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17 results for "edah"
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 22.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166
22.32. "וְלֹא תְחַלְּלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃", 22.32. "And ye shall not profane My holy name; but I will be hallowed among the children of Israel: I am the LORD who hallow you,",
2. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 167, 168, 169
4.2. "וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹה וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ׃", 4.2. "וְעַמִּינָדָב הוֹלִיד אֶת־נַחְשׁוֹן וְנַחְשׁוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־שַׂלְמָה׃", 4.2. "And he took ten men of the elders of the city, and said: ‘Sit ye down here.’ And they sat down.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 68.27, 82.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 150, 154, 167, 168, 169
68.27. "בְּמַקְהֵלוֹת בָּרְכוּ אֱלֹהִים יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 82.1. "מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱ‍לֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט׃", 68.27. "'Bless ye God in full assemblies, Even the Lord, ye that are from the fountain of Israel.'", 82.1. "A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judgeth:",
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.16, 14.27, 16.21, 27.3, 35.24-35.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166
11.16. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃", 14.27. "עַד־מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה מַלִּינִים עָלָי אֶת־תְּלֻנּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה מַלִּינִים עָלַי שָׁמָעְתִּי׃", 16.21. "הִבָּדְלוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַזֹּאת וַאַכַלֶּה אֹתָם כְּרָגַע׃", 27.3. "אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא־הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח כִּי־בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לוֹ׃", 35.24. "וְשָׁפְטוּ הָעֵדָה בֵּין הַמַּכֶּה וּבֵין גֹּאֵל הַדָּם עַל הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים הָאֵלֶּה׃", 35.25. "וְהִצִּילוּ הָעֵדָה אֶת־הָרֹצֵחַ מִיַּד גֹּאֵל הַדָּם וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֹתוֹ הָעֵדָה אֶל־עִיר מִקְלָטוֹ אֲשֶׁר־נָס שָׁמָּה וְיָשַׁב בָּהּ עַד־מוֹת הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדֹל אֲשֶׁר־מָשַׁח אֹתוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃", 11.16. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee.", 14.27. "’How long shall I bear with this evil congregation, that keep murmuring against Me? I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel, which they keep murmuring against Me.", 16.21. "’Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.’", 27.3. "’Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin; and he had no sons.", 35.24. "then the congregation shall judge between the smiter and the avenger of blood according to these ordices;", 35.25. "and the congregation shall deliver the manslayer out of the hand of the avenger of blood, and the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, whither he was fled; and he shall dwell therein until the death of the high priest, who was anointed with the holy oil.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 147
23.2. "הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָךְ לְפָנֶיךָ לִשְׁמָרְךָ בַּדָּרֶךְ וְלַהֲבִיאֲךָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר הֲכִנֹתִי׃", 23.2. "לֹא־תִהְיֶה אַחֲרֵי־רַבִּים לְרָעֹת וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶה עַל־רִב לִנְטֹת אַחֲרֵי רַבִּים לְהַטֹּת׃", 23.2. "Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou bear witness in a cause to turn aside after a multitude to pervert justice;",
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 42.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 149, 150, 153, 161, 164, 166
42.5. "וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבֹּר בְּתוֹךְ הַבָּאִים כִּי־הָיָה הָרָעָב בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃", 42.5. "And the sons of Israel came to buy among those that came; for the famine was in the land of Caa.",
7. Mishnah, Berachot, 7.4-7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 153, 154, 168, 169
7.4. "שְׁלשָׁה שֶׁאָכְלוּ כְאֶחָד, אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לֵחָלֵק, וְכֵן אַרְבָּעָה, וְכֵן חֲמִשָּׁה. שִׁשָּׁה נֶחֱלָקִין, עַד עֲשָׂרָה. וַעֲשָׂרָה אֵינָן נֶחֱלָקִין, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֶשְׂרִים: \n", 7.5. "שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלוֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן רוֹאִין אֵלּוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִים לְזִמּוּן. וְאִם לָאו, אֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן, וְאֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן. אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְבָרְכִין: \n", 7.4. "Three persons who have eaten together may not separate [to recite Birkat Hamazon]. Similarly four and similarly five. Six may separate, up until ten. And ten may not separate until there are twenty.", 7.5. "Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine [for a zimun], but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless.",
8. Mishnah, Avot, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 166, 167
3.6. "רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא בֶן דּוֹסָא אִישׁ כְּפַר חֲנַנְיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְעוֹסְקִין בַּתּוֹרָה, שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בֵינֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פב) אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ חֲמִשָּׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עמוס ט) וַאֲגֻדָּתוֹ עַל אֶרֶץ יְסָדָהּ. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ שְׁלשָׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פב) בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג) אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי ה' אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב ה' וַיִּשְׁמָע וְגוֹ'. וּמִנַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ) בְּכָל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי אָבֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ:", 3.6. "Rabbi Halafta of Kefar Haia said: when ten sit together and occupy themselves with Torah, the Shechinah abides among them, as it is said: “God stands in the congregation of God” (Psalm 82:. How do we know that the same is true even of five? As it is said: “This band of His He has established on earth” (Amos 9:6). How do we know that the same is true even of three? As it is said: “In the midst of the judges He judges” (Psalm 82:1) How do we know that the same is true even of two? As it is said: “Then they that fear the Lord spoke one with another, and the Lord hearkened, and heard” (Malachi 3:16). How do we know that the same is true even of one? As it is said: “In every place where I cause my name to be mentioned I will come unto you and bless you” (Exodus 20:21).",
9. Tosefta, Shabbat, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 158, 159
10. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 155, 161, 167
4.3. "אֵין פּוֹרְסִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְאֵין עוֹבְרִין לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, וְאֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין מַעֲמָד וּמוֹשָׁב, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים וְתַנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים וּבִרְכַּת חֲתָנִים, וְאֵין מְזַמְּנִין בַּשֵּׁם, פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה. וּבַקַּרְקָעוֹת, תִּשְׁעָה וְכֹהֵן. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:", 4.3. "They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings.",
11. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.4, 1.6-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 164, 165, 166, 167
1.4. "דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. הָרוֹבֵעַ וְהַנִּרְבָּע, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (ויקרא כ) וְהָרַגְתָּ אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְאֶת הַבְּהֵמָה, וְאוֹמֵר (שם) וְאֶת הַבְּהֵמָה תַּהֲרֹגוּ. שׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא) הַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל וְגַם בְּעָלָיו יוּמָת, כְּמִיתַת בְּעָלִים כָּךְ מִיתַת הַשּׁוֹר. הַזְּאֵב וְהָאֲרִי, הַדֹּב וְהַנָּמֵר וְהַבַּרְדְּלָס וְהַנָּחָשׁ, מִיתָתָן בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם לְהָרְגָן, זָכָה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מִיתָתָן בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה: \n", 1.6. "סַנְהֶדְרִי גְדוֹלָה הָיְתָה שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד, וּקְטַנָּה שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וּמִנַּיִן לַגְּדוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יא) אֶסְפָה לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמֹשֶׁה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן, הֲרֵי שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שִׁבְעִים. וּמִנַּיִן לַקְּטַנָּה שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם לה) וְשָׁפְטוּ הָעֵדָה וְגוֹ' וְהִצִּילוּ הָעֵדָה, עֵדָה שׁוֹפֶטֶת וְעֵדָה מַצֶּלֶת, הֲרֵי כָאן עֶשְׂרִים. וּמִנַּיִן לָעֵדָה שֶׁהִיא עֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יד) עַד מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת, יָצְאוּ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָלֵב. וּמִנַּיִן לְהָבִיא עוֹד שְׁלֹשָׁה, מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) לֹא תִהְיֶה אַחֲרֵי רַבִּים לְרָעֹת, שׁוֹמֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁאֶהְיֶה עִמָּהֶם לְטוֹבָה, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר (שם) אַחֲרֵי רַבִּים לְהַטֹּת, לֹא כְהַטָּיָתְךָ לְטוֹבָה הַטָּיָתְךָ לְרָעָה. הַטָּיָתְךָ לְטוֹבָה עַל פִּי אֶחָד, הַטָּיָתְךָ לְרָעָה עַל פִּי שְׁנַיִם, וְאֵין בֵּית דִּין שָׁקוּל, מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹד אֶחָד, הֲרֵי כָאן עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְכַמָּה יְהֵא בְעִיר וּתְהֵא רְאוּיָה לְסַנְהֶדְרִין, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, מָאתַיִם וּשְׁלשִׁים, כְּנֶגֶד שָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרוֹת: \n", 1.4. "Cases concerning offenses punishable by death [are decided] by twenty three. A beast that has sexual relations with a woman or with a man is [judged] by twenty three, as it says, “You shall execute the woman and the beast” (Lev. 20:16) and it says, “You shall execute the beast”. The ox that is stoned [is judged] by twenty three., as it says, “The ox shall be stoned and also its owner shall be put to death” (Exodus 21:29), as is the death of the owner, so too is the death of the ox. The wolf, the lion, the bear, the leopard, the panther, or serpent [that have killed a human being] their death is [adjudicated] by twenty three. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Anyone who kills them before they come to court merits.” But Rabbi Akiva says: “Their death must be [adjudicated] by twenty three.", 1.6. "The greater Sanhedrin was made up of seventy one and the little Sanhedrin of twenty three.From where do we learn that the greater Sanhedrin should be made up of seventy one? As it says, “Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel” (Num. 11:16), and when Moses is added to them there is seventy one. Rabbi Judah says: “Seventy.” From where do we learn that the little Sanhedrin should be made up of twenty three? As it says, “The assembly shall judge”, “The assembly shall deliver” (Num. 35:24-25), an assembly that judges and an assembly that delivers, thus we have twenty. And from where do we know that an assembly has ten? As it says, “How long shall I bear this evil congregation?” (Num. 14:27) [which refers to the twelve spies] but Joshua and Caleb were not included. And from where do we learn that we should bring three others [to the twenty]? By inference from what it says, “You shall not follow after the many to do evil” (Ex. 23:2), I conclude that I must be with them to do well. Then why does it say, “[To follow] after the many to change judgment” (Ex. 23:2). [It means that] your verdict of condemnation should not be like your verdict of acquittal, for your verdict of acquittal is reached by the decision of a majority of one, but your verdict of condemnation must be reached by the decision of a majority of two. The court must not be divisible equally, therefore they add to them one more; thus they are twenty three. And how many should there be in a city that it may be fit to have a Sanhedrin? A hundred and twenty. Rabbi Nehemiah says: “Two hundred and thirty, so that [the Sanhedrin of twenty three] should correspond with them that are chiefs of [at least] groups of ten.",
12. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 91.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 140
91.3. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבֹּר וגו' (בראשית מב, ה), וּמִנַּיִן לְעֵדָה שֶׁהִיא עֲשָׂרָה, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן (במדבר לה, כד): עֵדָה, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (במדבר יד, כז): עַד מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה, מָה עֵדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה, אַף עֵדָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן (ויקרא כב, לב): תּוֹךְ, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (בראשית מב, ה): תּוֹךְ, מַה תּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה, אַף תּוֹךְ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הָכָא עֲשָׂרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבוֹן אִם בְּתוֹךְ אֲפִלּוּ עַד כַּמָּה, אֶלָּא נֶאֱמַר כָּאן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, מַה בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן עֲשָׂרָה אַף בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֲשָׂרָה. רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָמַר, תִּינוֹק עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לַעֲשָׂרָה, וְהָא תָּנֵי אֵין מְדַקְדְּקִין בְּקָטָן, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי לִשְׁנֵי קְטַנִּים נִצְרְכָה, אֶחָד סָפֵק וְאֶחָד קָטָן עוֹשִׂין אֶת הַסָּפֵק עִקָּר וְאֶת הַקָּטָן לִסְנִיף. תָּנֵי קָטָן וְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן כֵּן הוּא מַתְנִיתִין, קָטָן לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. מֵאֵימָתַי עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף, רַבִּי אֲבוּנָא אָמַר אִתְפַּלְגוּן בְּהָא רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַב הוּנָא תַּרְוֵיהוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל, חַד אֲמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא יוֹדֵעַ טִיב בְּרָכָה. וְאוֹחֲרָנָא אֲמַר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא יוֹדֵעַ לְמִי הוּא מְבָרֵךְ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר פָּזִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַסֵּי תִּשְׁעָה נִרְאִים כַּעֲשָׂרָה מְזַמְּנִין, מַאי עָבֵיד מְסֻיָּמִין, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ קָטָן בֵּינֵיהֶם. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר זַבְדִי בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵף, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לַעֲשָׂרָה כָּךְ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף לִשְׁלשָׁה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֲדָא הִיא וְלֹא כָּל שֶׁכֵּן לְהַלָּן שֶׁהוּא מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף, כָּאן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַזְכִּיר אֶת הַשֵּׁם אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף. אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֲדָא אָמְרָה עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּזוֹן אֲבָל לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע וְלִתְפִלָּה אֵין עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ סְנִיף עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת: אֲמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי זִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין אֲכָלִית עִם רַבִּי תַּחְלִיפָא וְזִמְנִין סַגִּיאִין אֲכָלִית עִם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר סִיסִי חֲבִיבִי וְלָא זָמְנִין עָלַי עַד שֶׁהֵבֵאתִי שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת. וּמֵאֵימָתַי הוּא קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה, אֲמַר רַבִּי אֲבִינָא אִתְפַּלְגוּן רַב הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה תַּרְוֵיהוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל, חַד אָמַר מִשֶּׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְבָרֵךְ, וְאוֹחֲרָנָא אָמַר עַד שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ טִיב בְּרָכָה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ לְמִי מְבָרְכִין. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַב, וְאִית דְּאָמְרִין בְּעוֹן קַמֵּיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר שִׁילַת, תִּשְׁעָה פַּת וְאֶחָד יָרָק מַהוּ, אֲמַר לְהוֹן, מְזַמְּנִין. שְׁמוֹנָה פַּת וּשְׁנַיִם יָרָק, מְזַמְּנִין. שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁשָּׁה פַּת וְאַרְבָּעָה יָרָק מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְזַמְּנִין. רַבִּי אֲבִינָא בְּעָא וּמֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי זְעֵירָא עַד דַּאֲנָא תַּמָּן אִצְטְרָכִית לְמִשְׁאֲלֵיהּ וּמֵיצְרָי לִי מִינָהּ דְּלָא שְׁאִלְתִּיו. רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בָּעֵי אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאָכַל יָרָק מַהוּ מְזַמְּנָא עֲלוֹהִי. תָּנֵי שְׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת נְזִירִין סָלְקִין בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין בְּיוֹמֵי דְּשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, לִמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין מָצָא לָהֶם פֶּתַח וּמְאָה וְחַמְשִׁין לָא מָצָא פֶּתַח. סָלֵיק רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח גַּבֵּי יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מְאָה נְזִירִין סָלְקוּ בָּעֲיִין לִמְקָרְבָה תְּשַׁע מְאָה קוּרְבָּנִין וְלֵית לְהוֹן, אֶלָּא יְהֵיב אַתְּ פַּלְגָּא מִן דִּידָךְ וַאֲנָא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּידִי וְיֵזְלוּן וִיקָרְבוּן, יְהַב יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא פַּלְגָא מִן דִּילֵיהּ וַאֲזַלּוּן וְקָרְבוּן. אֲתוֹן וַאֲמָרִין לִשְׁנָא בִּישָׁא לְיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, תֶּהֱוֵי יְדַע דְּכָל מַה דְּקָרְבוּן מִדִּידָךְ קָרְבוּן, בְּרַם שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח לָא יָהֵיב מִן דִּידֵיהּ כְּלוּם. כָּעַס יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא עַל שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח. שְׁמַע דְּהוּא כָּעֵס עֲלוֹהִי, צְרַת [נסח אחר צרח] לֵיהּ וַעֲרַק, לְבָתַר יוֹמֵי הֲווֹן בְּנֵי אֱנָשָׁא רַבְרְבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא דְּפַרְסָאֵי יַתְבִין נָגְסִין עַל פָּתוֹרָא דְּיַנַּאי מַלְכָּא, אֲמַרוּן לֵיהּ מָרִי מַלְכָּא נָהֲרִין אֲנַן דַּהֲוָה הָכָא חַד סַב וַהֲוָה אֲמַר לָן מִילֵי דְאוֹרָיְיתָא, אֲמַר לַאֲחָתֵיהּ שְׁלַחִי בַּתְרֵיהּ וְאַיְיתִיתֵיהּ. אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ הַב לִי מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתָךְ, וְהוּא אָתֵי. יְהַב לָהּ מִלָּא וּשְׁלַח לֵיהּ עִזְקָתֵיהּ וַאֲתָא. מִדַּאֲתָא יְתֵיב לֵיהּ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, לְמָה עֲרַקְתְּ, שְׁמָעִית דְּמָרִי מַלְכָּא כָּעֵיס עֲלַי וּצְרַח לִי מִינָךְ דְּלָא תִקְטְלַנִּי וְקַיְימַת הָדֵין קְרָיָא (ישעיה כו, כ): חֲבִי כִּמְעַט רֶגַע עַד יַעֲבָר זָעַם, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה אַפְלֵית בִּי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לָא אַפְלֵית בָּךְ, אֶלָּא אַתְּ מִמָּמוֹנָךְ וַאֲנָא מִן אוֹרָיְיתָא, דִּכְתִיב (קהלת ז, יב): כִּי בְּצֵל הַחָכְמָה בְּצֵל הַכָּסֶף. אָמַר לוֹ וּלְמָה לָא אֲמַרְתְּ לִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִי אֲמַרִית לָךְ לָא הֲוָה יַהֲבִית. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְמָה יְתַבְתְּ לָךְ בֵּין מַלְכָּא לְמַלְכְּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּסֵפֶר בֶּן סִירָא כָּתוּב: סַלְסְלֶהָ וּתְרוֹמְמֶךּ וּבֵין נְגִידִים תּוֹשִׁיבֶךָּ. אֲמַר מְזוֹג לֵיהּ יְבָרֵךְ. אֲמַר בָּרוּךְ עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכַל יַנַּאי וַחֲבֵרָיו. אֲמַר עַד כַּדּוּן אַתְּ בְּקַשְׁיוּתָךְ, לָא שְׁמָעִית מִן יוֹמוֹי יַנַּאי בְּבִרְכְתָא. אֲמַר וּמָה אִית לִי לְמֵימַר, נְבָרֵךְ עַל שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ, וַאֲנִי לֹא אָכַלְתִּי. אֲמַר אַיְיתוֹן לֵיהּ וְיֵיכוּל. מִן דַּאֲכֵיל אֲמַר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן חֲלוּקִין עָלָיו עַל שְׁמוּעַת שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטַח, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה. מִחְלְפָא שִׁיטָתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה, תַּמָּן צְרִיכָה לֵיהּ, וְהָכָא פְּשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ. מַאן דִּצְרִיכָה לֵיהּ כְּרַבָּנָן, וּמַאן דִּפְשִׁיטָא לֵיהּ כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, דְּתָנֵי עֲלָהּ וְהֵסֵב עִמָּהֶן וְטִיבֵּל עִמָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹא אָכַל כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים. רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב בַּר אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר לְעוֹלָם אֵין מְזַמְּנִין עָלָיו עַד שֶׁאוֹכֵל כַּזַּיִת דָּגָן, וְהָא תָּנֵי שְׁנַיִם פַּת וְאֶחָד יָרָק מְזַמְּנִין. מַתְנִיתִין כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל.
13. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 158, 159
14. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 140, 158, 159, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166
74b. אפילו לשנויי ערקתא דמסאנא,וכמה פרהסיא אמר ר' יעקב אמר רבי יוחנן אין פרהסיא פחותה מעשרה בני אדם פשיטא ישראלים בעינן דכתיב (ויקרא כב, לב) ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל בעי רבי ירמיה תשעה ישראל ונכרי אחד מהו,תא שמע דתני רב ינאי אחוה דרבי חייא בר אבא אתיא תוך תוך כתיב הכא ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכתיב התם (במדבר טז, כא) הבדלו מתוך העדה הזאת מה להלן עשרה וכולהו ישראל אף כאן עשרה וכולהו ישראל,והא אסתר פרהסיא הואי אמר אביי אסתר קרקע עולם היתה,רבא אמר הנאת עצמן שאני,דאי לא תימא הכי הני קוואקי ודימוניקי היכי יהבינן לה אלא הנאת עצמן שאני הכא נמי הנאת עצמן שאני,ואזדא רבא לטעמיה דאמר רבא עכו"ם דאמר ליה להאי ישראל קטול אספסתא בשבתא ושדי לחיותא ואי לא קטילנא לך ליקטיל ולא לקטליה שדי לנהרא ליקטליה ולא ליקטול מ"ט לעבורי מילתא קא בעי,בעו מיניה מר' אמי בן נח מצווה על קדושת השם או אין מצווה על קדושת השם,אמר אביי ת"ש שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח ואם איתא תמני הויין א"ל רבא אינהו וכל אבזרייהו,מאי הוי עלה אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמרי בי רב כתיב (מלכים ב ה, יח) לדבר הזה יסלח ה' לעבדך בבא אדני בית רמון להשתחות שמה והוא נשען על ידי והשתחויתי וכתיב (מלכים ב ה, יט) ויאמר לו לך לשלום 74b. b Even to change the strap of a sandal. /b There was a Jewish custom with regard to sandal straps. If the gentile authorities were to decree that Jews must change their practice and wear sandal straps like those worn by the gentiles, one would be obligated to give up his life rather than veer from the accepted custom.,The Gemara asks: b And /b the presence of b how many /b people is required so that it should be deemed b a public /b act? b Rabbi Ya’akov says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b An action is b not /b considered b a public /b act if it is performed in the presence of b fewer than ten people. /b The Gemara clarifies this point: It is b obvious /b that b we require /b that these ten people be b Jews, as it is written /b in the verse from which we derive the requirement of ten for the sanctification of God’s name: b “And I shall be sanctified among the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 22:32). b Rabbi Yirmeya asks: What is /b the i halakha /i if there were b nine Jews and one gentile /b present?,The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear /b an answer from what b Rav Yannai, the brother of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, teaches /b in a i baraita /i : This is b derived /b by means of a verbal analogy between the word b “among” /b written with regard to the sanctification of God’s name, and the word b “among” /b written with regard to Korah and his assembly. b Here, /b with regard to the sanctification of God’s name, b it is written: “And I shall be sanctified among the children of Israel,” and there, /b with regard to Korah, b it is written: “Separate yourselves from among this congregation” /b (Numbers 16:21). The meaning of the word “congregation” written with regard to Korah is derived by means of a verbal analogy to the word “congregation” written with regard to the spies sent out by Moses to scout the land: “How long shall I bear with this evil congregation” (Numbers 14:27). b Just as there, /b the congregation of spies numbered b ten, and all /b were b Jews, so too here, /b concerning the sanctification of God, there must be b ten, all of them /b being b Jews. /b ,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But wasn’t /b the incident involving b Esther, /b i.e., her cohabitation with Ahasuerus, b a public /b sin? Why then did Esther not surrender her life rather than engage in intercourse? The Gemara answers: b Abaye says: Esther was /b merely like b natural ground, /b i.e., she was a passive participant. The obligation to surrender one’s life rather than engage in forbidden sexual intercourse applies only to a man who transgresses the prohibition in an active manner. A woman who is passive and merely submits is not required to give up her life so that she not sin., b Rava says /b that there is another justification for Esther’s behavior: When gentiles order the transgression of a prohibition not in order to persecute the Jews or to make them abandon their religion, but for b their /b own b personal pleasure, /b it b is different. /b In such a situation there is no obligation to sacrifice one’s life, even when the sin is committed in public.,Rava explains: b As if you do not say so, /b then b how do we give them coal shovels [ i kevakei vedimonikei /i ]? /b The Persian priests would take coal shovels from every house, fill them with coals, and use them to heat their temples on their festival days. Although this involved assisting idol worship in public, Jews would not sacrifice their lives in order not to do so. b Rather, /b the reason they cooperated is certainly that a measure enacted for the gentiles’ b personal pleasure is different. Here too, /b concerning Esther, Ahasuerus engaged in intercourse with her for his personal pleasure, and a measure enacted for a gentile’s b personal pleasure is different, /b and there is no obligation to sacrifice one’s life to avoid it.,The Gemara comments: b And Rava follows his /b own line of b reasoning, as Rava says: If a gentile said to a certain Jew: Cut grass [ i aspasta /i ] on Shabbat and throw it before the cattle, and if /b you b do not /b do this b I will kill you, he should cut /b the grass b and not be killed. /b But if the gentile said to him: Cut the grass and b throw it into the river, he should be killed and not cut /b the grass. b What is the reason /b for the latter ruling? Because it is clear that the gentile is not seeking his own personal pleasure, but rather b he wants /b to force the Jew b to violate /b his b religion. /b ,§ The Sages b raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ami: /b Is b a descendant of Noah, /b who is commanded to refrain from idol worship, also b commanded about the sanctification of God’s name, or is he not commanded about the sanctification of God’s name? /b , b Abaye says: Come /b and b hear /b an answer to this question from a i baraita /i in which it was taught: b Descendants of Noah were commanded /b to observe b seven mitzvot: /b To establish courts of law, to refrain from cursing God, idol worship, adultery, bloodshed, robbery, and from eating the limb of a living animal. b And if it is so /b that they are commanded about the sanctification of God’s name, then b there would be eight /b mitzvot in which they are commanded. b Rava said to him: /b There is no proof from here, as when the i baraita /i speaks of seven mitzvot it means the seven mitzvot b themselves with all their associated [ i avzaraihu /i ] /b obligations. The mitzva to sanctify God’s name can be understood as a detail of the prohibition of idolatry.,The Gemara asks: b What /b halakhic conclusion b was /b reached b about /b this matter? b Rav Adda bar Ahava says /b that b they say /b in b the school of Rav: It is written /b that Naaman, commander of the army of the king of Aram, said to the prophet Elisha: b “For this matter may the Lord pardon your servant, that when my master goes into the house of Rimmon to bow down there and he leans on my hand, and I bow myself down /b in the house of Rimmon” (II Kings 5:18). That is, he was forced to bow down before an idol out of fear of his master, the king of Aram. b And it is written /b in the following verse: b “And he said to him: Go in peace,” /b indicating that Elisha did not criticize him for acting in this manner.
15. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 140, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167
23b. כנגדו נמי לא בעי,מתקיף לה רבא והרי (ירמיהו ז, כא) עולותיכם ספו דלא הויין עשרין וחד וקרינן שאני התם דסליק עניינא,והיכא דלא סליק עניינא לא והאמר רב שמואל בר אבא זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דר' יוחנן וכי הוה קרינן עשרה פסוקי אמר לן אפסיקו מקום שיש תורגמן שאני דתני רב תחליפא בר שמואל לא שנו אלא במקום שאין תורגמן אבל מקום שיש תורגמן פוסק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פורסין על שמע ואין עוברין לפני התיבה ואין נושאין את כפיהם ואין קורין בתורה ואין מפטירין בנביא,ואין עושין מעמד ומושב ואין אומרים ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים וברכת חתנים ואין מזמנין בשם פחות מעשרה ובקרקעות תשעה וכהן ואדם כיוצא בהן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן דאמר קרא (ויקרא כב, לב) ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל כל דבר שבקדושה לא יהא פחות מעשרה,מאי משמע דתני ר' חייא אתיא תוך תוך כתיב הכא ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכתיב התם (במדבר טז, כא) הבדלו מתוך העדה,ואתיא עדה עדה דכתיב התם (במדבר יד, כז) עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת מה להלן עשרה אף כאן עשרה:,ואין עושין מעמד ומושב פחות מעשרה: כיון דבעי למימר עמדו יקרים עמודו שבו יקרים שבו בציר מעשרה לאו אורח ארעא:,ואין אומרים ברכת אבלים וברכת חתנים (וכו'): מאי ברכת אבלים ברכת רחבה דא"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן ברכת אבלים בעשרה ואין אבלים מן המנין ברכת חתנים בעשרה וחתנים מן המנין:,ואין מזמנין על המזון בשם פחות מעשרה (וכו'): כיון דבעי למימר נברך לאלהינו בציר מעשרה לאו אורח ארעא:,והקרקעות תשעה וכהן ואדם כיוצא בהן (וכו'): מנה"מ,אמר שמואל עשרה כהנים כתובים בפרשה חד לגופיה (וחד למעוטי) ואידך הוי מיעוט אחר מיעוט ואין מיעוט אחר מיעוט אלא לרבות תשעה ישראלים וחד כהן,ואימא חמשה כהנים וחמשה ישראלים קשיא:,ואדם כיוצא בהן: אדם מי קדוש,אמר רבי אבהו באומר דמי עלי דתניא האומר דמי עלי שמין אותו כעבד ועבד איתקש לקרקעות דכתיב (ויקרא כה, מו) והתנחלתם אותם לבניכם אחריכם לרשת אחוזה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הקורא בתורה לא יפחות משלשה פסוקים ולא יקרא למתורגמן יותר מפסוק אחד 23b. b it is not necessary /b to b also /b add corresponding verses in the i haftara /i ., b Rava strongly objects to this /b i baraita /i : b But /b there is the i haftara /i that begins with the words: b “Add your burnt offerings” /b (Jeremiah 7:21–28), b which does not have twenty-one verses, and /b nevertheless b we read it. /b The Gemara answers: b There it is different, as the topic is completed /b in fewer than twenty-one verses, and it is not necessary to begin another topic merely to complete the number of verses.,The Gemara asks: b But /b is it true that b where the topic is not completed, /b we do b not /b read fewer than twenty-one verses? b Didn’t Rav Shmuel bar Abba say: Many times I stood before Rabbi Yoḥa /b as a translator, b and when we had read ten verses he would say to us: Stop. /b This indicates that a i haftara /i need not be twenty-one verses. The Gemara answers: b In a place where there is a translator, /b who translates each verse into Aramaic and adds additional explanation, b it is different. /b In that case, it is not necessary for the i haftara /i to consist of twenty-one verses, so as not to overburden the congregation, b as Rav Taḥalifa bar Shmuel taught: They taught /b that twenty-one verses must be read from the i haftara /i b only /b in b a place where there is no translator; but in a place where there is a translator, one may stop /b even before that., strong MISHNA: /strong b One does not recite the /b introductory prayers and b blessing [ i poresin /i ] /b before b i Shema /i ; nor does one pass before the ark /b to repeat the i Amida /i prayer; b nor do the /b priests b lift their hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction; b nor is the Torah read /b in public; b nor does one conclude with /b a reading from b the Prophets /b [ i haftara /i ] in the presence of fewer than ten men., b And one does not observe /b the practice of b standing up and sitting down /b for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service; b nor does one recite the mourners’ blessing or comfort mourners /b in two lines after the funeral; b or /b recite the b bridegrooms’ blessing; and one does not invite /b others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a i zimmun /i , b with the name /b of God, b with fewer than ten /b men present. If one consecrated b land /b and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by b nine /b men b and one priest, /b for a total of ten. b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters, /b i.e., that ten people are needed in each of these cases, derived? b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b It is b as the verse states: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 22:32), which indicates that b any expression of sanctity may not be /b recited in a quorum of b fewer than ten /b men.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b in the verse may this b be inferred? /b The Gemara responds that it must be understood b as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: It is inferred /b by means of a verbal analogy [ i gezera shava /i ] between the words b “among,” “among.” Here, it is written: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel,” and there, /b with regard to Korah’s congregation, b it is written “Separate yourselves from among this congregation” /b (Numbers 16:21). Just as with regard to Korah the reference is to ten men, so too, the name of God is to be hallowed in a quorum of ten men.,The connotation of ten associated with the word “among” in the portion of Korah is, in turn, b inferred /b by means of another verbal analogy between the word b “congregation” /b written there and the word b “congregation” /b written in reference to the ten spies who slandered Eretz Yisrael, b as it is written there: “How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?” /b (Numbers 14:27). Consequently, b just as there, /b in the case of the spies, it was a congregation of b ten /b people, as there were twelve spies altogether, and Joshua and Caleb were not included in the evil congregation, b so too, here, /b in the case of Korah, the reference is to a congregation of b ten /b people. The first several items mentioned in the mishna are expressions of sanctity, and they consequently require a quorum of ten.,§ We learned in the mishna: b And one does not observe /b the practice of b standing up and sitting down /b for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service b with fewer than ten /b men present. As this is not an expression of sanctity, it is therefore necessary to explain why a quorum is required. The Gemara explains: b Since /b the leader of the funeral procession b is required to say: Stand, dear /b friends, b stand; sit down, dear /b friends, b sit down, /b when there are b fewer than ten it is not proper conduct /b to speak in such a dignified style.,We also learned in the mishna that b one does not recite the mourners’ blessing and the bridegrooms’ blessing /b with fewer than ten men present. The Gemara asks: b What is the mourners’ blessing? The blessing /b recited b in the square /b next to the cemetery. Following the burial, those who participated in the funeral would assemble in the square and bless the mourners that God should comfort them, b as Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: The mourners’ blessing /b is recited only b with ten /b men present, b and mourners /b themselves b are not included in the count. The bridegrooms’ blessing /b is also recited only b with ten /b men present, b and bridegrooms /b themselves b are included in the count. /b Consequently, only nine other men are needed.,We learned further in the mishna: b And one does not invite /b others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a i zimmun /i , in order to thank God b for /b one’s b nourishment, with the name /b of God, b with fewer than ten /b men present. b Since one is required to say: Let us bless our Lord, /b in the presence of b fewer than ten /b it is b not proper conduct /b to mention the name of God.,§ If one consecrated b land /b and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by b nine /b Israelites b and one priest, /b for a total of ten. b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters, /b that consecrated land must be assessed by ten people, one of whom is a priest, derived?, b Shmuel said: /b The word b priest /b is b written ten /b times b in the /b Torah b portion /b that addresses the redemption of consecrated property, indicating that ten people are required to assess the value of such property (Leviticus, chapter 27). b One /b instance of the word is needed b for itself, /b to indicate that a priest must participate in the assessment. b And one /b instance is needed b to exclude /b all non-priests from fulfilling that role. b And /b all b the other /b instances of the word b are restrictions following /b other b restrictions, /b and there is a general hermeneutical principle that b one restriction after another /b serves b only to amplify. /b Therefore, each additional time the word priest is repeated, it extends the criteria applied to appraisers, so as to allow non-priests to participate. Consequently, the assessment may be carried out by b nine /b ordinary b Israelites and one priest. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b on the basis of this principle, b say /b that the first usage of the term is restrictive and requires a priest for the assessment; the second usage amplifies and allows for a non-priest; the third usage again requires a priest; the fourth usage allows for a non-priest; and so on. Consequently, the assessment must be carried out by b five priests and five /b ordinary b Israelites. /b The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is b difficult, /b as the derivation has not been sufficiently explained.,We learned in the mishna: b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: b Can a person become consecrated /b and thereby require redemption?, b Rabbi Abbahu said: /b The mishna is referring b to one who says: My assessment /b is incumbent b upon me, /b and thereby pledges to donate a sum of money equivalent to his own monetary value to the Temple treasury, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who says: My assessment /b is incumbent b upon me, /b the court b assesses him as /b though he were b a slave /b in order to determine the amount he is obligated to donate to the Temple treasury. b And a slave is compared to land, as it is written /b with regard to slaves: b “And you shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession” /b (Leviticus 25:46). Consequently, the same criteria that apply to assessing consecrated land apply to assessing the monetary value of an individual., strong MISHNA: /strong b One who reads from the Torah /b in the synagogue b should not read fewer than three verses. And /b when it is being translated, b he should not read to the translator more than one verse /b at a time, so that the translator will not become confused.
16. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin •edah (assembly, quorum), and the grooms blessing •edah (assembly, quorum), and the recitation of grace-after-meals Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 167, 168, 169
7b. מיתיבי מברכין לבתולה שבעה ולאלמנה יום אחד מאי לאו אפילו אלמנה שנשאת לבחור לא לאלמון אבל לבחור מאי שבעה אי הכי ליתני מברכין לבתולה שבעה ולאלמנה שנשאת לבחור שבעה ולאלמנה יום אחד,מילתא פסיקתא קתני דליכא בתולה דבצרה משבעה וליכא אלמנה דבצרה מיום אחד:,גופא אמר רב נחמן אמר לי הונא בר נתן תנא מנין לברכת חתנים בעשרה שנאמר (רות ד, ב) ויקח עשרה אנשים מזקני העיר ויאמר שבו פה ורבי אבהו אמר מהכא (תהלים סח, כז) במקהלות ברכו אלהים ה' ממקור ישראל,ורב נחמן בהאי קרא דרבי אבהו מאי דריש ביה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא היה ר"מ אומר מנין שאפילו עוברים שבמעי אמן אמרו שירה על הים שנאמר במקהלות ברכו אלהים ה' ממקור ישראל ואידך אם כן לימא קרא מבטן מאי ממקור על עסקי מקור,ורבי אבהו בהאי קרא דרב נחמן מאי דריש ביה ההוא מיבעי ליה למידרש עמוני ולא עמונית מואבי ולא מואבית דאי סלקא דעתך לברכה לא סגיא דלאו זקנים,ואידך אי סלקא דעתך למידרש לא סגיא דלאו עשרה אין לפרסומי מילתא וכדאמר ליה שמואל לרב חנא בגדתאה פוק ואייתי לי בי עשרה ואימא לך באנפייהו המזכה לעובר קנה והלכתא המזכה לעובר לא קנה:,תנו רבנן מברכין ברכת חתנים בבית חתנים ר' יהודה אומר אף בבית האירוסין מברכין אותה,אמר אביי וביהודה שנו מפני שמתייחד עמה,תניא אידך מברכין ברכת חתנים בבית חתנים וברכת אירוסין בבית האירוסין ברכת האירוסין מאי מברך רבין בר רב אדא ורבה בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב יהודה אמרי בא"י אמ"ה אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על העריות ואסר לנו את הארוסות והתיר לנו את הנשואות על ידי חופה וקדושין רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה בא"י מקדש ישראל על ידי חופה וקדושין,מאן דלא חתים מידי דהוה אברכת פירות ואברכת מצות ומאן דחתים מידי דהוה אקידושא:,ת"ר מברכין ברכת חתנים בעשרה כל שבעה אמר רב יהודה והוא שבאו פנים חדשות,מאי מברך אמר רב יהודה בא"י אמ"ה 7b. b The Gemara raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : b One recites a benediction for a virgin /b who marries for b seven /b days b and for a widow /b who marries for b one /b day. b What, is it not even /b in the case of b a widow who is married to a bachelor, /b that one recites the benediction for one day? The Gemara answers: b No, /b it is only in the case of a widow who is married b to a widower /b that the benediction is recited for one day. The Gemara asks: b However, /b one may then infer that in the case of a widow who is married b to a bachelor, what /b is the i halakha /i ? The blessing is recited b seven /b days? b If so, let /b the i tanna /i b teach /b the i baraita /i : b One recites a benediction for a virgin /b who marries for b seven /b days, b and for a widow /b who marries b a bachelor seven /b days, b and for a widow /b marrying a widower for b one day. /b Why was the middle case omitted?,Although the i tanna /i could have included that case in the i baraita /i , b he taught categorical matters. /b He preferred to avoid entering into detail, b as there is no virgin /b for b whom /b the benediction is recited b fewer than seven /b days, b and there is no widow /b for b whom /b the benediction is recited for b less than one day. /b However, there are circumstances where even for a widow the benediction is recited for more than one day.,§ Apropos the source for the benediction of the grooms, the Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rav Naḥman said: Huna bar Natan said to me /b that it was b taught: From where /b is it derived b that the benediction of the grooms /b is recited b in /b a quorum of b ten /b men? It is b as it is stated: “And he took ten men of the Elders of the city and said: Sit you here, /b and they sat” (Ruth 4:2). b And Rabbi Abbahu said /b that the source is b from here: “In assemblies [ i mak’helot /i ], bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel” /b (Psalms 68:27). This verse indicates that a congregation [ i kahal /i ], which contains at least ten men, blesses God when reciting a benediction related to the source of Israel, i.e., conjugal relations, which will lead to the birth of Jewish children., b And what does Rav Naḥman derive from this verse /b from b which Rabbi Abbahu /b derived that i halakha /i ? b He requires /b the verse b to /b derive b that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Meir would say: From where /b is it derived b that even fetuses in their mother’s womb recited /b the b song at the /b Red b Sea? /b It is b as it is stated /b in the chapter of Psalms that describes the exodus from Egypt: b “In assemblies, bless God, the Lord, from the source of Israel.” /b Even those fetuses that were still in the source, i.e., the womb, joined the assemblies in blessing God. b And the other /b Sage, Rabbi Abbahu says: b If that /b is the meaning, b let the verse say: From the belly of Israel. What is /b the meaning of the term b “source”? /b Clearly, it is referring b to matters /b related to b the source /b of Israel, i.e., the benediction of the grooms, which must be recited in a congregation, a quorum of ten., b And what does Rabbi Abbahu derive from this verse /b from b which Rav Naḥman /b derived his i halakha /i ? b He requires /b the verse stating that Boaz assembled ten men in order b to teach /b that the Torah prohibition with regard to marrying members of the nations of Ammon and Moab is limited to a male b Ammonite and not a female Ammonite, /b and to a male b Moabite and not a female Moabite, as, if it would enter your mind /b that Boaz gathered the men only b to /b recite b a benediction, /b would it b not /b have been b sufficient /b if they b were not Elders? /b From the fact that he convened a quorum of Elders, apparently it was to engage in halakhic discourse and to issue a halakhic ruling., b And the other /b Sage, Rav Naḥman, would reject that proof. b If it would enter your mind /b that he gathered the men b in order to teach /b a i halakha /i , would it b not /b have been b sufficient /b if they b were not ten? /b The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b in fact a quorum of ten is not necessary to issue a halakhic ruling. Nevertheless, Boaz convened ten Elders b to publicize the matter, as Shmuel said to Rav Ḥana of Baghdad: Go and bring me an assembly of ten /b men b and I will say to you before them /b a i halakha /i that I seek to disseminate: With regard to b one who transfers ownership /b of an object b to a fetus, /b the fetus b acquires /b it, although it has not yet entered the world. Boaz too assembled ten Elders to publicize the matter. Apropos the i halakha /i that Shmuel publicized, the Gemara rules: b And the i halakha /i /b is: With regard to b one who transfers ownership /b of an object b to a fetus, /b the fetus b does not acquire /b it., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, /b when the bride enters into the wedding canopy. b Rabbi Yehuda said: One recites it even in the house of the betrothal, /b at the time of the betrothal., b Abaye said: And /b the Sages b taught /b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda b in Judea because /b there the custom was b that /b the groom b be secluded with /b his betrothed, leading to the concern lest he engage in conjugal relations with her. Therefore, the blessing is recited already at that stage., b It is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : b One recites the benediction of the grooms in the house of the grooms, and the benediction of the betrothal in the house of the betrothal. /b With regard to b the benediction of the betrothal, what /b formula b does one recite? Ravin bar Rav Adda and Rabba bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who sanctified us through His mitzvot, and commanded us concerning the forbidden relatives, and prohibited to us those women who are betrothed, and permitted to us /b those women b who are married by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, concludes /b the blessing b in the name of Rav Yehuda: Blessed are You, Lord, Who sanctifies Israel by means of the wedding canopy and betrothal. /b , b One who does not conclude /b the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, but instead recites it without a concluding blessing, deems the formula of this blessing b just as /b the formula b is in the blessing /b recited over b fruits and the blessing /b recited over b mitzvot, /b in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appear only at the beginning of the blessing. b And one who concludes /b the benediction of the betrothal in accordance with the opinion of Rav Aḥa, deems the formula of this blessing b just as /b the formula b is /b in the blessing b of i kiddush /i , /b in which the words: Blessed are You, Lord, appears both at the beginning and the conclusion of the blessing.,§ b The Sages taught: One recites the benediction of the grooms in /b a quorum of b ten /b men b all seven /b days of the wedding celebration. b Rav Yehuda said: And that is /b the case only b when new faces /b who did not previously participate in the festivities b came /b to join the celebration.,The Gemara asks: b What blessings does one recite? Rav Yehuda said /b that these are the seven blessings: b Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •edah (assembly, quorum), and martyrdom •edah (assembly, quorum), and public prayer •edah (assembly, quorum), and the composition of the sanhedrin Found in books: Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 140, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166
21b. או צבור וצבור אבל יחיד לגבי צבור כמאן דלא צלי דמי קמ"ל ואי אשמעינן הכא משום דלא אתחיל בה אבל התם דאתחיל בה אימא לא צריכא,אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת ומצא צבור שמתפללין אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיע ש"ץ למודים יתפלל ואם לאו אל יתפלל ריב"ל אמר אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיע ש"צ לקדושה יתפלל ואם לאו אל יתפלל,במאי קא מפלגי מר סבר יחיד אומר קדושה ומר סבר אין יחיד אומר קדושה,וכן אמר רב אדא בר אהבה מנין שאין היחיד אומר קדושה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, לב) ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל כל דבר שבקדושה לא יהא פחות מעשרה,מאי משמע דתני רבנאי אחוה דרבי חייא בר אבא אתיא תוך תוך כתיב הכא ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכתיב התם (במדבר טז, כא) הבדלו מתוך העדה הזאת מה להלן עשרה אף כאן עשרה,ודכולי עלמא מיהת מפסק לא פסיק,איבעיא להו מהו להפסיק ליהא שמו הגדול מבורך כי אתא רב דימי אמר ר' יהודה ור"ש תלמידי דרבי יוחנן אמרי לכל אין מפסיקין חוץ מן יהא שמו הגדול מבורך שאפילו עוסק במעשה מרכבה פוסק ולית הלכתא כותיה:,ר' יהודה אומר מברך לפניהם ולאחריהם: למימרא דקסבר רבי יהודה בעל קרי מותר בדברי תורה והאמר ריב"ל מנין לבעל קרי שאסור בדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת וגו' מה להלן בעלי קריין אסורין אף כאן בעלי קריין אסורין,וכי תימא רבי יהודה לא דריש סמוכים והאמר רב יוסף אפילו מאן דלא דריש סמוכים בכל התורה במשנה תורה דריש דהא רבי יהודה לא דריש סמוכין בכל התורה כולה ובמשנה תורה דריש,ובכל התורה כולה מנא לן דלא דריש דתניא בן עזאי אומר נאמר (שמות כב, יז) מכשפה לא תחיה ונאמר כל שוכב עם בהמה מות יומת סמכו ענין לו לומר מה שוכב עם בהמה בסקילה אף מכשפה נמי בסקילה,אמר ליה ר' יהודה וכי מפני שסמכו ענין לו נוציא לזה לסקילה אלא אוב וידעוני בכלל כל המכשפים היו ולמה יצאו להקיש להן ולומר לך מה אוב וידעוני בסקילה אף מכשפה בסקילה,ובמשנה תורה מנא לן דדריש דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר נושא אדם אנוסת אביו ומפותת אביו אנוסת בנו ומפותת בנו,ר' יהודה אוסר באנוסת אביו ובמפותת אביו ואמר רב גידל אמר רב מאי טעמא דר' יהודה דכתיב (דברים כג, א) לא יקח איש את אשת אביו ולא יגלה (את) כנף אביו כנף שראה אביו לא יגלה,וממאי דבאנוסת אביו כתיב דסמיך ליה ונתן האיש השוכב עמה וגו',אמרי אין במשנה תורה דריש והני סמוכין מבעי ליה לאידך דריב"ל דאמר ריב"ל כל המלמד לבנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאלו קבלה מהר חורב שנאמר (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וכתיב בתריה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב,תנן זב שראה קרי ונדה שפלטה שכבת זרע המשמשת וראתה דם צריכין טבילה ורבי יהודה פוטר,עד כאן לא פטר רבי יהודה אלא בזב שראה קרי דמעיקרא לאו בר טבילה הוא אבל בעל קרי גרידא מחייב,וכי תימא ה"ה דאפילו בעל קרי גרידא נמי פטר רבי יהודה והאי דקא מפלגי בזב שראה קרי להודיעך כחן דרבנן אימא סיפא המשמשת וראתה דם צריכה טבילה,למאן קתני לה אילימא לרבנן פשיטא השתא ומה זב שראה קרי דמעיקרא לאו בר טבילה הוא מחייבי רבנן המשמשת וראתה דם דמעיקרא בת טבילה היא לא כל שכן אלא לאו ר' יהודה היא ודוקא קתני לה 21b. b or /b a case where he prayed as part of b a congregation and /b began to repeat it as part of b a congregation; however, /b in a case where he initially prayed by himself and subsequently joined the congregation at the venue where it was praying, we might have said that b an individual vis-à-vis the congregation is /b considered b as one who has not prayed. /b Therefore, b he taught us /b that in this case, too, one may not repeat the prayer. b And, /b on the other hand, b if he had taught us here /b only with regard to one who entered a synagogue, we would have thought that the reason he may not pray again is b because he did not /b yet b begin /b to recite the prayer, b but there, in the case where he /b already b began /b to recite the prayer, b say /b that this is b not /b the case and he may continue to repeat the prayer. Therefore, both statements are b necessary. /b , b Rav Huna said: One who /b did not yet pray and b enters a synagogue and found that the congregation is /b in the midst of b reciting /b the i Amida /i b prayer, if he is able to begin and complete /b his own prayer b before the prayer leader reaches /b the blessing of b thanksgiving [ i modim /i ], he should /b begin to b pray, and, if not, he should not /b begin to b pray. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: If he is able to begin and complete /b his prayer b before the prayer leader reaches sanctification [ i kedusha /i ], then he should /b begin to b pray. If not, then he should not /b begin to b pray. /b ,The Gemara clarifies: b With regard to what do they disagree? /b The basis for their dispute is that one b Sage, /b Rav Huna, b holds: An individual /b is permitted to b recite i kedusha /i /b on his own, so he need not insist on reciting it along with the prayer leader; b and /b the other b Sage, /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, b holds /b that b an individual may not recite i kedusha /i /b alone, and, therefore he is required to complete his prayer before the communal prayer leader reaches i kedusha /i ., b Similarly, Rav Adda bar Ahava stated, /b in accordance with the second opinion: b From where is it derived that an individual may not recite i kedusha /i /b alone? b As it is stated: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 22:32), b any expression of sanctity may not be /b recited in a quorum of b fewer than ten /b men.,The Gemara asks: b How is this inferred /b from that verse? The Gemara responds: This must be understood in light of a i baraita /i , b which was taught by Rabbenai, the brother /b of b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba: It is inferred /b by means of a verbal analogy [ i gezera shava /i ] between the words b among, among. Here it is written: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel,” and there, /b regarding Korah’s congregation, b it is written “Separate yourselves from among this congregation” /b (Numbers 16:21). b Just as there /b among connotes b ten, so too here, /b among connotes b ten. /b The connotation of ten associated with the word among written in the portion of Korah is, in turn, derived by means of another verbal analogy between the word congregation written there and the word congregation written in reference to the ten spies who slandered Eretz Yisrael: “How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?” (Numbers 14:27). Consequently, among the congregation there must be at least ten., b And, in any case, everyone /b agrees that b one may not interrupt /b his prayer in order to respond to i kedusha /i .,However, b a dilemma was raised /b before the Sages of the yeshiva: b What is /b the ruling? Is one permitted b to interrupt /b his prayer in order b to /b recite: b “May His great name be blessed” /b in i kaddish /i ? b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon, disciples of Rabbi Yoḥa, said: One may not interrupt /b his prayer b for anything, except for: “May His great name be blessed,” as even /b if one was b engaged in /b the exalted study of the b Act of the /b Divine b Chariot /b [ b i Ma’aseh Merkava /i ] /b (see Ezekiel 1) b he stops /b to recite it. However, the Gemara concludes: b The i halakha /i is not in accordance with his /b opinion.,We learned in the mishna that b Rabbi Yehuda says /b with regard to one who experiences a seminal emission; b he recites a blessing beforehand and afterward /b in both the case of i Shema /i and in the case of food. The Gemara asks: b Is that to say that Rabbi Yehuda holds that one who experienced a seminal emission is permitted /b to engage b in matters of Torah? Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: From where /b in the Torah is it derived b that one who experiences a seminal emission is prohibited from /b engaging b in matters of Torah? As it is stated: /b “Just take heed and guard your soul diligently lest you forget the things your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart, for all the days of your life, b and you shall impart them to your children and your children’s children” /b (Deuteronomy 4:9), from which we derive, among other things, the obligation to study Torah. b And, juxtaposed to it, /b is the verse: b “The day that you stood /b before the Lord your God at Horeb” (Deuteronomy 4:10). This juxtaposition teaches us that b just as below, /b at the revelation at Mount Sinai, b those who experienced a seminal emission were prohibited /b and were commanded to refrain from relations with their wives and immerse themselves, b so too here, /b throughout the generations, b those who experience a seminal emission are prohibited /b from engaging in Torah study., b And if you say that Rabbi Yehuda does not derive homiletic interpretations from juxtaposed /b verses, b didn’t Rav Yosef /b already say: b Even one who does not derive homiletic interpretations from juxtaposed /b verses throughout b the entire Torah, /b nevertheless, b derives /b them b in Deuteronomy [ i Mishne Torah /i ], as Rabbi Yehuda does not derive homiletic interpretations from juxtaposed /b verses b throughout the entire Torah and he does derive them in i Mishne Torah /i . /b , b And from where do we derive /b that Rabbi Yehuda b does not derive homiletic interpretations /b from juxtaposed verses b throughout the entire Torah? As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the punishment of a sorceress, b ben Azzai says: It is stated: “You shall not allow a sorceress to live” /b (Exodus 22:17), although the manner of her execution is not specified, b and it is stated: “Whoever lies with a beast shall surely be put to death” /b (Exodus 22:18). The fact that the Torah b juxtaposed this matter to that /b was b to say: Just as one who lies with a beast /b is executed b by stoning /b (see Leviticus 20), b so too a sorceress /b is executed b by stoning. /b ,With regard to this proof b Rabbi Yehuda said to him: And does /b the fact b that /b the Torah b juxtaposed this matter to that warrant taking /b this person b out to be stoned? /b Should he be sentenced to the most severe of the death penalties on that basis b Rather, /b the source is: b Mediums and wizards were included among all sorcerers. And why were they singled out /b from the rest, in the verse: “And a man or a woman who is a medium or a wizard shall surely be put to death; they shall stone them with stones, their blood is upon them” (Leviticus 20:27)? In order to b draw an analogy to them and say to you: Just as a medium and a wizard /b are executed b by stoning, so too is a sorceress /b executed b by stoning. /b , b And from where do we derive /b that Rabbi Yehuda b derives homiletic interpretations /b from juxtaposed verses b in i Mishne Torah /i ? As it was taught /b in another i baraita /i : b Rabbi Eliezer said that a man /b may b wed /b a woman b raped by his father and /b one b seduced by his father; /b a woman b raped by his son and /b one b seduced by his son. /b Though one is prohibited by Torah law from marrying the wife of his father or the wife of his son, this prohibition does not apply to a woman raped or seduced by them., b And Rabbi Yehuda prohibits /b him from marrying b a woman raped by his father and a woman seduced by his father. And Rav Giddel said /b that b Rav said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehuda’s /b opinion? b As it is written: “A man shall not take his father’s wife, and shall not uncover his father’s skirt” /b (Deuteronomy 23:1). The last expression, “and shall not uncover his father’s skirt,” implies that: b A skirt that has been seen by his father, /b i.e., any woman who has had sexual relations with his father, b may not be uncovered /b by his son, i.e., his son may not marry her., b And from where /b do we know b that /b the verse b is written with regard to a woman raped by his father? As /b the previous section, b juxtaposed to it, /b deals with the laws of rape: b “And the man who lay with her must give /b her father fifty shekels…because he has violated her” (Deuteronomy 22:29).,At any rate, we see that in Deuteronomy, Rabbi Yehuda derives homiletic interpretations from juxtaposed verses. Why does he fail to derive that one who experiences a seminal emission is prohibited from engaging in matters of Torah from the juxtaposition of the verses? b They replied: Indeed, in i Mishne Torah /i /b Rabbi Yehuda b does derive homiletic interpretations /b from the juxtaposition of verses, b but /b he requires b these juxtaposed verses /b in order b to /b derive b another /b statement of b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who teaches his son Torah, the verse ascribes to him /b credit b as if he received /b the Torah b from Mount Horeb. As it is stated: “And you shall impart them to your children and your children’s children” /b (Deuteronomy 4:9) b after which it is written: “The day that you stood before the Lord your God at Horeb.” /b Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda cannot derive from that same juxtaposition a prohibition banning one who experienced a seminal emission from engaging in matters of Torah., b We learned /b in a mishna that b a i zav /i who experienced a seminal emission, and a menstruating woman who discharged semen, and a woman who engaged in intercourse /b with her husband b and she saw /b menstrual b blood, /b all of whom are ritually impure for at least seven days due to the severity of their impurity, nevertheless b require ritual immersion /b in order to purify themselves from the impurity of the seminal emission before they may engage in matters of Torah. b And Rabbi Yehuda exempts /b them from immersion.,However, b Rabbi Yehuda only exempted /b from immersion in the case b of a i zav /i who experienced a seminal emission, who was unfit to immerse himself from the outset, /b as even after immersion he would remain impure with the seven-day impurity of the i zav /i . b But, /b in the case of b one who experienced a seminal emission alone, /b with no concurrent impurity, even Rabbi Yehuda b requires /b immersion before he may engage in Torah matters., b And if you say: The same is true even /b in the case of b one who experienced a seminal emission alone, /b that b Rabbi Yehuda also exempts /b him from immersion, b and the fact that they disagree /b in the case of b a i zav /i who experienced a seminal emission /b and not in the case of a person who experienced a seminal emission alone b is in order to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of the Rabbis, /b who require immersion even in this case. If so, b say the last case /b of that same mishna: b A woman who was engaged in intercourse and she saw /b menstrual b blood requires immersion. /b ,The Gemara seeks to clarify: b In accordance with whose /b opinion b was this /b case in the mishna b taught? If you say /b that it is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, that is obvious; if /b in the case of b a i zav /i who experienced a seminal emission who was unfit to immerse himself from the outset, /b when he experienced the seminal emission, b the Rabbis /b nevertheless b require immersion, all the more so /b wouldn’t they require immersion for b a woman who engaged in intercourse and /b only then b saw blood, /b who b was fit to immerse herself from the outset, /b when she came into contact with the seminal emission of her husband? b Rather, isn’t this Rabbi Yehuda’s /b opinion, b and /b this case b was taught specifically /b in order to teach