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34 results for "education"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.1-12.28, 12.43-12.50, 23.18-23.19, 23.25, 30.10, 34.16, 34.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94
12.1. "וְלֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרֹפוּ׃", 12.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר׃", 12.2. "כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃", 12.2. "הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃", 12.3. "וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃", 12.3. "דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃", 12.4. "וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃", 12.4. "וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃", 12.5. "וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃", 12.5. "שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן־שָׁנָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן־הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ׃", 12.6. "וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃", 12.7. "וְלָקְחוּ מִן־הַדָּם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וְעַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר־יֹאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ בָּהֶם׃", 12.8. "וְאָכְלוּ אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה צְלִי־אֵשׁ וּמַצּוֹת עַל־מְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ׃", 12.9. "אַל־תֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל בַּמָּיִם כִּי אִם־צְלִי־אֵשׁ רֹאשׁוֹ עַל־כְּרָעָיו וְעַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃", 12.11. "וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃", 12.12. "וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה וְהִכֵּיתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 12.13. "וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם שָׁם וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף לְמַשְׁחִית בְּהַכֹּתִי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 12.14. "וְהָיָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לָכֶם לְזִכָּרוֹן וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ׃", 12.15. "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מַצּוֹת תֹּאכֵלוּ אַךְ בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל חָמֵץ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיּוֹם הָרִאשֹׁן עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃", 12.16. "וּבַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא־יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם׃", 12.17. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת כִּי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הוֹצֵאתִי אֶת־צִבְאוֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃", 12.18. "בָּרִאשֹׁן בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת עַד יוֹם הָאֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעָרֶב׃", 12.19. "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שְׂאֹר לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְּבָתֵּיכֶם כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל מַחְמֶצֶת וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּגֵּר וּבְאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ׃", 12.21. "וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לְכָל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם מִשְׁכוּ וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיכֶם וְשַׁחֲטוּ הַפָּסַח׃", 12.22. "וּלְקַחְתֶּם אֲגֻדַּת אֵזוֹב וּטְבַלְתֶּם בַּדָּם אֲשֶׁר־בַּסַּף וְהִגַּעְתֶּם אֶל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְאֶל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת מִן־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר בַּסָּף וְאַתֶּם לֹא תֵצְאוּ אִישׁ מִפֶּתַח־בֵּיתוֹ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃", 12.23. "וְעָבַר יְהוָה לִנְגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְרָאָה אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְעַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וּפָסַח יְהוָה עַל־הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית לָבֹא אֶל־בָּתֵּיכֶם לִנְגֹּף׃", 12.24. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְחָק־לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 12.25. "וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן יְהוָה לָכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת׃", 12.26. "וְהָיָה כִּי־יֹאמְרוּ אֲלֵיכֶם בְּנֵיכֶם מָה הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת לָכֶם׃", 12.27. "וַאֲמַרְתֶּם זֶבַח־פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה אֲשֶׁר פָּסַח עַל־בָּתֵּי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם בְּנָגְפּוֹ אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְאֶת־בָּתֵּינוּ הִצִּיל וַיִּקֹּד הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃", 12.28. "וַיֵּלְכוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃", 12.43. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃", 12.44. "וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃", 12.45. "תּוֹשָׁב וְשָׂכִיר לֹא־יֹאכַל־בּוֹ׃", 12.46. "בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ׃", 12.47. "כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃", 12.48. "וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃", 12.49. "תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃", 23.18. "לֹא־תִזְבַּח עַל־חָמֵץ דַּם־זִבְחִי וְלֹא־יָלִין חֵלֶב־חַגִּי עַד־בֹּקֶר׃", 23.19. "רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃", 23.25. "וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּבֵרַךְ אֶת־לַחְמְךָ וְאֶת־מֵימֶיךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִי מַחֲלָה מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 34.16. "וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃", 34.26. "רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃", 12.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying:", 12.2. "’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.", 12.3. "Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;", 12.4. "and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb.", 12.5. "Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats;", 12.6. "and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk.", 12.7. "And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it.", 12.8. "And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it.", 12.9. "Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof.", 12.10. "And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.", 12.11. "And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover.", 12.12. "For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.", 12.13. "And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.", 12.14. "And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordice for ever.", 12.15. "Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.", 12.16. "And in the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you.", 12.17. "And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore shall ye observe this day throughout your generations by an ordice for ever.", 12.18. "In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.", 12.19. "Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or one that is born in the land.", 12.20. "Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.’", 12.21. "Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them: ‘Draw out, and take you lambs according to your families, and kill the passover lamb.", 12.22. "And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side-posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning.", 12.23. "For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.", 12.24. "And ye shall observe this thing for an ordice to thee and to thy sons for ever.", 12.25. "And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as He hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.", 12.26. "And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you: What mean ye by this service?", 12.27. "that ye shall say: It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s passover, for that He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses.’ And the people bowed the head and worshipped.", 12.28. "And the children of Israel went and did so; as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.", 12.43. "And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘This is the ordice of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof;", 12.44. "but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.", 12.45. "A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof.", 12.46. "In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.", 12.47. "All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.", 12.48. "And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.", 12.49. "One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’", 12.50. "Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.", 23.18. "Thou shalt not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of My feast remain all night until the morning.", 23.19. "The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.", 23.25. "And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and He will bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee.", 30.10. "And Aaron shall make atonement upon the horns of it once in the year; with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement once in the year shall he make atonement for it throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the LORD.’", 34.16. "and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods.", 34.26. "The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’",
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.1-9.4, 15.17-15.21, 18.13, 18.21-18.24, 19.14-19.15, 29.7-29.11, 31.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94
9.1. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶה־טָמֵא לָנֶפֶשׁ אוֹ בְדֶרֶךְ רְחֹקָה לָכֶם אוֹ לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה׃", 9.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְמִדְבַּר־סִינַי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן לֵאמֹר׃", 9.2. "וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַפָּסַח בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃", 9.2. "וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הֶעָנָן יָמִים מִסְפָּר עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן עַל־פִּי יְהוָה יַחֲנוּ וְעַל־פִּי יְהוָה יִסָּעוּ׃", 9.3. "בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר־יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ כְּכָל־חֻקֹּתָיו וּכְכָל־מִשְׁפָּטָיו תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃", 9.4. "וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשֹׂת הַפָּסַח׃", 15.17. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 15.18. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה׃", 15.19. "וְהָיָה בַּאֲכָלְכֶם מִלֶּחֶם הָאָרֶץ תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה לַיהוָה׃", 15.21. "מֵרֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃", 18.13. "בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃", 18.21. "וְלִבְנֵי לֵוִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַחֲלָה חֵלֶף עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם עֹבְדִים אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 18.22. "וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃", 18.23. "וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃", 18.24. "כִּי אֶת־מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה נָתַתִּי לַלְוִיִּם לְנַחֲלָה עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃", 19.14. "זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃", 19.15. "וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃", 29.7. "וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃", 29.8. "וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃", 29.9. "וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד׃", 29.11. "שְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים וְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃", 31.23. "כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בָאֵשׁ וְטָהֵר אַךְ בְּמֵי נִדָּה יִתְחַטָּא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבֹא בָּאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בַמָּיִם׃", 9.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying:", 9.2. "’Let the children of Israel keep the passover in its appointed season.", 9.3. "In the fourteenth day of this month, at dusk, ye shall keep it in its appointed season; according to all the statutes of it, and according to all the ordices thereof, shall ye keep it.’", 9.4. "And Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, that they should keep the passover.", 15.17. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 15.18. "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye come into the land whither I bring you,", 15.19. "then it shall be, that, when ye eat of the bread of the land, ye shall set apart a portion for a gift unto the LORD.", 15.20. "of the first of your dough ye shall set apart a cake for a gift; as that which is set apart of the threshing-floor, so shall ye set it apart.", 15.21. "of the first of your dough ye shall give unto the LORD a portion for a gift throughout your generations.", 18.13. "The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof.", 18.21. "And unto the children of Levi, behold, I have given all the tithe in Israel for an inheritance, in return for their service which they serve, even the service of the tent of meeting.", 18.22. "And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die.", 18.23. "But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.", 18.24. "For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they set apart as a gift unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance; therefore I have said unto them: Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.’", 19.14. "This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days.", 19.15. "And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean.", 29.7. "And on the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls; ye shall do no manner of work;", 29.8. "but ye shall present a burnt-offering unto the LORD for a sweet savour: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year; they shall be unto you without blemish;", 29.9. "and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for the bullock, two tenth parts for the one ram,", 29.10. "a several tenth part for every lamb of the seven lambs;", 29.11. "one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the sin-offering of atonement, and the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings.", 31.23. "every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make to go through the fire, and it shall be clean; nevertheless it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling; and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make to go through the water.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 11.35, 11.36, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.32, 13.1-14.53, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.13, 15.16, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 17.28, 17.29, 17.30, 17.31, 17.32, 17.33, 17.34, 18.19, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 20.18, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 22.6, 22.7, 27.30, 27.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94
4.29. "וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הָעֹלָה׃", 4.29. "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill the sin-offering in the place of burnt-offering.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.3-7.4, 14.29, 17.1-17.8, 24.8, 26.1-26.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94
7.3. "וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃", 7.4. "כִּי־יָסִיר אֶת־בִּנְךָ מֵאַחֲרַי וְעָבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מַהֵר׃", 14.29. "וּבָא הַלֵּוִי כִּי אֵין־לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה׃", 17.1. "לֹא־תִזְבַּח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם כֹּל דָּבָר רָע כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא׃", 17.1. "וְעָשִׂיתָ עַל־פִּי הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יַגִּידוּ לְךָ מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה וְשָׁמַרְתָּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יוֹרוּךָ׃", 17.2. "לְבִלְתִּי רוּם־לְבָבוֹ מֵאֶחָיו וּלְבִלְתִּי סוּר מִן־הַמִּצְוָה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים עַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ הוּא וּבָנָיו בְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 17.2. "כִּי־יִמָּצֵא בְקִרְבְּךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲבֹר בְּרִיתוֹ׃", 17.3. "וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לָהֶם וְלַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ לַיָּרֵחַ אוֹ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִי׃", 17.4. "וְהֻגַּד־לְךָ וְשָׁמָעְתָּ וְדָרַשְׁתָּ הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה אֱמֶת נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר נֶעֶשְׂתָה הַתּוֹעֵבָה הַזֹּאת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 17.5. "וְהוֹצֵאתָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֶל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה וּסְקַלְתָּם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ׃", 17.6. "עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃", 17.7. "יַד הָעֵדִים תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 17.8. "כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃", 24.8. "הִשָּׁמֶר בְּנֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת לִשְׁמֹר מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוֹרוּ אֶתְכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם תִּשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃", 26.1. "וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ׃", 26.1. "וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הֵבֵאתִי אֶת־רֵאשִׁית פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לִּי יְהוָה וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 26.2. "וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר תָּבִיא מֵאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃", 26.3. "וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃", 26.4. "וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ וְהִנִּיחוֹ לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 26.5. "וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃", 26.6. "וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃", 26.7. "וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃", 26.8. "וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃", 26.9. "וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃", 26.11. "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃", 26.12. "כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁת שְׁנַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְנָתַתָּה לַלֵּוִי לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ׃", 26.13. "וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃", 26.14. "לֹא־אָכַלְתִּי בְאֹנִי מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא־בִעַרְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ בְּטָמֵא וְלֹא־נָתַתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ לְמֵת שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי עָשִׂיתִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי׃", 26.15. "הַשְׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבָרֵךְ אֶת־עַמְּךָ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵת הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לָנוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃", 7.3. "neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son.", 7.4. "For he will turn away thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods; so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He will destroy thee quickly.", 14.29. "And the Levite, because he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest.", 17.1. "Thou shalt not sacrifice unto the LORD thy God an ox, or a sheep, wherein is a blemish, even any evil thing; for that is an abomination unto the LORD thy God.", 17.2. "If there be found in the midst of thee, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that doeth that which is evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing His covet,", 17.3. "and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have commanded not;", 17.4. "and it be told thee, and thou hear it, then shalt thou inquire diligently, and, behold, if it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel;", 17.5. "then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, who have done this evil thing, unto thy gates, even the man or the woman; and thou shalt stone them with stones, that they die.", 17.6. "At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.", 17.7. "The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. So thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee.", 17.8. "If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose.", 24.8. "Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you, as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do.", 26.1. "And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and dost possess it, and dwell therein;", 26.2. "that thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the ground, which thou shalt bring in from thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee; and thou shalt put it in a basket and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there.", 26.3. "And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’", 26.4. "And the priest shall take the basket out of thy hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD thy God.", 26.5. "And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous.", 26.6. "And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage.", 26.7. "And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression.", 26.8. "And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders.", 26.9. "And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey.", 26.10. "And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God.", 26.11. "And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee.", 26.12. "When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, to the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be satisfied,", 26.13. "then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them.", 26.14. "I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I put away thereof, being unclean, nor given thereof for the dead; I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my God, I have done according to all that Thou hast commanded me.", 26.15. "Look forth from Thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless Thy people Israel, and the land which Thou hast given us, as Thou didst swear unto our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey.’",
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 9.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 96
9.26. "וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם כֵּן וַיַּצֵּל אוֹתָם מִיַּד בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא הֲרָגוּם׃", 9.26. "And so did he unto them, and delivered them out of the hand of the children of Israel, that they slew them not.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94
44.22. "וְאַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה לֹא־יִקְחוּ לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלֹת מִזֶּרַע בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה מִכֹּהֵן יִקָּחוּ׃", 44.22. "Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away; but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that is the widow of a priest.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 7.5, 13.23-13.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94, 96
7.5. "בְּנֵי־רְאָיָה בְנֵי־רְצִין בְּנֵי נְקוֹדָא׃", 7.5. "וַיִּתֵּן אֱלֹהַי אֶל־לִבִּי וָאֶקְבְּצָה אֶת־הַחֹרִים וְאֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וְאֶת־הָעָם לְהִתְיַחֵשׂ וָאֶמְצָא סֵפֶר הַיַּחַשׂ הָעוֹלִים בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וָאֶמְצָא כָּתוּב בּוֹ׃", 13.23. "גַּם בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם רָאִיתִי אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים הֹשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים אשדודיות [אַשְׁדֳּדִיּוֹת] עמוניות [עַמֳּנִיּוֹת] מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת׃", 13.24. "וּבְנֵיהֶם חֲצִי מְדַבֵּר אַשְׁדּוֹדִית וְאֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר יְהוּדִית וְכִלְשׁוֹן עַם וָעָם׃", 13.25. "וָאָרִיב עִמָּם וָאֲקַלְלֵם וָאַכֶּה מֵהֶם אֲנָשִׁים וָאֶמְרְטֵם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם בֵּאלֹהִים אִם־תִּתְּנוּ בְנֹתֵיכֶם לִבְנֵיהֶם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלָכֶם׃", 13.26. "הֲלוֹא עַל־אֵלֶּה חָטָא־שְׁלֹמֹה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַגּוֹיִם הָרַבִּים לֹא־הָיָה מֶלֶךְ כָּמֹהוּ וְאָהוּב לֵאלֹהָיו הָיָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ אֱלֹהִים מֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל גַּם־אוֹתוֹ הֶחֱטִיאוּ הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃", 13.27. "וְלָכֶם הֲנִשְׁמַע לַעֲשֹׂת אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַגְּדוֹלָה הַזֹּאת לִמְעֹל בֵּאלֹהֵינוּ לְהֹשִׁיב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת׃", 7.5. "And my God put into my heart to gather together the nobles, and the rulers, and the people, that they might be reckoned by genealogy. And I found the book of the genealogy of them that came up at the first, and I found written therein:", 13.23. "In those days also saw I the Jews that had married women of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab;", 13.24. "and their children spoke half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’language, but according to the language of each people.", 13.25. "And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God: ‘Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters for your sons, or for yourselves.", 13.26. "Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless even him did the foreign women cause to sin.", 13.27. "Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to break faith with our God in marrying foreign women?’",
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.1-9.2, 9.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 94
9.1. "וּכְכַלּוֹת אֵלֶּה נִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי הַשָּׂרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־נִבְדְּלוּ הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הַפְּרִזִּי הַיְבוּסִי הָעַמֹּנִי הַמֹּאָבִי הַמִּצְרִי וְהָאֱמֹרִי׃", 9.1. "וְעַתָּה מַה־נֹּאמַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת כִּי עָזַבְנוּ מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃", 9.2. "כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃", 9.15. "יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל צַדִּיק אַתָּה כִּי־נִשְׁאַרְנוּ פְלֵיטָה כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הִנְנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ בְּאַשְׁמָתֵינוּ כִּי אֵין לַעֲמוֹד לְפָנֶיךָ עַל־זֹאת׃", 9.1. "Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.", 9.2. "For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’", 9.15. "O LORD, the God of Israel, Thou art righteous; for we are left a remt that is escaped, as it is this day; behold, we are before Thee in our guiltiness; for none can stand before Thee because of this.’",
9. Mishnah, Yevamot, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
16.7. "אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כְּשֶׁיָּרַדְתִּי לִנְהַרְדְּעָא לְעַבֵּר הַשָּׁנָה, מָצָאתִי נְחֶמְיָה אִישׁ בֵּית דְּלִי, אָמַר לִי, שָׁמַעְתִּי שֶׁאֵין מַשִּׂיאִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה בְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד, אֶלָּא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בָּבָא. וְנוּמֵתִי לוֹ, כֵּן הַדְּבָרִים. אָמַר לִי, אֱמֹר לָהֶם מִשְּׁמִי, אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהַמְּדִינָה מְשֻׁבֶּשֶׁת בִּגְיָסוֹת, מְקֻבְּלָנִי מֵרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁמַּשִּׂיאִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. וּכְשֶׁבָּאתִי וְהִרְצֵיתִי הַדְּבָרִים לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, שָׂמַח לִדְבָרַי, וְאָמַר, מָצָאנוּ חָבֵר לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בָּבָא. מִתּוֹךְ הַדְּבָרִים נִזְכַּר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, שֶׁנֶּהֶרְגוּ הֲרוּגִים בְּתֵל אַרְזָא, וְהִשִּׂיא רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד, וְהֻחְזְקוּ לִהְיוֹת מַשִּׂיאִין עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. וְהֻחְזְקוּ לִהְיוֹת מַשִּׂיאִין עֵד מִפִּי עֵד, מִפִּי עֶבֶד, מִפִּי אִשָּׁה, מִפִּי שִׁפְחָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַשִּׂיאִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא עַל פִּי אִשָּׁה, וְלֹא עַל פִּי עֶבֶד וְלֹא עַל פִּי שִׁפְחָה, וְלֹא עַל פִּי קְרוֹבִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַעֲשֶׂה בִבְנֵי לֵוִי שֶׁהָלְכוּ לְצֹעַר עִיר הַתְּמָרִים, וְחָלָה אַחַד מֵהֶם בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וֶהֱבִיאוּהוּ בְפֻנְדָּק, וּבַחֲזָרָתָם אָמְרוּ לַפֻּנְדָּקִית אַיֵּה חֲבֵרֵנוּ, אָמְרָה לָהֶם מֵת וּקְבַרְתִּיו, וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, וְלֹא תְהֵא כֹהֶנֶת כַּפֻּנְדָּקִית. אָמַר לָהֶם, לִכְשֶׁתְּהֵא פֻּנְדָּקִית נֶאֱמֶנֶת. הַפֻּנְדָּקִית הוֹצִיאָה לָהֶם מַקְלוֹ וְתַרְמִילוֹ וְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁהָיָה בְיָדוֹ: \n", 16.7. "Rabbi Akiva said: When I went down to Nehardea to intercalate the year, I met Nehemiah of Bet D’li who said to me, “I heard that in the land of Israel no one, permits a [married] woman to marry again on the evidence of one witness, except Rabbi Judah ben Bava”. “That is so”, I told him. He said to me, “Tell them in my name: ‘You know that this country is in confusion because of marauders. I have received a tradition from Rabban Gamaliel the Elder: that they allow a [married] woman to remarry on the evidence of one witness’”. And when I came and recounted the conversation in the presence of Rabban Gamaliel he rejoiced at my words and exclaimed, “We have found a match for Rabbi Judah ben Bava!” As a result of this talk Rabban Gamaliel remembered that some men were once killed at Tel Arza, and that Rabban Gamaliel the Elder had allowed their wives to marry again on the evidence of one witness, and the law was established that they allow a woman to marry again on the evidence of one witness, and on the testimony of one [who states that he has heard] from another witness, from a slave, from a woman or from a female slave. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua say: a woman is not be allowed to remarry on the evidence of one witness. Rabbi Akiva ruled: [a woman is not allowed to marry again] on the evidence of a woman, on that of a slave, on that of a female slave or on that of relatives. They said to him: It once happened that a number of Levites went to Tsoar, the city of palms, and one of them became ill on the way, and they left him in an inn. When they returned they asked the [female] innkeeper, “Where is our friend?” And she replied, “He is dead and I buried him”, and they allowed his wife to remarry. Should not then a priest’s wife [be believed at least as much] as an innkeeper!” He answered them: When she will [give such evidence] as the innkeeper [gave] she will be believed, for the innkeeper had brought out to them [the dead man’s] staff, his bag and the Torah scroll which he had with him.",
10. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 4.1-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 96, 97
11. Mishnah, Kelim, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 91, 92
1.7. "עֲיָרוֹת הַמֻּקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה מְקֻדָּשׁוֹת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁמְּשַׁלְּחִים מִתּוֹכָן אֶת הַמְּצֹרָעִים, וּמְסַבְּבִין לְתוֹכָן מֵת עַד שֶׁיִּרְצוּ. יָצָא, אֵין מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ: \n", 1.7. "Cities that are walled are holier, for metzoras must be sent out of them and a corpse, though it may be carried about within them as long as it is desired, may not be brought back once it has been taken out.",
12. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
2.1. "אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּפָנִים, וּמַה לְּאָחוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא חָס עַל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ, רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם: \n", 2.1. "They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world.",
13. Mishnah, Bekhorot, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic mashal, jewish education, fable in Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 176
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.223-14.267 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 90
14.223. 11. Hyrcanus sent also one of these ambassadors to Dolabella, who was then the prefect of Asia, and desired him to dismiss the Jews from military services, and to preserve to them the customs of their forefathers, and to permit them to live according to them. 14.224. And when Dolabella had received Hyrcanus’s letter, without any further deliberation, he sent an epistle to all the Asiatics, and particularly to the city of the Ephesians, the metropolis of Asia, about the Jews; a copy of which epistle here follows: 14.225. 12. “When Artermon was prytanis, on the first day of the month Leneon, Dolabella, imperator, to the senate, and magistrates, and people of the Ephesians, sendeth greeting. 14.226. Alexander, the son of Theodorus, the ambassador of Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, the high priest and ethnarch of the Jews, appeared before me, to show that his countrymen could not go into their armies, because they are not allowed to bear arms or to travel on the Sabbath days, nor there to procure themselves those sorts of food which they have been used to eat from the times of their forefathers;— 14.227. I do therefore grant them a freedom from going into the army, as the former prefects have done, and permit them to use the customs of their forefathers, in assembling together for sacred and religious purposes, as their law requires, and for collecting oblations necessary for sacrifices; and my will is, that you write this to the several cities under your jurisdiction.” 14.228. 13. And these were the concessions that Dolabella made to our nation when Hyrcanus sent an embassage to him. But Lucius the consul’s decree ran thus: “I have at my tribunal set these Jews, who are citizens of Rome, and follow the Jewish religious rites, and yet live at Ephesus, free from going into the army, on account of the superstition they are under. This was done before the twelfth of the calends of October, when Lucius Lentulus and Caius Marcellus were consuls, 14.229. in the presence of Titus Appius Balgus, the son of Titus, and lieutet of the Horatian tribe; of Titus Tongins, the son of Titus, of the Crustumine tribe; of Quintus Resius, the son of Quintus; of Titus Pompeius Longinus, the son of Titus; of Catus Servilius, the son of Caius, of the Terentine tribe; of Bracchus the military tribune; of Publius Lucius Gallus, the son of Publius, of the Veturian tribe; of Caius Sentius, the son of Caius, of the Sabbatine tribe; 14.230. of Titus Atilius Bulbus, the son of Titus, lieutet and vice-praetor to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Ephesians, sendeth greeting. Lucius Lentulus the consul freed the Jews that are in Asia from going into the armies, at my intercession for them; and when I had made the same petition some time afterward to Phanius the imperator, and to Lucius Antonius the vice-quaestor, I obtained that privilege of them also; and my will is, that you take care that no one give them any disturbance.” 14.231. 14. The decree of the Delians. “The answer of the praetors, when Beotus was archon, on the twentieth day of the month Thargeleon. While Marcus Piso the lieutet lived in our city, who was also appointed over the choice of the soldiers, he called us, and many other of the citizens, and gave order, 14.232. that if there be here any Jews who are Roman citizens, no one is to give them any disturbance about going into the army, because Cornelius Lentulus, the consul, freed the Jews from going into the army, on account of the superstition they are under;—you are therefore obliged to submit to the praetor.” And the like decree was made by the Sardians about us also. 14.233. 15. “Caius Phanius, the son of Caius, imperator and consul, to the magistrates of Cos, sendeth greeting. I would have you know that the ambassadors of the Jews have been with me, and desired they might have those decrees which the senate had made about them; which decrees are here subjoined. My will is, that you have a regard to and take care of these men, according to the senate’s decree, that they may be safely conveyed home through your country.” 14.234. 16. The declaration of Lucius Lentulus the consul: “I have dismissed those Jews who are Roman citizens, and who appear to me to have their religious rites, and to observe the laws of the Jews at Ephesus, on account of the superstition they are under. This act was done before the thirteenth of the calends of October.” 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.236. 18. The declaration of Marcus Publius, the son of Spurius, and of Marcus, the son of Marcus, and of Lucius, the son of Publius: “We went to the proconsul, and informed him of what Dositheus, the son of Cleopatrida of Alexandria, desired, that, if he thought good, 14.237. he would dismiss those Jews who were Roman citizens, and were wont to observe the rites of the Jewish religion, on account of the superstition they were under. Accordingly, he did dismiss them. This was done before the thirteenth of the calends of October.” /p 19. “In the month Quntius, when Lucius Lentulus and Caius Mercellus were consuls; 14.238. and there were present Titus Appius Balbus, the son of Titus, lieutet of the Horatian tribe, Titus Tongius of the Crustumine tribe, Quintus Resius, the son of Quintus, Titus Pompeius, the son of Titus, Cornelius Longinus, Caius Servilius Bracchus, the son of Caius, a military tribune, of the Terentine tribe, Publius Clusius Gallus, the son of Publius, of the Veturian tribe, Caius Teutius, the son of Caius, a milital tribune, of the EmilJan tribe, Sextus Atilius Serranus, the son of Sextus, of the Esquiline tribe, 14.239. Caius Pompeius, the son of Caius, of the Sabbatine tribe, Titus Appius Meder, the son of Titus, Publius Servilius Strabo, the son of Publius, Lucius Paccius Capito, the son of Lucius, of the Colline tribe, Aulus Furius Tertius, the son of Aulus, and Appius Menus. 14.240. In the presence of these it was that Lentulus pronounced this decree: I have before the tribunal dismissed those Jews that are Roman citizens, and are accustomed to observe the sacred rites of the Jews at Ephesus, on account of the superstition they are under.” 14.241. 20. “The magistrates of the Laodiceans to Caius Rubilius, the son of Caius, the consul, sendeth greeting. Sopater, the ambassador of Hyrcanus the high priest, hath delivered us an epistle from thee, whereby he lets us know that certain ambassadors were come from Hyrcanus, the high priest of the Jews, and brought an epistle written concerning their nation, 14.242. wherein they desire that the Jews may be allowed to observe their Sabbaths, and other sacred rites, according to the laws of their forefathers, and that they may be under no command, because they are our friends and confederates, and that nobody may injure them in our provinces. Now although the Trallians there present contradicted them, and were not pleased with these decrees, yet didst thou give order that they should be observed, and informedst us that thou hadst been desired to write this to us about them. 14.243. We therefore, in obedience to the injunctions we have received from thee, have received the epistle which thou sentest us, and have laid it up by itself among our public records. And as to the other things about which thou didst send to us, we will take care that no complaint be made against us.” 14.244. 21. “Publius Servilius, the son of Publius, of the Galban tribe, the proconsul, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Milesians, sendeth greeting. 14.245. Prytanes, the son of Hermes, a citizen of yours, came to me when I was at Tralles, and held a court there, and informed me that you used the Jews in a way different from my opinion, and forbade them to celebrate their Sabbaths, and to perform the sacred rites received from their forefathers, and to manage the fruits of the land, according to their ancient custom; and that he had himself been the promulger of your decree, according as your laws require: 14.246. I would therefore have you know, that upon hearing the pleadings on both sides, I gave sentence that the Jews should not be prohibited to make use of their own customs.” 14.247. 22. The decree of those of Pergamus. “When Cratippus was prytanis, on the first day of the month Desius, the decree of the praetors was this: Since the Romans, following the conduct of their ancestors, undertake dangers for the common safety of all mankind, and are ambitious to settle their confederates and friends in happiness, and in firm peace, 14.248. and since the nation of the Jews, and their high priest Hyrcanus, sent as ambassadors to them, Strato, the son of Theodatus, and Apollonius, the son of Alexander, and Eneas, the son of Antipater, 14.249. and Aristobulus, the son of Amyntas, and Sosipater, the son of Philip, worthy and good men, who gave a particular account of their affairs, the senate thereupon made a decree about what they had desired of them, that Antiochus the king, the son of Antiochus, should do no injury to the Jews, the confederates of the Romans; and that the fortresses, and the havens, and the country, and whatsoever else he had taken from them, should be restored to them; and that it may be lawful for them to export their goods out of their own havens; 14.250. and that no king nor people may have leave to export any goods, either out of the country of Judea, or out of their havens, without paying customs, but only Ptolemy, the king of Alexandria, because he is our confederate and friend; and that, according to their desire, the garrison that is in Joppa may be ejected. 14.251. Now Lucius Pettius, one of our senators, a worthy and good man, gave order that we should take care that these things should be done according to the senate’s decree; and that we should take care also that their ambassadors might return home in safety. 14.252. Accordingly, we admitted Theodorus into our senate and assembly, and took the epistle out of his hands, as well as the decree of the senate. And as he discoursed with great zeal about the Jews, and described Hyrcanus’s virtue and generosity, 14.253. and how he was a benefactor to all men in common, and particularly to every body that comes to him, we laid up the epistle in our public records; and made a decree ourselves, that since we also are in confederacy with the Romans, we would do every thing we could for the Jews, according to the senate’s decree. 14.254. Theodorus also, who brought the epistle, desired of our praetors, that they would send Hyrcanus a copy of that decree, as also ambassadors to signify to him the affection of our people to him, and to exhort them to preserve and augment their friendship for us, and be ready to bestow other benefits upon us, 14.255. as justly expecting to receive proper requitals from us; and desiring them to remember that our ancestors were friendly to the Jews even in the days of Abraham, who was the father of all the Hebrews, as we have [also] found it set down in our public records.” 14.256. 23. The decree of those of Halicarnassus. “When Memnon, the son of Orestidas by descent, but by adoption of Euonymus, was priest, on the —— day of the month Aristerion, the decree of the people, upon the representation of Marcus Alexander, was this: 14.257. Since we have ever a great regard to piety towards God, and to holiness; and since we aim to follow the people of the Romans, who are the benefactors of all men, and what they have written to us about a league of friendship and mutual assistance between the Jews and our city, and that their sacred offices and accustomed festivals and assemblies may be observed by them; 14.258. we have decreed, that as many men and women of the Jews as are willing so to do, may celebrate their Sabbaths, and perform their holy offices, according to the Jewish laws; and may make their proseuchae at the sea-side, according to the customs of their forefathers; and if any one, whether he be a magistrate or private person, hindereth them from so doing, he shall be liable to a fine, to be applied to the uses of the city.” 14.259. 24. The decree of the Sardians. “This decree was made by the senate and people, upon the representation of the praetors: Whereas those Jews who are fellowcitizens, and live with us in this city, have ever had great benefits heaped upon them by the people, and have come now into the senate, 14.260. and desired of the people, that upon the restitution of their law and their liberty, by the senate and people of Rome, they may assemble together, according to their ancient legal custom, and that we will not bring any suit against them about it; and that a place may be given them where they may have their congregations, with their wives and children, and may offer, as did their forefathers, their prayers and sacrifices to God. 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 14.262. 25. The decree of the Ephesians. “When Menophilus was prytanis, on the first day of the month Artemisius, this decree was made by the people: Nicanor, the son of Euphemus, pronounced it, upon the representation of the praetors. 14.263. Since the Jews that dwell in this city have petitioned Marcus Julius Pompeius, the son of Brutus, the proconsul, that they might be allowed to observe their Sabbaths, and to act in all things according to the customs of their forefathers, without impediment from any body, the praetor hath granted their petition. 14.264. Accordingly, it was decreed by the senate and people, that in this affair that concerned the Romans, no one of them should be hindered from keeping the Sabbath day, nor be fined for so doing, but that they may be allowed to do all things according to their own laws.” 14.265. 26. Now there are many such decrees of the senate and imperators of the Romans and those different from these before us, which have been made in favor of Hyrcanus, and of our nation; as also, there have been more decrees of the cities, and rescripts of the praetors, to such epistles as concerned our rights and privileges; and certainly such as are not ill-disposed to what we write may believe that they are all to this purpose, and that by the specimens which we have inserted; 14.266. for since we have produced evident marks that may still be seen of the friendship we have had with the Romans, and demonstrated that those marks are engraven upon columns and tables of brass in the capitol, that axe still in being, and preserved to this day, we have omitted to set them all down, as needless and disagreeable; 14.267. for I cannot suppose any one so perverse as not to believe the friendship we have had with the Romans, while they have demonstrated the same by such a great number of their decrees relating to us; nor will they doubt of our fidelity as to the rest of those decrees, since we have shown the same in those we have produced, And thus have we sufficiently explained that friendship and confederacy we at those times had with the Romans.
15. Tosefta, Berachot, 6.23-6.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
6.23. "ר' יהודה אומר שלש ברכות צריך לברך בכל יום ברוך שלא עשני גוי ברוך שלא עשני אשה [ברוך] שלא עשני בור. גוי (ישעיהו מ) כל הגוים כאין נגדו אשה אין אשה חייבת במצות בור שאין ירא חטא ולא עם הארץ חסיד משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדו לבשל לו תבשיל הוא לא בשל לו תבשיל מימיו סוף שמקדיח את התבשיל ומקניט את רבו לחפות לו חלוק והוא לא חיפת לו חלוק מימיו סוף שמלכלך את החלוק ומקניט את רבו.", 6.24. "לא יכנס אדם [בהר הבית במעות הצרורות לו בסדינו ובאבק שעל רגליו באפונדתו החגורה לו] מבחוץ שנאמר (קוהלת ד) שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים.",
16. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
2.1. "אין דורשין בעריות בשלשה אבל דורשין בשנים [ולא] במעשה בראשית בשנים אבל דורשין ביחיד ולא במרכבה ביחיד אא\"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה רבי אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא [כן אמרתי לך מתחלה שאין שונין] במרכבה ביחיד אלא אם כן היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו מעתה ארצה לפניך אמר לו אמור פתח רבי אלעזר בן ערך ודרש במעשה מרכבה ירד רבי יוחנן בן זכאי מן החמור ונתעטף בטליתו וישבו שניהם על גבי אבן תחת הזית והרצה לפניו עמד ונשקו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל אשר נתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש [אלעזר בן ערך] נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך [אברהם] אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך [שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים] רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר רבי יהושע הרצה לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי [רבי עקיבה] הרצה לפני רבי יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני רבי עקיבה.",
17. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.8-7.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 291
18. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343-344 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
19. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, 2.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
20. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
8.9. שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כב, כב): אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (יהושע כב, כב): הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כד, יט): כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא. 8.9. "... [R’ Simlai] said to them: In the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah (God’s presence).",
21. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, 3.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
22. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education, study always oral Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
23. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic mashal, jewish education, fable in Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 176
28a. התם הוא דמבטל אבל הכא דלא מבטל לא,ת"ר מעשה ברבי אליעזר ששבת בגליל העליון ושאלוהו שלשים הלכות בהלכות סוכה שתים עשרה אמר להם שמעתי שמונה עשר אמר להם לא שמעתי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר חילוף הדברים שמונה עשר אמר להם שמעתי שתים עשרה אמר להם לא שמעתי,אמרו לו כל דבריך אינן אלא מפי השמועה אמר להם הזקקתוני לומר דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבותי מימי לא קדמני אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הנחתי אדם בבית המדרש ויצאתי ולא שחתי שיחת חולין ולא אמרתי דבר שלא שמעתי מפי רבי מעולם,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מימיו לא שח שיחת חולין ולא הלך ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא קדמו אדם בבית המדרש ולא ישן בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא הרהר במבואות המטונפות ולא הניח אדם בבית המדרש ויצא ולא מצאו אדם יושב ודומם אלא יושב ושונה ולא פתח אדם דלת לתלמידיו אלא הוא בעצמו ולא אמר דבר שלא שמע מפי רבו מעולם ולא אמר הגיע עת לעמוד מבית המדרש חוץ מערבי פסחים וערבי יום הכפורים וכן היה ר' אליעזר תלמידו נוהג אחריו,תנו רבנן שמונים תלמידים היו לו להלל הזקן שלשים מהן ראוים שתשרה עליהן שכינה כמשה רבינו ושלשים מהן ראוים שתעמוד להם חמה כיהושע בן נון עשרים בינונים גדול שבכולן יונתן בן עוזיאל קטן שבכולן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הניח מקרא ומשנה גמרא הלכות ואגדות דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים קלים וחמורים וגזרות שוות תקופות וגימטריאות שיחת מלאכי השרת ושיחת שדים ושיחת דקלים משלות כובסין משלות שועלים דבר גדול ודבר קטן,דבר גדול מעשה מרכבה דבר קטן הויות דאביי ורבא לקיים מה שנאמר (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא וכי מאחר שקטן שבכולן כך גדול שבכולן על אחת כמה וכמה אמרו עליו על יונתן בן עוזיאל בשעה שיושב ועוסק בתורה כל עוף שפורח עליו מיד נשרף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שהיה ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ב"ש פוסלין וב"ה מכשירין אמרו להם ב"ה לב"ש לא כך היה מעשה שהלכו זקני ב"ש וזקני ב"ה לבקר את רבי יוחנן בן החורנית ומצאוהו שהיה יושב ראשו ורובו בסוכה ושולחנו בתוך הבית ולא אמרו לו דבר אמרו להם ב"ש משם ראיה אף הם אמרו לו אם כן היית נוהג לא קיימת מצות סוכה מימיך,נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורין מן הסוכה קטן שאינו צריך לאמו חייב בסוכה מעשה וילדה כלתו של שמאי הזקן ופיחת את המעזיבה וסיכך על גבי המטה בשביל קטן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ דת"ר אזרח זה אזרח (ויקרא כג, מב) האזרח להוציא את הנשים כל לרבות את הקטנים,אמר מר האזרח להוציא את הנשים למימרא דאזרח בין נשים בין גברי משמע והתניא האזרח לרבות את הנשים האזרחיות שחייבות בעינוי אלמא אזרח גברי משמע אמר רבה הלכתא נינהו ואסמכינהו רבנן אקראי,הי קרא והי הלכתא ותו קרא למה לי הלכתא למה לי הא סוכה מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות,יום הכפורים מדרב יהודה אמר רב נפקא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אמר קרא (במדבר ה, ו) איש או אשה 28a. The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the case of the shutter and the case of the sheet. b There, /b in the case of the shutter, b where he negates /b it by shuttering the window, it is considered part of the building and it is therefore prohibited. b However, here, /b in the case of the sheet, b where he does not negate /b it, as he plans on removing it, b no, /b it is not necessarily prohibited.,The Gemara relates a similar incident. b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving Rabbi Eliezer, who stayed in the Upper Galilee, and /b the people there b asked him thirty i halakhot /i in the i halakhot /i of i sukka /i . /b In response to b twelve, he said to them: I heard /b an answer from my teachers, and he related what he heard. In response to the other b eighteen, he said to them: I did not hear /b an answer. b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b It was b the reverse of these matters. /b In response to b eighteen he said to them: I heard /b an answer; in response to the other b twelve he said to them: I did not hear /b an answer., b They said to him: Are all the matters /b that b you /b know b only from what /b you b heard? /b Don’t you say any matters on your own? b He said to them: /b Now b you forced me to say a matter that I did not hear from my teachers, /b as I must describe my character traits and the manner in which I conduct myself. b In /b all b my days, no person ever preceded me into the study hall, /b as I am always first to arrive; b and I never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and I never left anyone in the study hall and exited, /b as I was always last to leave; b and I never engaged in idle conversation; /b rather, I discussed only necessary matters or matters of Torah; b and I never said anything that I did not hear from my teacher. /b That is why he did not answer those questions that his teacher did not address.,Apropos the character traits of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites character traits of his teacher. The Sages b said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, /b the teacher of Rabbi Eliezer: b In /b all b his days he never engaged in idle conversation; and he never walked four cubits without /b engaging in b Torah /b study b and without /b donning b phylacteries; and no person ever preceded him into the study hall; and he never slept in the study hall, neither substantial sleep nor a brief nap; and he never contemplated /b matters of Torah b in alleyways filthy /b with human excrement, as doing so is a display of contempt for the Torah; b and he never left anyone in the study hall and exited; and no person ever found him sitting and silent, /b i.e., inactive; b rather, he /b was always b sitting and studying; and only he opened the door for his students, /b disregarding his own eminent standing; b and he never said anything that he did not hear from his teacher; and he never said /b to his students that b the time has arrived to arise /b and leave b the study hall except on Passover eves, /b when they were obligated to sacrifice the Paschal lamb, and b Yom Kippur eves, /b when there is a mitzva to eat and drink abundantly. b And Rabbi Eliezer, his student, accustomed /b himself to model his conduct b after his /b example.,The Gemara continues to praise the Sages. b The Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. Thirty of them /b were sufficiently b worthy that the Divine Presence /b should b rest upon them as /b it did upon b Moses our teacher, and thirty of them /b were sufficiently b worthy that the sun /b should b stand still for them as /b it did for b Joshua bin Nun, and twenty /b were on an b intermediate /b level between the other two. b The greatest of all /b the students was b Yonatan ben Uzziel, and the youngest of them /b was b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b ,The Gemara relates: The Sages b said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai /b that b he did not neglect Bible; Mishna; Gemara; i halakhot /i and i aggadot /i ; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes; /b the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to b i a fortiori /i inferences and verbal analogies; /b the calculation of the calendrical b seasons; /b and b numerology [ i gimmatreyaot /i ]. /b In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including b the conversation of ministering angels; the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees; parables of launderers, /b which are folk tales that can be used to explain the Torah; b parables of foxes; /b and more generally, b a great matter and a small matter. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: b A great matter /b is referring to the secrets of the b Design of the /b Divine b Chariot, /b the conduct of the transcendent universe. b A small matter /b is, for example, i halakhot /i that were ultimately formulated in the framework of b the disputes of Abaye and Rava. /b He did not neglect any of these disciplines so as b to fulfill that which is stated: “That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance and that I may fill their treasuries” /b (Proverbs 8:21), as Rabban Yoḥa was filled with the disciplines of Torah and wisdom. b And if the youngest of them was so /b prolific, b the greatest of them /b was b all the more so /b prolific. The Gemara relates that the Sages b said of Yonatan ben Uzziel, /b the greatest of Hillel’s students, b that when he sat and was engaged in Torah /b study, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that b any bird that flew over him was immediately incinerated. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b one whose head and most of his /b body b were in the i sukka /i and his table was in the house, Beit Shammai deem it unfit, and Beit Hillel deem it fit. Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: /b And b wasn’t there an incident where the Elders of Beit Shammai and the Elders of Beit Hillel went to visit Rabbi Yoḥa ben HaḤoranit and they found him /b such b that he was sitting with his head and most of his /b body b in the i sukka /i and his table in the house, and they said nothing to him? /b Even Beit Shammai did not object. b Beit Shammai said to them: /b Is there b proof from there? /b That is not what happened; rather, b they said to him: If you were accustomed /b to act in b this /b manner, b you have never fulfilled the mitzva of i sukka /i in your life. /b ,The mishna continues: b Women, slaves, and minors are exempt from the /b mitzva of b i sukka /i . A minor who does not need his mother /b any longer b is obligated /b in the mitzva. There was b an incident where the daughter-in-law of Shammai the Elder gave birth /b just before i Sukkot /i , and Shammai b removed the /b coat of b plaster /b from the roof, leaving the beams, b and roofed /b with the beams b over the bed for the /b newborn b minor. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong With regard to the i halakha /i that women, slaves, and minors are exempt from the mitzva of i sukka /i , the Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? The Gemara answers that it is b as the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i that it is stated: “All the homeborn in Israel shall reside in i sukkot /i ” (Leviticus 23:42). Had the verse stated only: b Homeborn, /b it would have been derived b that /b any b homeborn /b member of the Jewish people is obligated to observe this mitzva. However, the term with the addition of the definite article: b “The homeborn,” /b indicates that only certain homeborn members are obligated, i.e., men, b to the exclusion of the women. /b The word “all” in the phrase: b “All /b the homeborn,” comes b to include the minors /b capable of performing this mitzva.,§ The Gemara analyzes the i baraita /i . b The Master said: “The homeborn” /b is b to the exclusion of women. Is that to say that /b the term b homeborn /b without the definite article b indicates both men and women? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to Yom Kippur that it is stated: “And it shall be a statute forever unto you: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls and shall do no manner of work, the homeborn, or the stranger that sojourns among you” (Leviticus 16:29). And the term b “the homeborn” /b in that verse comes b to include homeborn women, who are obligated in /b the mitzva of b affliction /b on Yom Kippur. In that case, the definite article comes to include women. Therefore, b apparently, /b the term homeborn, without the definite article, b indicates /b only b men. Rabba said: They are /b each a b i halakha /i /b transmitted to Moses from Sinai, b and the Sages /b merely b supported them with verses /b as a mnemonic device. Therefore, it is not surprising that the derivations are contradictory.,The Gemara asks: b Which /b of them b is /b derived from b the verse and which is a i halakha /i /b transmitted to Moses from Sinai and merely supported by a verse? b And furthermore, why do I /b need b the verse and why do I /b need b the i halakha /i ? Isn’t i sukka /i a positive, time-bound mitzva, and /b the principle is that b women are exempt from all positive, time-bound mitzvot? /b There is no need for a special derivation to exempt women from the mitzva of i sukka /i .,And there is no need for a derivation with regard to their obligation to fast on b Yom Kippur, /b as that can be b derived from /b that b which Rav Yehuda /b said that b Rav said, as Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said, and it was likewise taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: The verse says: /b “When b a man or woman /b shall commit any sin that a person commits, to commit a trespass against the Lord, and that soul be guilty” (Numbers 5:6).
24. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic mashal, jewish education, fable in Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 176
38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. b his torso /b was fashioned from dust taken b from Babylonia, and his head /b was fashioned from dust taken b from Eretz Yisrael, /b the most important land, b and his limbs /b were fashioned from dust taken b from the rest of the lands /b in the world. With regard to b his buttocks, Rav Aḥa says: /b They were fashioned from dust taken b from Akra De’agma, /b on the outskirts of Babylonia., b Rabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hours /b long, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the b first hour /b of the day, b his dust was gathered. /b In the b second, /b an undefined b figure was fashioned. /b In the b third, his limbs were extended. /b In the b fourth, a soul was cast into him. /b In the b fifth, he stood on his legs. /b In the b sixth, he called /b the creatures by the b names /b he gave them. In the b seventh, Eve was paired with him. /b In the b eighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four, /b i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the b ninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Tree /b of Knowledge. In the b tenth, he sinned. /b In the b eleventh, he was judged. /b In the b twelfth, he was expelled and left /b the Garden of Eden, b as it is stated: “But man abides not in honor; /b he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., b Rami bar Ḥama says /b in explanation of the end of that verse: b A wild animal does not have power over a person unless /b that person b seems to /b the wild animal b like an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b ,The Gemara presents b a mnemonic /b for the statements that follow: b At the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them: /b If b you agree, let us fashion a person in our image. /b The angels b said before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions of /b this person You suggest to create? God b said to them: His actions are such and such, /b according to human nature.,The angels b said before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?” /b (Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God b outstretched His small finger among them and burned them /b with fire. b And the same /b occurred with b a second group /b of angels. The b third group /b of angels that He asked b said before Him: Master of the Universe, the first /b two groups b who spoke /b their mind b before You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do. /b God then created the first person., b When /b history b arrived at /b the time of b the people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion, /b i.e., the Tower of Babel, b whose actions were ruinous, /b the angels b said before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t the /b first set of angels b speak appropriately before You, /b that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God b said to them /b concerning humanity: b “Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you; /b I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Adam the first /b man spanned b from one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other” /b (Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. b Once /b Adam b sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me” /b (Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The height of b Adam the first /b man b was from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.” /b Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. b Once /b Adam b sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me /b and laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of b the verses contradict each other. /b The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: b This and that, /b from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, b are one measure, /b i.e., the same distance., b And Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Adam the first /b man b spoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is stated /b in the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God” /b (Psalms 139:17)., b And this, /b i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what b Reish Lakish says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam” /b (Genesis 5:1)? This verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed /b Adam b every generation and its /b Torah b interpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived at /b his vision of b the generation of Rabbi Akiva, /b Adam b was gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by his /b manner of b death. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,” /b i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., b And Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Adam the first /b man b was a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”? /b (Genesis 3:9), meaning, to b where has your heart turned, /b indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He was /b one who b drew his foreskin /b forward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It b is written here: “And they like men [ i adam /i ] have transgressed the covet” /b (Hosea 6:7), b and /b it b is written there: /b “And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; b he has broken My covet” /b (Genesis 17:14)., b Rav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principle /b of belief in God. It b is written here: /b “And they like men [ i adam /i ] b have transgressed the covet,” and /b it b is written there: “He has broken My covet,” /b and it is written in a third verse: b “And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their God /b and worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ b We learned /b in a mishna b there /b (Avot 2:14): b Rabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ i la’apikoros /i ]. Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b This was b taught only /b with regard to b a gentile heretic, but /b not with regard to b a Jewish heretic, /b as one should not respond to him. b All the more so, /b if one does respond b he will become more heretical. /b His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Any place /b in the Bible from b where the heretics /b attempt to b prove their heresy, /b i.e., that there is more than one god, b the response to their /b claim is b alongside them, /b i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b “Let us make man in our image” /b (Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, b but it /b then b states: “And God created man in His image” /b (Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b “Come, let us go down and there confound their language” /b (Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b “And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower” /b (Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b “There God was revealed [ i niglu /i ] to him /b when he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b “To God Who answers [ i haoneh /i ] me in the day of my distress” /b (Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b “For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” /b (Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, i kerovim /i , but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b “And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?” /b (II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, i halekhu /i , but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld b till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit” /b (Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, i kharsavan /i , but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: b Why do I /b need b these /b instances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above, /b i.e., the angels, b as it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones” /b (Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This b works out well for /b almost b all /b the verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but b what is there to say /b concerning the verse: “I beheld b till thrones were placed”? /b The Gemara answers: b One /b throne is b for Him and one /b throne is b for David, /b i.e., the messiah, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One /b throne is b for Him and one /b throne is b for David; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presence /b by equating God with a person? b Rather, /b the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as b one /b throne is b for judgment and one /b throne is b for righteousness. /b ,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva b accept /b this explanation b from /b Rabbi Yosei b or /b did he b not accept it from him? /b The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof to the matter from what was taught in another i baraita /i , b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One /b throne is b for judgment and one /b throne is b for righteousness; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near, /b i.e., discussing, matters of b i aggada /i ? Go near /b tractates b i Nega’im /i and i Oholot /i , /b which examine the complex i halakhot /i of ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. b Rather, /b the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, b one /b is b for a throne and one /b is b for a stool. /b There is b a throne for God to sit upon, and a stool /b that serves b as His footstool. /b , b Rav Naḥman says: This one, /b i.e., any person, b who knows /b how b to respond to the heretics /b as effectively b as Rav Idit should respond /b to them, b but if /b he does b not /b know, he b should not respond /b to them. The Gemara relates: b A certain heretic said to Rav Idit: /b It b is written /b in the verse concerning God: b “And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord” /b (Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: b It should have /b stated: b Come up to Me. /b Rav Idit b said to him: This /b term, “the Lord,” in that verse b is /b referring to the angel b Metatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written: /b “Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, b for My name is in him” /b (Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: b If so, /b if this angel is equated with God, b we should worship him /b as we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It b is written: “Do not defy [ i tammer /i ] him,” /b which alludes to: b Do not replace Me [ i temireni /i ] with him. /b The heretic said to him: b If so, why do I /b need the clause b “For he will not pardon your transgression”? /b Rav Idit b said to him: We believe that we did not accept /b the angel b even as a guide [ i befarvanka /i ] /b for the journey, b as it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with me /b raise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: /b It b is written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord /b out of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: b It should have /b stated: b From Him /b out of heaven. b A certain launderer said to /b Rabbi Yishmael: b Leave him be; I will respond to him. /b This is b as it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech, /b hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: b It should have /b been written: b My wives, /b and not: “Wives of Lemech.” b Rather, it is /b the style of b the verse /b to b speak in this /b manner. b Here too, it is /b the style of b the verse /b to b speak in this /b manner. Rabbi Yishmael b said to /b the launderer: b From where did you /b hear b this /b interpretation? The launderer b said to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b ,The Gemara comments: This is b as Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third i halakha /i , one-third i aggada /i , /b and b one-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had, /b i.e., taught, b three hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 291, 292
49b. ואינו מתקבל:,תנו רבנן לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת תלמיד חכם לא מצא בת תלמיד חכם ישא בת גדולי הדור לא מצא בת גדולי הדור ישא בת ראשי כנסיות לא מצא בת ראשי כנסיות ישא בת גבאי צדקה לא מצא בת גבאי צדקה ישא בת מלמדי תינוקות ולא ישא בת עמי הארץ מפני שהן שקץ ונשותיהן שרץ ועל בנותיהן הוא אומר (דברים כז, כא) ארור שוכב עם כל בהמה,תניא ר' אומר עם הארץ אסור לאכול בשר (בהמה) שנאמר (ויקרא יא, מו) זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף כל העוסק בתורה מותר לאכול בשר בהמה ועוף וכל שאינו עוסק בתורה אסור לאכול בשר בהמה ועוף:,אמר רבי אלעזר עם הארץ מותר לנוחרו ביום הכיפורים שחל להיות בשבת אמרו לו תלמידיו ר' אמור לשוחטו אמר להן זה טעון ברכה וזה אינו טעון ברכה:,אמר רבי אלעזר עם הארץ אסור להתלוות עמו בדרך שנאמר (דברים ל, כ) כי היא חייך ואורך ימיך על חייו לא חס על חיי חבירו לא כל שכן,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן עם הארץ מותר לקורעו כדג אמר רבי שמואל בר יצחק ומגבו:,תניא אמר רבי עקיבא כשהייתי עם הארץ אמרתי מי יתן לי תלמיד חכם ואנשכנו כחמור אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי אמור ככלב אמר להן זה נושך ושובר עצם וזה נושך ואינו שובר עצם:,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כל המשיא בתו לעם הארץ כאילו כופתה ומניחה לפני ארי מה ארי דורס ואוכל ואין לו בושת פנים אף עם הארץ מכה ובועל ואין לו בושת פנים:,תניא רבי אליעזר אומר אילמלא אנו צריכין להם למשא ומתן היו הורגין אותנו,תנא רבי חייא כל העוסק בתורה לפני עם הארץ כאילו בועל ארוסתו בפניו שנאמר (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה אל תקרי מורשה אלא מאורסה,גדולה שנאה ששונאין עמי הארץ לתלמיד חכם יותר משנאה ששונאין עובדי כוכבים את ישראל ונשותיהן יותר מהן: תנא שנה ופירש יותר מכולן,תנו רבנן ששה דברים נאמרו בעמי הארץ אין מוסרין להן עדות ואין מקבלין ממנו עדות ואין מגלין להן סוד ואין ממנין אותן אפוטרופוס על היתומים ואין ממנין אותן אפוטרופוס על קופה של צדקה ואין מתלוין עמהן בדרך ויש אומרים אף אין מכריזין על אבידתו,ותנא קמא זמנין דנפיק מיניה זרעא מעליא ואכיל ליה שנאמר (איוב כז, יז) יכין וצדיק ילבש:,וכן מי שיצא וכו':,למימרא דרבי מאיר סבר כביצה הוא דחשיב ורבי יהודה סבר כזית נמי חשיב ורמינהי עד כמה הן מזמנין עד כזית ורבי יהודה אומר עד כביצה,אמר רבי יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה,אביי אמר לעולם לא תיפוך התם בקראי פליגי הכא בסברא פליגי התם בקראי פליגי רבי מאיר סבר (דברים ח, י) ואכלת זו אכילה ושבעת זו שתיה ואכילה בכזית ורבי יהודה סבר ואכלת ושבעת אכילה שיש בה שביעה ואיזו זו בכביצה,הכא בסברא פליגי דרבי מאיר סבר חזרתו כטומאתו מה טומאתו בכביצה אף חזרתו בכביצה ור' יהודה סבר חזרתו 49b. b and unacceptable. /b , b The Sages taught: A person should always /b be willing to b sell all he has /b in order to b marry the daughter of a Torah scholar. /b If b he cannot find the daughter of a Torah scholar, he should marry the daughter of /b one of the b great /b people b of the generation, /b who are pious although they are not Torah scholars. If b he cannot find the daughter of /b one of the b great /b people b of the generation, he should marry the daughter of /b one of b the heads of the congregations. /b If b he cannot find the daughter of /b one of b the heads of the congregations, he should marry the daughter of /b one of b the charity collectors. /b If b he cannot find the daughter of /b one of b the charity collectors, he should marry the daughter of /b one of b the schoolteachers. /b However, b he should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus [ i am ha’aretz /i ] because they are vermin and their wives are /b similar to b a creeping animal, /b as their lifestyle involves the violation of numerous prohibitions. b And with regard to their daughters /b the verse b states: “Cursed is he who lies with an animal” /b (Deuteronomy 27:21), as they are similar to animals in that they lack any knowledge or moral sense.,The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to an ignoramus. b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: It is prohibited for an ignoramus to eat meat, as it is stated: “This is the law [ i torah /i ] of the beast and of the fowl” /b (Leviticus 11:46). He expounds: b Anyone who engages in Torah /b study b is permitted to eat the meat of animals and fowl, and anyone who does not engage in Torah /b study b is prohibited to eat the meat of animals or fowl. /b ,The Gemara proceeds to mention some sharply negative statements of the Sages in which they overstated their negative sentiments with regard to ignoramuses, although these ignoramuses were wicked in addition to being boors ( i ge’onim /i ). b Rabbi Elazar said: It is permitted to stab an ignoramus /b to death b on Yom Kippur that occurs on Shabbat. His students said to him: Master, /b at least b say /b that it is permitted b to slaughter him. He said to them: /b I intentionally used the word stab, as b this /b term, slaughtering, b requires a blessing /b when one slaughters an animal, b and that /b term, stabbing, b does not require a blessing /b in any context., b Rabbi Elazar said: It is prohibited to accompany an ignoramus /b while traveling b on the road /b due to concern that the ignoramus might try to harm his traveling partner, b as it is stated /b with regard to Torah: b “For it is your life and the length of your days” /b (Deuteronomy 30:20). An ignoramus has not studied any Torah, indicating that b he is not concerned about his own life; /b with regard b to another’s life, all the more so. /b , b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: It is permitted to tear /b open b an ignoramus like a fish. Rabbi Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said: And /b one may cut him open b from his back /b and thereby cause his immediate death by piercing his spinal cord rather than his stomach., b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Akiva said: When I was an ignoramus I said: Who will give me a Torah scholar /b so that b I will bite him like a donkey? His students said to him: Master, say /b that you would bite him b like a dog! He said to them: /b I specifically used that wording, as b this one, /b a donkey, b bites and breaks bones, and that one, /b a dog, b bites but does not break bones. /b , b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir would say: Anyone who marries off his daughter to an ignoramus /b is considered b as though he binds her and places her before a lion. /b Why is this so? b Just as a lion mauls /b its prey b and eats and has no shame, so too, an ignoramus strikes /b his wife b and /b then b engages in sexual relations /b with her without appeasing her first, b and has no shame. /b , b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer says: If we did not need /b the ignoramuses b for business, they would kill us. /b ,The Gemara shifts to a discussion of an ignoramus who has some degree of sensitivity ( i Me’iri /i ). b Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: Anyone who engages in Torah /b study b in the presence of an ignoramus, /b causing the ignoramus embarrassment and anguish over his inability to study Torah, b is considered as though he had sexual relations with /b the ignoramus’s b betrothed /b bride b in his presence, as it is stated: “Moses commanded us the Torah, an inheritance /b [ b i morasha /i /b ] for the congregation of Jacob” (Deuteronomy 33:4). b Do not read it /b as b inheritance [ i morasha /i ]; rather, /b read it as b betrothed [ i me’orasa /i ]. /b The Torah is compared to the betrothed bride of the Jewish people until one studies it and thereby consummates his marriage with it.,Similarly, he said: b The hatred which ignoramuses have for a Torah scholar is greater than the hatred that the nations of the world have for the Jewish people. And /b the b wives /b of the ignoramuses hate Torah scholars b more than /b the ignoramuses themselves. b It was taught /b in the i Tosefta /i that one b who studied /b Torah b and left /b his studies hates Torah scholars b more than all of them. /b , b The Sages taught: Six statements were made with regard to ignoramuses: One may not entrust them with testimony, /b i.e., one may not appoint them as witnesses to a particular event or transaction. Additionally, b one may not accept testimony from them, /b as they are not considered trustworthy, and b one should not reveal a secret to them, /b as they will reveal it. b One may not appoint them as steward [ i apotropos /i ] over /b an estate belonging to b orphans, /b due to concern that they might make improper use of the orphans’ property. Likewise, b one may not appoint them as guardian over a charity fund. /b Finally, b one should not accompany them /b while traveling b on the road, /b due to concern for one’s safety. b And there are those who say: One does not even announce their lost /b items, meaning that if one finds a lost article from such a person, he is allowed to keep it without making an effort to locate the owner ( i Me’iri /i ).,The Gemara asks: What is the reasoning of b the first i tanna /i , /b who holds that one must announce having found the lost article of an ignoramus? The Gemara explains: b Sometimes upstanding offspring will come from him and will consume /b the property, b as it is stated: “He may prepare it but the just shall put it on” /b (Job 27:17). It is possible for a wicked person to prepare something for himself that will later be used by a righteous person.,The Gemara returns to explaining the mishna. It was taught: b And so too, one who left /b Jerusalem with sacrificial meat in his possession must return to Jerusalem to burn it, just as one is required to return in order to remove leaven from his possession. According to Rabbi Meir, this i halakha /i applies with regard to an egg-bulk of sacrificial meat or leaven, whereas Rabbi Yehuda disagrees and says the minimum amount for both is an olive-bulk.,The Gemara asks: b Is that to say that Rabbi Meir holds /b that b an egg-bulk is /b the minimal amount that is considered b significant, and Rabbi Yehuda holds that an olive-bulk is also /b considered b significant? /b The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a mishna in i Berakhot /i : b How much /b food must one eat in order b to obligate /b those with whom he ate b in a i zimmun /i ? An olive-bulk /b of food is sufficient according to the unattributed opinion in the mishna, which is generally that of Rabbi Meir. b And Rabbi Yehuda says: An egg-bulk /b is the minimum measure to obligate those with whom one ate in a i zimmun /i . This seems to contradict the opinions of Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda stated in the mishna here., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The opinions are reversed /b in one of these sources, and must be emended., b Abaye said: Actually, do not reverse /b the opinions. b There, they disagree with regard to /b the interpretation of b verses, /b while b here, they disagree with regard to logical reasoning. /b How so? b There, /b with regard to i zimmun /i , b they disagree with regard to /b the interpretation of b verses. Rabbi Meir holds /b that the verse: “And you shall eat and be satisfied and bless the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 8:10) should be understood as follows: b “And you shall eat,” that is eating; “and be satisfied,” that is drinking. /b The standard halakhic principle is that b eating /b is defined as the consumption of b an olive-bulk. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: “And you shall eat and you shall be satisfied” /b refers b to eating that includes satisfaction. And what is /b considered eating with satisfaction? It is consumption of b an egg-bulk. /b ,However, b here, /b in the cases of leaven and consecrated food, b they disagree /b not with regard to the interpretation of verses but b with regard to logical reasoning, as Rabbi Meir holds: /b The requirement to b return /b consecrated food b is analogous to its ritual impurity. Just as its /b susceptibility to b ritual impurity is /b only when it is the size of an b egg-bulk, so too, /b the requirement to b return it is /b only when it is the size of an b egg-bulk. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: /b The requirement to b return /b consecrated food
26. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 291
16a. זו עשירית האיפה שלו דברי רבי יהודה,ר"ש אומר (יחזקאל מד, כז) בבאו יקריב בזמן שראוי לביאה ראוי להקרבה בזמן שאינו ראוי לביאה אינו ראוי להקרבה,אמר רבא מנלן דמשדרין שליחא דבי דינא ומזמנינן ליה לדינא דכתיב (במדבר טז, יב) וישלח משה לקרא לדתן ולאבירם בני אליאב ומנלן דמזמנינן לדינא דכתיב (במדבר טז, טז) ויאמר משה אל קרח אתה וכל עדתך,לקמי גברא רבה דכתיב (במדבר טז, טז) לפני ה' את ופלניא דכתיב אתה והם ואהרן דקבעינן זימנא דכתיב מחר זימנא בתר זימנא דכתיב (ירמיהו מו, יז) קראו שם פרעה מלך מצרים שאון העביר המועד,ומנלן דאי מתפקר בשליחא דבי דינא ואתי ואמר לא מיתחזי כלישנא בישא דכתיב (במדבר טז, יד) העיני האנשים ההם תנקר,ומנלן דמשמתינן דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) אורו מרוז דהכי סברא דגברא רבה דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) אמר מלאך ה' ומנלן דמחרמינן דכתיב אורו ארור,דאכיל ושתי בהדיה וקאי בארבע אמות דידיה דכתיב יושביה ומנלן דפרטינן חטאיה בציבורא דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) כי לא באו לעזרת ה',ואמר עולא בד' מאה שיפורי שמתיה ברק למרוז איכא דאמרי גברא רבה הוה ואיכא דאמרי כוכבא הוה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כ) מן שמים נלחמו הכוכבים,ומנלן דמפקרינן נכסיה דכתיב (עזרא י, ח) וכל אשר לא יבא לשלשת הימים בעצת השרים והזקנים יחרם כל רכושו והוא יבדל מקהל הגולה,ומנלן דנצינן ולייטינן ומחינן ותלשינן שיער ומשבעינן דכתיב (נחמיה יג, כה) ואריב עמם ואקללם ואכה מהם אנשים ואמרטם ואשביעם,ומנלן דכפתינן ואסרינן ועבדינן הרדפה דכתיב (עזרא ז, כו) הן למות הן לשרושי הן לענש נכסין ולאסורין מאי לשרושי אמר אדא מרי אמר נחמיה בר ברוך אמר רב חייא בר אבין אמר רב יהודה הרדפה מאי הרדפה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב מנדין לאלתר ושונין לאחר ל' ומחרימין לאחר ששים,א"ל רב הונא בר חיננא הכי אמר רב חסדא מתרין ביה שני וחמישי ושני ה"מ לממונא אבל לאפקירותא לאלתר,ההוא טבחא דאיתפקר ברב טובי בר מתנה אימנו עליה אביי ורבא ושמתוהו לסוף אזל פייסיה לבעל דיניה אמר אביי היכי ליעביד לישרי ליה לא חל שמתא עליה תלתין יומין לא לישרי ליה קא בעו רבנן למיעל,א"ל לרב אידי בר אבין מידי שמיע לך בהא א"ל הכי אמר רב תחליפא בר אבימי אמר שמואל טוט אסר וטוט שרי אמר ליה ה"מ לממונא אבל לאפקירותא עד דחיילא שמתא עליה תלתין יומין,אלמא קסבר אביי הני בי תלתא דשמיתו לא אתו תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,דאיבעיא להו הני בי תלתא דשמיתו מהו למיתי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה ת"ש מנודה לרב מנודה לתלמיד מנודה לתלמיד אינו מנודה לרב,מנודה לעירו מנודה לעיר אחרת מנודה לעיר אחרת אינו מנודה לעירו מנודה לנשיא מנודה לכל ישראל מנודה לכל ישראל אינו מנודה לנשיא רשב"ג אומר אחד מן התלמידים שנידה ומת חלקו אינו מופר,ש"מ תלת שמע מינה תלמיד שנידה לכבודו נידויו נידוי ושמע מינה כל אחד ואחד מיפר חלקו וש"מ הני בי תלתא דשמיתו לא אתו תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,אמר אמימר הלכתא הני בי תלתא דשמיתו אתו בי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה א"ל רב אשי לאמימר והא תניא רשב"ג אומר אחד מן התלמידים שנידה ומת חלקו אינו מופר מאי לאו אינו מופר כלל לא עד דאתו בי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,ת"ר אין נידוי פחות מל' יום ואין נזיפה פחות מז' ימים ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר שנאמר (במדבר יב, יד) ואביה ירק ירק בפניה הלא תכלם שבעת ימים,אמר רב חסדא נידוי שלנו כנזיפה שלהן ונזיפה דידהו שבעה ותו לא והא ר"ש בר רבי ובר קפרא הוו יתבי וקא גרסי קשיא להו שמעתא א"ל ר"ש לבר קפרא דבר זה צריך רבי א"ל בר קפרא לר"ש ומה רבי אומר בדבר זה,אזל א"ל לאבוה איקפד אתא בר קפרא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל בר קפרא איני מכירך מעולם ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,שוב פעם אחד גזר רבי שלא ישנו לתלמידים בשוק מאי דרש (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך כמו חלאים מה ירך בסתר 16a. b this is /b the meal-offering of b a tenth of an ephah /b of flour, which every priest would bring on the day he began serving in the Temple. But as long as he is ritually impure, whether because he had come into contact with a corpse or due to leprosy, he may not send his offerings to the Temple; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b , b Rabbi Shimon says: /b The verse states: “And on the day that b he goes into /b the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary b he shall sacrifice /b his sin offering.” This teaches that b when he is fit to enter /b the Sanctuary, b he is fit to sacrifice /b an offering. But b when he is not fit to go into /b the Sanctuary, i.e., when he is ritually impure, b he is not fit to sacrifice /b an offering. This implies that a leper may not send his offerings to the Temple to be sacrificed on the altar, as he himself is not fit to enter the Temple.,§ Having discussed some of the restrictions applying to a person who was ostracized, the Gemara explains some of the basic principles relating to ostracism: b Rava said: From where do we /b derive b that a court agent is sent to summon /b the defendant b to /b appear before the b court /b before he is ostracized? b As it is written: “And Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab” /b (Numbers 16:12). b And from where do we /b derive b that we summon /b the defendant, that he himself must appear before the b court? As it is written: “And Moses said to Korah: Be you and all your congregation /b before the Lord, you and they, and Aaron, tomorrow” (Numbers 16:16).,From where is it derived that the defendant must be told that he is being summoned to appear b before a great man? As it is written: /b “And Moses said to Korah: Be you and all your congregation b before the Lord” /b (Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived that the summons must mention the names of both parties: b You and so-and-so, /b the plaintiff? b As it is written: “You, and they, and Aaron” /b (Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived b that we set a date /b for the court proceedings? b As it is written: “Tomorrow” /b (Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived that a second b date /b must be set b after /b the first b date, /b if the defendant did not heed the first summons? b As it is written: “They did cry there, Pharaoh, king of Egypt is but a noise; he has passed the time appointed… /b Surely as Tabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come” (Jeremiah 46:17). Although a time had been appointed and it had passed, it was not canceled entirely but pushed off to a later date., b And from where do we /b derive b that if /b the summoned person b behaves disrespectfully toward the agent of the court, and /b the agent b comes /b back b and reports /b his conduct, that b this is not considered slander? As it is written: “Will you put out the eyes of these men?” /b (Numbers 16:14). Dathan and Abiram spoke these words to the messenger that Moses had sent to them, and the messenger reported them back to Moses., b And from where do we /b derive b that we ostracize /b one who does not obey a court summons? b As it is written: “Curse Meroz” /b (Judges 5:23), who was ostracized for not coming to battle after having been summoned. From where is it derived that the ostracized person must be told b that it /b was b the decision of a great man /b to ostracized him? b As it is written: /b “Curse Meroz, b said the messenger of the Lord” /b (Judges 5:23). b And from where do we /b derive b that, /b if he fails to mend his ways, b we excommunicate /b such a person more harshly, putting him under the most severe form of excommunication? b As it is written: /b “Curse Meroz… b curse bitterly /b its inhabitants” (Judges 5:23), implying that one curse is followed by another, i.e., lesser ostracism is followed by harsh excommunication.,From where is it derived b that /b the curse applies to anyone who b eats or drinks with, or stands within, four cubits of /b the ostracized person? b As it is written: /b “Curse bitterly b its inhabitants” /b (Judges 5:23), in reference to all those sitting together with Meroz. b And from where do we /b derive b that we detail his sin in public? As it is written: /b “Curse bitterly its inhabitants, b because they did not come to the help of the Lord” /b (Judges 5:23)., b And Ulla said: Barak ostracized Meroz with /b the blowing of b four hundred i shofarot /i /b due to his failure to come. As for the identification of Meroz, b some say /b that b he was a great man /b and that he was ostracized because he did not join in the war effort. b And others say /b that the reference is to b a star /b and not a human being, and that it did not aid the Jewish people in their battle, b as it is stated: “The stars fought from heaven; /b in their courses they fought against Sisera,” (Judges 5:20). This star, which did not help the Jewish people, was cursed., b And from where do we /b derive b that /b the court b may declare the property of /b one who does not obey its orders b as ownerless? As it is written: “And that whoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the Elders, all his substance shall be forfeited [ i yaḥoram /i ] and himself separated from the congregation of the exiles” /b (Ezra 10:8). “Shall be forfeited” is referring to excommunication., b And from where do we /b derive b that we may contend with /b such a person, b and curse /b him, b and beat /b him, b and pull out /b his b hair, and make /b him b take an oath /b in order to prevent him from sinning? b As it is written: “And I contended with them, and cursed them, and beat some of them, and pulled out their hair, and made them take oath /b by God” (Nehemiah 13:25)., b And from where do we /b derive b that we may shackle /b his hands and feet, b chain /b him, b and apply pressure? As it is written: “Whether it be for death, or for banishment [ i lishroshi /i ], or for confiscation of goods, or for imprisonment” /b (Ezra 7:26). The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the word b “ i lishroshi /i ,” /b translated here as banishment? b Adda Mari said /b that b Neḥemya bar Baruch said /b that b Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said /b that b Rav Yehuda said: /b This is b pressure. /b Since this expression is also unclear, the Gemara asks: b What /b is b pressure? Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav /b that this term refers to the following series of actions: b They ostracize /b him b immediately, and /b then once b again after thirty /b days, and if he still does not repent, b they excommunicate him after sixty /b days., b Rav Huna bar Ḥina said to him: Rav Ḥisda said as follows: /b Before excommunicating a person, the court b warns him /b three times, on b Monday, Thursday, and /b the following b Monday. /b The Gemara notes: b This applies /b in a case where one ignores b a monetary judgment /b that was issued against him. He is warned three times that he must repay his debt. b But /b in a case where one b behaves disrespectfully /b toward a Torah scholar, he is b immediately /b ostracized.,§ The Gemara relates that b a certain butcher behaved disrespectfully toward Rav Tuvi bar Mattana. Abaye and Rava were appointed /b to the case b and ostracized him. In the end /b the butcher b went and appeased his disputant, /b Rav Tuvi. b Abaye said: What should we do /b in this case? Shall b he be released /b from his decree of ostracism? b His /b decree of b ostracism has not /b yet b been in effect for /b the usual b thirty days. /b On the other hand, b shall he not be released /b from ostracism? But b the Sages wish to enter /b his shop and purchase meat, and they are presently unable to do so. What, then, is the most appropriate course of action?, b He said to Rav Idi bar Avin: /b Have b you heard anything with regard to such /b a case? Rav Idi bar Avin b said to /b Abaye: b Rav Taḥlifa bar Avimi said /b that b Shmuel said as follows: /b A i shofar /i b blast /b at the time of the ostracism b makes /b it b binding, and /b a i shofar /i b blast releases /b it. In other words, the i shofar /i should be sounded now, as it had been sounded when the decree of ostracism was pronounced, and it should be canceled, although thirty days have not passed. Abaye b said to him: This applies /b in a case where one ignores b a monetary judgment /b that was issued against him; b but /b in a case where one b behaves disrespectfully, /b there must be no release b until the /b decree of b ostracism has been in effect for thirty days. /b ,The Gemara comments: b Apparently, Abaye maintains /b that if b three /b people b ostracized /b one, b three others may not come and release him. /b This is derived from the fact that Abaye was concerned about releasing the butcher from ostracism and did not delegate the task to someone else., b As a dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: If b three /b people b ostracized /b someone, b what is /b the i halakha /i with regard to b three others coming and releasing him /b from his decree of ostracism? The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from that which is taught in a i baraita /i : b One who was ostracized by the teacher /b of Torah for having acted disrespectfully toward him b is /b considered b ostracized with regard to the student, /b and the latter must keep his distance from him. However, b one who was ostracized by the student is not /b considered b ostracized with regard to the teacher. /b , b One who was ostracized by his /b own b city is /b considered b ostracized with regard to another city. /b However, b one who was ostracized by another city is not /b considered b ostracized with regard to his /b own b city. One who was ostracized by the i Nasi /i /b of the Sanhedrin b is /b considered b ostracized with regard to all the Jewish people; /b but b one who was ostracized by all the Jewish people is not /b considered b ostracized with regard to the i Nasi /i /b of the Sanhedrin. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b If b one of the students /b sitting as a judge on the court b had ostracized /b someone, b and he died /b before releasing him from the decree of ostracism, b his portion /b of the decree of ostracism b is not nullified. /b ,The Gemara says: b Learn three /b i halakhot /i b from this /b i baraita /i . b Learn from this /b that in the case of b a student who ostracizes /b someone b due to /b an insult to b his dignity /b and not because the ostracized person was guilty of some transgression, b his /b decree of b ostracism is valid. /b Were the case one where one was ostracized due to sin, everyone is required to respect the decree of ostracism, even the student’s teacher. b And learn from this /b that b each and every one /b who participated in the decree of ostracism b nullifies his /b own b portion /b of the decree of ostracism, as the i baraita /i speaks of: His portion. b And learn from this /b that if b three /b people b ostracized /b another person, b three other /b people b may not come and nullify /b the decree of ostracism. Were this not the case, it wouldn’t matter if a certain person’s portion was not nullified. His portion could be nullified by someone else., b Ameimar said: The i halakha /i is /b that if b three /b people b ostracize /b another person, b three others may come and nullify /b the decree of ostracism. b Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b If b one of the students had ostracized /b another person, b and he died /b before releasing him from the decree of ostracism, b his portion is not nullified? What, is it not /b that b it is not nullified at all, /b i.e., it cannot be nullified by another person? The Gemara rejects this argument: b No, /b this means that the decree of ostracism remains in force b until three other people come and nullify /b it.,§ b The Sages taught /b the following i baraita /i : b Ostracism does not /b apply b for less than /b a period of b thirty days, and admonition, /b which is less severe than ostracism, b does not /b apply b for less than /b a period of b seven days. And although there is no proof with regard to the matter, /b i.e., the standard duration of admonition, there is b an allusion to the matter, as it is stated: “If her father had but spit in her face, should she not be ashamed for seven days?” /b (Numbers 12:14). This implies that admonition lasts for seven days., b Rav Ḥisda said: Our /b decree of b ostracism /b in Babylonia has the power b of their admonition /b in Eretz Yisrael. Since the authorities in Eretz Yisrael are ordained with the title Rabbi, their admonition carries more weight than a decree of ostracism issued in Babylonia. The Gemara asks: Is b their admonition /b in Eretz Yisrael only b seven /b days b and no more? But isn’t /b it related that b Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and bar Kappara were sitting and studying, /b and they posed b a difficulty with /b a certain b i halakha /i . Rabbi Shimon said to bar Kappara: This issue requires /b my father, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, to explain it. b Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon, /b somewhat mockingly: b And what can /b your father, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b say about this /b issue? What can he add and teach us about it?,Rabbi Shimon b went and told his father, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what bar Kappara had said, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b became angry /b with him. When b bar Kappara came /b at some later point b to visit, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Bar Kappara, I do not know you at all. /b Bar Kappara b understood that /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b had taken /b his b statement to heart, /b i.e., was insulted. He subsequently b behaved /b as if he had been b admonished, /b as a self-imposed punishment, b for thirty days. /b , b Once again, on another occasion, Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b decreed that students not be taught in the marketplace /b but only in a study hall. b What /b verse did he b expound /b to serve as the basis for this decree? The verse states: b “Your rounded thighs are like jewels, /b the work of the hands of an artist” (Song of Songs 7:2). b Just /b as b a thigh is /b ordinarily b hidden /b and kept covered with clothes,
27. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
27b. ופדר קמא דכתב רחמנא למה לי מיבעי ליה לכדתניא כיצד הוא עושה חופה את הפדר על בית השחיטה ומעלהו וזהו דרך כבוד של מעלה,והאי תנא מייתי לה מהכא דתניא (ויקרא יא, מו) זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף וכי באיזו תורה שוותה בהמה לעוף ועוף לבהמה בהמה מטמאה במגע ובמשא עוף אינו מטמא במגע ובמשא עוף מטמא בגדים אבית הבליעה בהמה אינה מטמאה בגדים אבית הבליעה,באיזו תורה שוותה בהמה לעוף ועוף לבהמה לומר לך מה בהמה בשחיטה אף עוף בשחיטה אי מה להלן ברוב שנים אף כאן ברוב שנים ת"ל זאת,ר' אליעזר אומר באיזו תורה שוותה בהמה לעוף ועוף לבהמה לומר לך מה עוף הכשרו מן הצואר אף בהמה הכשרה מן הצואר,אי מה להלן ממול עורף אף כאן ממול עורף ת"ל (ויקרא ה, ח) ומלק את ראשו ממול ערפו ולא יבדיל ראשו של זה ממול עורף ואין ראשו של אחר ממול עורף,ור' אליעזר האי זאת מאי עביד ליה אי לאו זאת הוה אמינא מה עוף בסימן אחד אף בהמה בסימן אחד כתב רחמנא זאת,תני בר קפרא זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף הטיל הכתוב לעוף בין בהמה לדגים לחייבו בשני סימנין אי אפשר שכבר הוקש לדגים לפוטרו בלא כלום אי אפשר שכבר הוקש לבהמה הא כיצד הכשרו בסימן אחד,דגים דלאו בני שחיטה נינהו מנלן אילימא משום דכתיב (במדבר יא, כב) הצאן ובקר ישחט להם אם את כל דגי הים יאסף להם באסיפה בעלמא סגי להו,אלא מעתה גבי שליו דכתיב (במדבר יא, לב) ויאספו את השליו הכי נמי דלאו בשחיטה והא אמרת לפוטרו בולא כלום אי אפשר שכבר הוקש לבהמה התם לא כתיבא אסיפה במקום שחיטה דאחריני הכא כתיבא אסיפה במקום שחיטה דאחריני:,דרש עובר גלילאה בהמה שנבראת מן היבשה הכשרה בשני סימנים דגים שנבראו מן המים הכשירן בולא כלום עוף שנברא מן הרקק הכשרו בסימן אחד אמר רב שמואל קפוטקאה תדע שהרי עופות יש להן קשקשת ברגליהם כדגים:,ועוד שאלו כתוב אחד אומר (בראשית א, כ) ויאמר אלהים ישרצו המים שרץ נפש חיה ועוף יעופף אלמא ממיא איברו וכתיב (בראשית ב, יט) ויצר ה' אלהים מן האדמה כל חית השדה ואת כל עוף השמים אלמא מארעא איברו,אמר לו מן הרקק נבראו ראה תלמידיו מסתכלים זה בזה אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שדחיתי את אויבי בקש מן המים נבראו ולמה הביאן אל האדם לקרות להן שם,ויש אומרים בלשון אחר אמר לאותו הגמון ובלשון הראשון אמר להן לתלמידיו משום דכתיב על ויצר,אמר רב יהודה משום ר' יצחק בן פנחס אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה שנאמר ושפך בשפיכה בעלמא סגי,א"ה חיה נמי איתקש לפסולי המוקדשין עוף נמי איתקש לבהמה דכתיב זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף הא כתיב (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך את דמו,ומאי חזית דשדייה ליה על עוף שדייה אחיה מסתברא משום דסליק מיניה,(סימן נתנבל דם במליקה),מיתיבי השוחט ונתנבלה בידו הנוחר והמעקר פטור מלכסות ואי אמרת אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה נחירתו זו היא שחיטתו ליבעי כסוי מי סברת בעוף לא בחיה,ת"ש השוחט וצריך לדם חייב לכסות כיצד הוא עושה או נוחרו או עוקרו 27b. The Gemara asks: b And why do I /b need b the first /b mention of b fat that the Merciful One writes: /b “The pieces, the head, and the fat” (Leviticus 1:8)? Wasn’t the derivation from that verse restricted to the head? The Gemara answers that it is b necessary for that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b How does /b the priest who elevates the sacrificial portions of the animal to the altar b perform /b that task? b He /b uses b the fat /b to b cover the place of slaughter, /b i.e., to conceal the bloody neck, b and elevates /b the head to the top of the altar, b and that is a deferential manner /b toward b the Most High. /b , b And this i tanna /i cites /b proof that slaughter is from the neck b from here: As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that the Torah writes with regard to the impurity of carcasses: b “This is the law of the animal, and of the bird” /b (Leviticus 11:46), indicating that the two are somehow equated. b But with regard to what law is an animal equal to a bird and a bird to an animal? /b The i halakhot /i of ritual impurity governing animals and birds are not comparable; b an animal imparts impurity by contact and by carrying, /b whereas b a bird does not impart impurity by contact or by carrying. /b Furthermore, b a bird renders /b the b garments /b of one who swallows it b ritually impure /b when it is b in the throat; an animal does not render /b one’s b garments impure /b when it is b in the throat. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b With regard to what law is an animal equal to a bird and a bird to an animal? /b The verse comes b to say to you: Just as an animal /b avoids the impurity of being an unslaughtered carcass b through slaughter, so too, a bird /b avoids the impurity of being an unslaughtered carcass b through slaughter. /b The Gemara objects: b If /b so, say, based on the same juxtaposition: b Just as there, /b in the case of an animal, it avoids the impurity b through /b the cutting of b the majority of two /b i simanim /i , i.e., the windpipe and the gullet, b so too here, /b in the case of a bird, it avoids the impurity b through /b the cutting of b the majority of two /b i simanim /i . The Gemara explains that b the verse states: “This /b is the law,” to restrict the scope of the juxtaposition in the sense that not all of the i halakhot /i of birds and animals are equal.,The i baraita /i continues. b Rabbi Eliezer says: With regard to what law is an animal equal to a bird and a bird to an animal? /b The verse comes b to say to you: Just as /b in the case of b a bird, its fitness /b for sacrifice and for consumption is accomplished through pinching and slaughter b from the neck, /b as the Torah states with regard to bird offerings that one pinches off its head from the neck, b so too, /b in the case of b an animal, its fitness /b for sacrifice and for consumption is accomplished through slaughter b from the neck. /b ,The Gemara objects: b If /b so, say, based on the same juxtaposition: b Just as there, /b in the case of a bird, the pinching is performed b adjacent to /b the b nape /b of the neck, b so too here, /b with regard to an animal, the slaughter is performed b adjacent to /b the b nape /b of the neck and not from the throat. The Gemara explains that therefore, b the verse states /b with regard to a bird: b “And pinch off its head adjacent to its nape, but shall not divide it asunder” /b (Leviticus 5:8), from which it is derived: b Its head, /b i.e., the bird’s head, is pinched b adjacent /b to the b nape, but the head of another, /b the animal, b is not /b cut b adjacent /b to the b nape. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b Rabbi Eliezer, what does he do with this /b term: b “This /b is the law,” from which the first i tanna /i restricted the scope of the juxtaposition between animals and birds? The Gemara answers: b If not /b for the derivation from the term b “This /b is the law,” b I would say: Just as /b the fitness of b a bird /b is accomplished b by /b cutting b one of the i simanim /i that must be severed in ritual slaughter, /b i.e., either the windpipe or the gullet, b so too, /b the fitness of b an animal /b is accomplished b by /b cutting b one i siman /i . /b Therefore, b the Merciful One writes: “This /b is the law,” to restrict the juxtaposition.,§ The Gemara proceeds to discuss the source for the slaughter of non-sacred birds. b Bar Kappara teaches /b that the verse states: b “This is the law of the animal, and of the bird, /b and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that swarms upon the earth” (Leviticus 11:46). b The verse situated the bird between /b the b animal and /b the b fish. To require /b the cutting of the b two i simanim /i /b that must be severed in ritual slaughter, i.e., the windpipe and the gullet, for the slaughter of a bird, b is impossible, as it was already juxtaposed to fish, /b which do not require slaughter at all. b To exempt it with nothing, /b i.e., to exempt the bird from slaughter altogether, b is impossible, as it was already juxtaposed to /b the b animal. How, /b then, b is fitness /b of a bird for consumption accomplished? It is rendered fit b with /b the cutting of b one i siman /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive that b fish are not subject to slaughter? If we say /b that it is b because it is written: “If flocks and herds be slaughtered for them…or if all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, /b will they suffice them” (Numbers 11:22), which indicates that b mere gathering suffices for them, /b that is not a proof.,The Gemara clarifies: b But if that is so, with regard to quail /b as well, concerning b which it is written: /b “And the people rose up… b and gathered the quail” /b (Numbers 11:32), b so too, /b would one say with regard to birds b that, /b like fish, their fitness is b not /b accomplished b with slaughter? /b The Gemara responds with a question. b But didn’t you say: To exempt /b birds from slaughter altogether b with nothing is impossible, as it was already juxtaposed to /b the b animal? /b The Gemara answers: b There, gathering /b of quail b is not written in /b the b context /b of the b slaughter of others; /b therefore, gathering is not to be understood as an alternative to slaughtering the birds. b Here, gathering /b of fish b is written in /b the b context /b of the b slaughter of others, /b i.e., the flocks and herds, which indicates that gathering is an alternative to slaughter.,The Gemara relates that b a passerby from the Galilee taught: Fitness /b for consumption of b animals, which were created from the /b dry b land, /b is accomplished b through /b cutting b two i simanim /i , /b the gullet and the windpipe. b Fitness /b for consumption of b fish, which were created from the water, /b is accomplished b with nothing, /b as no slaughter is required. b Fitness /b for consumption of b birds, which were created from mud [ i harekak /i ], /b a combination of dry land and water, is accomplished b through /b cutting b one i siman /i . Rav Shmuel of Cappadocia says: Know /b that b birds /b were created from a combination of dry land and water, b as they have scales on their feet like fish. /b ,The Gemara relates an excerpt of an exchange between a Roman government official and Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. b And furthermore, /b the official b asked /b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: b One verse states: “And God said: Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creeping animals, and birds will fly” /b (Genesis 1:20); b apparently /b birds b were created from the water. And it is written: “And from the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every bird of the air /b and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them” (Genesis 2:19); b apparently /b birds b were created from the land. /b ,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b said to him: They were created from the mud. He saw his students looking at each other, /b wondering. b He said to them: Does it trouble you that I dismissed my enemy with a flimsy /b pretext? Actually, it is b from water /b that birds b were created. And why /b does the verse state that they were formed from the ground and that God b brought them to Adam? /b In other words, why are they mentioned in the second verse? It is not because they were actually formed from the ground, but only because they were brought to Adam so that b he would call them names. /b , b And some say /b that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai spoke b to that officer with a different formulation, /b i.e., he said to him that the birds were created from the water. b And he stated the first formulation, /b that the birds were created from the mud, b to his students, because it is written: “And /b from the ground the Lord God b formed /b every beast of the field, and every bird of the air” (Genesis 2:19). According to this explanation, the birds are mentioned there not only because Adam called them names, but also because they too were created from the ground.,On the matter of slaughtering birds, b Rav Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Pineḥas: Slaughter of a bird is not /b obligatory b by Torah law, as it is stated: /b “And whatever man there be of the children of Israel…who traps any undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten, b he shall spill its blood, /b and cover it in earth” (Leviticus 17:13). This indicates that b mere spilling /b of its blood b is sufficient. /b ,The Gemara objects: b If so, /b with regard to b an undomesticated animal, /b which is mentioned in the same verse, spilling should be sufficient b also. /b The Gemara explains: An undomesticated animal b is juxtaposed to disqualified consecrated /b animals, for which slaughter is required, as explained later in the Gemara (28a). The Gemara asks: b Birds too are juxtaposed to animals, /b and therefore slaughter should be required, b as it is written: “This is the law of the animal, and of the bird” /b (Leviticus 11:46). The Gemara answers: b But isn’t it written: “He shall spill its blood,” /b indicating that slaughter is not required?,The Gemara asks: b And /b concerning the derivation that slaughter is not required, based on the phrase in the verse “He shall spill,” b what did you see that /b led you to b cast it upon, /b i.e., apply it to, the case of b a bird? /b Why not b cast it upon /b the case of b an undomesticated animal? /b The Gemara answers: b It stands to reason /b to cast the derivation upon the case of a bird b due to /b the fact b that /b the verse b concluded with /b the bird, i.e., the bird is mentioned just prior to the directive to spill and cover the blood, as it is written: “Who traps any undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten, he shall spill its blood.”,The Gemara provides b a mnemonic /b for the proofs cited in the Gemara with regard to the slaughter of birds: b Became a carcass, blood, through pinching. /b ,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to the statement of Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Pineḥas from a mishna (85a): b One who slaughters /b an undomesticated animal b and it became /b an unslaughtered b carcass by his hand /b because the slaughter was not valid, or b one who stabbed /b the animal by slicing the length of the i simanim /i , b or one who ripped /b the gullet or windpipe of the animal, rendering the slaughter not valid, b is exempt from covering /b the blood because his slaughter was ineffective in permitting consumption of the animal, and it is written that the requirement of covering the blood applies only to “any undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten.” b And if you say /b that b slaughter of a bird is not /b obligatory b by Torah law, /b the halakhic status of b its stabbing is /b like that of b its slaughter; let /b its blood b require covering. /b The Gemara answers: b Do you maintain /b that this mishna is referring b to a bird? No, /b it is referring exclusively b to an undomesticated animal. /b ,The Gemara cites another challenge: b Come /b and b hear /b that which is taught in a i baraita /i : b One who slaughters /b an undomesticated animal or a bird b and requires the blood /b and not the animal b is obligated to cover /b the blood. Rather, b how does he act /b if he seeks to make use of the blood rather than cover it? He b either stabs /b the animal b or rips /b the i simanim /i , and then he is exempt from covering the blood.
28. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic mashal, jewish education, fable in Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 176
134a. אם לאו אי אתה יכול להוציא מה שהחזרתי אמר הטיח עלי בן עוזיאל הטיח עלי בן עוזיאל,מעיקרא מאי סבר משום מעשה דבית חורון,דתנן מעשה בבית חורון באחד שהיה אביו מודר הימנו הנאה והיה משיא בנו ואמר לחבירו הרי חצר וסעודה נתונין לך במתנה ואינן לפניך [אלא כדי] שיבא אבא ויאכל עמנו בסעודה,אמר לו אם שלי הן הרי הן מוקדשין לשמים אמר לו לא נתתי לך את שלי שתקדישם לשמים אמר לו לא נתת לי את שלך אלא שתהא אתה ואביך אוכלין ושותין ומרצין זה לזה ויהא עון תלוי בראשו,אמרו חכמים כל מתנה שאינה שאם הקדישה מוקדשת אינה מתנה:,תנו רבנן שמונים תלמידים היו לו להלל הזקן שלשים מהן ראוים שתשרה עליהן שכינה כמשה רבינו שלשים מהן ראוים שתעמוד להן חמה כיהושע בן נון עשרים בינוניים גדול שבכולן יונתן בן עוזיאל קטן שבכולן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הניח מקרא ומשנה גמרא הלכות ואגדות דקדוקי תורה ודקדוקי סופרים וקלין וחמורין וגזרות שוות ותקופות וגמטריאות ומשלות כובסים ומשלות שועלים שיחת שדים ושיחת דקלים ושיחת מלאכי השרת ודבר גדול ודבר קטן,דבר גדול מעשה מרכבה ודבר קטן הויות דאביי ורבא לקיים מה שנאמר (משלי ח, כא) להנחיל אוהבי יש ואוצרותיהם אמלא,וכי מאחר דקטן שבכולם כן גדול שבכולם על אחת כמה וכמה אמרו עליו על יונתן בן עוזיאל בשעה שיושב ועוסק בתורה כל עוף שפורח עליו נשרף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר זה בני נאמן זה אחי אינו נאמן ויטול עמו בחלקו,מת יחזרו נכסים למקומן,נפלו לו נכסים ממקום אחר יירשו אחיו עמו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big זה בני נאמן למאי הלכתא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ליורשו ולפטור את אשתו מן היבום 134a. but b if not, /b as the property is mine and I have the right to do with it whatever I want, b you cannot repossess what I returned /b to the man’s children either. Shammai then b said: Ben Uzziel reprimanded me; ben Uzziel reprimanded me, /b and I have no response.,The Gemara asks: b What did /b Shammai b hold initially, /b causing him to protest Yonatan ben Uzziel’s behavior? The Gemara answers: He protested b due to the incident /b that happened b in /b the city of b Beit Ḥoron. /b , b As we learned /b in a mishna ( i Nedarim /i 48a): b An incident /b occurred b involving someone in /b the city of b Beit Ḥoron whose father had vowed not to derive benefit from him, and /b the son b was marrying off his /b own b son /b and wanted his father to be able to participate in the wedding meal. b And /b he therefore b said to another: /b The b courtyard /b where the wedding will take place b and /b the wedding b meal are hereby given to you as a gift, but they are /b given b to you only so that my father will come and eat with us at the meal. /b The son wanted to circumvent the prohibition imposed by the vow and enable his father to participate in the meal, so he transferred ownership to someone else for that purpose.,The recipient b said to him: If they are mine, they are /b all b hereby consecrated to Heaven, /b i.e., the Temple, and are forbidden to everyone. The son b said to him /b in anger: b I did not give you my /b property b so that you should consecrate them to Heaven. /b The recipient b said to him: You gave me your /b property b only /b so b that you and your father would eat and drink and /b thereby b appease each other, and the sin /b of transgressing the vow would b be hung on his, /b i.e., my, b head, /b as I enabled the transgression.,The mishna continues: In reference to this incident, b the Sages said: Any gift that is not /b so absolute b that if /b the recipient b were to consecrate it, /b the gift b would be consecrated, is not a gift. /b In other words, in order for it to be a gift the recipient must have the ability to consecrate it. Similarly, Shammai had initially reasoned that the gift to Yonatan ben Uzziel was not a valid gift, as its sole purpose was so that the property should not fall into the possession of the man’s children. Once he discovered that Yonatan ben Uzziel consecrated part of the gift, he realized that it was, in fact, a valid gift, with which the recipient could do whatever he pleased.,§ Apropos Yonatan ben Uzziel, the Gemara cites that b the Sages taught: Hillel the Elder had eighty students. Thirty of them /b were sufficiently b worthy that the Divine Presence should rest upon them as /b it did upon b Moses our teacher, thirty of them /b were sufficiently b worthy that the sun should stand still for them as /b it did for b Joshua bin Nun, /b and b twenty /b were on b an intermediate /b level between the other two. b The greatest of all /b the students was b Yonatan ben Uzziel, and the least of them /b was b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b ,The Sages b said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai /b that b he did not neglect Bible and Mishna; Talmud; i halakhot /i and i aggadot /i ; minutiae of the Torah and minutiae of the scribes; and /b the hermeneutical principles of the Torah with regard to b i a fortiori /i /b inferences; b and verbal analogies; and /b the calculation of the calendric b seasons; and numerical values /b of Hebrew letters b [ i gimatriyot /i ]; and parables of launderers, /b which are folktales that can be used to explain the Torah, b and parables of foxes. /b In addition, he did not neglect esoteric matters, including b the conversation of demons, and the conversation of palm trees, and the conversation of ministering angels, and /b more generally, b a great matter and a small matter. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: b A great matter is /b referring to the secrets of b the Design of the /b Divine b Chariot /b (see Ezekiel, chapter 1), the conduct of the transcendent universe, b and a small matter is, /b for example, i halakhot /i that were ultimately formulated in the framework of b the discussions of Abaye and Rava. /b He did not neglect any of these disciplines, so as b to fulfill that /b which b is stated: “That I may cause those that love me to inherit substance and that I may fill their treasuries” /b (Proverbs 8:21), as Rabban Yoḥa was filled with the disciplines of Torah and wisdom.,The Gemara adds: b And if the least of them /b was b so /b prolific, b the greatest of them /b was b all the more so /b prolific. The Gemara relates that the Sages b said of Yonatan ben Uzziel, /b the greatest of Hillel’s students, that b when he would sit and engage in Torah /b study, the sanctity that he generated was so intense that b any bird that would fly over him would be incinerated. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b One who says: This is my son, /b is b deemed credible. /b One who says: b This is my brother, /b is b not deemed credible /b with regard to his other brothers’ obligation to share the inheritance with the subject of his statement. When one claims that this man is his brother, this claim is accepted with regard to the speaker’s own portion, b and /b the man in question b takes /b a share of their father’s inheritance b with him, /b i.e., b from his portion. /b ,If the man in question b dies, /b the b property /b he received from the father’s inheritance b shall return to its place, /b i.e., to the possession of the brother who testified on his behalf, from whose portion he received a share.,If b property came into /b the man in question’s possession b from somewhere else, /b other than from the father, and the man in question died, all of b the brothers of /b the one who testified b shall inherit with /b the one who testified, as according to his claim they too are the heirs of the deceased.,gemara The mishna teaches that one who says: b This is my son, /b is b deemed credible. With regard to what i halakha /i /b is this stated? b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b It is stated b with regard to inheriting /b from b him, /b i.e., the son inherits from the speaker, b and with regard to rendering his wife exempt from levirate marriage. /b Because he claims that the person in question is his son, his wife is not required to enter into levirate marriage after his death, as he has a child.
29. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 10.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic education Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 72
10.9. But these people are stark mad. For our philosopher has abundance of witnesses to attest his unsurpassed goodwill to all men – his native land, which honoured him with statues in bronze; his friends, so many in number that they could hardly be counted by whole cities, and indeed all who knew him, held fast as they were by the siren-charms of his doctrine, save Metrodorus of Stratonicea, who went over to Carneades, being perhaps burdened by his master's excessive goodness; the School itself which, while nearly all the others have died out, continues for ever without interruption through numberless reigns of one scholarch after another;
30. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 14 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbinic mashal, jewish education, fable in Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 176
31. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 28, 12 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Strong (2021), The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke: A New Foundation for the Study of Parables 176
32. Anon., Abot De Rabbi Nathan, None (7th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 291
33. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 3.5, 4.1  Tagged with subjects: •education, rabbinic Found in books: Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 87, 90