|1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, theological diversity • Clement of Alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors • theological diversity
Found in books: Boulluec (2022), The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries, 365; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 340
3.21 וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃'' None
3.21 And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.'' None
|2. Homer, Iliad, 14.153-14.255, 14.260-14.353 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • digression • diversion • religion/theology, diversity/plurality
Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 11; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 54; Skempis and Ziogas (2014), Geography, Topography, Landscape: Configurations of Space in Greek and Roman Epic 47
14.153 Ἥρη δʼ εἰσεῖδε χρυσόθρονος ὀφθαλμοῖσι 14.154 στᾶσʼ ἐξ Οὐλύμποιο ἀπὸ ῥίου· αὐτίκα δʼ ἔγνω 14.155 τὸν μὲν ποιπνύοντα μάχην ἀνὰ κυδιάνειραν 14.156 αὐτοκασίγνητον καὶ δαέρα, χαῖρε δὲ θυμῷ· 14.157 Ζῆνα δʼ ἐπʼ ἀκροτάτης κορυφῆς πολυπίδακος Ἴδης 14.158 ἥμενον εἰσεῖδε, στυγερὸς δέ οἱ ἔπλετο θυμῷ. 14.159 μερμήριξε δʼ ἔπειτα βοῶπις πότνια Ἥρη 14.160 ὅππως ἐξαπάφοιτο Διὸς νόον αἰγιόχοιο· 14.161 ἥδε δέ οἱ κατὰ θυμὸν ἀρίστη φαίνετο βουλὴ 14.162 ἐλθεῖν εἰς Ἴδην εὖ ἐντύνασαν ἓ αὐτήν, 14.163 εἴ πως ἱμείραιτο παραδραθέειν φιλότητι 14.164 ᾗ χροιῇ, τῷ δʼ ὕπνον ἀπήμονά τε λιαρόν τε 14.165 χεύῃ ἐπὶ βλεφάροισιν ἰδὲ φρεσὶ πευκαλίμῃσι. 14.166 βῆ δʼ ἴμεν ἐς θάλαμον, τόν οἱ φίλος υἱὸς ἔτευξεν 14.167 Ἥφαιστος, πυκινὰς δὲ θύρας σταθμοῖσιν ἐπῆρσε 14.168 κληῗδι κρυπτῇ, τὴν δʼ οὐ θεὸς ἄλλος ἀνῷγεν· 14.169 ἔνθʼ ἥ γʼ εἰσελθοῦσα θύρας ἐπέθηκε φαεινάς. 14.170 ἀμβροσίῃ μὲν πρῶτον ἀπὸ χροὸς ἱμερόεντος 14.171 λύματα πάντα κάθηρεν, ἀλείψατο δὲ λίπʼ ἐλαίῳ 14.172 ἀμβροσίῳ ἑδανῷ, τό ῥά οἱ τεθυωμένον ἦεν· 14.173 τοῦ καὶ κινυμένοιο Διὸς κατὰ χαλκοβατὲς δῶ 14.174 ἔμπης ἐς γαῖάν τε καὶ οὐρανὸν ἵκετʼ ἀϋτμή. 14.175 τῷ ῥʼ ἥ γε χρόα καλὸν ἀλειψαμένη ἰδὲ χαίτας 14.176 πεξαμένη χερσὶ πλοκάμους ἔπλεξε φαεινοὺς 14.177 καλοὺς ἀμβροσίους ἐκ κράατος ἀθανάτοιο. 14.178 ἀμφὶ δʼ ἄρʼ ἀμβρόσιον ἑανὸν ἕσαθʼ, ὅν οἱ Ἀθήνη 14.179 ἔξυσʼ ἀσκήσασα, τίθει δʼ ἐνὶ δαίδαλα πολλά· 14.180 χρυσείῃς δʼ ἐνετῇσι κατὰ στῆθος περονᾶτο. 14.181 ζώσατο δὲ ζώνῃ ἑκατὸν θυσάνοις ἀραρυίῃ, 14.182 ἐν δʼ ἄρα ἕρματα ἧκεν ἐϋτρήτοισι λοβοῖσι 14.183 τρίγληνα μορόεντα· χάρις δʼ ἀπελάμπετο πολλή. 14.184 κρηδέμνῳ δʼ ἐφύπερθε καλύψατο δῖα θεάων 14.185 καλῷ νηγατέῳ· λευκὸν δʼ ἦν ἠέλιος ὥς· 14.186 ποσσὶ δʼ ὑπὸ λιπαροῖσιν ἐδήσατο καλὰ πέδιλα. 14.187 αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ πάντα περὶ χροῒ θήκατο κόσμον 14.188 βῆ ῥʼ ἴμεν ἐκ θαλάμοιο, καλεσσαμένη δʼ Ἀφροδίτην 14.189 τῶν ἄλλων ἀπάνευθε θεῶν πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπε· 14.190 ἦ ῥά νύ μοί τι πίθοιο φίλον τέκος ὅττί κεν εἴπω, 14.191 ἦέ κεν ἀρνήσαιο κοτεσσαμένη τό γε θυμῷ, 14.192 οὕνεκʼ ἐγὼ Δαναοῖσι, σὺ δὲ Τρώεσσιν ἀρήγεις; 14.193 τὴν δʼ ἠμείβετʼ ἔπειτα Διὸς θυγάτηρ Ἀφροδίτη· 14.194 Ἥρη πρέσβα θεὰ θύγατερ μεγάλοιο Κρόνοιο 14.195 αὔδα ὅ τι φρονέεις· τελέσαι δέ με θυμὸς ἄνωγεν, 14.196 εἰ δύναμαι τελέσαι γε καὶ εἰ τετελεσμένον ἐστίν. 14.197 τὴν δὲ δολοφρονέουσα προσηύδα πότνια Ἥρη· 14.198 δὸς νῦν μοι φιλότητα καὶ ἵμερον, ᾧ τε σὺ πάντας 14.199 δαμνᾷ ἀθανάτους ἠδὲ θνητοὺς ἀνθρώπους. 14.200 εἶμι γὰρ ὀψομένη πολυφόρβου πείρατα γαίης, 14.201 Ὠκεανόν τε θεῶν γένεσιν καὶ μητέρα Τηθύν, 14.202 οἵ μʼ ἐν σφοῖσι δόμοισιν ἐῢ τρέφον ἠδʼ ἀτίταλλον 14.203 δεξάμενοι Ῥείας, ὅτε τε Κρόνον εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 14.204 γαίης νέρθε καθεῖσε καὶ ἀτρυγέτοιο θαλάσσης· 14.205 τοὺς εἶμʼ ὀψομένη, καί σφʼ ἄκριτα νείκεα λύσω· 14.206 ἤδη γὰρ δηρὸν χρόνον ἀλλήλων ἀπέχονται 14.207 εὐνῆς καὶ φιλότητος, ἐπεὶ χόλος ἔμπεσε θυμῷ. 14.208 εἰ κείνω ἐπέεσσι παραιπεπιθοῦσα φίλον κῆρ 14.209 εἰς εὐνὴν ἀνέσαιμι ὁμωθῆναι φιλότητι, 14.210 αἰεί κέ σφι φίλη τε καὶ αἰδοίη καλεοίμην. 14.211 τὴν δʼ αὖτε προσέειπε φιλομειδὴς Ἀφροδίτη· 14.212 οὐκ ἔστʼ οὐδὲ ἔοικε τεὸν ἔπος ἀρνήσασθαι· 14.213 Ζηνὸς γὰρ τοῦ ἀρίστου ἐν ἀγκοίνῃσιν ἰαύεις. 14.214 ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στήθεσφιν ἐλύσατο κεστὸν ἱμάντα 14.215 ποικίλον, ἔνθα δέ οἱ θελκτήρια πάντα τέτυκτο· 14.216 ἔνθʼ ἔνι μὲν φιλότης, ἐν δʼ ἵμερος, ἐν δʼ ὀαριστὺς 14.217 πάρφασις, ἥ τʼ ἔκλεψε νόον πύκα περ φρονεόντων. 14.218 τόν ῥά οἱ ἔμβαλε χερσὶν ἔπος τʼ ἔφατʼ ἔκ τʼ ὀνόμαζε· 14.219 τῆ νῦν τοῦτον ἱμάντα τεῷ ἐγκάτθεο κόλπῳ 14.220 ποικίλον, ᾧ ἔνι πάντα τετεύχαται· οὐδέ σέ φημι 14.221 ἄπρηκτόν γε νέεσθαι, ὅ τι φρεσὶ σῇσι μενοινᾷς. 14.222 ὣς φάτο, μείδησεν δὲ βοῶπις πότνια Ἥρη, 14.223 μειδήσασα δʼ ἔπειτα ἑῷ ἐγκάτθετο κόλπῳ. 14.224 ἣ μὲν ἔβη πρὸς δῶμα Διὸς θυγάτηρ Ἀφροδίτη, 14.225 Ἥρη δʼ ἀΐξασα λίπεν ῥίον Οὐλύμποιο, 14.226 Πιερίην δʼ ἐπιβᾶσα καὶ Ἠμαθίην ἐρατεινὴν 14.227 σεύατʼ ἐφʼ ἱπποπόλων Θρῃκῶν ὄρεα νιφόεντα 14.228 ἀκροτάτας κορυφάς· οὐδὲ χθόνα μάρπτε ποδοῖιν· 14.229 ἐξ Ἀθόω δʼ ἐπὶ πόντον ἐβήσετο κυμαίνοντα, 14.230 Λῆμνον δʼ εἰσαφίκανε πόλιν θείοιο Θόαντος. 14.231 ἔνθʼ Ὕπνῳ ξύμβλητο κασιγνήτῳ Θανάτοιο, 14.232 ἔν τʼ ἄρα οἱ φῦ χειρὶ ἔπος τʼ ἔφατʼ ἔκ τʼ ὀνόμαζεν· 14.233 Ὕπνε ἄναξ πάντων τε θεῶν πάντων τʼ ἀνθρώπων, 14.234 ἠμὲν δή ποτʼ ἐμὸν ἔπος ἔκλυες, ἠδʼ ἔτι καὶ νῦν 14.235 πείθευ· ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι ἰδέω χάριν ἤματα πάντα. 14.236 κοίμησόν μοι Ζηνὸς ὑπʼ ὀφρύσιν ὄσσε φαεινὼ 14.237 αὐτίκʼ ἐπεί κεν ἐγὼ παραλέξομαι ἐν φιλότητι. 14.238 δῶρα δέ τοι δώσω καλὸν θρόνον ἄφθιτον αἰεὶ 14.239 χρύσεον· Ἥφαιστος δέ κʼ ἐμὸς πάϊς ἀμφιγυήεις 14.240 τεύξειʼ ἀσκήσας, ὑπὸ δὲ θρῆνυν ποσὶν ἥσει, 14.241 τῷ κεν ἐπισχοίης λιπαροὺς πόδας εἰλαπινάζων. 14.242 τὴν δʼ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσεφώνεε νήδυμος Ὕπνος· 14.244 ἄλλον μέν κεν ἔγωγε θεῶν αἰειγενετάων 14.245 ῥεῖα κατευνήσαιμι, καὶ ἂν ποταμοῖο ῥέεθρα 14.246 Ὠκεανοῦ, ὅς περ γένεσις πάντεσσι τέτυκται· 14.247 Ζηνὸς δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἔγωγε Κρονίονος ἆσσον ἱκοίμην 14.248 οὐδὲ κατευνήσαιμʼ, ὅτε μὴ αὐτός γε κελεύοι. 14.249 ἤδη γάρ με καὶ ἄλλο τεὴ ἐπίνυσσεν ἐφετμὴ 14.250 ἤματι τῷ ὅτε κεῖνος ὑπέρθυμος Διὸς υἱὸς 14.251 ἔπλεεν Ἰλιόθεν Τρώων πόλιν ἐξαλαπάξας. 14.252 ἤτοι ἐγὼ μὲν ἔλεξα Διὸς νόον αἰγιόχοιο 14.253 νήδυμος ἀμφιχυθείς· σὺ δέ οἱ κακὰ μήσαο θυμῷ 14.254 ὄρσασʼ ἀργαλέων ἀνέμων ἐπὶ πόντον ἀήτας,
14.260 τὴν ἱκόμην φεύγων, ὃ δʼ ἐπαύσατο χωόμενός περ. 14.261 ἅζετο γὰρ μὴ Νυκτὶ θοῇ ἀποθύμια ἕρδοι. 14.262 νῦν αὖ τοῦτό μʼ ἄνωγας ἀμήχανον ἄλλο τελέσσαι. 14.263 τὸν δʼ αὖτε προσέειπε βοῶπις πότνια Ἥρη· 14.264 Ὕπνε τί ἢ δὲ σὺ ταῦτα μετὰ φρεσὶ σῇσι μενοινᾷς; 14.265 ἦ φῂς ὣς Τρώεσσιν ἀρηξέμεν εὐρύοπα Ζῆν 14.266 ὡς Ἡρακλῆος περιχώσατο παῖδος ἑοῖο; 14.267 ἀλλʼ ἴθʼ, ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι Χαρίτων μίαν ὁπλοτεράων 14.268 δώσω ὀπυιέμεναι καὶ σὴν κεκλῆσθαι ἄκοιτιν.' '14.270 ὣς φάτο, χήρατο δʼ Ὕπνος, ἀμειβόμενος δὲ προσηύδα· 14.271 ἄγρει νῦν μοι ὄμοσσον ἀάατον Στυγὸς ὕδωρ, 14.272 χειρὶ δὲ τῇ ἑτέρῃ μὲν ἕλε χθόνα πουλυβότειραν, 14.273 τῇ δʼ ἑτέρῃ ἅλα μαρμαρέην, ἵνα νῶϊν ἅπαντες 14.274 μάρτυροι ὦσʼ οἳ ἔνερθε θεοὶ Κρόνον ἀμφὶς ἐόντες, 14.275 ἦ μὲν ἐμοὶ δώσειν Χαρίτων μίαν ὁπλοτεράων 14.276 Πασιθέην, ἧς τʼ αὐτὸς ἐέλδομαι ἤματα πάντα. 14.277 ὣς ἔφατʼ, οὐδʼ ἀπίθησε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη, 14.278 ὄμνυε δʼ ὡς ἐκέλευε, θεοὺς δʼ ὀνόμηνεν ἅπαντας 14.279 τοὺς ὑποταρταρίους οἳ Τιτῆνες καλέονται. 14.280 αὐτὰρ ἐπεί ῥʼ ὄμοσέν τε τελεύτησέν τε τὸν ὅρκον, 14.281 τὼ βήτην Λήμνου τε καὶ Ἴμβρου ἄστυ λιπόντε 14.282 ἠέρα ἑσσαμένω ῥίμφα πρήσσοντε κέλευθον. 14.283 Ἴδην δʼ ἱκέσθην πολυπίδακα μητέρα θηρῶν 14.284 Λεκτόν, ὅθι πρῶτον λιπέτην ἅλα· τὼ δʼ ἐπὶ χέρσου 14.285 βήτην, ἀκροτάτη δὲ ποδῶν ὕπο σείετο ὕλη. 14.286 ἔνθʼ Ὕπνος μὲν ἔμεινε πάρος Διὸς ὄσσε ἰδέσθαι 14.287 εἰς ἐλάτην ἀναβὰς περιμήκετον, ἣ τότʼ ἐν Ἴδῃ 14.288 μακροτάτη πεφυυῖα διʼ ἠέρος αἰθέρʼ ἵκανεν· 14.289 ἔνθʼ ἧστʼ ὄζοισιν πεπυκασμένος εἰλατίνοισιν 14.290 ὄρνιθι λιγυρῇ ἐναλίγκιος, ἥν τʼ ἐν ὄρεσσι 14.291 χαλκίδα κικλήσκουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δὲ κύμινδιν. 14.292 Ἥρη δὲ κραιπνῶς προσεβήσετο Γάργαρον ἄκρον 14.293 Ἴδης ὑψηλῆς· ἴδε δὲ νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς. 14.294 ὡς δʼ ἴδεν, ὥς μιν ἔρως πυκινὰς φρένας ἀμφεκάλυψεν, 14.295 οἷον ὅτε πρῶτόν περ ἐμισγέσθην φιλότητι 14.296 εἰς εὐνὴν φοιτῶντε, φίλους λήθοντε τοκῆας. 14.297 στῆ δʼ αὐτῆς προπάροιθεν ἔπος τʼ ἔφατʼ ἔκ τʼ ὀνόμαζεν· 14.298 Ἥρη πῇ μεμαυῖα κατʼ Οὐλύμπου τόδʼ ἱκάνεις; 14.299 ἵπποι δʼ οὐ παρέασι καὶ ἅρματα τῶν κʼ ἐπιβαίης. 14.300 τὸν δὲ δολοφρονέουσα προσηύδα πότνια Ἥρη· 14.301 ἔρχομαι ὀψομένη πολυφόρβου πείρατα γαίης, 14.303 οἵ με σφοῖσι δόμοισιν ἐῢ τρέφον ἠδʼ ἀτίταλλον· 14.307 ἵπποι δʼ ἐν πρυμνωρείῃ πολυπίδακος Ἴδης 14.308 ἑστᾶσʼ, οἵ μʼ οἴσουσιν ἐπὶ τραφερήν τε καὶ ὑγρήν. 14.309 νῦν δὲ σεῦ εἵνεκα δεῦρο κατʼ Οὐλύμπου τόδʼ ἱκάνω, 14.310 μή πώς μοι μετέπειτα χολώσεαι, αἴ κε σιωπῇ 14.311 οἴχωμαι πρὸς δῶμα βαθυρρόου Ὠκεανοῖο. 14.312 τὴν δʼ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς· 14.313 Ἥρη κεῖσε μὲν ἔστι καὶ ὕστερον ὁρμηθῆναι, 14.314 νῶϊ δʼ ἄγʼ ἐν φιλότητι τραπείομεν εὐνηθέντε. 14.315 οὐ γάρ πώ ποτέ μʼ ὧδε θεᾶς ἔρος οὐδὲ γυναικὸς 14.316 θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσι περιπροχυθεὶς ἐδάμασσεν, 14.317 οὐδʼ ὁπότʼ ἠρασάμην Ἰξιονίης ἀλόχοιο, 14.318 ἣ τέκε Πειρίθοον θεόφιν μήστωρʼ ἀτάλαντον· 14.319 οὐδʼ ὅτε περ Δανάης καλλισφύρου Ἀκρισιώνης, 14.320 ἣ τέκε Περσῆα πάντων ἀριδείκετον ἀνδρῶν· 14.321 οὐδʼ ὅτε Φοίνικος κούρης τηλεκλειτοῖο, 14.322 ἣ τέκε μοι Μίνων τε καὶ ἀντίθεον Ῥαδάμανθυν· 14.323 οὐδʼ ὅτε περ Σεμέλης οὐδʼ Ἀλκμήνης ἐνὶ Θήβῃ, 14.324 ἥ ῥʼ Ἡρακλῆα κρατερόφρονα γείνατο παῖδα· 14.325 ἣ δὲ Διώνυσον Σεμέλη τέκε χάρμα βροτοῖσιν· 14.326 οὐδʼ ὅτε Δήμητρος καλλιπλοκάμοιο ἀνάσσης, 14.327 οὐδʼ ὁπότε Λητοῦς ἐρικυδέος, οὐδὲ σεῦ αὐτῆς, 14.328 ὡς σέο νῦν ἔραμαι καί με γλυκὺς ἵμερος αἱρεῖ. 14.330 αἰνότατε Κρονίδη ποῖον τὸν μῦθον ἔειπες. 14.331 εἰ νῦν ἐν φιλότητι λιλαίεαι εὐνηθῆναι 14.332 Ἴδης ἐν κορυφῇσι, τὰ δὲ προπέφανται ἅπαντα· 14.333 πῶς κʼ ἔοι εἴ τις νῶϊ θεῶν αἰειγενετάων 14.334 εὕδοντʼ ἀθρήσειε, θεοῖσι δὲ πᾶσι μετελθὼν 14.335 πεφράδοι; οὐκ ἂν ἔγωγε τεὸν πρὸς δῶμα νεοίμην 14.336 ἐξ εὐνῆς ἀνστᾶσα, νεμεσσητὸν δέ κεν εἴη. 14.337 ἀλλʼ εἰ δή ῥʼ ἐθέλεις καί τοι φίλον ἔπλετο θυμῷ, 14.338 ἔστιν τοι θάλαμος, τόν τοι φίλος υἱὸς ἔτευξεν 14.339 Ἥφαιστος, πυκινὰς δὲ θύρας σταθμοῖσιν ἐπῆρσεν· 14.340 ἔνθʼ ἴομεν κείοντες, ἐπεί νύ τοι εὔαδεν εὐνή. 14.341 τὴν δʼ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς· 14.342 Ἥρη μήτε θεῶν τό γε δείδιθι μήτέ τινʼ ἀνδρῶν 14.343 ὄψεσθαι· τοῖόν τοι ἐγὼ νέφος ἀμφικαλύψω 14.344 χρύσεον· οὐδʼ ἂν νῶϊ διαδράκοι Ἠέλιός περ, 14.345 οὗ τε καὶ ὀξύτατον πέλεται φάος εἰσοράασθαι. 14.346 ἦ ῥα καὶ ἀγκὰς ἔμαρπτε Κρόνου παῖς ἣν παράκοιτιν· 14.347 τοῖσι δʼ ὑπὸ χθὼν δῖα φύεν νεοθηλέα ποίην, 14.348 λωτόν θʼ ἑρσήεντα ἰδὲ κρόκον ἠδʼ ὑάκινθον 14.349 πυκνὸν καὶ μαλακόν, ὃς ἀπὸ χθονὸς ὑψόσʼ ἔεργε. 14.350 τῷ ἔνι λεξάσθην, ἐπὶ δὲ νεφέλην ἕσσαντο 14.351 καλὴν χρυσείην· στιλπναὶ δʼ ἀπέπιπτον ἔερσαι. 14.352 ὣς ὃ μὲν ἀτρέμας εὗδε πατὴρ ἀνὰ Γαργάρῳ ἄκρῳ, 14.353 ὕπνῳ καὶ φιλότητι δαμείς, ἔχε δʼ ἀγκὰς ἄκοιτιν·'' None
14.153 even so mighty a shout did the lord, the Shaker of Earth, send forth from his breast. and in the heart of each man of the Achaeans he put great strength, to war and fight unceasingly. 14.154 even so mighty a shout did the lord, the Shaker of Earth, send forth from his breast. and in the heart of each man of the Achaeans he put great strength, to war and fight unceasingly. Now Hera of the golden throne, standing on a peak of Olympus, therefrom had sight of him, and forthwith knew him ' "14.155 as he went busily about in the battle where men win glory, her own brother and her lord's withal; and she was glad at heart. And Zeus she marked seated on the topmost peak of many-fountained Ida, and hateful was he to her heart. Then she took thought, the ox-eyed, queenly Hera, " "14.159 as he went busily about in the battle where men win glory, her own brother and her lord's withal; and she was glad at heart. And Zeus she marked seated on the topmost peak of many-fountained Ida, and hateful was he to her heart. Then she took thought, the ox-eyed, queenly Hera, " '14.160 how she might beguile the mind of Zeus that beareth the aegis. And this plan seemed to her mind the best—to go to Ida, when she had beauteously adorned her person, if so be he might desire to lie by her side and embrace her body in love, and she might shed a warm and gentle sleep 14.165 upon his eyelids and his cunning mind. So she went her way to her chamber, that her dear son Hephaestus had fashioned for her, and had fitted strong doors to the door-posts with a secret bolt, that no other god might open. Therein she entered, and closed the bright doors. 14.170 With ambrosia first did she cleanse from her lovely body every stain, and anointed her richly with oil, ambrosial, soft, and of rich fragrance; were this but shaken in the palace of Zeus with threshold of bronze, even so would the savour thereof reach unto earth and heaven. 14.175 Therewith she annointed her lovely body, and she combed her hair, and with her hands pIaited the bright tresses, fair and ambrosial, that streamed from her immortal head. Then she clothed her about in a robe ambrosial, which Athene had wrought for her with cunning skill, and had set thereon broideries full many; 14.180 and she pinned it upon her breast with brooches of gold, and she girt about her a girdle set with an hundred tassels, and in her pierced ears she put ear-rings with three clustering drops; and abundant grace shone therefrom. And with a veil over all did the bright goddess 14.185 veil herself, a fair veil, all glistering, and white was it as the sun; and beneath her shining feet she bound her fair sandals. But when she had decked her body with all adornment, she went forth from her chamber, and calling to her Aphrodite, apart from the other gods, she spake to her, saying: 14.190 Wilt thou now hearken to me, dear child, in what I shall say? or wilt thou refuse me, being angered at heart for that I give aid to the Danaans and thou to the Trojans? 14.194 Wilt thou now hearken to me, dear child, in what I shall say? or wilt thou refuse me, being angered at heart for that I give aid to the Danaans and thou to the Trojans? Then made answer to her Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus:Hera, queenly goddess, daughter of great Cronos, 14.195 peak what is in thy mind; my heart bids me fulfill it, if fulfill it I can, and it is a thing that hath fulfillment. Then with crafty thought spake to her queenly Hera:Give me now love and desire, wherewith thou art wont to subdue all immortals and mortal men. 14.200 For I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls, when they had taken me from Rhea, what time Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, thrust Cronos down to dwell beneath earth and the unresting sea. 14.204 For I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls, when they had taken me from Rhea, what time Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, thrust Cronos down to dwell beneath earth and the unresting sea. ' "14.205 Them am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife, since now for a long time's space they hold aloof one from the other from the marriage-bed and from love, for that wrath hath come upon their hearts. If by words I might but persuade the hearts of these twain, and bring them back to be joined together in love, " "14.209 Them am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife, since now for a long time's space they hold aloof one from the other from the marriage-bed and from love, for that wrath hath come upon their hearts. If by words I might but persuade the hearts of these twain, and bring them back to be joined together in love, " '14.210 ever should I be called dear by them and worthy of reverence. To her again spake in answer laughter-loving Aphrodite:It may not be that I should say thee nay, nor were it seemly; for thou sleepest in the arms of mightiest Zeus. She spake, and loosed from her bosom the broidered zone, 14.215 curiously-wrought, wherein are fashioned all manner of allurements; therein is love, therein desire, therein dalliance—beguilement that steals the wits even of the wise. This she laid in her hands, and spake, and addressed her:Take now and lay in thy bosom this zone, 14.220 curiously-wrought, wherein all things are fashioned; I tell thee thou shalt not return with that unaccomplished, whatsoever in thy heart thou desirest. So spake she, and ox-eyed, queenly Hera smiled, and smiling laid the zone in her bosom.She then went to her house, the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, 14.225 but Hera darted down and left the peak of Olympus; on Pieria she stepped and lovely Emathia, and sped over the snowy mountains of the Thracian horsemen, even over their topmost peaks, nor grazed she the ground with her feet; and from Athos she stepped upon the billowy sea, 14.230 and so came to Lemnos, the city of godlike Thoas. There she met Sleep, the brother of Death; and she clasped him by the hand, and spake and addressed him:Sleep, lord of all gods and of all men, if ever thou didst hearken to word of mine, so do thou even now obey, 14.235 and I will owe thee thanks all my days. Lull me to sleep the bright eyes of Zeus beneath his brows, so soon as I shall have lain me by his side in love. And gifts will I give thee, a fair throne, ever imperishable, wrought of gold, that Hephaestus, mine own son, 14.240 the god of the two strong arms, shall fashion thee with skill, and beneath it shall he set a foot-stool for the feet, whereon thou mayest rest thy shining feet when thou quaffest thy wine. 14.244 the god of the two strong arms, shall fashion thee with skill, and beneath it shall he set a foot-stool for the feet, whereon thou mayest rest thy shining feet when thou quaffest thy wine. Then sweet Sleep made answer to her, saying:Hera, queenly goddess, daughter of great Cronos, another of the gods, that are for ever, might I lightly lull to sleep, aye, were it even the streams of the river 14.245 Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson, 14.250 on the day when the glorious son of Zeus, high of heart, sailed forth from Ilios, when he had laid waste the city of the Trojans. I, verily, beguiled the mind of Zeus, that beareth the aegis, being shed in sweetness round about him, and thou didst devise evil in thy heart against his son, when thou hadst roused the blasts of cruel winds over the face of the deep, and thereafter didst bear him away unto well-peopled Cos, far from all his kinsfolk. But Zeus, when he awakened, was wroth, and flung the gods hither and thither about his palace, and me above all he sought, and would have hurled me from heaven into the deep to be no more seen, had Night not saved me—Night that bends to her sway both gods and men.
14.260 To her I came in my flight, and besought her, and Zeus refrained him, albeit he was wroth, for he had awe lest he do aught displeasing to swift Night. And now again thou biddest me fulfill this other task, that may nowise be done. To him then spake again ox-eyed, queenly Hera:Sleep, wherefore ponderest thou of these things in thine heart? 14.265 Deemest thou that Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, will aid the Trojans, even as he waxed wroth for the sake of Heracles, his own son? Nay, come, I will give thee one of the youthful Graces to wed to be called thy wife, even Pasithea, for whom thou ever longest all thy days. 14.269 Deemest thou that Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, will aid the Trojans, even as he waxed wroth for the sake of Heracles, his own son? Nay, come, I will give thee one of the youthful Graces to wed to be called thy wife, even Pasithea, for whom thou ever longest all thy days. 14.270 So spake she, and Sleep waxed glad, and made answer saying:Come now, swear to me by the inviolable water of Styx, and with one hand lay thou hold of the bounteous earth, and with the other of the shimmering sea, that one and all they may be witnesses betwixt us twain, even the gods that are below with Cronos, 14.275 that verily thou wilt give me one of the youthful Graces, even Pasithea, that myself I long for all my days. So spake he, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, failed not to hearken, but sware as he bade, and invoked by name all the gods below Tartarus, that are called Titans. 14.280 But when she had sworn and made an end of the oath, the twain left the cities of Lemnos and Imbros, and clothed about in mist went forth, speeding swiftly on their way. To many-fountained Ida they came, the mother of wild creatures, even to Lectum, where first they left the sea; and the twain fared on over the dry land, 14.285 and the topmost forest quivered beneath their feet. There Sleep did halt, or ever the eyes of Zeus beheld him, and mounted up on a fir-tree exceeding tall, the highest that then grew in Ida; and it reached up through the mists into heaven. Thereon he perched, thick-hidden by the branches of the fir, 14.290 in the likeness of a clear-voiced mountain bird, that the gods call Chalcis, and men Cymindis.But Hera swiftly drew nigh to topmost Gargarus, the peak of lofty Ida, and Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, beheld her. And when he beheld her, then love encompassed his wise heart about, 14.295 even as when at the first they had gone to the couch and had dalliance together in love, their dear parents knowing naught thereof. And he stood before her, and spake, and addressed her:Hera, with what desire art thou thus come hither down from Olympus? Lo, thy horses are not at hand, neither thy chariot, whereon thou mightest mount. 14.300 Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him:I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed me and cherished me in their halls. Them am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife, 14.304 Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him:I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed me and cherished me in their halls. Them am I faring to visit, and will loose for them their endless strife, ' "14.305 ince now for long time's apace they hold aloof one from the other from the marriage-bed and from love, for that wrath hath fallen upon their hearts. And my horses stand at the foot of many-fountained Ida, my horses that shall bear me both over the solid land and the waters of the sea. But now it is because of thee that I am come hither down from Olympus, " "14.309 ince now for long time's apace they hold aloof one from the other from the marriage-bed and from love, for that wrath hath fallen upon their hearts. And my horses stand at the foot of many-fountained Ida, my horses that shall bear me both over the solid land and the waters of the sea. But now it is because of thee that I am come hither down from Olympus, " '14.310 lest haply thou mightest wax wroth with me hereafter, if without a word I depart to the house of deep-flowing Oceanus. 14.314 lest haply thou mightest wax wroth with me hereafter, if without a word I depart to the house of deep-flowing Oceanus. Then in answer spake to her Zeus, the cloud-gatherer.Hera, thither mayest thou go even hereafter. But for us twain, come, let us take our joy couched together in love; 14.315 for never yet did desire for goddess or mortal woman so shed itself about me and overmaster the heart within my breast—nay, not when I was seized with love of the wife of Ixion, who bare Peirithous, the peer of the gods in counsel; nor of Danaë of the fair ankles, daughter of Acrisius, 14.320 who bare Perseus, pre-eminent above all warriors; nor of the daughter of far-famed Phoenix, that bare me Minos and godlike Rhadamanthys; nor of Semele, nor of Alcmene in Thebes, and she brought forth Heracles, her son stout of heart, 14.325 and Semele bare Dionysus, the joy of mortals; nor of Demeter, the fair-tressed queen; nor of glorious Leto; nay, nor yet of thine own self, as now I love thee, and sweet desire layeth hold of me. Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him: 14.330 Most dread son of Cronos, what a word hast thou said. If now thou art fain to be couched in love on the peaks of Ida, where all is plain to view, what and if some one of the gods that are for ever should behold us twain as we sleep, and should go and tell it to all the gods? 14.334 Most dread son of Cronos, what a word hast thou said. If now thou art fain to be couched in love on the peaks of Ida, where all is plain to view, what and if some one of the gods that are for ever should behold us twain as we sleep, and should go and tell it to all the gods? ' "14.335 Then verily could not I arise from the couch and go again to thy house; that were a shameful thing. But if thou wilt, and it is thy heart's good pleasure, thou hast a chamber, that thy dear son Hephaestus fashioned for thee, and fitted strong doors upon the door-posts. " "14.339 Then verily could not I arise from the couch and go again to thy house; that were a shameful thing. But if thou wilt, and it is thy heart's good pleasure, thou hast a chamber, that thy dear son Hephaestus fashioned for thee, and fitted strong doors upon the door-posts. " '14.340 Thither let us go and lay us down, since the couch is thy desire. Then in answer to her spake Zeus, the cloud-gatherer:Hera, fear thou not that any god or man shall behold the thing, with such a cloud shall I enfold thee withal, a cloud of gold. Therethrough might not even Helios discern us twain, 14.345 albeit his sight is the keenest of all for beholding. Therewith the son of Cronos clasped his wife in his arms, and beneath them the divine earth made fresh-sprung grass to grow, and dewy lotus, and crocus, and hyacinth, thick and soft, that upbare them from the ground. 14.350 Therein lay the twain, and were clothed about with a cloud, fair and golden, wherefrom fell drops of glistering dew. 14.353 Therein lay the twain, and were clothed about with a cloud, fair and golden, wherefrom fell drops of glistering dew. ' ' None
|3. Herodotus, Histories, 3.25, 4.15, 4.30, 6.83, 7.171 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • "moralising, digressive", • apoikia (settlement abroad, colony), mixed origins of settlers, cultural diversity in • digression • digression(s) • past, mythical, diverse and contradictory • προσθήκη (digression)
Found in books: Hau (2017), Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus, 188; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 165, 320, 321; Poulsen (2021), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 269; Torok (2014), Herodotus In Nubia, 41, 42
3.25 θεησάμενοι δὲ τὰ πάντα οἱ κατάσκοποι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ὀπίσω. ἀπαγγειλάντων δὲ ταῦτα τούτων, αὐτίκα ὁ Καμβύσης ὀργὴν ποιησάμενος ἐστρατεύετο ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας, οὔτε παρασκευὴν σίτου οὐδεμίαν παραγγείλας, οὔτε λόγον ἑωυτῷ δοὺς ὅτι ἐς τὰ ἔσχατα γῆς ἔμελλε στρατεύεσθαι· οἷα δὲ ἐμμανής τε ἐὼν καὶ οὐ φρενήρης, ὡς ἤκουε τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων, ἐστρατεύετο, Ἑλλήνων μὲν τοὺς παρεόντας αὐτοῦ τάξας ὑπομένειν, τὸν δὲ πεζὸν πάντα ἅμα ἀγόμενος. ἐπείτε δὲ στρατευόμενος ἐγένετο ἐν Θήβῃσι, ἀπέκρινε τοῦ στρατοῦ ὡς πέντε μυριάδας, καὶ τούτοισι μὲν ἐνετέλλετο Ἀμμωνίους ἐξανδραποδισαμένους τὸ χρηστήριον τὸ τοῦ Διὸς ἐμπρῆσαι, αὐτὸς δὲ τὸν λοιπὸν ἄγων στρατὸν ἤιε ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας. πρὶν δὲ τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ πέμπτον μέρος διεληλυθέναι τὴν στρατιήν, αὐτίκα πάντα αὐτοὺς τὰ εἶχον σιτίων ἐχόμενα ἐπελελοίπεε, μετὰ δὲ τὰ σιτία καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐπέλιπε κατεσθιόμενα. εἰ μέν νυν μαθὼν ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐγνωσιμάχεε καὶ ἀπῆγε ὀπίσω τὸν στρατόν, ἐπὶ τῇ ἀρχῆθεν γενομένῃ ἁμαρτάδι ἦν ἂν ἀνὴρ σοφός· νῦν δὲ οὐδένα λόγον ποιεύμενος ἤιε αἰεὶ ἐς τὸ πρόσω. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἕως μέν τι εἶχον ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαμβάνειν, ποιηφαγέοντες διέζωον, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐς τὴν ψάμμον ἀπίκοντο, δεινὸν ἔργον αὐτῶν τινες ἐργάσαντο· ἐκ δεκάδος γὰρ ἕνα σφέων αὐτῶν ἀποκληρώσαντες κατέφαγον. πυθόμενος δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης, δείσας τὴν ἀλληλοφαγίην, ἀπεὶς τὸν ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας στόλον ὀπίσω ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἀπικνέεται ἐς Θήβας πολλοὺς ἀπολέσας τοῦ στρατοῦ· ἐκ Θηβέων δὲ καταβὰς ἐς Μέμφιν τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀπῆκε ἀποπλέειν.
4.15 ταῦτα μὲν αἱ πόλιες αὗται λέγουσι, τάδε δὲ οἶδα Μεταποντίνοισι τοῖσι ἐν Ἰταλίῃ συγκυρήσαντα μετὰ τὴν ἀφάνισιν τὴν δευτέρην Ἀριστέω ἔτεσι τεσσεράκοντα καὶ διηκοσίοισι, ὡς ἐγὼ συμβαλλόμενος ἐν Προκοννήσῳ τε καὶ Μεταποντίῳ εὕρισκον. Μεταποντῖνοι φασὶ αὐτὸν Ἀριστέην φανέντα σφι ἐς τὴν χώρην κελεῦσαι βωμὸν Ἀπόλλωνος ἱδρύσασθαι καὶ Ἀριστέω τοῦ Προκοννησίου ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντα ἀνδριάντα πὰρʼ αὐτὸν ἱστάναι· φάναι γὰρ σφι τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα Ἰταλιωτέων μούνοισι δὴ ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν χώρην, καὶ αὐτὸς οἱ ἕπεσθαι ὁ νῦν ἐὼν Ἀριστέης· τότε δὲ, ὅτε εἵπετο τῷ θεῷ, εἶναι κόραξ. καὶ τὸν μὲν εἰπόντα ταῦτα ἀφανισθῆναι, σφέας δὲ Μεταποντῖνοι λέγουσι ἐς Δελφοὺς πέμψαντας τὸν θεὸν ἐπειρωτᾶν ὃ τι τὸ φάσμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἴη. τὴν δὲ Πυθίην σφέας κελεύειν πείθεσθαι τῷ φάσματι, πειθομένοισι δὲ ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. καὶ σφέας δεξαμένους ταῦτα ποιῆσαι ἐπιτελέα. καὶ νῦν ἔστηκε ἀνδριὰς ἐπωνυμίην ἔχων Ἀριστέω παρʼ αὐτῷ τῷ ἀγάλματι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος, πέριξ δὲ αὐτὸν δάφναι ἑστᾶσι· τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐν τῇ ἀγορῇ ἵδρυται. Ἀριστέω μέν νυν πέρι τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω.
4.30 ἐνθαῦτα μέν νυν διὰ τὰ ψύχεα γίνεται ταῦτα. θωμάζω δέ ʽπροσθήκας γὰρ δή μοι ὁ λόγος ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐδίζητὀ ὅτι ἐν τῇ Ἠλείῃ πάσῃ χώρῃ οὐ δυνέαται γίνεσθαι ἡμίονοι, οὔτε ψυχροῦ τοῦ χώρου ἐόντος οὔτε ἄλλου φανεροῦ αἰτίου οὐδενός. φασὶ δὲ αὐτοὶ Ἠλεῖοι ἐκ κατάρης τευ οὐ γίνεσθαι σφίσι ἡμιόνους, ἀλλʼ ἐπεὰν προσίῃ ἡ ὥρη κυΐσκεσθαι τὰς ἵππους, ἐξελαύνουσι ἐς τοὺς πλησιοχώρους αὐτάς, καὶ ἔπειτά σφι ἐν τῇ τῶν πέλας ἐπιεῖσι τοὺς ὄνους, ἐς οὗ ἂν σχῶσι αἱ ἵπποι ἐν γαστρί· ἔπειτα δὲ ἀπελαύνουσι.
6.83 Ἄργος δὲ ἀνδρῶν ἐχηρώθη οὕτω ὥστε οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτῶν ἔσχον πάντα τὰ πρήγματα ἄρχοντές τε καὶ διέποντες, ἐς ὃ ἐπήβησαν οἱ τῶν ἀπολομένων παῖδες· ἔπειτα σφέας οὗτοι ἀνακτώμενοι ὀπίσω ἐς ἑωυτοὺς τὸ Ἄργος ἐξέβαλον· ἐξωθεύμενοι δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι μάχῃ ἔσχον Τίρυνθα. τέως μὲν δή σφι ἦν ἄρθμια ἐς ἀλλήλους, ἔπειτα δὲ ἐς τοὺς δούλους ἦλθε ἀνὴρ μάντις Κλέανδρος, γένος ἐὼν Φιγαλεὺς ἀπʼ Ἀρκαδίης· οὗτος τοὺς δούλους ἀνέγνωσε ἐπιθέσθαι τοῖσι δεσπότῃσι. ἐκ τούτου δὴ πόλεμός σφι ἦν ἐπὶ χρόνον συχνόν, ἐς ὃ δὴ μόγις οἱ Ἀργεῖοι ἐπεκράτησαν.
7.171 ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν κατὰ Ῥηγίνους τε καὶ Ταραντίνους τοῦ λόγου μοι παρενθήκη γέγονε· ἐς δὲ τὴν Κρήτην ἐρημωθεῖσαν, ὡς λέγουσι Πραίσιοι, ἐσοικίζεσθαι ἄλλους τε ἀνθρώπους καὶ μάλιστα Ἕλληνας, τρίτῃ δὲ γενεῇ μετὰ Μίνων τελευτήσαντα γενέσθαι τὰ Τρωικά, ἐν τοῖσι οὐ φλαυροτάτους φαίνεσθαι ἐόντας Κρῆτας τιμωροὺς Μενέλεῳ. ἀπὸ τούτων δέ σφι ἀπονοστήσασι ἐκ Τροίης λιμόν τε καὶ λοιμὸν γενέσθαι καὶ αὐτοῖσι καὶ τοῖσι προβάτοισι, ἔστε τὸ δεύτερον ἐρημωθείσης Κρήτης μετὰ τῶν ὑπολοίπων τρίτους αὐτὴν νῦν νέμεσθαι Κρῆτας. ἡ μὲν δὴ Πυθίη ὑπομνήσασα ταῦτα ἔσχε βουλομένους τιμωρέειν τοῖσι Ἕλλησι.'' None
3.25 Having seen everything, the spies departed again. When they reported all this, Cambyses was angry, and marched at once against the Ethiopians, neither giving directions for any provision of food nor considering that he was about to lead his army to the ends of the earth; ,being not in his right mind but mad, however, he marched at once on hearing from the Fish-eaters, ordering the Greeks who were with him to await him where they were, and taking with him all his land army. ,When he came in his march to Thebes , he detached about fifty thousand men from his army, and directed them to enslave the Ammonians and burn the oracle of Zeus; and he himself went on towards Ethiopia with the rest of his host. ,But before his army had accomplished the fifth part of their journey they had come to an end of all there was in the way of provision, and after the food was gone, they ate the beasts of burden until there was none of these left either. ,Now had Cambyses, when he perceived this, changed his mind and led his army back again, he would have been a wise man at last after his first fault; but as it was, he went ever forward, taking account of nothing. ,While his soldiers could get anything from the earth, they kept themselves alive by eating grass; but when they came to the sandy desert, some did a terrible thing, taking by lot one man out of ten and eating him. ,Hearing this, Cambyses feared their becoming cannibals, and so gave up his expedition against the Ethiopians and marched back to Thebes , with the loss of many of his army; from Thebes he came down to Memphis, and sent the Greeks to sail away.
4.15 Such is the tale told in these two towns. But this, I know, happened to the Metapontines in Italy, two hundred and forty years after the second disappearance of Aristeas, as reckoning made at Proconnesus and Metapontum shows me: ,Aristeas, so the Metapontines say, appeared in their country and told them to set up an altar to Apollo, and set beside it a statue bearing the name of Aristeas the Proconnesian; for, he said, Apollo had come to their country alone of all Italian lands, and he—the man who was now Aristeas, but then when he followed the god had been a crow—had come with him. ,After saying this, he vanished. The Metapontines, so they say, sent to Delphi and asked the god what the vision of the man could mean; and the Pythian priestess told them to obey the vision, saying that their fortune would be better. ,They did as instructed. And now there stands beside the image of Apollo a statue bearing the name of Aristeas; a grove of bay-trees surrounds it; the image is set in the marketplace. Let it suffice that I have said this much about Aristeas.
4.30 In Scythia, then, this happens because of the cold. But I think it strange (for it was always the way of my history to investigate excurses) that in the whole of Elis no mules can be conceived although the country is not cold, nor is there any evident cause. The Eleans themselves say that it is because of a curse that mules cannot be conceived among them; ,but whenever the season is at hand for the mares to conceive, they drive them into the countries of their neighbors, and then send the asses after them, until the mares are pregt, and then they drive them home again.
6.83 But Argos was so wholly deprived of men that their slaves took possession of all affairs, ruling and governing until the sons of the slain men grew up. Then they recovered Argos for themselves and cast out the slaves; when they were driven out, the slaves took possession of Tiryns by force. ,For a while they were at peace with each other; but then there came to the slaves a prophet, Cleander, a man of Phigalea in Arcadia by birth; he persuaded the slaves to attack their masters. From that time there was a long-lasting war between them, until with difficulty the Argives got the upper hand.
7.171 In relating the matter of the Rhegians and Tarentines, however, I digress from the main thread of my history. The Praesians say that when Crete was left desolate, it was populated especially by Greeks, among other peoples. Then, in the third generation after Minos, the events surrounding the Trojan War, in which the Cretans bore themselves as bravely as any in the cause of Menelaus, took place. ,After this, when they returned from Troy, they and their flocks and herds were afflicted by famine and pestilence, until Crete was once more left desolate. Then came a third influx of Cretans, and it is they who, with those that were left, now dwell there. It was this that the priestess bade them remember, and so prevented them from aiding the Greeks as they were previously inclined. '' None
|4. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.21, 1.23.6, 2.65, 3.36 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • "moralising, digressive", • Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, Digressions in • digressions
Found in books: Chrysanthou (2022), Reconfiguring the Imperial Past: Narrative Patterns and Historical Interpretation in Herodian’s History of the Empire. 4; Hau (2017), Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus, 196, 197, 208; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 397, 401
1.23.6 τὴν μὲν γὰρ ἀληθεστάτην πρόφασιν, ἀφανεστάτην δὲ λόγῳ, τοὺς Ἀθηναίους ἡγοῦμαι μεγάλους γιγνομένους καὶ φόβον παρέχοντας τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις ἀναγκάσαι ἐς τὸ πολεμεῖν: αἱ δ’ ἐς τὸ φανερὸν λεγόμεναι αἰτίαι αἵδ’ ἦσαν ἑκατέρων, ἀφ’ ὧν λύσαντες τὰς σπονδὰς ἐς τὸν πόλεμον κατέστησαν.' ' None
1.23.6 The real cause I consider to be the one which was formally most kept out of sight. The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. Still it is well to give the grounds alleged by either side, which led to the dissolution of the treaty and the breaking out of the war. ' ' None
|5. Polybius, Histories, 1.1.6, 1.4.1, 3.35.7-3.35.8, 3.36.1-3.36.5, 3.37.6-3.37.7, 3.37.9, 3.38.7-3.38.8, 3.39.4, 3.39.9-3.39.12, 3.40.1, 3.42.1, 8.11.3-8.11.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Polybius, geographical ‘digression’ • diversity of Hellenistic literary production
Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 5, 41, 56, 58; König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 5, 41, 56, 58
3.35.7 τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν στρατιὰν ἀναλαβὼν εὔζωνον πεζοὺς μὲν πεντακισμυρίους ἱππεῖς δὲ πρὸς ἐννακισχιλίους ἦγεν διὰ τῶν Πυρηναίων λεγομένων ὀρῶν ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ Ῥοδανοῦ καλουμένου ποταμοῦ διάβασιν, 3.35.8 ἔχων οὐχ οὕτως πολλὴν δύναμιν ὡς χρησίμην καὶ γεγυμνασμένην διαφερόντως ἐκ τῆς συνεχείας τῶν κατὰ τὴν Ἰβηρίαν ἀγώνων.
3.36.1 ἵνα δὲ μὴ τῶν τόπων ἀγνοουμένων παντάπασιν ἀσαφῆ γίνεσθαι συμβαίνῃ τὴν διήγησιν, ῥητέον ἂν εἴη πόθεν ὁρμήσας Ἀννίβας καὶ τίνας καὶ πόσους διελθὼν τόπους εἰς ποῖα μέρη κατῆρε τῆς Ἰταλίας. 3.36.2 ῥητέον δʼ οὐκ αὐτὰς τὰς ὀνομασίας τῶν τόπων καὶ ποταμῶν καὶ πόλεων, ὅπερ ἔνιοι ποιοῦσι τῶν συγγραφέων, ὑπολαμβάνοντες ἐν παντὶ πρὸς γνῶσιν καὶ σαφήνειαν αὐτοτελὲς εἶναι τοῦτο τὸ μέρος. 3.36.3 οἶμαι δʼ, ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν γνωριζομένων τόπων οὐ μικρὰ μεγάλα δὲ συμβάλλεσθαι πεποίηκε πρὸς ἀνάμνησιν ἡ τῶν ὀνομάτων παράθεσις· ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν ἀγνοουμένων εἰς τέλος ὁμοίαν ἔχει τὴν δύναμιν ἡ τῶν ὀνομάτων ἐξήγησις ταῖς ἀδιανοήτοις καὶ κρουσματικαῖς λέξεσι. 3.36.4 τῆς γὰρ διανοίας ἐπʼ οὐδὲν ἀπερειδομένης οὐδὲ δυναμένης ἐφαρμόττειν τὸ λεγόμενον ἐπʼ οὐδὲν γνώριμον, ἀνυπότακτος καὶ κωφὴ γίνεθʼ ἡ διήγησις. 3.36.5 διόπερ ὑποδεικτέος ἂν εἴη τρόπος, διʼ οὗ δυνατὸν ἔσται περὶ τῶν ἀγνοουμένων λέγοντας κατὰ ποσὸν εἰς ἀληθινὰς καὶ γνωρίμους ἐννοίας ἄγειν τοὺς ἀκούοντας. πρώτη μὲν οὖν καὶ μεγίστη γνῶσις,
3.37.6 αὗται μὲν οὖν αἱ χῶραι καθολικώτερον θεωρούμεναι τὸν πρὸς τὴν μεσημβρίαν τόπον ἐπέχουσι τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς θαλάττης ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν ὡς πρὸς τὰς δύσεις. 3.37.7 ἡ δʼ Εὐρώπη ταύταις ἀμφοτέραις ὡς πρὸς τὰς ἄρκτους ἀντιπαράκειται, κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν παρήκουσα μὲν ἄχρι πρὸς τὰς δύσεις,
3.37.9 ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Νάρβωνος καὶ τὰ περὶ τοῦτον Κελτοὶ νέμονται μέχρι τῶν προσαγορευομένων Πυρηναίων ὀρῶν, ἃ διατείνει κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀπὸ τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς θαλάττης ἕως εἰς τὴν ἐκτός.' 3.39.4 διαβάντες δὲ τὸν καθʼ Ἡρακλείους στήλας πόρον ὁμοίως ἐκεκρατήκεισαν καὶ τῆς Ἰβηρίας ἁπάσης ἕως τῆς ῥαχίας, ὃ πέρας ἐστὶ πρὸς τῇ καθʼ ἡμᾶς θαλάττῃ τῶν Πυρηναίων ὀρῶν, ἃ διορίζει τοὺς Ἴβηρας καὶ Κελτούς.
3.39.9 ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Ῥοδανοῦ πορευομένοις παρʼ αὐτὸν τὸν ποταμὸν ὡς ἐπὶ τὰς πηγὰς ἕως πρὸς τὴν ἀναβολὴν τῶν Ἄλπεων τὴν εἰς Ἰταλίαν χίλιοι τετρακόσιοι. 3.39.10 λοιπαὶ δʼ αἱ τῶν Ἄλπεων ὑπερβολαί, περὶ χιλίους διακοσίους· ἃς ὑπερβαλὼν ἔμελλεν ἥξειν εἰς τὰ περὶ τὸν Πάδον πεδία τῆς Ἰταλίας. 3.39.11 ὥστʼ εἶναι τοὺς πάντας ἐκ Καινῆς πόλεως σταδίους περὶ ἐννακισχιλίους, οὓς ἔδει διελθεῖν αὐτόν. 3.39.12 τούτων δὴ τῶν τόπων κατὰ μὲν τὸ μῆκος ἤδη σχεδὸν τοὺς ἡμίσεις διεληλύθει, κατὰ δὲ τὴν δυσχέρειαν τὸ πλέον αὐτῷ μέρος ἀπελείπετο τῆς πορείας.
3.40.1 Ἀννίβας μὲν οὖν ἐνεχείρει ταῖς διεκβολαῖς τῶν Πυρηναίων ὀρῶν, κατάφοβος ὢν τοὺς Κελτοὺς διὰ τὰς ὀχυρότητας τῶν τόπων.
3.42.1 Ἀννίβας δὲ προσμίξας τοῖς περὶ τὸν ποταμὸν τόποις εὐθέως ἐνεχείρει ποιεῖσθαι τὴν διάβασιν κατὰ τὴν ἁπλῆν ῥύσιν, σχεδὸν ἡμερῶν τεττάρων ὁδὸν ἀπέχων στρατοπέδῳ τῆς θαλάττης.
8.11.3 καὶ μὴν οὐδὲ περὶ τὰς ὁλοσχερεῖς διαλήψεις οὐδεὶς ἂν εὐδοκήσειε τῷ προειρημένῳ συγγραφεῖ· ὅς γʼ ἐπιβαλόμενος γράφειν τὰς Ἑλληνικὰς πράξεις ἀφʼ ὧν Θουκυδίδης ἀπέλιπε, καὶ συνεγγίσας τοῖς Λευκτρικοῖς καιροῖς καὶ τοῖς ἐπιφανεστάτοις τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ἔργων, τὴν μὲν Ἑλλάδα μεταξὺ καὶ τὰς ταύτης ἐπιβολὰς ἀπέρριψε, μεταλαβὼν δὲ τὴν ὑπόθεσιν τὰς Φιλίππου πράξεις προύθετο γράφειν. 8.11.4 καίτοι γε πολλῷ σεμνότερον ἦν καὶ δικαιότερον ἐν τῇ περὶ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ὑποθέσει τὰ πεπραγμένα Φιλίππῳ συμπεριλαβεῖν ἤπερ ἐν τῇ Φιλίππου τὰ τῆς Ἑλλάδος. οὐδὲ γὰρ προκαταληφθεὶς ὑπὸ βασιλικῆς δυναστείας, 8.11.5 καὶ τυχὼν ἐξουσίας, οὐδεὶς ἂν ἐπέσχε σὺν καιρῷ ποιήσασθαι μετάβασιν ἐπὶ τὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ὄνομα καὶ πρόσωπον· ἀπὸ δὲ ταύτης ἀρξάμενος καὶ προβὰς ἐπὶ ποσὸν οὐδʼ ὅλως οὐδεὶς ἂν ἠλλάξατο μονάρχου πρόσχημα καὶ βίον, ἀκεραίῳ χρώμενος γνώμῃ. 8.11.6 καὶ τί δήποτʼ ἦν τὸ τὰς τηλικαύτας ἐναντιώσεις βιασάμενον παριδεῖν Θεόπομπον; εἰ μὴ νὴ Δίʼ ὅτι ἐκείνης μὲν τῆς ὑποθέσεως τέλος ἦν τὸ καλόν, τῆς δὲ κατὰ Φίλιππον τὸ συμφέρον.'' None
3.35.7 \xa0With the rest of his force, thus lightened of its impedimenta and consisting now of fifty thousand foot and about nine thousand horse, he advanced throughout the Pyrenees towards the crossing of the Rhone, < 3.35.8 \xa0having now an army not so strong in number as serviceable and highly trained owing to the unbroken series of wars in Spain. <
3.36.1 \xa0That my narrative may not be altogether obscure to readers owing to their ignorance of the topography I\xa0must explain whence Hannibal started, what countries he traversed, and into what part of Italy he descended. < 3.36.2 \xa0Nor must I\xa0simply give the names of countries, rivers, and cities, as some authors do under the idea that this is amply sufficient for a clear knowledge. < 3.36.3 \xa0I\xa0am of opinion that as regards known countries the mention of names is of no small assistance in recalling them to our memory, but in the case of unknown lands such citation of names is just of as much value as if they were unintelligible and inarticulate sounds. <' "3.36.4 \xa0For the mind here has nothing to lean upon for support and cannot connect the words with anything known to it, so that the narrative is associated with nothing in the readers' mind, and therefore meaningless to him. <" '3.36.5 \xa0We must therefore make it possible when speaking of unknown places to convey to the reader a more or less real and familiar notion of them. <
3.37.6 \xa0These two divisions of the earth, then, regarded from a general point of view, occupy the part of it which lies to the south of the Mediterranean, reaching from east to west. < 3.37.7 \xa0Europe lies opposite to them on the north shore of this sea, extending continuously from east to west, <
3.37.9 \xa0The Celts inhabit the country near the Narbo and beyond it as far as the chain of the Pyrenees which stretches in an unbroken line from the Mediterranean to the Outer Sea. <
3.38.7 1. \xa0Just as with regard to Asia and Africa where they meet in Aethiopia no one up to the present has been able to say with certainty whether the southern extension of them is continuous land or is bounded by a sea,,2. \xa0so that part of Europe which extends to the north between the Don and Narbo is up to now unknown to us, and will remain so unless the curiosity of explorers lead to some discoveries in the future.,3. \xa0We must pronounce that those who either by word of mouth or in writing make rash statements about these regions have no knowledge of them, and invent mere fables.,4. \xa0I\xa0have said so much in order that my narrative should not be without something to range itself under in the minds of those who are ignorant of the localities, but that they should have some notion at least of the main geographical distinctions, with which they can connect in thought and to which they can refer my statements, calculating the position of places from the quarter of the heaven under which they lie.,5. \xa0For as in the case of physical sight we are in the habit of turning our faces in the direction of any object pointed out to us, so should we mentally ever turn and shift our glance to each place to which the story calls our attention.
3.39.4 \xa0Crossing the straits at the Pillars of Hercules they had similarly subdued all Iberia as far as the point on the coast of the Mediterranean where the Pyrenees, which separate the Celts from the Iberians, end. <
3.39.9 \xa0From the passage of the Rhone, following the bank of the river in the direction of its source as far as the foot of the pass across the Alps to Italy, the distance is fourteen hundred stades, < 3.39.10 \xa0and the length of the actual pass which would bring Hannibal down into the plain of the\xa0Po, about twelve hundred. < 3.39.11 \xa0So that to arrive there he had, starting from New\xa0Carthage, to march about nine thousand stades. < 3.39.12 \xa0of this, as far as distance goes, he had nearly traversed the half, but if we look to difficulty far the largest part lay before him. <
3.40.1 \xa0While Hannibal was thus attempting to cross the Pyrenees, in great fear of the Celts owing to the natural strength of the passes, <' "
3.42.1 \xa0Hannibal, on reaching the neighbourhood of the river, at once set about attempting to cross it where the stream is single at a distance of about four days' march from the sea. <" 8.11.3 \xa0Again, no one could approve of the general scheme of this writer. Having set himself the task of writing the history of Greece from the point at which Thucydides leaves off, just when he was approaching the battle of Leuctra and the most brilliant period of Greek history, he abandoned Greece and her efforts, and changing his plan decided to write the history of Philip. <' "8.11.4 \xa0Surely it would have been much more dignified and fairer to include Philip's achievements in the history of Greece than to include the history of Greece in that of Philip. <" '8.11.5 \xa0For not even a man preoccupied by his devotion to royalty would, if he had the power and had found a suitable occasion, have hesitated to transfer the leading part and title of his work to Greece; and no one in his sound senses who had begun to write the history of Greece and had made some progress in it would have exchanged this for the more pompous biography of a king. < 8.11.6 \xa0What can it have been which forced Theopompus to overlook such flagrant inconsistencies, if it were not that in writing the one history his motive was to do good, in writing that of Philip to further his own interests? <' ' None
|6. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • "moralising, digressive", • Diversity,
Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 200; Hau (2017), Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus, 270
|7. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 21.1.6-21.1.14, 23.5.10, 24.8.4, 25.2.4-25.2.8 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • digressions, in Ammianus • digressions, indicate mood of gods • digressions, validate sign • excursus (or digression)
Found in books: Davies (2004), Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods, 232, 251, 267; Ruiz and Puertas (2021), Emperors and Emperorship in Late Antiquity: Images and Narratives, 113, 114, 115, 120, 125, 129, 130, 131
21.1.6 Moreover, now that Gaul was quieted, his desire of first attacking Constantius was sharpened and fired, since he inferred from many prophetic signs (in which he was an adept) and from dreams, that Constantius would shortly depart from life. 21.1.7 And since to an emperor both learned and devoted to all knowledge malicious folk attribute evil arts for divining future events, we must briefly consider how this important kind of learning also may form part of a philosopher’s equipment. 21.1.8 The spirit pervading all the elements, seeing that they are eternal bodies, is always and everywhere strong in the power of prescience, and as the result of the knowledge which we acquire through varied studies makes us also sharers in the gifts of divina- tion; and the elemental powers, Demons, in the Greek sense of the word δαίμονες; of. xiv. 11, 25, substantialis tutela. when propitiated by divers rites, supply mortals with words of prophecy, as if from the veins of inexhaustible founts. These prophecies are said to be under the control of the divine Themis, so named because she reveals in advance decrees determined for the future by the law of the fates, which the Greeks call τεθειμένα; Things fixed and immutable. and therefore the ancient theologians gave her a share in the bed and throne of Jupiter, the life-giving power. 21.1.9 Auguries and auspices are not gained from the will of the fowls of the air which have no knowledge of future events (for that not even a fool will maintain), but a god so directs the flight of birds that the sound of their bills or the passing flight of their wings in disturbed or in gentle passage foretells future events. For the goodness of the deity, either because men deserve it, or moved by his affection for them, loves by these arts also to reveal impending events. 21.1.10 Those, too, who give attention to the prophetic entrails of beasts, which are wont to assume innumerable forms, know of impending events. And the teacher of this branch of learning is one named Tages, who (as the story goes) was seen suddenly to spring from the earth in the regions of Etruria. See xvii. 10, 2, note. 21.1.11 Future events are further revealed when men’s hearts are in commotion, but speak divine words. For (as the natural philosophers say) the Sun, the soul of the universe, sending out our minds from himself after the manner of sparks, when he has fired men mightily, makes them aware of the future. And it is for this reason that the Sibyls often say that they are burning, since they are fired by the mighty power of the flames. Besides these, the loud sounds of voices give many signs, as well as the phenomena which meet our eyes, thunder even and lightning, and the gleam of a star’s train of light. 21.1.12 The faith in dreams, too, would be sure and indubitable, were it not that their interpreters are sometimes deceived in their conjectures. And dreams (as Aristotle declares) are certain and trustworthy, when the person is in a deep sleep and the pupil of his eye is inclined to neither side but looks directly forward. 21.1.13 And because the silly commons oftentimes object, ignorantly muttering such things as these: If there were a science of prophecy, why did one man not know that he would fall in battle, or another that he would suffer this or that : it will be enough to say, that a grammarian has sometimes spoken ungrammatically, a musician sung out of tune, and a physician been ignorant of a remedy, but for all that grammar, music, and the medical art have not come to a stop. 21.1.14 Wherefore Cicero has this fine saying, among others: The gods, says he, show signs of coming events. With regard to these if one err, it is not the nature of the gods that is at fault, but man’s interpretation. Cic., De Nat. Deorum, ii. 4, 12; De Div. i. 52, 118. Therefore, that my discourse may not run beyond the mark (as the saying is) and weary my future reader, let us return and unfold the events that were foreseen.
23.5.10 However, the Etruscan soothsayers, who accompanied the other adepts in interpreting prodigies, since they were not believed when they often tried to prevent this campaign, now brought out their books on war, and showed that this sign was adverse and prohibitory to a prince invading another’s territory, even though he was in the right.
24.8.4 And since human wisdom availed nothing, after long wavering and hesitation we built altars and slew victims, in order to learn the purpose of the gods, whether they advised us to return through Assyria, or to march slowly along the foot of the mountains and unexpectedly lay waste Chiliocomum, situated near Corduena; but on inspection of the organs it was announced that neither course would suit the signs.
25.2.4 And although for a moment he remained sunk in stupefaction, yet rising above all fear, he commended his future fate to the decrees of heaven, and now fully awake, the night being now far advanced, he left his bed, which was spread on the ground, and prayed to the gods with rites designed to avert their displeasure. Then he thought he saw a blazing torch of fire, like a falling star, which furrowed part of the air and disappeared. And he was filled with fear lest the threatening star of Mars had thus visibly shown itself. Cf. xxiv. 6, 17. 25.2.5 That fiery brilliance was of the kind that we call διάσσων, ἀστὴρ διαίσσων, a shooting star ; of. Iliad, iv. 75-77. which never falls anywhere or touches the earth; for anyone who believes that bodies can fall from heaven is rightly considered a layman, I.e. not versed in astronomy. or a fool. But this sort of thing happens in many ways, and it will be enough to explain a few of them. 25.2.6 Some believe that sparks glowing from the ethereal force, are not strong enough to go very far and then are extinguished; or at least that beams of light are forced into thick clouds, and because of the heavy clash throw out sparks, or when some light has come in contact with a cloud. For this takes the form of a star, and falls downward, so long as it is sustained by the strength of the fire; but, exhausted by the greatness of the space which it traverses, it loses itself in the air, passing back into the substance whose friction gave it all that heat. Cf. Seneca, Nat. Quaest. ii. 14. 25.2.7 Accordingly, before dawn the Etruscan soothsayers were hastily summoned, and asked what this unusual kind of star portended. Their reply was, that any undertaking at that time must be most carefully avoided, pointing out that in the Tarquitian books, So-called from their author Tarquitius, whom some identify with Tages; cf. xvii. 10, 2; xxi. 1, 10. under the rubric On signs from heaven it was written, that when a meteor was seen in the sky, battle ought not to be joined, or anything similar attempted. 25.2.8 When the emperor scorned this also, as well as many other signs, the soothsayers begged that at least he would put off his departure for some hours; but even this they could not gain, since the emperor was opposed to the whole science of divination, I.e. when it opposed his plans. As Montaigne (Book II, ch. 19) rightly says, he was besotted with the art of divination cf. xxii. 1, 1; xxiii. 3, 3; xxv. 4, 17. but since day had now dawned, camp was broken.'' None
|8. Strabo, Geography, 2.4.7
Tagged with subjects: • Polybius, geographical ‘digression’
Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 56; König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 56
2.4.7 Further, the length of the inhabited earth is measured on a line parallel with the equator, as it is in this direction that its greatest length lies: in the same way with respect to each of the continents, we must take their length as it lies between two meridians. The measure of these lengths consists of a certain number of stadia, which we obtain either by going over the places themselves, or roads or ways parallel thereto. Polybius abandons this method, and adopts the new way of taking the segment of the northern semicircle comprised between the summer rising and the equinoctial rising. But no one ought to calculate by variable rules or measures in determining the length of fixed distances: nor yet should he make use of the phenomena of the heavens, which appear different when observed from different points, for distances which have their length determined by themselves and remain unchanged. The length of a country never varies, but depends upon itself; whereas, the equinoctial rising and setting, and the summer and winter rising and setting, depend not on themselves, but on our position with respect to them. As we shift from place to place, the equinoctial rising and setting, and the winter and summer rising and setting, shift with us; but the length of a continent always remains the same. To make the Tanais and the Nile the bounds of these continents, is nothing out of the way, but it is something strange to employ for this purpose the equinoctial rising and the summer rising.'' None