Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.





43 results for "divinization"
1. Herodotus, Histories, 1.5.3, 1.60.10-1.60.15, 7.152.3 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 144
2. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.21.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 136
1.21.2. καὶ ὁ πόλεμος οὗτος, καίπερ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐν ᾧ μὲν ἂν πολεμῶσι τὸν παρόντα αἰεὶ μέγιστον κρινόντων, παυσαμένων δὲ τὰ ἀρχαῖα μᾶλλον θαυμαζόντων, ἀπ’ αὐτῶν τῶν ἔργων σκοποῦσι δηλώσει ὅμως μείζων γεγενημένος αὐτῶν. 1.21.2. To come to this war; despite the known disposition of the actors in a struggle to overrate its importance, and when it is over to return to their admiration of earlier events, yet an examination of the facts will show that it was much greater than the wars which preceded it.
3. Callimachus, Iambi, 1.9-1.11 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 88
4. Callimachus, Aetia, 110.64 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 110
5. Ennius, Annales, 1.54-1.55 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 140
6. Cicero, Republic, 1.25, 1.64, 2.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 129, 135, 140
1.25. Atque eius modi quiddam etiam bello illo maximo, quod Athenienses et Lacedaemonii summa inter se contentione gesserunt, Pericles ille, et auctoritate et eloquentia et consilio princeps civitatis suae, cum obscurato sole tenebrae factae essent repente Atheniensiumque animos summus timor occupavisset, docuisse civis suos dicitur, id quod ipse ab Anaxagora, cuius auditor fuerat, acceperat, certo illud tempore fieri et necessario, cum tota se luna sub orbem solis subiecisset; itaque, etsi non omni intermenstruo, tamen id fieri non posse nisi certo intermenstruo tempore. Quod cum disputando rationibusque docuisset, populum liberavit metu; erat enim tum haec nova et ignota ratio, solem lunae oppositu solere deficere, quod Thaletem Milesium primum vidisse dicunt. Id autem postea ne nostrum quidem Ennium fugit; qui ut scribit, anno trecentesimo quinquagesimo fere post Romam conditam Nonis Iunis soli luna obstitit et nox. Atque hac in re tanta inest ratio atque sollertia, ut ex hoc die, quem apud Ennium et in maximis annalibus consignatum videmus, superiores solis defectiones reputatae sint usque ad illam, quae Nonis Quinctilibus fuit regte Romulo; quibus quidem Romulum tenebris etiamsi natura ad humanum exitum abripuit, virtus tamen in caelum dicitur sustulisse. 1.64. iusto quidem rege cum est populus orbatus, 'pectora diu tenet desiderium', sicut ait Ennius, 'post optimi regis obitum'; simul inter Sese sic memorant: 'o Romule, Romule die, Qualem te patriae custodem di genuerunt! O pater, o genitor, o sanguen dis oriundum!' Non eros nec dominos appellabant eos, quibus iuste paruerunt, denique ne reges quidem, sed patriae custodes, sed patres, sed deos; nec sine causa; quid enim adiungunt? Tu produxisti nos intra luminis oras. Vitam, honorem, decus sibi datum esse iustitia regis existimabant. Mansisset eadem voluntas in eorum posteris, si regum similitudo permansisset, sed vides unius iniustitia concidisse genus illud totum rei publicae. L. Video vero, inquit, et studeo cursus istos mutationum non magis in nostra quam in omni re publica noscere. 2.41. Non. p. 342M Statu esse optimo constitutam rem publicam, quae ex tribus generibus illis, regali et optumati et populari, confusa modice nec puniendo inritet animum inmanem ac ferum.
7. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 8.15.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 155
8. Varro, De Gente Populi Romani, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 129
9. Varro, On The Latin Language, 7.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 140
10. Cicero, Letters, 12.45.2, 13.28.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 135
11. Ovid, Epistulae Ex Ponto, 2.5.45-2.5.56 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 110
12. Ovid, Fasti, 1.1-1.2, 1.25, 1.101, 1.510, 1.527-1.532, 1.536, 1.615-1.616, 1.637-1.652, 2.127-2.128, 2.134-2.144, 2.482-2.483, 2.487, 2.496-2.498, 2.511-2.512, 2.631-2.638, 3.21-3.24, 3.31-3.34, 3.111-3.112, 3.143, 3.177, 3.417-3.428, 3.709-3.710, 3.714, 3.881-3.882, 4.19, 4.23-4.28, 4.843-4.848, 5.140-5.142, 5.471-5.472, 5.569-5.576, 6.26, 6.43 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 23, 42, 51, 52, 110, 123, 127, 129, 131, 136, 140, 156, 157, 208, 228
1.1. Tempora cum causis Latium digesta per annum 1.2. lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa canam, 1.25. si licet et fas est, vates rege vatis habenas, 1.101. ‘disce metu posito, vates operose dierum, 1.510. tuque novos caelo terra datura deos, 1.527. iam pius Aeneas sacra et, sacra altera, patrem 1.528. adferet: Iliacos accipe, Vesta, deos! 1.529. tempus erit, cum vos orbemque tuebitur idem, 1.530. et fient ipso sacra colente deo, 1.531. et penes Angustos patriae tutela manebit: 1.532. hanc fas imperii frena tenere domum, 1.536. sic Augusta novum Iulia numen erit.’ 1.615. auspicibusque deis tanti cognominis heres 1.616. omine suscipiat, quo pater, orbis onus I 15. G CAR 1.637. Candida, te niveo posuit lux proxima templo, 1.638. qua fert sublimes alta Moneta gradus: 1.639. nunc bene prospicies Latiam, Concordia, turbam, 1.640. nunc te sacratae constituere manus. 1.641. Furius antiquam populi superator Etrusci 1.642. voverat et voti solverat ille fidem, 1.643. causa, quod a patribus sumptis secesserat armis 1.644. volgus, et ipsa suas Roma timebat opes. 1.645. causa recens melior: passos Germania crines 1.646. porrigit auspiciis, dux venerande, tuis; 1.647. inde triumphatae libasti munera gentis 1.648. templaque fecisti, quam colis ipse, deae. 1.649. hanc tua constituit genetrix et rebus et ara, 1.650. sola toro magni digna reperta Iovis. 17. AC 18. BC 19. CC 20 DC I 21. EC 22. FC 23. GC 1.651. Haec ubi transierint, Capricorno, Phoebe, relicto 1.652. per iuvenis curres signa gerentis aquam. 2.127. sancte pater patriae, tibi plebs, tibi curia nomen 2.128. hoc dedit, hoc dedimus nos tibi nomen, eques, 2.134. moenia, tu dederas transilienda Remo. 2.135. te Tatius parvique Cures Caeninaque sensit: 2.136. hoc duce Romanum est solis utrumque latus, 2.137. tu breve nescio quid victae telluris habebas: 2.138. quodcumque est alto sub Iove, Caesar habet, 2.139. tu rapis, hic castas duce se iubet esse maritas: 2.140. tu recipis luco, reppulit ille nefas. 2.141. vis tibi grata fuit, florent sub Caesare leges. 2.142. tu domini nomen, principis ille tenet, 2.143. te Remus incusat, veniam dedit hostibus ille. 2.144. caelestem fecit te pater, ille patrem. 2.482. multaque Romulea bella peracta manu, 2.483. Iuppiter, inquit, ‘habet Romana potentia vires: 2.487. unus erit, quem tu tolles in caerula caeli 2.496. fit fuga, rex patriis astra petebat equis, 2.497. luctus erat, falsaeque patres in crimine caedis, 2.498. haesissetque animis forsitan illa fides; 2.511. templa deo fiunt, collis quoque dictus ab illo est, 2.512. et referunt certi sacra paterna dies. 2.631. dis generis date tura boni (Concordia fertur 2.632. illa praecipue mitis adesse die) 2.633. et libate dapes, ut, grati pignus honoris, 2.634. nutriat incinctos missa patella Lares. 2.635. iamque ubi suadebit placidos nox humida somnos, 2.636. larga precaturi sumite vina manu, 2.637. et bene vos, bene te, patriae pater, optime Caesar! 2.638. dicite suffuso per sacra verba mero. 23. F TER — NP 3.21. Mars videt hanc visamque cupit potiturque cupita 3.22. et sua divina furta fefellit ope. 3.23. somnus abit, iacet ipsa gravis: iam scilicet intra 3.24. viscera Romanae conditor urbis erat. 3.31. inde duae pariter, visu mirabile, palmae 3.32. surgunt: ex illis altera maior erat, 3.33. et gravibus ramis totum protexerat orbem 3.34. contigeratque sua sidera summa coma. 3.111. libera currebant et inobservata per annum 3.112. sidera; constabat sed tamen esse deos. 3.143. adde, quod arcana fieri novus ignis in aede 3.177. disce, Latinorum vates operose dierum, 3.417. quisquis ades castaeque colis penetralia Vestae, 3.418. gratare, Iliacis turaque pone focis. 3.419. Caesaris innumeris (quem maluit ille mereri?) 3.420. accessit titulis pontificalis honor. 3.421. ignibus aeternis aeterni numina praesunt 3.422. Caesaris: imperii pignora iuncta vides, 3.423. di veteris Troiae, dignissima praeda ferenti, 3.424. qua gravis Aeneas tutus ab hoste fuit, 3.425. ortus ab Aenea tangit cognata sacerdos 3.426. numina: cognatum, Vesta, tuere caput! 3.427. quos sancta fovet ille manu, bene vivitis ignes: 3.428. vivite inextincti, flammaque duxque, precor. 7. B NON — F 3.709. hoc opus, haec pietas, haec prima elementa fuerunt 3.710. Caesaris, ulcisci iusta per arma patrem. 3.714. Bacche, fave vati, dum tua festa cano. 3.881. Ianus adorandus cumque hoc Concordia mitis 3.882. et Romana Salus araque Pacis erit. 33 CC 4.19. Si qua tamen pars te de fastis tangere debet, 4.23. hoc pater Iliades, cum longum scriberet annum, 4.24. vidit et auctores rettulit ipse suos: 4.25. utque fero Marti primam dedit ordine sortem, 4.26. quod sibi nascenti proxima causa fuit, 4.27. sic Venerem gradibus multis in gente repertam 4.28. alterius voluit mensis habere locum; 4.843. nec mora, transiluit. rutro Celer occupat ausum; 4.844. ille premit duram sanguinulentus humum. 4.845. haec ubi rex didicit, lacrimas introrsus obortas 4.846. devorat et clausum pectore volnus habet, 4.847. flere palam non volt exemplaque fortia servat, 4.848. sic que meos muros transeat hostis ait. 5.140. compita grata deo, compita grata cani. 5.141. exagitant et Lar et turba Diania fures: 5.142. pervigilantque Lares pervigilantque canes, 5.471. noluit hoc frater, pietas aequatis in illo est: 5.472. quod potuit, lacrimas manibus ille dedit, 5.569. voverat hoc iuvenis tunc, cum pia sustulit arma: 5.570. a tantis Princeps incipiendus erat. 5.571. ille manus tendens, hinc stanti milite iusto, 5.572. hinc coniuratis, talia dicta dedit: 5.573. ‘si mihi bellandi pater est Vestaeque sacerdos 5.574. auctor, et ulcisci numen utrumque paro: 5.575. Mars, ades et satia scelerato sanguine ferrum, 5.576. stetque favor causa pro meliore tuus. 6.26. Iunius a nostro nomine nomen habet, 6.43. causa duplex irae: rapto Ganymede dolebam, 1.1. I’ll speak of divisions of time throughout the Roman year, 1.2. Their origins, and the stars that set beneath the earth and rise. 1.25. If it’s right and lawful, a poet, guide the poet’s reins, 1.101. ‘Learn, without fear, what you seek, poet who labour 1.510. ‘And you the place that will give heaven new gods, 1.527. Sacred father here: Vesta, receive the gods of Troy! 1.528. In time the same hand will guard the world and you, 1.529. And a god in person will hold the sacred rites. 1.530. The safety of the country will lie with Augustus’ house: 1.531. It’s decreed this family will hold the reins of empire. 1.532. So Caesar’s son, Augustus, and grandson, Tiberius, 1.536. When she had brought her tale to our own times, 1.615. Attend the heir of so great a name, when he rules the world. 1.616. When the third sun looks back on the past Ides, 1.637. Near where lofty Moneta lifts her noble stairway: 1.638. Concord, you will gaze on the Latin crowd’s prosperity, 1.639. Now sacred hands have established you. 1.640. Camillus, conqueror of the Etruscan people, 1.641. Vowed your ancient temple and kept his vow. 1.642. His reason was that the commoners had armed themselves, 1.643. Seceding from the nobles, and Rome feared their power. 1.644. This latest reason was a better one: revered Leader, Germany 1.645. offered up her dishevelled tresses, at your command: 1.646. From that, you dedicated the spoils of a defeated race, 1.647. And built a shrine to the goddess that you yourself worship. 1.648. A goddess your mother honoured by her life, and by an altar, 1.649. She alone worthy to share great Jupiter’s couch. 1.650. When this day is over, Phoebus, you will leave Capricorn, 1.651. And take your course through the sign of the Water-Bearer. 1.652. Seven days from now when the sun sinks in the waves, 2.127. Sacred Father of the Country, this title has been conferred 2.128. On you, by the senate, the people, and by us, the knights. 2.134. Mighty: you made such as Remus could leap across. 2.135. Tatius, and the little towns of Cures and Caenina, 2.136. Knew you: under this Leader all the sun sees is Roman. 2.137. You owned a little patch of conquered land: 2.138. Caesar possesses all beneath Jupiter’s heavens. 2.139. You raped married women: under Caesar they are ordered 2.140. To be chaste: you permitted the guilty your grove: he forbids them. 2.141. Force was acceptable to you: under Caesar the laws flourish. 2.142. You had the title Master: he bears the name of Prince. 2.143. Remus accused you, while he pardons his enemies. 2.144. Your father deified you: he deified his father. 2.482. And the many wars waged with Romulus’ hands, 2.483. He said: ‘Jupiter, Roman power possesses strength: 2.487. You said to me: “There’ll be one you’ll raise 2.496. All fled, and the king rose to the stars behind his father’s horses. 2.497. There was mourning, senators were falsely charged with murder, 2.498. And perhaps that belief might have stuck in people’s minds, 2.511. Temples were built for the god, the hill named for him, 2.512. And on certain days the ancestral rites are re-enacted. 2.631. Virtuous ones, burn incense to the gods of the family, 2.632. (Gentle Concord is said to be there on this day above all) 2.633. And offer food, so the robed Lares may feed from the dish 2.634. Granted to them as a mark of esteem, that pleases them. 2.635. Then when moist night invites us to calm slumber, 2.636. Fill the wine-cup full, for the prayer, and say: 2.637. ‘Health, health to you, worthy Caesar, Father of the Country!’ 2.638. And let there be pleasant speech at the pouring of wine. 3.21. Mars saw her, seeing her desired her, desiring her 3.22. Possessed her, by divine power hiding his theft. 3.23. She lost sleep, lay there heavily: and already, 3.24. Rome’s founder had his being in her womb,. 3.31. From it, strange sight, at once, two palm trees sprang: 3.32. One of the trees was taller than the other, 3.33. And covered all the world with its heavy branches, 3.34. Touching the topmost stars with its crown. 3.111. The stars then ran their course, freely, unobserved 3.112. Each year: yet everyone held them to be gods. 3.143. Also, it’s said, a new fire is lit at her secret shrine, 3.177. Have what you seek, labouring poet of Latin days, 3.417. Give thanks to her, and offer incense on the Trojan hearth. 3.418. To the countless titles Caesar chose to earn, 3.419. The honour of the High Priesthood was added. 3.420. Caesar’s eternal godhead protects the eternal fire, 3.421. You may see the pledges of empire conjoined. 3.422. Gods of ancient Troy, worthiest prize for that Aenea 3.423. Who carried you, your burden saving him from the enemy, 3.424. A priest of Aeneas’ line touches your divine kindred: 3.425. Vesta in turn guard the life of your kin! 3.426. You fires, burn on, nursed by his sacred hand: 3.427. Live undying, our leader, and your flames, I pray. 3.428. The Nones of March are free of meetings, because it’s thought 3.709. Avenging his father by the just use of arms. 3.710. When the next dawn has revived the tender grass, 3.714. I’ll not speak about Semele: you’d have been born defenceless, 3.881. And the Safety of Rome, and the altar of Peace. 3.882. The Moon rules the months: this month’s span end 4.19. If there’s any part of the calendar that might stir you, 4.23. When Romulus established the length of the year, 4.24. He recognised this, and commemorated your sires: 4.25. And as he granted first place among months to fierce Mars, 4.26. Being the immediate cause of his own existence, 4.27. So he granted the second month to Venus, 4.28. Tracing his descent from her through many generations: 4.843. With his shovel: Remus sank, bloodied, to the stony ground. 4.844. When the king heard, he smothered his rising tears, 4.845. And kept the grief locked in his heart. 4.846. He wouldn’t weep in public, but set an example of fortitude, 4.847. Saying: ‘So dies the enemy who shall cross my walls.’ 4.848. But he granted him funeral honours, and couldn’t 5.140. Crossroads are dear to the god, and to dogs. 5.141. Both the Lar and Diana’s pack chase away thieves: 5.142. And the Lares are watchful, and so are dogs. 5.471. Savage Celer, wounded, may you yield your cruel spirit, 5.472. And bloodstained as I am, sink beneath the earth. 5.569. And he sees Augustus’ name on the front of the shrine, 5.570. And reading ‘Caesar’ there, the work seems greater still. 5.571. He had vowed it as a youth, when dutifully taking arms: 5.572. With such deeds a Prince begins his reign. 5.573. Loyal troops standing here, conspirators over there, 5.574. He stretched his hand out, and spoke these words: 5.575. ‘If the death of my ‘father’ Julius, priest of Vesta, 5.576. Gives due cause for this war, if I avenge for both, 6.26. June in fact takes its name from mine. 6.43. I had twin cause for anger: I grieved at Ganymede’s abduction,
13. Horace, Epodes, 7.17-7.20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 123
14. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 9.241-9.261, 14.588-14.590, 14.806-14.807, 15.843-15.851, 15.869-15.870 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 132, 140, 245
9.241. flamma suum; timuere dei pro vindice terrae. 9.242. Quos ita (sensit enim) laeto Saturnius ore 9.243. Iuppiter adloquitur: “Nostra est timor iste voluptas, 9.244. o superi, totoque libens mihi pectore grator, 9.245. quod memoris populi dicor rectorque paterque, 9.246. et mea progenies vestro quoque tuta favore est. 9.247. Nam quamquam ipsius datis hoc inmanibus actis, 9.248. obligor ipse tamen. Sed enim ne pectora vano 9.249. fida metu paveant: Oetaeas spernite flammas! 9.250. Omnia qui vicit, vincet, quos cernitis, ignes 9.251. nec nisi materna Vulcanum parte potentem 9.252. sentiet: aeternum est a me quod traxit et expers 9.253. atque inmune necis nullaque domabile flamma. 9.254. Idque ego defunctum terra caelestibus oris 9.255. accipiam, cunctisque meum laetabile factum 9.256. dis fore confido. Siquis tamen Hercule, siquis 9.257. forte deo doliturus erit, data praemia nolet, 9.258. sed meruisse dari sciet invitusque probabit.” 9.259. Adsensere dei: coniunx quoque regia visa est 9.260. cetera non duro, duro tamen ultima vultu 9.261. dicta tulisse Iovis seque indoluisse notatam. 14.588. Aeneaeque meo, qui te de sanguine nostro 14.589. fecit avum, quamvis parvum des, optime, numen, 14.590. dummodo des aliquod: satis est inamabile regnum 14.806. Romule, iura dabas, posita cum casside Mavors 14.807. talibus adfatur divumque hominumque parentem: 15.843. Vix ea fatus erat, media cum sede senatus 15.844. constitit alma Venus, nulli cernenda, suique 15.845. Caesaris eripuit membris neque in aera solvi 15.846. passa recentem animam caelestibus intulit astris. 15.847. Dumque tulit, lumen capere atque ignescere sensit 15.848. emisitque sinu: luna volat altius illa, 15.849. flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 15.850. stella micat natique videns bene facta fatetur 15.851. esse suis maiora et vinci gaudet ab illo. 15.869. qua caput Augustum, quem temperat, orbe relicto 15.870. accedat caelo faveatque precantibus absens!
15. Germanicus Caesar, Aratea, 559-560, 558 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 104
16. Ovid, Tristia, 1.1.33, 1.5, 2.54-2.55, 3.11 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 208, 245
1.5. nec te purpureo velent vaccinia fuco— 1.5. Mulciber in Troiam, pro Troia stabat Apollo; 1.5. iam prope lux aderat, qua qua cum me discedere Caesar 1.5. me miserum! quantis increscunt aequora ventis, 1.5. qui mihi consilium vivendi mite dedisti, 1.5. te mea supposita veluti trabe fulta ruina est: 1.5. hoc tibi dissimula, senti tamen, optime, dici, 1.5. omnia naturae praepostera legibus ibunt, 1.5. donec eris sospes, note xml:id= 1.5. nec comites volucri contenta est vincere cursu, 1.5. aut, postquam bimarem cursu superavimus Isthmon, 2.54. per te praesentem conspicuumque deum, 2.55. hunc animum favisse tibi, vir maxime, meque, 3.11. clauda quod alterno subsidunt carmina versu, 3.11. ultima nunc patior, nec me mare portubus orbum 3.11. non qui soletur, non qui labentia tarde 3.11. aspicis ut summa cortex levis innatet unda, 3.11. vidi ego confusos vultus visosque notavi, 3.11. cuique ego narrabam secreti quicquid habebam, 3.11. tu quoque dic ‘ studiis communibus ecquid inhaeres, 3.11. stulte, quid haec frustra votis puerilibus optas, 3.11. quem procul ut vidit tumulo speculator ab alto, 3.11. dum prohibet note xml:id= 3.11. utque fugax avidis cervus deprensus ab ursis, 3.11. herbaque, quae latuit Cerealibus obruta sulcis, 3.11. quid tibi cum Ponto? num te quoque Caesaris ira 3.11. saepe per externas note xml:id=
17. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.77.2-1.77.3, 1.87.4, 2.56, 2.66-2.67 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 123, 129, 137, 208
1.77.2.  But most writers relate a fabulous story to the effect that it was a spectre of the divinity to whom the place was consecrated; and they add that the advantageous was attended by many supernatural signs, including a sudden disappearance of the sun and a darkness that spread over the sky, and that the appearance of the spectre was far more marvellous than that of a man both in stature and in beauty. And they say that the ravisher, to comfort the maiden (by which it became clear that it was a god), commanded her not to grieve at all at what had happened, since she had been united in marriage to the divinity of the place and as a result of her violation should bear two sons who would far excel all men in valour and warlike achievements. And having said this, he was wrapped in a cloud and, being lifted from the earth, was borne upwards through the air. 1.77.3.  This is not a proper place to consider what opinion we ought to entertain of such tales, whether we should scorn them as instances of human frailty attributed to the gods, — since God is incapable of any action that is unworthy of his incorruptible and blessed nature, — or whether we should admit even these stories, upon the supposition that all the substance of the universe is mixed, and that between the race of gods and that of men some third order of being exists which is that of the daemons, who, uniting sometimes with human beings and sometimes with the gods, beget, it is said, the fabled race of heroes. This, I say, is not a proper place to consider these things, and, moreover, what the philosophers have said concerning them is sufficient. 1.87.4.  The account I have given seems to me the most probable of the stories about the death of Remus. However, if any has been handed down that differs from this, let that also be related. Some, indeed, say that Remus yielded the leadership to Romulus, though not without resentment and anger at the fraud, but that after the wall was built, wishing to demonstrate the weakness of the fortification, he cried, "Well, as for this wall, one of your enemies could as easily cross it as I do," and immediately leaped over it. Thereupon Celer, one of the men standing on the wall, who was overseer of the work, said, "Well, as for this enemy, one of us could easily punish him," and striking him on the head with a mattock, he killed him then and there. Such is said to have been the outcome of the quarrel between the brothers. 2.56. 1.  These are the memorable wars which Romulus waged. His failure to subdue any more of the neighbouring nations seems to have been due to his sudden death, which happened while he was still in the vigour of his age for warlike achievements. There are many different stories concerning it.,2.  Those who give a rather fabulous account of his life say that while he was haranguing his men in the camp, sudden darkness rushed down out of a clear sky and a violent storm burst, after which he was nowhere to be seen; and these writers believe that he was caught up into heaven by his father, Mars.,3.  But those who write the more plausible accounts say that he was killed by his own people; and the reason they allege for his murder is that he released without the common consent, contrary to custom, the hostages he had taken from the Veientes, and that he no longer comported himself in the same manner toward the original citizens and toward those who were enrolled later, but showed greater honour to the former and slighted the latter, and also because of his great cruelty in the punishment of delinquents (for instance, he had ordered a group of Romans who were accused of brigandage against the neighbouring peoples to be hurled down the precipice after he had sat alone in judgment upon them, although they were neither of mean birth nor few in number), but chiefly because he now seemed to be harsh and arbitrary and to be exercising his power more like a tyrant than a king.,4.  For these reasons, they say, the patricians formed a conspiracy against him and resolved to slay him; and having carried out the deed in the senate-house, they divided his body into several pieces, that it might not be seen, and then came out, each one hiding his part of the body under his robes, and afterwards burying it in secret.,5.  Others say that while haranguing the people he was slain by the new citizens of Rome, and that they undertook the murder at the time when the rain and the darkness occurred, the assembly of the people being then dispersed and their chief left without his guard. And for this reason, they say, the day on which this event happened got its name from the flight of the people and is called Populifugia  down to our times.,6.  Be that as it may, the incidents that occurred by the direction of Heaven in connexion with this man's conception and death would seem to give no small authority to the view of those who make gods of mortal men and place the souls of illustrious persons in heaven. For they say that at the time when his mother was violated, whether by some man or by a god, there was a total eclipse of the sun and a general darkness as in the night covered the earth, and that at his death the same thing happened.,7.  Such, then, is reported to have been the death of Romulus, who built Rome and was chosen by her citizens as their first king. He left no issue, and after reigning thirty-seven years, died in the fifty-fifth year of his age; for he was very young when he obtained the rule, being no more than eighteen years old, as is agreed by all who have written his history. 2.66. 1.  Numa, upon taking over the rule, did not disturb the individual hearths of the curiae, but erected one common to them all in the space between the Capitoline hill and the Palatine (for these hills had already been united by a single wall into one city, and the Forum, in which the temple is built, lies between them), and he enacted, in accordance with the ancestral custom of the Latins, that the guarding of the holy things should be committed to virgins.,2.  There is some doubt, however, what it is that is kept in this temple and for what reason the care of it has been assigned to virgins, some affirming that nothing is preserved there but the fire, which is visible to everybody. And they very reasonably argue that the custody of the fire was committed to virgins, rather than to men, because fire in incorrupt and a virgin is undefiled, and the most chaste of mortal things must be agreeable to the purest of those that are divine.,3.  And they regard the fire as consecrated to Vesta because that goddess, being the earth and occupying the central place in the universe, kindles the celestial fires from herself. But there are some who say that besides the fire there are some holy things in the temple of the goddess that may not be revealed to the public, of which only the pontiffs and the virgins have knowledge. As a strong confirmation of this story they cite what happened at the burning of the temple during the First Punic War between the Romans and the Carthaginians over Sicily.,4.  For when the temple caught fire and the virgins fled from the flames, one of the pontiffs, Lucius Caecilius, called Metellus, a man of consular rank, the same who exhibited a hundred and thirty-eight elephants in the memorable triumph which he celebrated for his defeat of the Carthaginians in Sicily, neglecting his own safety for the sake of the public good, ventured to force his way into the burning structure, and, snatching up the holy things which the virgins had abandoned, saved them from the fire; for which he received the honours from the State, as the inscription upon his statue on the Capitol testifies.,5.  Taking this incident, then, as an admitted fact, they add some conjectures of their own. Thus, some affirm that the objects preserved here are a part of those holy things which were once in Samothrace; that Dardanus removed them out of that island into the city which he himself had built, and that Aeneas, when he fled from the Troad, brought them along with the other holy things into Italy. But others declare that it is the Palladium that fell from Heaven, the same that was in the possession of the people of Ilium; for they hold that Aeneas, being well acquainted with it, brought it into Italy, whereas the Achaeans stole away the copy, — an incident about which many stories have been related both by poets and by historians.,6.  For my part, I find from very many evidences that there are indeed some holy things, unknown to the public, kept by the virgins, and not the fire alone; but what they are I do not think should be inquired into too curiously, either by me of by anyone else who wishes to observe the reverence due to the gods. 2.67. 1.  The virgins who serve the goddess were originally four and were chosen by the kings according to the principles established by Numa, but afterwards, from the multiplicity of the sacred rites they perform, their number was increased of six, and has so remained down to our time. They live in the temple of the goddess, into which none who wish are hindered from entering in the daytime, whereas it is not lawful for any man to remain there at night.,2.  They were required to remain undefiled by marriage for the space of thirty years, devoting themselves to offering sacrifices and performing the other rites ordained by law. During the first ten years their duty was to learn their functions, in the second ten to perform them, and during the remaining ten to teach others. After the expiration of the term of thirty years nothing hindered those who so desired from marrying, upon laying aside their fillets and the other insignia of their priesthood. And some, though very few, have done this; but they came to ends that were not at all happy or enviable. In consequence, the rest, looking upon their misfortunes as ominous, remain virgins in the temple of the goddess till their death, and then once more another is chosen by the pontiffs to supply the vacancy.,3.  Many high honours have been granted them by the commonwealth, as a result of which they feel no desire either for marriage or for children; and severe penalties have been established for their misdeeds. It is the pontiffs who by law both inquire into and punish these offences; to Vestals who are guilty of lesser misdemeanours they scourge with rods, but those who have suffered defilement they deliver up to the most shameful and the most miserable death.,4.  While they are yet alive they are carried upon a bier with all the formality of a funeral, their friends and relations attending them with lamentations, and after being brought as far as the Colline Gate, they are placed in an underground cell prepared within the walls, clad in their funeral attire; but they are not given a monument or funeral rites or any other customary solemnities.,5.  There are many indications, it seems, when a priestess is not performing her holy functions with purity, but the principal one is the extinction of the fire, which the Romans dread above all misfortunes, looking upon it, from whatever cause it proceeds, as an omen that portends the destruction of the city; and they bring fire again into the temple with many supplicatory rites, concerning which I shall speak on the proper occasion.
18. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 6.1.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 88
6.1.10.  And going to Babylon he was entertained by Belus, and after that he went to the island of Panchaea, which lies in the ocean, and here he set up an altar to Uranus, the founder of his family. From there he passed through Syria and came to Casius, who was ruler of Syria at that time, and who gave his name to Mt. Casius. And coming to Cilicia he conquered in battle Cilix, the governor of the region, and he visited very many other nations, all of which paid honour to him and publicly proclaimed him a god."
19. Augustus, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 51
20. Livy, History, None (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 129
21. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 2.94 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 156
22. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 208
23. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 6.3.87, 6.3.89, 9.2.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 245
24. Plutarch, Romulus, 27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 137, 140
25. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 6.3.87, 6.3.89, 9.2.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 245
26. Seneca The Younger, Apocolocyntosis, 1.1-1.3, 9.5-9.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 150
27. Suetonius, Augustus, 16.2, 18.2, 94.4, 100.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 51, 131, 144, 156, 157
28. Suetonius, Iulius, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 51, 155
29. Tacitus, Annals, 3.24.7-3.24.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 23
30. Appian, Civil Wars, 2.106.144, 2.146-2.148 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 51, 137, 156
31. Plutarch, Roman Questions, 27.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 136
32. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 41.34.1, 43.45.2-43.45.4, 44.4.4, 47.18.3, 56.46.2, 59.11.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 51, 135, 137, 144, 150, 155, 156
41.34.1.  "Since these things are so, I will never yield aught to these brawlers under compulsion nor give them a free rein perforce. 43.45.2.  They ordered that he alone should have soldiers, and alone administer the public funds, so that no one else should be allowed to employ either of them, save whom he permitted. And they decreed at this time that an ivory statue of him, and later that a whole chariot, should appear in the procession at the games in the Circus, together with the statues of the gods. 43.45.3.  Another likeness they set up in the temple of Quirinus with the inscription, "To the Invincible God," and another on the Capitol beside the former kings of Rome. 43.45.4.  Now it occurs to me to marvel at the coincidence: there were eight such statues, — seven to the kings, and an eighth to the Brutus who overthrew the Tarquins, — and they set up the statue of Caesar beside the last of these; and it was from this cause chiefly that the other Brutus, Marcus, was roused to plot against him. 44.4.4.  In addition to these remarkable privileges they named him father of his country, stamped this title on the coinage, voted to celebrate his birthday by public sacrifice, ordered that he should have a statue in the cities and in all the temples of Rome, 47.18.3.  Thus, on the first day of the year they themselves took an oath and made all the rest swear that they would consider all his acts binding; and the same thing is still done to‑day in honour of all those who successively enter upon the supreme power and also of those who have possessed it and have not been dishonoured. 56.46.2.  they also permitted her to employ a lictor when she exercised her sacred office. On her part, she bestowed a million sesterces upon a certain Numerius Atticus, a senator and ex-praetor, because he swore that he had seen Augustus ascending to heaven after the manner of which tradition tells concerning Proculus and Romulus. 59.11.4.  Indeed, a certain Livius Geminius, a senator, declared on oath, invoking destruction upon himself and his children if he spoke falsely, that he had seen her ascending to heaven and holding converse with the gods; and he called all the other gods and Panthea herself to witness. For this declaration he received a million sesterces.
33. Augustine, The City of God, 18.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 129
18.8. When Saphrus reigned as the fourteenth king of Assyria, and Orthopolis as the twelfth of Sicyon, and Criasus as the fifth of Argos, Moses was born in Egypt, by whom the people of God were liberated from the Egyptian slavery, in which they behooved to be thus tried that they might desire the help of their Creator. Some have thought that Prometheus lived during the reign of the kings now named. He is reported to have formed men out of clay, because he was esteemed the best teacher of wisdom; yet it does not appear what wise men there were in his days. His brother Atlas is said to have been a great astrologer; and this gave occasion for the fable that he held up the sky, although the vulgar opinion about his holding up the sky appears rather to have been suggested by a high mountain named after him. Indeed, from those times many other fabulous things began to be invented in Greece; yet, down to Cecrops king of Athens, in whose reign that city received its name, and in whose reign God brought His people out of Egypt by Moses, only a few dead heroes are reported to have been deified according to the vain superstition of the Greeks. Among these were Melantomice, the wife of king Criasus, and Phorbas their son, who succeeded his father as sixth king of the Argives, and Iasus, son of Triopas, their seventh king, and their ninth king, Sthenelas, or Stheneleus, or Sthenelus - for his name is given differently by different authors. In those times also, Mercury, the grandson of Atlas by his daughter Maia, is said to have lived, according to the common report in books. He was famous for his skill in many arts, and taught them to men, for which they resolved to make him, and even believed that he deserved to be, a god after death. Hercules is said to have been later, yet belonging to the same period; although some, whom I think mistaken, assign him an earlier date than Mercury. But at whatever time they were born, it is agreed among grave historians, who have committed these ancient things to writing, that both were men, and that they merited divine honors from mortals because they conferred on them many benefits to make this life more pleasant to them. Minerva was far more ancient than these; for she is reported to have appeared in virgin age in the times of Ogyges at the lake called Triton, from which she is also styled Tritonia, the inventress truly of many works, and the more readily believed to be a goddess because her origin was so little known. For what is sung about her having sprung from the head of Jupiter belongs to the region of poetry and fable, and not to that of history and real fact. And historical writers are not agreed when Ogyges flourished, in whose time also a great flood occurred - not that greatest one from which no man escaped except those who could get into the ark, for neither Greek nor Latin history knew of it, yet a greater flood than that which happened afterward in Deucalion's time. For Varro begins the book I have already mentioned at this date, and does not propose to himself, as the starting-point from which he may arrive at Roman affairs, anything more ancient than the flood of Ogyges, that is, which happened in the time of Ogyges. Now our writers of chronicles - first Eusebius, and afterwards Jerome, who entirely follow some earlier historians in this opinion - relate that the flood of Ogyges happened more than three hundred years after, during the reign of Phoroneus, the second king of Argos. But whenever he may have lived, Minerva was already worshipped as a goddess when Cecrops reigned in Athens, in whose reign the city itself is reported to have been rebuilt or founded.
34. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, 2.41  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 155
37. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.28, 2.724, 6.789-6.807  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 42, 127, 131, 150
1.28. that of the Trojan blood there was a breed 2.724. not such, Achilles, thy pretended sire, 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape 6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. 6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell, 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues, 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin,
38. Vergil, Eclogues, 1.6-1.8, 4.17  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 110, 131
39. Epigraphy, Cil, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 137
40. Vergil, Georgics, 1.32  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 110
1.32. anne novum tardis sidus te mensibus addas,
42. Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds And Sayings, 2.1.8, 5.3.1  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 137, 228
43. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.798-1.803  Tagged with subjects: •julius caesar, deification, divinity Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 104