, inertness of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 115
elements, interchangeability Williams (2012) 17, 18, 19, 20, 191, 231, 244, 246, 247, 308, 309
elements, intermediate, exhalations - between Joosse (2021) 22, 23
elements, isis, mistress of all the Griffiths (1975) 5, 141
elements, jewish magic and ritual, and jewish Bortolani et al (2019) 10, 13, 17, 21, 68, 99, 100, 103, 119, 120, 122, 130, 137, 138, 142, 143, 147, 148, 153, 155, 157, 197, 200, 201, 207, 222, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271, 277
elements, kosmos, and the Horkey (2019) 26, 99, 100, 103
elements, language, and Janowitz (2002b) 56
elements, matter, the so-called Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 5, 6, 14, 17, 23, 152
elements, mesopotamian magic, ritual and religion, and mesopotamian Bortolani et al (2019) 5, 10, 13, 19, 21, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 82, 83, 84, 85, 147, 185, 239, 243, 249, 250, 253
elements, metrical sacred regulations Stavrianopoulou (2006) 173, 174
elements, mistress isis, and of they are her slaves Griffiths (1975) 323
elements, mistress of Griffiths (1975) 5, 141
elements, mistress of isis, and Griffiths (1975) 5, 141
elements, mistress of slaves of isis Griffiths (1975) 141, 323
elements, mixture, of the four primary Jouanna (2012) 288
elements, multiple causation Williams (2012) 246, 247
elements, myth of er, of the Horkey (2019) 55, 68, 71, 88, 95, 104
elements, myus, natural Sweeney (2013) 85, 92, 93
elements, nubian magic and ritual, and nubian Bortolani et al (2019) 6, 7, 8, 10, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 216, 217, 223
elements, number of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 121
elements, oath-rituals Stavrianopoulou (2006) 192, 204
elements, of cult, apollo of delphi on, determining Mikalson (2010) 1, 57, 58, 63, 64, 73, 75, 76, 100, 105, 108, 109, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 163, 165, 172, 179, 213
elements, of cult, divination, establishing Mikalson (2010) 81, 96, 111, 122, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 177, 196
elements, of cultural repertoire, motifs Hayes (2022) 264, 295
elements, of isis, mistress of all the Griffiths (1975) 5, 141
elements, of narratio Martin and Whitlark (2018) 155, 158
elements, of physics, proclus d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 128, 142, 334
elements, of piyyut, piyyutim, terminology for Lieber (2014) 42
elements, of plato’s aporetic, philosophy Motta and Petrucci (2022) 42
elements, of soul, psyche King (2006) 189
elements, of textuality, hittite graphic historiography, didactic use of Carr (2004) 142
elements, of the eucharist Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 57, 429
elements, of the world Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 90, 91, 92
elements, of theology, lost d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 294
elements, of theology, proclus Joosse (2021) 235
d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 50, 62, 67, 68, 72, 142, 178, 208, 294, 317, 333, 334
elements, of virtue, uirtus, elementa, uirtutis virtue Mueller (2002) 149, 150, 151
elements, order of generation of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 18, 26, 27
elements, physical Long (2006) 117, 141, 150, 169, 174, 217, 256, 264, 266, 281
elements, plato Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 11, 181
elements, plato, on the Hoenig (2018) 274
elements, principle, ἀρχή, of Trott (2019) 148
elements, principles and causes, simplicius, on Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 111
elements, procedure, legal, procedural Martin (2009) 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 172, 253, 279
elements, proclus, commentary on the first book of euclids d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 31, 61, 170, 172, 180, 195, 320
elements, qualities of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 117
elements, roman, and non-roman Gruen (2011) 346, 347, 348, 349, 350
elements, sabaoth, jewish magic and ritual, and jewish Bortolani et al (2019) 100, 119, 120, 155, 185, 197, 200
elements, sequence of O, Daly (2020) 259, 260
elements, so-called Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 22, 23, 24, 25, 34, 59, 155, 181, 196
elements, soul, and the Seaford (2018) 196
elements, stoic theory of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 17, 24, 25
elements, stoicheia Thonemann (2020) 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 177, 197
elements, testaments of the twelve patriarchs, apocalyptic Collins (2016) 169, 170
elements, theory of four Jouanna (2012) 336, 358
elements, timaeus, on four Hoenig (2018) 260
elements, tomis, and empedoclean Williams and Vol (2022) 251, 252, 261, 262
elements, traces of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 118
elements, tragic Pinheiro et al (2018) 33
elements, wisdom Trudinger (2004) 112
elements, world in paul, its Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 90, 91, 92
elements, worship of elders Taylor and Hay (2020) 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123
elements, zeno, on Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 13
elements/information, biographical Motta and Petrucci (2022) 38, 88
elements/roots, empedocles Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 127, 128, 129, 157
epistolography, elements Malherbe et al (2014) 253
expressions/elements, liturgical Allison (2018) 21, 28, 104, 148, 199, 271, 283, 336, 406, 407, 408, 409, 411, 412, 440
expressions/elements, liturgical long-sleepers, legends of Allison (2018) 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220
expressions/elements, liturgical luke, gospel of Allison (2018) 24, 64, 143, 231, 279, 287
four-element, physics, elements Graver (2007) 19, 225

List of validated texts:
50 validated results for "element"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 8.10 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Liturgical expressions/elements, Luke, Gospel of • motifs, elements of cultural repertoire

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 231; Hayes (2022) 295

8.10. with the thought, "Perhaps he too will die."''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.3, 1.26-1.27, 9.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abraham, the element of light • Sabbath, as passive element, but not contradict creativity • Sex, and sadistic elements • Water, element • Womb imagery, combines elements of water and darkness • elements • elements, four

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 149, 218; Geljon and Runia (2019) 94; Kosman (2012) 173, 206, 207; Rasimus (2009) 86, 250

1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃
1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃' '. None
1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters. 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light.
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.''. None
3. Hesiod, Works And Days, 121-123, 800 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • air (element) • cosmological elements • earth (element) • fire (element) • gods as elements, names of the gods

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 149, 321; Seaford (2018) 201, 206; Álvarez (2019) 33

121. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ τοῦτο γένος κατὰ γαῖʼ ἐκάλυψε,—'122. τοὶ μὲν δαίμονες ἁγνοὶ ἐπιχθόνιοι καλέονται 123. ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων,
800. Ἐν δὲ τετάρτῃ μηνὸς ἄγεσθαι οἶκον ἄκοιτιν '. None
121. There was no dread old age but, always rude'122. of health, away from grief, they took delight 123. In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued
800. When you a lovely stream of water find, '. None
4. Hesiod, Theogony, 126-127, 350, 884 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • air (element) • earth (element) • gods as elements, Olympian gods • gods as elements, names of the gods • water (element)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 67, 85, 296; Álvarez (2019) 50, 145, 147

126. Γαῖα δέ τοι πρῶτον μὲν ἐγείνατο ἶσον ἑαυτῇ'127. Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόενθʼ, ἵνα μιν περὶ πάντα καλύπτοι,
350. Δωρίς τε Πρυμνώ τε καὶ Οὐρανίη θεοειδὴς
884. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσιν Ὀλύμπιον εὐρύοπα Ζῆν '. None
126. To many-valed Olympus found their way.'127. Therefore, Olympian Muses, tell to me,
350. The loud-voiced Cerberus who eats raw meat,
884. Because he is upright, the clamorou '. None
5. Homer, Iliad, 14.246 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • air (element) • earth (element) • fire (element) • gods as elements, Olympian gods • gods as elements, names of the gods • water (element)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 43; Álvarez (2019) 58

14.246. Ὠκεανοῦ, ὅς περ γένεσις πάντεσσι τέτυκται·''. None
14.246. Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson, ''. None
6. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • water (element) • water,as cosmogonic element

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 295; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 215

7. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • air (element) • cosmological elements • earth (element) • elemental processes • elements • fire (element) • water (element)

 Found in books: Harte (2017) 18, 20, 21, 24; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 161, 162, 326; King (2006) 41; Seaford (2018) 201

8. Herodotus, Histories, 4.13-4.15, 4.36, 4.59, 4.67 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Myus, natural elements • Tomis, and Empedoclean elements • air (element) • gods as elements, names of the gods

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 92; Sweeney (2013) 93; Williams and Vol (2022) 251; Álvarez (2019) 145

4.13. ἔφη δὲ Ἀριστέης ὁ Καϋστροβίου ἀνὴρ Προκοννήσιος ποιέων ἔπεα, ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Ἰσσηδόνας φοιβόλαμπτος γενόμενος, Ἰσσηδόνων δὲ ὑπεροικέειν Ἀριμασποὺς ἄνδρας μουνοφθάλμους ὕπερ δὲ τούτων τοὺς χρυσοφύλακας γρῦπας, τούτων δὲ τοὺς Ὑπερβορέους κατήκοντας ἐπὶ θάλασσαν. τούτους ὦν πάντας πλὴν Ὑπερβορέων, ἀρξάντων Ἀριμασπῶν, αἰεὶ τοῖσι πλησιοχώροισι ἐπιτίθεσθαι, καὶ ὑπὸ μὲν Ἀριμασπῶν ἐξωθέεσθαι ἐκ τῆς χώρης Ἰσσηδόνας, ὑπὸ δὲ Ἰσσηδόνων Σκύθας, Κιμμερίους δὲ οἰκέοντας ἐπὶ τῇ νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ ὑπὸ Σκυθέων πιεζομένους ἐκλείπειν τὴν χώρην. οὕτω οὐδὲ οὗτος συμφέρεται περὶ τῆς χώρης ταύτης Σκύθῃσι. 4.14. καὶ ὅθεν μὲν ἦν Ἀριστέης ὁ ταῦτα εἴπας, εἴρηκα, τὸν δὲ περὶ αὐτοῦ ἤκουον λόγον ἐν Προκοννήσῳ καί Κυζίκῳ, λέξω. Ἀριστέην γὰρ λέγουσι, ἐόντα τῶν ἀστῶν οὐδενὸς γένος ὑποδεέστερον, ἐσελθόντα ἐς κναφήιον ἐν Προκοννήσῳ ἀποθανεῖν, καὶ τόν κναφέα κατακληίσαντα τὸ ἐργαστήριον οἴχεσθαι ἀγγελέοντα τοῖσι προσήκουσι τῷ νεκρῷ. ἐσκεδασμένου δὲ ἤδη τοῦ λόγου ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν ὡς τεθνεώς εἴη ὁ Ἀριστέης, ἐς ἀμφισβασίας τοῖσι λέγουσι ἀπικνέεσθαι ἄνδρα Κυζικηνὸν ἥκοντα ἐξ Ἀρτάκης πόλιος, φάντα συντυχεῖν τε οἱ ἰόντι ἐπὶ Κυζίκου καὶ ἐς λόγους ἀπικέσθαι. καὶ τοῦτον μὲν ἐντεταμένως ἀμφισβατέειν, τοὺς δὲ προσήκοντας τῷ νεκρῷ ἐπὶ τὸ κναφήιον παρεῖναι ἔχοντας τὰ πρόσφορα ὡς ἀναιρησομένους· ἀνοιχθέντος δὲ τοῦ οἰκήματος οὔτε τεθνεῶτα οὔτε ζῶντα φαίνεσθαι Ἀριστέην. μετὰ δὲ ἑβδόμῳ ἔτει φανέντα αὐτὸν ἐς Προκόννησον ποιῆσαι τὰ ἔπεα ταῦτα τὰ νῦν ὑπʼ Ἑλλήνων Ἀριμάσπεα καλέεται, ποιήσαντα δὲ ἀφανισθῆναι τὸ δεύτερον. 4.15. ταῦτα μὲν αἱ πόλιες αὗται λέγουσι, τάδε δὲ οἶδα Μεταποντίνοισι τοῖσι ἐν Ἰταλίῃ συγκυρήσαντα μετὰ τὴν ἀφάνισιν τὴν δευτέρην Ἀριστέω ἔτεσι τεσσεράκοντα καὶ διηκοσίοισι, ὡς ἐγὼ συμβαλλόμενος ἐν Προκοννήσῳ τε καὶ Μεταποντίῳ εὕρισκον. Μεταποντῖνοι φασὶ αὐτὸν Ἀριστέην φανέντα σφι ἐς τὴν χώρην κελεῦσαι βωμὸν Ἀπόλλωνος ἱδρύσασθαι καὶ Ἀριστέω τοῦ Προκοννησίου ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντα ἀνδριάντα πὰρʼ αὐτὸν ἱστάναι· φάναι γὰρ σφι τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα Ἰταλιωτέων μούνοισι δὴ ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν χώρην, καὶ αὐτὸς οἱ ἕπεσθαι ὁ νῦν ἐὼν Ἀριστέης· τότε δὲ, ὅτε εἵπετο τῷ θεῷ, εἶναι κόραξ. καὶ τὸν μὲν εἰπόντα ταῦτα ἀφανισθῆναι, σφέας δὲ Μεταποντῖνοι λέγουσι ἐς Δελφοὺς πέμψαντας τὸν θεὸν ἐπειρωτᾶν ὃ τι τὸ φάσμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἴη. τὴν δὲ Πυθίην σφέας κελεύειν πείθεσθαι τῷ φάσματι, πειθομένοισι δὲ ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. καὶ σφέας δεξαμένους ταῦτα ποιῆσαι ἐπιτελέα. καὶ νῦν ἔστηκε ἀνδριὰς ἐπωνυμίην ἔχων Ἀριστέω παρʼ αὐτῷ τῷ ἀγάλματι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος, πέριξ δὲ αὐτὸν δάφναι ἑστᾶσι· τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐν τῇ ἀγορῇ ἵδρυται. Ἀριστέω μέν νυν πέρι τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω.
4.36. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ὑπερβορέων πέρι εἰρήσθω· τὸν γὰρ περὶ Ἀβάριος λόγον τοῦ λεγομένου εἶναι Ὑπερβορέου οὐ λέγω, ὡς 1 τὸν ὀιστὸν περιέφερε κατὰ πᾶσαν γῆν οὐδὲν σιτεόμενος. εἰ δὲ εἰσὶ ὑπερβόρεοι τινὲς ἄνθρωποι, εἰσὶ καὶ ὑπερνότιοι ἄλλοι. γελῶ δὲ ὁρέων γῆς περιόδους γράψαντας πολλοὺς ἤδη καὶ οὐδένα νοονεχόντως ἐξηγησάμενον· οἳ Ὠκεανόν τε ῥέοντα γράφουσι πέριξ τὴν γῆν ἐοῦσαν κυκλοτερέα ὡς ἀπὸ τόρνου, καὶ τὴν Ἀσίην τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ποιεύντων ἴσην. ἐν ὀλίγοισι γὰρ ἐγὼ δηλώσω μέγαθός τε ἑκάστης αὐτέων καὶ οἵη τις ἐστὶ ἐς γραφὴν ἑκάστη.
4.59. τὰ μὲν δὴ μέγιστα οὕτω σφι εὔπορα ἐστί, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ νόμαια κατὰ τάδε σφι διακέεται. θεοὺς μὲν μούνους τούσδε ἱλάσκονται, Ἱστίην μὲν μάλιστα, ἐπὶ δὲ Δία καὶ Γῆν, νομίζοντες τὴν Γῆν τοῦ Διὸς εἶναι γυναῖκα, μετὰ δὲ τούτους, Ἀπόλλωνά τε καὶ οὐρανίην Ἀφροδίτην καὶ Ἡρακλέα καὶ Ἄρεα. τούτους μὲν πάντες Σκύθαι νενομίκασι, οἱ δὲ καλεόμενοι βασιλήιοι Σκύθαι καὶ τῷ Ποσειδέωνι θύουσι. ὀνομάζεται δὲ σκυθιστὶ Ἱστίη μὲν Ταβιτί, Ζεὺς δὲ ὀρθότατα κατὰ γνώμην γε τὴν ἐμὴν καλεόμενος Παπαῖος, Γῆ δὲ Ἀπί. Ἀπόλλων δὲ Γοιτόσυρος, οὐρανίη δὲ Ἀφροδίτη Ἀργίμπασα, Ποσειδέων δὲ Θαγιμασάδας. ἀγάλματα δὲ καὶ βωμοὺς καὶ νηοὺς οὐ νομίζουσι ποιέειν πλὴν Ἄρεϊ. τούτῳ δὲ νομίζουσι.
4.67. μάντιες δὲ Σκυθέων εἰσὶ πολλοί, οἳ μαντεύονται ῥάβδοισι ἰτεΐνῃσι πολλῇσι ὧδε· ἐπεὰν φακέλους ῥάβδων μεγάλους ἐνείκωνται, θέντες χαμαὶ διεξειλίσσουσι αὐτούς, καὶ ἐπὶ μίαν ἑκάστην ῥάβδον τιθέντες θεσπίζουσι, ἅμα τε λέγοντες ταῦτα συνειλέουσι τὰς ῥάβδους ὀπίσω καὶ αὖτις κατὰ μίαν συντιθεῖσι. αὕτη μὲν σφι ἡ μαντικὴ πατρωίη ἐστί. οἱ δὲ Ἐνάρεες οἱ ἀνδρόγυνοι τὴν Ἀφροδίτην σφίσι λέγουσι μαντικὴν δοῦναι· φιλύρης δʼ ὧν φλοιῷ μαντεύονται· ἐπεὰν τὴν φιλύρην τρίχα σχίσῃ, διαπλέκων ἐν τοῖσι δακτύλοισι τοῖσι ἑωυτοῦ καὶ διαλύων χρᾷ.''. None
4.13. There is also a story related in a poem by Aristeas son of Caüstrobius, a man of Proconnesus . This Aristeas, possessed by Phoebus, visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspians, beyond whom are the griffins that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreans, whose territory reaches to the sea. ,Except for the Hyperboreans, all these nations (and first the Arimaspians) are always at war with their neighbors; the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspians, and the Scythians by the Issedones, and the Cimmerians, living by the southern sea, were hard pressed by the Scythians and left their country. Thus Aristeas' story does not agree with the Scythian account about this country. " "4.14. Where Aristeas who wrote this came from, I have already said; I will tell the story that I heard about him at Proconnesus and Cyzicus . It is said that this Aristeas, who was as well-born as any of his townsfolk, went into a fuller's shop at Proconnesus and there died; the owner shut his shop and went away to tell the dead man's relatives, ,and the report of Aristeas' death being spread about in the city was disputed by a man of Cyzicus, who had come from the town of Artace, and said that he had met Aristeas going toward Cyzicus and spoken with him. While he argued vehemently, the relatives of the dead man came to the fuller's shop with all that was necessary for burial; ,but when the place was opened, there was no Aristeas there, dead or alive. But in the seventh year after that, Aristeas appeared at Proconnesus and made that poem which the Greeks now call the 4.36. I have said this much of the Hyperboreans, and let it suffice; for I do not tell the story of that Abaris, alleged to be a Hyperborean, who carried the arrow over the whole world, fasting all the while. But if there are men beyond the north wind, then there are others beyond the south. ,And I laugh to see how many have before now drawn maps of the world, not one of them reasonably; for they draw the world as round as if fashioned by compasses, encircled by the Ocean river, and Asia and Europe of a like extent. For myself, I will in a few words indicate the extent of the two, and how each should be drawn.
4.59. The most important things are thus provided them. It remains now to show the customs which are established among them. The only gods whom they propitiate are these: Hestia in particular, and secondly Zeus and Earth, whom they believe to be the wife of Zeus; after these, Apollo, and the Heavenly Aphrodite, and Heracles, and Ares. All the Scythians worship these as gods; the Scythians called Royal sacrifice to Poseidon also. ,In the Scythian tongue, Hestia is called Tabiti; Zeus (in my judgment most correctly so called) Papaeus; Earth is Apia; Apollo Goetosyrus; the Heavenly Aphrodite Argimpasa; Poseidon Thagimasadas. It is their practice to make images and altars and shrines for Ares, but for no other god.
4.67. There are many diviners among the Scythians, who divine by means of many willow wands as I will show. They bring great bundles of wands, which they lay on the ground and unfasten, and utter their divinations as they lay the rods down one by one; and while still speaking, they gather up the rods once more and place them together again; ,this manner of divination is hereditary among them. The Enarees, who are hermaphrodites, say that Aphrodite gave them the art of divination, which they practise by means of lime-tree bark. They cut this bark into three portions, and prophesy while they braid and unbraid these in their fingers. '". None
9. Plato, Cratylus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo of Delphi on, determining elements of cult • gods as elements, names of the gods

 Found in books: Mikalson (2010) 105; Álvarez (2019) 134

396d. ΕΡΜ. καὶ μὲν δή, ὦ Σώκρατες, ἀτεχνῶς γέ μοι δοκεῖς ὥσπερ οἱ ἐνθουσιῶντες ἐξαίφνης χρησμῳδεῖν. ΣΩ. καὶ αἰτιῶμαί γε, ὦ Ἑρμόγενες, μάλιστα αὐτὴν ἀπὸ Εὐθύφρονος τοῦ Προσπαλτίου προσπεπτωκέναι μοι· ἕωθεν γὰρ πολλὰ αὐτῷ συνῆ καὶ παρεῖχον τὰ ὦτα. κινδυνεύει οὖν ἐνθουσιῶν οὐ μόνον τὰ ὦτά μου ἐμπλῆσαι τῆς δαιμονίας σοφίας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐπειλῆφθαι. δοκεῖ οὖν μοι''. None
396d. Hermogenes. Indeed, Socrates, you do seem to me to be uttering oracles, exactly like an inspired prophet. Socrates. Yes, Hermogenes, and I am convinced that the inspiration came to me from Euthyphro the Prospaltian. For I was with him and listening to him a long time early this morning. So he must have been inspired, and he not only filled my ears but took possession of my soul with his superhuman wisdom. So I think this is our duty:''. None
10. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements, four • gods as elements, names of the gods

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019) 109; Álvarez (2019) 33

202e. μεταξύ ἐστι θεοῦ τε καὶ θνητοῦ.''. None
202e. Through it are conveyed all divination and priestcraft concerning sacrifice and ritual''. None
11. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fire, element • Plato, on the elements • Timaeus, on four elements • creation of elements • earth (element) • element theory • element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) • elements • elements, and geometric proportion • elements, qualities of • elements, transmutation of • indefinite dyad, as an element of numbers • kosmos, and the elements

 Found in books: Carter (2019) 105; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 186; Frede and Laks (2001) 55; Hankinson (1998) 116; Hoenig (2018) 260, 274; Horkey (2019) 100; Lloyd (1989) 280; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 117; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 157, 163, 168

31b. οὖν τόδε κατὰ τὴν μόνωσιν ὅμοιον ᾖ τῷ παντελεῖ ζῴῳ, διὰ ταῦτα οὔτε δύο οὔτʼ ἀπείρους ἐποίησεν ὁ ποιῶν κόσμους, ἀλλʼ εἷς ὅδε μονογενὴς οὐρανὸς γεγονὼς ἔστιν καὶ ἔτʼ ἔσται. 49a. παραδείγματος δεύτερον, γένεσιν ἔχον καὶ ὁρατόν. τρίτον δὲ τότε μὲν οὐ διειλόμεθα, νομίσαντες τὰ δύο ἕξειν ἱκανῶς· νῦν δὲ ὁ λόγος ἔοικεν εἰσαναγκάζειν χαλεπὸν καὶ ἀμυδρὸν εἶδος ἐπιχειρεῖν λόγοις ἐμφανίσαι. τίνʼ οὖν ἔχον δύναμιν καὶ φύσιν αὐτὸ ὑποληπτέον; τοιάνδε μάλιστα· πάσης εἶναι γενέσεως ὑποδοχὴν αὐτὴν οἷον τιθήνην. εἴρηται μὲν οὖν τἀληθές, δεῖ δὲ ἐναργέστερον εἰπεῖν περὶ αὐτοῦ, χαλεπὸν 50d. γιγνόμενον, τὸ δʼ ἐν ᾧ γίγνεται, τὸ δʼ ὅθεν ἀφομοιούμενον φύεται τὸ γιγνόμενον. καὶ δὴ καὶ προσεικάσαι πρέπει τὸ μὲν δεχόμενον μητρί, τὸ δʼ ὅθεν πατρί, τὴν δὲ μεταξὺ τούτων φύσιν ἐκγόνῳ, νοῆσαί τε ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἄλλως, ἐκτυπώματος ἔσεσθαι μέλλοντος ἰδεῖν ποικίλου πάσας ποικιλίας, τοῦτʼ αὐτὸ ἐν ᾧ ἐκτυπούμενον ἐνίσταται γένοιτʼ ἂν παρεσκευασμένον εὖ, πλὴν ἄμορφον ὂν ἐκείνων ἁπασῶν τῶν ἰδεῶν ὅσας 53b. ὅτε δʼ ἐπεχειρεῖτο κοσμεῖσθαι τὸ πᾶν, πῦρ πρῶτον καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γῆν καὶ ἀέρα, ἴχνη μὲν ἔχοντα αὑτῶν ἄττα, παντάπασί γε μὴν διακείμενα ὥσπερ εἰκὸς ἔχειν ἅπαν ὅταν ἀπῇ τινος θεός, οὕτω δὴ τότε πεφυκότα ταῦτα πρῶτον διεσχηματίσατο εἴδεσί τε καὶ ἀριθμοῖς. τὸ δὲ ᾗ δυνατὸν ὡς κάλλιστα ἄριστά τε ἐξ οὐχ οὕτως ἐχόντων τὸν θεὸν αὐτὰ συνιστάναι, παρὰ πάντα ἡμῖν ὡς ἀεὶ τοῦτο λεγόμενον ὑπαρχέτω· νῦν δʼ οὖν τὴν διάταξιν αὐτῶν ἐπιχειρητέον ἑκάστων καὶ γένεσιν 53c. ἀήθει λόγῳ πρὸς ὑμᾶς δηλοῦν, ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐπεὶ μετέχετε τῶν κατὰ παίδευσιν ὁδῶν διʼ ὧν ἐνδείκνυσθαι τὰ λεγόμενα ἀνάγκη, συνέψεσθε.' '. None
31b. Wherefore, in order that this Creature might resemble the all perfect Living Creature in respect of its uniqueness, for this reason its Maker made neither two Universes nor an infinite number, but there is and will continue to be this one generated Heaven, unique of its kind. 49a. and the second as the model’s Copy, subject to becoming and visible. A third kind we did not at that time distinguish, considering that those two were sufficient; but now the argument seems to compel us to try to reveal by words a Form that is baffling and obscure. What essential property, then, are we to conceive it to possess? This in particular,—that it should be the receptacle, and as it were the nurse, of all Becoming. Yet true though this statement is, we must needs describe it more plainly. 50d. is copied and produced. Moreover, it is proper to liken the Recipient to the Mother, the Source to the Father, and what is engendered between these two to the offspring; and also to perceive that, if the stamped copy is to assume diverse appearances of all sorts, that substance wherein it is set and stamped could not possibly be suited to its purpose unless it were itself devoid of all those forms which it is about to receive from any quarter. 53b. fire and water and earth and air, although possessing some traces of their own nature, were yet so disposed as everything is likely to be in the absence of God; and inasmuch as this was then their natural condition, God began by first marking them out into shapes by means of forms and numbers. And that God constructed them, so far as He could, to be as fair and good as possible, whereas they had been otherwise,—this above all else must always be postulated in our account. Now, however, it is the disposition and origin 53c. of each of these Kinds which I must endeavor to explain to you in an exposition of an unusual type; yet, inasmuch as you have some acquaintance with the technical method which I must necessarily employ in my exposition, you will follow me.' '. None
12. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • air (element) • earth (element) • element theory • element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) • elemental forces, powers, Hippocratic view of • elemental forces, powers, Pre-Socratic views of • elements • elements, elemental, Hippocratic view of • elements, elemental, Pre-Socratic views of • fire (element) • mixing (of elements) • water (element)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 153; King (2006) 28; Lloyd (1989) 113; Trott (2019) 135; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 138; Álvarez (2019) 113

13. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmological elements • mystery cult, cosmological elements in • soul, and the elements • water (element)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 303; Seaford (2018) 196

14. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hippocratics, on elements in the body • contrary, contraries, in elemental change • earth (element) • elements • female, as element

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 60, 61; Trott (2019) 132

15. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements • indefinite dyad, as an element of numbers

 Found in books: Carter (2019) 105; Harte (2017) 214

16. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • body, as elemental • elements • mixture, elemental

 Found in books: Carter (2019) 69; Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 179; Harte (2017) 215

17. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Qualities, elementary (hot, cold, wet, dry) • elements • hot, elementary quality of

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 70; Singer and van Eijk (2018) 29; van der EIjk (2005) 228

18. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Empedocles, elements/roots • chance, as a cause of a ratio of elements • elements, comparison of • mixture, elemental

 Found in books: Carter (2019) 135; Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 127, 129, 135, 137, 151

19. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth (element) • element, fifth • elements, comparison of • elements, four • myth of Er, of the elements

 Found in books: Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 131, 137; Geljon and Runia (2019) 30; Hankinson (1998) 178; Horkey (2019) 104

20. Anon., Testament of Levi, 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Liturgical expressions/elements • Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, apocalyptic elements

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 104; Collins (2016) 169

10.5. For the house which the Lord shall choose shall be called Jerusalem, as is contained in the book of Enoch the righteous.''. None
21. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.29-1.30, 1.39-1.40, 2.13, 2.18, 2.88 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements (four) • elements • elements, air • elements, fire • physical elements

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 608, 614; Frede and Laks (2001) 97, 199; Hankinson (1998) 262, 263; Inwood and Warren (2020) 129; Long (2006) 117

1.29. Empedocles again among many other blunders comes to grief most disgracefully in his theology. He assigns divinity to the four substances which in his system are the constituent elements of the universe, although manifestly these substances both come into and pass out of existence, and are entirely devoid of sensation. Protagoras also, who declares he has no clear views whatever about the gods, whether they exist or do not exist, or what they are like, seems to have no notion at all of the divine nature. Then in what a maze of error is Democritus involved, who at one moment ranks as gods his roving 'images,' at another the substance that emits and radiates these images, and at another again the scientific intelligence of man! At the same time his denial of immutability and therefore of eternity, to everything whatsoever surely involves a repudiation of deity so absolute as to leave no conception of a divine be remaining! Diogenes of Apollonia makes air a god; but how can air have sensation, or divinity in any shape? " '1.30. The inconsistencies of Plato are a long story. In the Timaeus he says that it is impossible to name the father of this universe; and in the Laws he deprecates all inquiry into the nature of the deity. Again, he holds that god is entirely incorporeal (in Greek, asomatos); but divine incorporeity is inconceivable, for an incorporeal deity would necessarily be incapable of sensation, and also of practical wisdom, and of pleasure, all of which are attributes essential to our conception of deity. Yet both in the Timaeus and the Laws he says that the world, the sky, the stars, the earth and our souls are gods, in addition to those in whom we have been taught to believe; but it is obvious that these propositions are both inherently false and mutually destructive.
1.39. Chrysippus, who is deemed to be the most skilful interpreter of the Stoic dreams, musters an enormous mob of unknown gods — so utterly unknown that even imagination cannot guess at their form and nature, although our mind appears capable of visualizing anything; for he says that divine power resides in reason, and in the soul and mind of the universe; he calls the world itself a god, and also the all‑pervading world-soul, and again the guiding principle of that soul, which operates in the intellect and reason, and the common and all‑embracing nature of things; beside this, the fire that I previously termed aether; and also the power of Fate, and the Necessity that governs future events; and also all fluid and soluble substances, such as water, earth, air, the sun, moon and stars, and the all‑embracing unity of things; and even those human beings who have attained immortality. 1.40. He also argues that the god whom men call Jupiter is the aether, and that Neptune is the air which permeates the sea, and the goddess called Ceres the earth; and he deals in the same way with the whole series of the names of the other gods. He also identifies Jupiter with the mighty Law, everlasting and eternal, which is our guide of life and instructress in duty, and which he entitles Necessity or Fate, and the Everlasting Truth of future events; none of which conceptions is of such a nature as to be deemed to possess divinity. ' "
2.13. As to their nature there are various opinions, but their existence nobody denies. Indeed our master Cleanthes gave four reasons to account for the formation in men's minds of their ideas of the gods. He put first the argument of which I spoke just now, the one arising from our foreknowledge of future events; second, the one drawn from the magnitude of the benefits which we derive from our temperate climate, from the earth's fertility, and from a vast abundance of other blessings; " "
2.18. Yet even man's intelligence must lead us to infer the existence of a mind in the universe, and that a mind of surpassing ability, and in fact divine. Otherwise, whence did man 'pick up' (as Socrates says in Xenophon) the intelligence that he possesses? If anyone asks the question, whence do we get the moisture and the heat diffused throughout the body, and the actual earthy substance of the flesh, and lastly the breath of life within us, it is manifest that we have derived the one from earth, the other from water, and the other from the air which we inhale in breathing. But where did we find, whence did we abstract, that other part of us which surpasses all of these, I mean our reason, or, if you like to employ several terms to denote it, our intelligence, deliberation, thought, wisdom? Is the world to contain each of the other elements but not this one, the most precious of them all? Yet beyond question nothing exists among all things that is superior to the world, nothing that is more excellent or more beautiful; and not merely does nothing superior to it exist, but nothing superior can even be conceived. And if there be nothing superior to reason and wisdom, these faculties must necessarily be possessed by that being which we admit to be superior to all others. " '
2.88. Suppose a traveller to carry into Scythia or Britain the orrery recently constructed by our friend Posidonius, which at each revolution reproduces the same motions of the sun, the moon and the five planets that take place in the heavens every twenty-four hundred, would any single native doubt that this orrery was the work of a rational being? This thinkers however raise doubts about the world itself from which all things arise and have their being, and debate whether it is the produce of chance or necessity of some sort, or of divine reason and intelligence; they think more highly of the achievement of Archimedes in making a model of the revolutions of the firmament than of that of nature in creating them, although the perfection of the original shows a craftsmanship many times as great as does the counterfeit. '". None
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 73 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements • elements, four

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 555; Geljon and Runia (2019) 100

73. But, some one may say, what is the use of these holes, unless the invisible mind, like the exhibition of a puppet show, does from within prompt its own powers, which at one time losing and allowing to roam, and at another time holding back and restraining by force? He gives sometimes an harmonious motion, and sometimes perfect quiet to his puppets. And having this example at home, you will easily comprehend that being, the understanding of whom you are so anxious to arrive at; ''. None
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 127 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements • elements, four

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019) 93, 101; Hankinson (1998) 343

127. And for what reason is it built, except to serve as a shelter and protection? This is the object. Now passing on from these particular buildings, consider the greatest house or city, namely, this world, for you will find that God is the cause of it, by whom it was made. That the materials are the four elements, of which it is composed; that the instrument is the word of God, by means of which it was made; and the object of the building you will find to be the display of the goodness of the Creator. This is the discriminating opinion of men fond of truth, who desire to attain to true and sound knowledge; but they who say that they have gotten anything by means of God, conceive that the cause is the instrument, the Creator namely, and the instrument the cause, namely, the human mind. ''. None
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 21-22, 47-48, 52-53 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fire, element • elements • elements, four

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 186; Geljon and Runia (2019) 97, 237; Hankinson (1998) 343

21. And the power and faculty which could be capable of creating the world, has for its origin that good which is founded on truth; for if any one were desirous to investigate the cause on account of which this universe was created, I think that he would come to no erroneous conclusion if he were to say as one of the ancients did say: "That the Father and Creator was good; on which account he did not grudge the substance a share of his own excellent nature, since it had nothing good of itself, but was able to become everything." '22. For the substance was of itself destitute of arrangement, of quality, of animation, of distinctive character, and full of all disorder and confusion; and it received a change and transformation to what is opposite to this condition, and most excellent, being invested with order, quality, animation, resemblance, identity, arrangement, harmony, and everything which belongs to the more excellent idea. VI.
47. This is the cause why the earth bore fruit and herbs before God proceeded to adorn the heaven. And next the heaven was embellished in the perfect number four, and if any one were to pronounce this number the origin and source of the all-perfect decade he would not err. For what the decade is in actuality, that the number four, as it seems, is in potentiality, at all events if the numerals from the unit to Four are placed together in order, they will make ten, which is the limit of the number of immensity, around which the numbers wheel and turn as around a goal. 48. Moreover the number four also comprehends the principles of the harmonious concords in music, that in fours, and in fifths, and the diapason, and besides this the double diapason from which sounds the most perfect system of harmony is produced. For the ratio of the sounds in fourths is as four to three; and in fifths as three to two; and in the diapason that ratio is doubled: and in the double diapason it is increased fourfold, all which ratios the number four comprehends. At all events the first, or the epistritus, is the ratio of four to three; the second, or the hemiolius, is that of three to two: the twofold ratio is that of two to one, or four to two: and the fourfold ratio is that of four to one. XVI.
52. And the number four has many other powers also, which we must subsequently show more accurately in a separate essay appropriated to it. At present it is sufficient to add this that it was the foundation of the creation of the whole heaven and the whole world. For the four elements, out of which this universe was made, flowed from the number four as from a fountain. And in addition to the four elements the seasons of the year are also four, which are the causes of the generation of animals and plants, the year being divided into the quadruple division of winter, and spring, and summer, and autumn. XVII. 53. The aforesaid number therefore being accounted worthy of such pre-eminence in nature, the Creator of necessity adorned the heaven by the number four, namely by that most beautiful and most godlike ornament the lightgiving stars. And knowing that of all existing things light is the most excellent, he made it the instrument of the best of all the senses, sight. For what the mind is in the soul, that the eye is in the body. For each of them sees, the one beholding those existing things which are perceptible only to the intellect, and the other those which are perceptible to the external senses. But the mind is in need of knowledge in order to distinguish incorporeal things, and the eyes have need of light in order to be able to perceive bodies, and light is also the cause of many other good things to men, and particularly of the greatest, namely philosophy. '. None
25. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 134, 140, 152-154, 205 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements • elements, four

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 218; Geljon and Runia (2019) 97, 98, 99, 101, 105

134. In some of the best governed cities of the world they say that such a custom as this prevails. When any man who has not lived well attempts to deliver his opinion, either in the council or in the assembly of the people, he is not permitted to do so by his own mouth, but is compelled by the magistrates to deliver his opinion to some virtuous and honourable man to explain in his behalf; and then he, when he has heard what he wishes said, rises up and unfolds the meaning of the sewn up mouth of his instructor, becoming his extempore pupil; and he displays the imaginations of another, scarcely considering the original concern for them even in the rank of a hearer or spectator. So some people do not choose to receive even benefits from unworthy persons, but look upon the injury accruing from the shame of taking their advice as greater than the advantage which can be derived from it. XXXVII. '
140. Let good men, then, by all means having received joy and hope for their blessed inheritance, either possess or expect good things: but let bad men, of whom Cain is a companion, living in fear and pain, reap a harvest of a most bitter portion, namely, either the presence or the expectation of evils, groaning over the miseries which are actually oppressing them, and trembling and shuddering at the expected fearful dangers. XXXIX.
152. If, therefore you, being a man, should be cast out from the land, whither will you turn? Will you dive under water, imitating the nature of aquatic animals? But you will die the moment that you are underneath the water. Or will you take wings and raise yourself aloft, and so attempt to traverse the regions of the air, changing your character of a terrestrial, for that of a flying animal? But, if it is in your power, change and re-fashion the divine impress that you bear. You cannot do so. For in proportion as you raise yourself to a greater height, so much the more rapidly will you descend from that higher region and with the greater impetuosity to the earth, which is your appropriate place. XLII. 153. Can a man, then, or any other created animal, hide himself from God? Where can he do so? Where can he hide himself from that being who pervades all places, whose look reaches to the very boundaries of the world, who fills the whole universe, of whom not even the smallest portion of existing things is deficient? And what is there extraordinary in the fact, that it is not practicable for any created being to conceal himself from the living God, when it is not even in his power to escape from all the material elements by which he is surrounded, but he must, if he abandon me, by that very act enter into another? 154. At all events, if the Creator, employing that act by which he created amphibious animals, had chosen also by the same act to create a new animal, one capable of living in any element, then, this animal, if it forsook the weighty elements of earth and water, would necessarily have gone to those which are naturally light, namely, air and fire. And, on the other hand, supposing that it had originally dwelt among those elements whose place is on high, if it had sought to effect a migration from them, it would have changed to the opposite region; for it was at all events necessary for it to appear steadily in one portion of the world, since it was not possible for it to run away out of every element: since, in order that nothing external might be omitted, the Creator scattered the whole of the four principles of everything over the universe, in order to create the existing condition of the world, in order to make a most perfect universe of perfect parts. '. None
26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic rites, gendered elements • Roman, and non-Roman elements

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 348; Kraemer (2010) 29

27. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arnold, Matthew, ‘On the Modern Element in Literature’ • Nameless element in soul • air / wind, as a constituent element of the human body • elements • physical elements • soul (psyche), elements of

 Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019) 144; Inwood and Warren (2020) 95, 96; Kazantzidis (2021) 82; King (2006) 189, 192; Long (2006) 169

28. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Philo of Alexandria, and the elements • earth (element) • element, fifth • elements, four

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019) 99; Hankinson (1998) 344

29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Liturgical expressions/elements, Luke, Gospel of • Old Testament, as elementary teaching

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 279; Černušková (2016) 334

4.20. οὐ γὰρ ἐν λόγῳ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἀλλʼ ἐν δυνάμει.''. None
4.20. For the Kingdom ofGod is not in word, but in power.''. None
30. New Testament, Colossians, 2.6, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements • Old Testament, as elementary teaching • Water, element

 Found in books: Rasimus (2009) 250; Rohmann (2016) 157; Černušková (2016) 334

2.6. Ὡς οὖν παρελάβετε τὸν χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν τὸν κύριον, ἐν αὐτῷ περιπατεῖτε,
2.8. Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς ἔσται ὁ συλαγωγῶν διὰ τῆς φιλοσοφίας καὶ κενῆς ἀπάτης κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, κατὰ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου καὶ οὐ κατὰ Χριστόν·''. None
2.6. As therefore you received Christ Jesus, the Lord, walk in him, ' "
2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. "'. None
31. New Testament, Galatians, 3.28, 4.3-4.5, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements • Elements, carried through all, in initiation, Mystery-cult of, at Colossae • Montanism, Phrygian elements • elements of the world • world in Paul, its elements

 Found in books: Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 90, 92; Esler (2000) 932; Griffiths (1975) 303; Rohmann (2016) 159

3.28. οὐκ ἔνι Ἰουδαῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην, οὐκ ἔνι δοῦλος οὐδὲ ἐλεύθερος, οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ· πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς εἷς ἐστὲ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.
4.3. οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς, ὅτε ἦμεν νήπιοι, ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου ἤμεθα δεδουλωμένοι· 4.4. ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, 4.5. ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν.
4.9. νῦν δὲ γνόντες θεόν, μᾶλλον δὲ γνωσθέντες ὑπὸ θεοῦ, πῶς ἐπιστρέφετε πάλιν ἐπὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ καὶ πτωχὰ στοιχεῖα, οἷς πάλιν ἄνωθεν δουλεῦσαι θέλετε;''. None
3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law, 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons.
4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? ''. None
32. New Testament, Titus, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Liturgical expressions/elements, Long-sleepers, legends of • air (element)

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 213; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 91

1.12. εἶπέν τις ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης, Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί·''. None
1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons."''. None
33. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eucharist, elements • Liturgical expressions/elements • Water, element

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 28, 283, 409; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 401; Rasimus (2009) 263, 269, 270

1.1. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. 1.2. Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. 1.3. πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. 1.4. ὃ γέγονεν ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· 1.5. καὶ τὸ φῶς ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνει, καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν. 1.6. Ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ, ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἰωάνης· 1.7. οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν, ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός, ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν διʼ αὐτοῦ. 1.8. οὐκ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τὸ φῶς, ἀλλʼ ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός. 1.9. Ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον.
1.10. ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.
1.11. Εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν, καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον.
1.12. ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,
1.13. οἳ οὐκ ἐξ αἱμάτων οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρὸς ἀλλʼ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν.
1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔
1.15. Ἰωάνης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων — οὗτος ἦν ὁ εἰπών — Ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν, ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν·̓
1.16. ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἐλάβομεν, καὶ χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος·
1.17. ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωυσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.
1.18. θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.''. None
1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. ' "1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. " '1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. ' "
1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. " "
1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. " "
1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: " '
1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.
1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, \'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.\'"
1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace.
1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. ''. None
34. New Testament, Matthew, 24.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eucharist, elements • Liturgical expressions/elements, Luke, Gospel of

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 143; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 399

24.31. καὶ ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ μετὰ σάλπιγγος μεγάλης, καὶ ἐπισυνάξουσιν τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων ἀπʼ ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως τῶν ἄκρων αὺτῶν.''. None
24.31. He will send out his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other. ''. None
35. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 47-48, 94, 97 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eucharist, elements • Liturgical expressions/elements

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 199, 336, 440; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 210, 212

47. And the apostle seeing it, said unto them: This devil hath shown nought that is alien or strange to him, but his own nature, wherein also he shall be consumed, for verily the fire shall destroy him utterly and the smoke of it shall be scattered abroad. And he began to say: Jesu, the hidden mystery that hath been revealed unto us, thou art he that hast shown unto us many mysteries; thou that didst call me apart from all my fellows and spakest unto me three (one, Syr.) words wherewith I am inflamed, and am not able to speak them unto others. Jesu, man that wast slain, dead buried! Jesu, God of God, Saviour that quickenest the dead, and healest the sick! Jesu, that wert in need like a man poor and savest as one that hath no need, that didst catch the fish for the breakfast and the dinner and madest all satisfied with a little bread. Jesu, that didst rest from the weariness of wayfaring like a man, and walkedst on the waves like a God. 48 Jesu most high, voice arising from perfect mercy, Saviour of all, the right hand of the light, overthrowing the evil one in his own nature, and gathering all his nature into one place; thou of many forms, that art only begotten, first-born of many brethren God of the Most High God, man despised until now (Syr. and humble). Jesu Christ that neglectest us not when we call upon thee, that art become an occasion of life unto all mankind, that for us wast judged and shut up in prison, and loosest all that are in bonds, that wast called a deceiver and redeemest thine own from error: I beseech thee for these that stand here and believe on thee, for they entreat to obtain thy gifts, having good hope in thy help, and having their refuge in thy greatness; they hold their hearing ready to listen unto the words that are spoken by us. Let thy peace come and tabernacle in them and renew them from their former deeds, and let them put off the old man with his deeds, and put on the new that now is proclaimed unto them by me.'
94. And Mygdonia hearing this said unto the apostle: In truth, my lord, I have received the seed of thy words, and I will bear fruit like unto such seed. The apostle saith: Our souls give praise and thanks unto thee, O Lord, for they are thine: our bodies give thanks unto thee, which thou hast accounted worthy to become the dwelling-place of thy heavenly gift. And he said also to them that stood by: Blessed are the holy, whose souls have never condemned them, for they have gained them and are not divided against themselves: blessed are the spirits of the pure, and they that have received the heavenly crown whole from the world (age) which hath been appointed them: blessed are the bodies of the holy, for they have been made worthy to become temples of God, that Christ may dwell in them: blessed are ye, for ye have power to forgive sins: blessed are ye if ye lose not that which is committed unto you, but rejoicing and departing bear it away with you: blessed are ye the holy, for unto you it is given to ask and receive: blessed are ye meek for you hath God counted worthy to become heirs of the heavenly kingdom. Blessed are ye meek, for ye are they that have overcome the enemy: blessed are ye meek, for ye shall see the face of the Lord. Blessed are ye that hunger for the Lord's sake for for you is rest laid up, and your souls rejoice from henceforth. Blessed are ye that are quiet, (for ye have been counted worthy) to be set free from sin and from the exchange of clean and unclean beasts. And when the apostle had said these things in the hearing of all the multitude, Mygdonia was the more confirmed in the faith and glory and greatness of Christ." '
97. And when Charisius so said, Mygdonia was silent as any stone, but she prayed, asking when it should be day, that she might go to the apostle of Christ. And he withdrew from her and went to dinner heavy in mind, for he thought to sleep with her according to the wont. And when he was gone out, she bowed her knees and prayed, saying: Lord God and Master, merciful Father, Saviour Christ, do thou give me strength to overcome the shamelessness of Charisius, and grant me to keep the holiness wherein thou delightest, that I also may by it find eternal life. And when she had so prayed she laid herself on her bed and veiled herself. ". None
36. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.6.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements • myth of Er, of the elements

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 13; Horkey (2019) 104

1.6.2. But Anaximenes, who himself was also a native of Miletus, and son of Eurystratus, affirmed that the originating principle is infinite air, out of which are generated things existing, those which have existed, and those that will be, as well as gods and divine (entities), and that the rest arise from the offspring of this. But that there is such a species of air, when it is most even, which is imperceptible to vision, but capable of being manifested by cold and heat, and moisture and motion, and that it is continually in motion; for that whatsoever things undergo alteration, do not change if there is not motion. For that it presents a different appearance according as it is condensed and attenuated, for when it is dissolved into what is more attenuated that fire is produced, and that when it is moderately condensed again into air that a cloud is formed from the air by virtue of the contraction; but when condensed still more, water, (and) that when the condensation is carried still further, earth is formed; and when condensed to the very highest degree, stones. Wherefore, that the domit principles of generation are contraries - namely, heat and cold. And that the expanded earth is wafted along upon the air, and in like manner both sun and moon and the rest of the stars; for all things being of the nature of fire, are wafted about through the expanse of space, upon the air. And that the stars are produced from earth by reason of the mist which arises from this earth; and when this is attenuated, that fire is produced, and that the stars consist of the fire which is being borne aloft. But also that there are terrestrial natures in the region of the stars carried on along with them. And he says that the stars do not move under the earth, as some have supposed, but around the earth, just as a cap is turned round our head; and that the sun is hid, not by being under the earth, but because covered by the higher portions of the earth, and on account of the greater distance that he is from us. But that the stars do not emit heat on account of the length of distance; and that the winds are produced when the condensed air, becoming rarified, is borne on; and that when collected and thickened still further, clouds are generated, and thus a change made into water. And that hail is produced when the water borne down from the clouds becomes congealed; and that snow is generated when these very clouds, being more moist, acquire congelation; and that lightning is caused when the clouds are parted by force of the winds; for when these are sundered there is produced a brilliant and fiery flash. And that a rainbow is produced by reason of the rays of the sun failing on the collected air. And that an earthquake takes place when the earth is altered into a larger (bulk) by heat and cold. These indeed, then, were the opinions of Anaximenes. This (philosopher) flourished about the first year of the LVIII . Olympiad. ''. None
37. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • elements • fire (element)

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 29; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 146

38. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • earth (element) • elements, four-element physics • fire, as hot element

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 225; Hankinson (1998) 240

39. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sabbath, as passive element, but not contradict creativity • Sex, and sadistic elements • elementary education

 Found in books: Hirshman (2009) 89, 94; Kosman (2012) 207

62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר\' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר\' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב\' וג\' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר\' חייא חתניה דר\' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר\' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר\' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר\' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה''. None
62b. the tanna taught us a halakha with regard to all of them, not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: But with regard to a sailor it said that the set interval for conjugal relations is six months; why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that one who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket. On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased.,Rabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driver who is already married wants to become a camel driver, what is the halakha? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? He answered him: A woman prefers a kav, i.e., modest means, with conjugal relations to ten kav with abstinence. Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For sailors, the set interval for conjugal relations is once every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava said that Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leave their homes to study Torah for as long as two or three years without permission from their wives. Rava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’s opinion and performed an action like this themselves, but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is as it is related about Rav Reḥumi, who would commonly study before Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to come back to his home every year on the eve of Yom Kippur. One day he was particularly engrossed in the halakha he was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. His wife was expecting him that day and continually said to herself: Now he is coming, now he is coming. But in the end, he did not come. She was distressed by this and a tear fell from her eye. At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi was sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died. This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ When is the ideal time for Torah scholars to fulfill their conjugal obligations? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The appropriate time for them is from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve, i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse “that brings forth its fruit in its season” (Psalms 1:3): Rav Yehuda said, and some say that it was Rav Huna, and some say that it was Rav Naḥman: This is referring to one who engages in marital relations, bringing forth his fruit, from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve.,It is related further that Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya and son-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and every Shabbat eve at twilight he would come to his house. When he would come, Rabbi Yannai would see a pillar of fire preceding him due to his sanctity. One day he was engrossed in the halakha he was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. When Rabbi Yannai did not see that sign preceding him, he said to the family: Turn his bed over, as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that if Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set interval for conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said became “like an error that proceeds from a ruler” (Ecclesiastes 10:5), and Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, died.,It is related further that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi arranged for his son to marry a daughter of the household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualification in these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? They sat and looked into the families’ ancestry and found that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Shefatya ben Avital, the wife of David, whereas Rabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother.,He went and arranged for his son to marry a daughter of the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for him that they would support him for twelve years to go to study in the study hall. It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. They passed the girl in front of the groom and when he saw her he said: Let it be just six years. They passed her in front of him again and he said to them: I will marry her now and then go to study. He was then ashamed to see his father, as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and said to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception, meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that initially it is written: “You bring them and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. And ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them” (Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding he went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile, as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: What should we do? If he will divorce her, people will say: This poor woman waited and hoped for naught. If he will marry another woman to beget children, people will say: This one, who bears him children, is his wife and that one, who lives with him, is his mistress. Therefore, her husband pleaded with God to have mercy on her and she was cured.,Rabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast. Rabbi Shimon said to him: Wait for me until I can come with you, after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, he did not wait and went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home.,He went and sat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter, meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. He followed her to his house. His wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw him and recognized him, and her heart fluttered with agitation and she passed away from the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya said before God: Master of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived.,Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came back to his house, he said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai, who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, did. He went and sat in the study hall in his hometown, and sent a message to his house that he had arrived. While he was sitting there his son Rabbi Oshaya, whom he did not recognize, came and sat before him. Rabbi Oshaya asked him questions about halakha, and Rabbi Ḥama saw that the halakhot of Rabbi Oshaya were incisive, i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama was distressed and said: If I had been here and had taught my son I would have had a child like this.,Rabbi Ḥama went in to his house and his son went in with him. Rabbi Ḥama then stood up before him to honor a Torah scholar, since he thought that he wanted to ask him a matter of halakha. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son? The Gemara comments: Rami bar Ḥama read the verse about him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken” (Ecclesiastes 4:12). This is referring to Rabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa, as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: Rabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua, one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The daughter of Ben Kalba Savua saw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hall to learn Torah? He said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent him off to study. Her father heard this and became angry. He removed her from his house and took a vow prohibiting her from benefiting from his property. Rabbi Akiva went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came back to his house he brought twelve thousand students with him, and as he approached he heard an old man saying to his wife: For how long''. None
40. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.109, 7.135-7.136 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Archedemus, on elements • Liturgical expressions/elements, Long-sleepers, legends of • Zeno, on elements • air (element) • compared to Cleanthes and Zeno, on elements • elements, four-element physics • elements, in creation of cosmos • fire, as hot element • physical elements

 Found in books: Allison (2018) 213, 220; Graver (2007) 225; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 91; Long (2006) 266; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 13

1.109. 10. EPIMEDESEpimenides, according to Theopompus and many other writers, was the son of Phaestius; some, however, make him the son of Dosiadas, others of Agesarchus. He was a native of Cnossos in Crete, though from wearing his hair long he did not look like a Cretan. One day he was sent into the country by his father to look for a stray sheep, and at noon he turned aside out of the way, and went to sleep in a cave, where he slept for fifty-seven years. After this he got up and went in search of the sheep, thinking he had been asleep only a short time. And when he could not find it, he came to the farm, and found everything changed and another owner in possession. Then he went back to the town in utter perplexity; and there, on entering his own house, he fell in with people who wanted to know who he was. At length he found his younger brother, now an old man, and learnt the truth from him.
7.135. Body is defined by Apollodorus in his Physics as that which is extended in three dimensions, length, breadth, and depth. This is also called solid body. But surface is the extremity of a solid body, or that which has length and breadth only without depth. That surface exists not only in our thought but also in reality is maintained by Posidonius in the third book of his Celestial Phenomena. A line is the extremity of a surface or length without breadth, or that which has length alone. A point is the extremity of a line, the smallest possible mark or dot.God is one and the same with Reason, Fate, and Zeus; he is also called by many other names. 7.136. In the beginning he was by himself; he transformed the whole of substance through air into water, and just as in animal generation the seed has a moist vehicle, so in cosmic moisture God, who is the seminal reason of the universe, remains behind in the moisture as such an agent, adapting matter to himself with a view to the next stage of creation. Thereupon he created first of all the four elements, fire, water, air, earth. They are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, and by Archedemus in a work On Elements. An element is defined as that from which particular things first come to be at their birth and into which they are finally resolved.''. None
41. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Proclus, Elements of Theology • biographical elements/information

 Found in books: Motta and Petrucci (2022) 88; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 67

42. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements • John Chrysostom, theatrical elements in

 Found in books: Azar (2016) 118, 120; Rohmann (2016) 222

43. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements • mixing (of elements)

 Found in books: Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 190; Álvarez (2019) 146

44. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements • Fire, element • Proclus, Elements of Theology • element, four education (paideia, παιδεία‎) • elements, generated first in Stoic cosmogony

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 597; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 23; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 50, 71, 133, 134

45. Aeschines, Or., 1.114
 Tagged with subjects: • Oath-rituals, elements • procedure, legal, procedural elements

 Found in books: Martin (2009) 172; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 204

1.114. In consequence of this experience so great became his contempt for you that immediately, on the occasion of the revision of the citizen lists, he gathered in two thousand drachmas. For he asserted that Philotades of Cydathenaeon, a citizen, was a former slave of his own, and he persuaded the members of the deme to disfranchise him. He took charge of the prosecution in court,See on Aeschin. 1.77. and after he had taken the sacred offerings in his hand and sworn that he had not taken a bribe and would not, ''. None
46. Demosthenes, Orations, 23.68
 Tagged with subjects: • Oath-rituals, elements • procedure, legal, procedural elements

 Found in books: Martin (2009) 126; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 204

23.68. econdly, that he must not treat this oath as an ordinary oath, but as one which no man swears for any other purpose; for he stands over the entrails of a boar, a ram, and a bull, and they must have been slaughtered by the necessary officers and on the days appointed, so that in respect both of the time and of the functionaries every requirement of solemnity has been satisfied. Even then the person who has sworn this tremendous oath does not gain immediate credence; and if any falsehood is brought home to him, he will carry away with him to his children and his kindred the stain of perjury,—but gain nothing.''. None
47. None, None, nan (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Elements • elements, ether, fifth substance • elements, fire

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 17; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 209, 210

48. None, None, nan (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plato, elements • elements • elements, as legacy of Presocratics • elements, combinability • elements, so-called

 Found in books: Dimas Falcon and Kelsey (2022) 181; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 114

49. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • air (element) • element • mixing (of elements)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 331; Álvarez (2019) 109, 112

50. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Nameless element in soul • elements • soul (psyche), elements of

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 95; King (2006) 189

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