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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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22 results for "deeds"
1. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 34
4.1. "וְאָכְלוּ וְלֹא יִשְׂבָּעוּ הִזְנוּ וְלֹא יִפְרֹצוּ כִּי־אֶת־יְהוָה עָזְבוּ לִשְׁמֹר׃", 4.1. "שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה עִם־יוֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ כִּי אֵין־אֱמֶת וְאֵין־חֶסֶד וְאֵין־דַּעַת אֱלֹהִים בָּאָרֶץ׃", 4.1. "Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel! For the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, Because there is no truth, nor mercy, Nor knowledge of God in the land.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 66.18, 105.44-105.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 20, 36
66.18. "אָוֶן אִם־רָאִיתִי בְלִבִּי לֹא יִשְׁמַע אֲדֹנָי׃", 105.44. "וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם אַרְצוֹת גּוֹיִם וַעֲמַל לְאֻמִּים יִירָשׁוּ׃", 105.45. "בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמְרוּ חֻקָּיו וְתוֹרֹתָיו יִנְצֹרוּ הַלְלוּ־יָהּ׃", 66.18. "If I had regarded iniquity in my heart, The Lord would not hear;", 105.44. "And He gave them the lands of the nations, And they took the labour of the peoples in possession;", 105.45. "That they might keep His statutes, And observe His laws. Hallelujah.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 19
1.31. "וְיֹאכְלוּ מִפְּרִי דַרְכָּם וּמִמֹּעֲצֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂבָּעוּ׃", 1.31. "Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 37
5. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.1, 6.6-6.9, 11.13-11.21, 28.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 111
5.1. "וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃", 5.1. "וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָי׃]", 6.6. "וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃", 6.7. "וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 6.8. "וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃", 6.9. "וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃", 11.13. "וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃", 11.14. "וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃", 11.15. "וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃", 11.16. "הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃", 11.17. "וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃", 11.18. "וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃", 11.19. "וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 11.21. "לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 28.1. "וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃", 28.1. "וְרָאוּ כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה נִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ וְיָרְאוּ מִמֶּךָּ׃", 5.1. "And Moses called unto all Israel, and said unto them: Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and observe to do them.", 6.6. "And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;", 6.7. "and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 6.8. "And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes.", 6.9. "And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates.", 11.13. "And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul,", 11.14. "that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil.", 11.15. "And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied.", 11.16. "Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;", 11.17. "and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you.", 11.18. "Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.", 11.19. "And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 11.20. "And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;", 11.21. "that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth.", 28.1. "And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments which I command thee this day, that the LORD thy God will set thee on high above all the nations of the earth.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 36
2.15. "וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃", 2.15. "And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 111
1.8. "לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃", 1.8. "This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.14, 9.11-9.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 20, 34
6.14. "וַיְרַפְּאוּ אֶת־שֶׁבֶר עַמִּי עַל־נְקַלָּה לֵאמֹר שָׁלוֹם שָׁלוֹם וְאֵין שָׁלוֹם׃", 9.11. "מִי־הָאִישׁ הֶחָכָם וְיָבֵן אֶת־זֹאת וַאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר פִּי־יְהוָה אֵלָיו וְיַגִּדָהּ עַל־מָה אָבְדָה הָאָרֶץ נִצְּתָה כַמִּדְבָּר מִבְּלִי עֹבֵר׃", 9.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה עַל־עָזְבָם אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִפְנֵיהֶם וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְלֹא־הָלְכוּ בָהּ׃", 6.14. "They have healed also the hurt of My people lightly, Saying: ‘Peace, peace’, when there is no peace.", 9.11. "Who is the wise man, that he may understand this? And who is he to whom the mouth of the LORD hath spoken, that he may declare it? Wherefore is the land perished And laid waste like a wilderness, so that none passeth through?", 9.12. "And the LORD saith: Because they have forsaken My law which I set before them, And have not hearkened to My voice, neither walked therein;",
9. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 34
2.4. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יְהוּדָה וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל־מָאֳסָם אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְחֻקָּיו לֹא שָׁמָרוּ וַיַּתְעוּם כִּזְבֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־הָלְכוּ אֲבוֹתָם אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃", 2.4. "Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Judah, Yea, for four, I will not reverse it: Because they have rejected the law of the LORD, And have not kept His statutes, And their lies have caused them to err, After which their fathers did walk.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 3.10-3.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 19
3.11. "אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃", 3.10. "Say ye of the righteous, that it shall be well with him; For they shall eat the fruit of their doings.", 3.11. "Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him.",
11. Mishnah, Avot, 3.7, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 46, 131
3.7. "רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אִישׁ בַּרְתּוֹתָא אוֹמֵר, תֶּן לוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאַתָּה וְשֶׁלְּךָ שֶׁלּוֹ. וְכֵן בְּדָוִד הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברי הימים א כט) כִּי מִמְּךָ הַכֹּל וּמִיָּדְךָ נָתַנּוּ לָךְ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַמְהַלֵּךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְשׁוֹנֶה, וּמַפְסִיק מִמִּשְׁנָתוֹ וְאוֹמֵר, מַה נָּאֶה אִילָן זֶה וּמַה נָּאֶה נִיר זֶה, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ:", 5.1. "בַּעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם. וּמַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר, וַהֲלֹא בְמַאֲמָר אֶחָד יָכוֹל לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, אֶלָּא לְהִפָּרַע מִן הָרְשָׁעִים שֶׁמְּאַבְּדִין אֶת הָעוֹלָם שֶׁנִּבְרָא בַעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת, וְלִתֵּן שָׂכָר טוֹב לַצַּדִּיקִים שֶׁמְּקַיְּמִין אֶת הָעוֹלָם שֶׁנִּבְרָא בַעֲשָׂרָה מַאֲמָרוֹת: \n", 3.7. "Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty.", 5.1. "With ten utterances the world was created. And what does this teach, for surely it could have been created with one utterance? But this was so in order to punish the wicked who destroy the world that was created with ten utterances, And to give a good reward to the righteous who maintain the world that was created with ten utterances.",
12. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 17
4.3. "המוכר עבדו ליריד של עובדי כוכבים דמיו אסורין ויוליך לים המלח וכופין את רבו שיפדנו אפילו מאה בדמיו ויוציאנו לחירות נמצאת אומר הנושא ונותן ביריד של עובדי כוכבים בהמה תיעקר כסות וכלים ירקבו ומעות וכלי מתכות יוליך הנאה לים המלח. פירות את שדרכו לישפך ישפך לישרף ישרף ליקבר יקבר ר' יוסי אומר עבודת כוכבים שוחק וזורה לרוח או מטיל לים אמרו לו אף היא נעשית זבל שנאמר (דברים י״ג:י״ח) ולא ידבק בידך מאומה מן החרם וגו' אמר להן ר' יוסי הרי הוא אומר (דברים ט׳:כ״א) ואת חטאתכם אשר עשיתם וגו' אמרו לו משם ראיה (שמות לד) ויזר על פני המים וישק את בני ישראל מלמד שבדקן כדרך שבודקין את הסוטות אמר להן רבי יוסי הרי הוא אומר (שמואל ב ה) ויעזבו את עצביהם אמר להן רבי יוסי הרי הוא אומר (מלכים א ט״ו:י״ג) וגם מעכה אם אסא המלך ויסירה מגבירה אשר עשתה מפלצת וגו' אמרו לו משם ראיה (שם) ויכרת אסא את מפלצתה וגו' אמר להן ר' יוסי הרי הוא אומר (מלכים ב י״ח:ד׳) וכתת נחש הנחושת וגו' אמרו לו וכי עבודת כוכבים היה והלא משה עשאו מלמד שטעו ישראל אחריו עד שבא חזקיה ובנו. ",
13. Tosefta, Peah, 1.1-1.4, 4.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 17, 18, 19, 20, 111
1.1. "אלו מפסיקין לפאה הנחל והשלולית ודרך היחיד ודרך הרבים ושביל היחיד ושביל הרבים הקבוע בימות החמה ובימות הגשמים הבור והניר והזרע אחר וקוצר לשחת [ושלשה] תלמים של פתיח ואמת המים שאינה יכולה להקצר כאחת א\"ר יהודה אם עומד באמצע [וקוצר] מכאן ומכאן מפסיק ואם לאו אינו מפסיק אכלה חגב אכלה גובאי קרסמוה נמלים ושברתה הרוח או בהמה הכל מודים שאם חרש מפסיק ואם לאו אינו מפסיק.", 1.1. "אלו דברים שאין להם שיעור: הפאה והבכורים והראיון וגמילות חסדים ותלמוד תורה. פאה יש לה שיעור מלמטה ואין לה שיעור מלמעלה. העושה כל שדהו פאה אינה פאה.", 1.2. "אלו הדברים נפרעין מן האדם בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא: על ע\"ז ועל ג\"ע ועל שפיכת דמים. ועל לשה\"ר כנגד כולם.", 1.3. "זכות יש לה קרן ויש לה פירות שנא' (ישעיהו ג) אמרו צדיק כי טוב כי פרי מעלליהם יאכלו. עבירה יש לה קרן ואין לה פירות שנא' (שם) אוי לרשע רע כי גמול ידיו יעשה לו .ומה אני מקיים ויאכלו מפרי דרכם אלא עבירה שעושה פירות יש לה פירות ושאינה עושה פירות אין לה פירות.", 1.4. "מחשבה טובה [מצרפה למעשה] מחשבה רעה אין הקב\"ה מצרפה שנא' (תהילים סו) און אם ראיתי בלבי [לא ישמע ה'] ומה אני מקיים (ירמיהו ו) הנה אנכי מביא רעה פרי מחשבותכם אלא מחשבה טובה שעושה טובה המקום מצרפה למעשה ושאינה עושה טובה] אין הקב\"ה מצרפה למעשה.", 4.19. "א\"ר יהושע בן קרחה מנין שכל המעלים [את] עיניו מן הצדקה כאילו עובד ע\"ז שנאמר (דברים ט״ו:ט׳) השמר לך פן יהיה דבר עם לבבך בליעל לאמר ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים י״ג:י״ד) יצאו אנשים בני בליעל מקרבך מה בליעל האמור להלן ע\"ז אף בליעל האמור כאן ע\"ז.", 1.1. "These are the things that have no set amount: the peah, the bikkurim, the r'iyah, charity, and learning Torah. Peah has a minimum amount but does not have a maximum amount. [If] one makes his entire field peah, it is not peah.", 1.2. "These are the things that are [constantly] subtracting from a person['s ultimate reward] in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: idolatry, sexual perversion, and murder; and slander is equal to all of them.", 1.3. "A good deed has immediate and future benefit, as it is stated (Isaiah 3:10), \"Say ye of the righteous, that it shall be well with him, for they shall eat the fruit of their doings.\" A transgression has immediate damage but no future damage [for the transgressor], as it is stated (Isaiah 3:11), \"Woe unto the wicked! It shall be ill with him, for the work of his hands shall be done to him.\" How, then, am I to understand \"[The wicked] shall eat of the fruit of their own way\" (Proverbs 1:31)? Rather, when a transgression damages, it has immediate damage, and when it does not damage, it has no immediate damage.", 1.4. "A good thought [Hashem] combines to action; a bad thought Hashem does not combine to action, as it is stated, \"If I had regarded iniquity in my heart [the Lord would not hear].\" How, then, am I to understand \"Behold I am bringing evil, fruit of your thoughts?\" Rather, a good thought that does good Hashem combines to action, and that which does not do good Hashem does not combine to action.",
14. Tosefta, Nedarim, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 17
2.1. "כשם ששניהם אסורים לדור בחצר כך שניהם אסורין לדור במבוי כשם ששניהם אסורין לגדל תרנגולין כך שניהם אסורין לגדל בהמה דקה.", 2.1. "ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומר הרוצה להדיר את חבירו שיאכל אצלו והלה נדר שלא יאכל אצלו אע\"פ ששניהם נודרין זה [נגד] זה הרי אלו נדרי זירוזין.",
15. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 33
3.2. "קָבְרוּ אֶת הַמֵּת וְחָזְרוּ, אִם יְכוֹלִין לְהַתְחִיל וְלִגְמֹר עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַגִּיעוּ לַשּׁוּרָה, יַתְחִילוּ. וְאִם לָאו, לֹא יַתְחִילוּ. הָעוֹמְדִים בַּשּׁוּרָה, הַפְּנִימִים פְּטוּרִים, וְהַחִיצוֹנִים חַיָּבִין: \n", 3.2. "When they have buried the dead and returned [from the grave], if they have time to begin and finish [the Shema] before they get to the row, they should begin, but if not they should not begin. Those who stand in the row, those on the inside are exempt, but those on the outside are liable.",
16. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 17, 18, 19
1.1. "אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שִׁעוּר. הַפֵּאָה, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים, וְהָרֵאָיוֹן, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה. אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהַקֶּרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. כִּבּוּד אָב וָאֵם, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וַהֲבָאַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם:", 1.1. "These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all.",
17. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 48, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 131
18. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 37
19. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 131
20. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 17
29a. ואכל תאנים והפריש קרבן ואח"כ אכל ענבים לחודייהו הויא להו ענבים חצי שיעור ואחצי שיעור לא מיחייב קרבן הכא נמי כגון דאמר שבועה שלא אוכל עשר וחזר ואמר שבועה שלא אוכל תשע ואכל תשע והפריש קרבן ואח"כ אכל עשירית הויא לה עשירית חצי שיעור ואחצי שיעור לא מיחייב:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big איזו היא שבועת שוא נשבע לשנות את הידוע לאדם אמר על העמוד של אבן שהוא של זהב ועל האיש שהוא אשה ועל האשה שהיא איש,נשבע על דבר שאי אפשר לו אם לא ראיתי גמל שפורח באויר ואם לא ראיתי נחש כקורת בית הבד,אמר לעדים בואו והעידוני שבועה שלא נעידך נשבע לבטל את המצוה שלא לעשות סוכה ושלא ליטול לולב ושלא להניח תפילין זו היא שבועת שוא שחייבין על זדונה מכות ועל שגגתה פטור,שבועה שאוכל ככר זו שבועה שלא אוכלנה הראשונה שבועת ביטוי והשניה שבועת שוא,אכלה עבר על שבועת שוא לא אכלה עבר על שבועת ביטוי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר עולא והוא שניכר לג' בני אדם:,נשבע על דבר שאי אפשר לו אם לא ראיתי גמל פורח באויר: שבועה שראיתי לא קאמר מאי אם לא ראיתי אביי אמר תני שבועה שראיתי רבא אמר באומר יאסרו כל פירות שבעולם עלי אם לא ראיתי גמל פורח באויר,אמר ליה רבינא לרב אשי ודלמא האי גברא ציפורא רבא חזי ואסיק ליה שמא גמלא וכי קא משתבע אדעתיה דידיה אישתבע,וכי תימא בתר פומיה אזלינן ולא אזלינן בתר דעתיה והא תניא כשמשביעין אותו אומרים לו הוי יודע שלא על דעתך אנו משביעין אותך אלא על דעתנו ועל דעת ב"ד מאי טעמא לאו משום דאמרינן דלמא איסקונדרי יהיב ליה ואסיק להו זוזי דכי קא משתבע אדעתיה דידיה קא משתבע,לא התם משום קניא דרבא,ת"ש וכן מצינו כשהשביע משה את ישראל אמר להן דעו שלא על דעתכם אני משביע אתכם אלא על דעת המקום ועל דעתי ואמאי לימא להו קיימו מאי דאמר אלוה לאו משום דמסקי אדעתייהו עבודת כוכבים,לא משום דעבודת כוכבים נמי איקרי אלוה דכתיב (שמות כ, כג) אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב,ולימא להו קיימו תורה חדא תורה ולימא קיימו שתי תורות תורת חטאת תורת אשם קיימו כל התורה כולה עבודת כוכבים דאמר מר חמורה עבודת כוכבים שכל הכופר בה כמודה בכל התורה כולה,ולימא להו קיימו מצוה חדא מצוה קיימו מצות תרתי כל המצות כולן מצות ציצית דאמר מר שקולה מצות ציצית כנגד כל המצות כולן,ולימא להו קיימו שש מאות ושלש עשרה מצות ולטעמיך לימא להו על דעתי על דעת המקום למה לי 29a. b and he /b unwittingly b ate figs and set aside an offering /b for breaking the second oath, b and afterward he /b unwittingly b ate grapes alone, /b he is exempt from liability for breaking the first oath. b The grapes are /b tantamount to b a half-measure /b of his first oath, which was not to eat figs and grapes together, b and one is not liable /b to bring b an offering for a half-measure. Here also, where he said: /b On my b oath I will not eat ten, and then said: /b On my b oath I will not eat nine, and he ate nine and set aside an offering /b for breaking his second oath, b and later he ate /b the b tenth, /b this b tenth is /b tantamount to b a half-measure /b of his first oath, b and one is not liable /b to bring an offering b for a half-measure. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b Which /b oath b is an oath /b taken b in vain, /b mentioned in the previous mishna (27b)? It is when one b takes an oath to deny that which is known to people /b to be true, for example, one b says about a stone column that it is /b made b of gold, or about a man that he is a woman, or about a woman that she is a man. /b ,Another type of oath taken in vain is when one b takes an oath about a matter that is impossible, /b e.g., if he says: b If I did not see a camel flying through the air, or: If I did not see a snake /b as large b as the beam of the olive press. /b ,In the case of one who b said to witnesses: Come and testify for me, /b and they replied: On our b oath we will not testify for you, /b that is an oath taken in vain, because it involves b taking an oath to refrain from /b performing b a mitzva. /b Other examples of this include an oath b not to build a i sukka /i , or not to take a i lulav /i , or not to don phylacteries. This /b type of oath b is an oath taken in vain, for /b which one is b liable /b to receive b lashes /b if he takes the oath b intentionally, and for /b which he is b exempt /b if he takes it b unwittingly. /b ,If one said: On my b oath I will eat this loaf, /b and later said: On my b oath I will not eat it, the first /b oath is b an oath on an utterance, and the second /b is b an oath /b taken b in vain, /b as he took an oath to perform an action that would violate his previous oath.,If b he ate it, he violated /b the prohibition against taking b an oath in vain. /b If b he did not eat it, he violated /b the prohibition against breaking b an oath on an utterance. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong With regard to an oath taken in vain that denies that which is known to people, b Ulla says: /b It is considered known to people when b it is /b a fact b that is known to three people. /b ,§ The mishna describes an oath taken in vain where one b takes an oath about a matter that is impossible, /b e.g., where one says: b If I did not see a camel flying through the air. /b The Gemara points out: The i tanna /i of the mishna b did not say: /b On my b oath I saw. What /b is the meaning of: b If I did not see? Abaye said: /b Emend the language of the mishna and b teach: /b On my b oath I saw. Rava said: /b This is part of a larger statement b where one says: Let all the produce in the world be prohibited for me if I did not see a camel flying through the air. /b ,With regard to the oath: If I did not see a camel flying through the air, b Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Perhaps this man /b who took this oath b saw a great bird and named it /b for himself: b Camel, and when he took the oath, he took the oath according to his own understanding. /b , b And if you would say /b that b we follow his mouth, /b i.e., the generally accepted meaning of what one says, b and we do not follow his understanding, /b i.e., his own private meaning, b but isn’t it taught /b otherwise in a i baraita /i : b When they administer an oath to him /b in court, the judges b say to him: Know that /b it is b not according to your /b own b understanding /b that b we administer /b this b oath to you, but according to our understanding and according to the understanding of the court? What is the reason /b they say this? b Is it not because we say: Perhaps he gave tokens [ i iskunderei /i ] /b to his creditor b but he calls them /b for himself: b Dinars, /b so b that when he takes the oath, it is according to his own understanding that he takes the oath. /b Since, in principle, it is possible for him to take an oath according to his private meaning of the words, the court insists that the oath it administers is to be understood according to the words’ generally accepted meaning.,Rav Ashi replies: b No, /b the reason the court admonishes the oath taker is not that the oath can be interpreted according to a private meaning. b There, /b when the court administers an oath, they explain that it is according to their meaning b due to /b deceptions like that of b the reed /b in b Rava’s /b court. In that incident, someone handed his creditor a hollow reed, which he had secretly filled with coins, to hold for him, and proceeded to take an oath that he had given him the money owed to him, whereupon he took back the reed, as the creditor was unaware of its contents. The court admonishes oath takers so that they do not think that they have fulfilled their obligation to take an oath if they engage in such chicanery.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a i baraita /i : b And so we found /b that b when Moses administered an oath to Israel /b that they would keep the Torah (see Deuteronomy 29:9–12), b he said to them: Know that I am not administering this oath according to your understanding but according to the understanding of the Omnipresent and according to my understanding. And why /b not b let him /b simply b say to them: Keep that which God said? Is it not /b that he insisted on admonishing them b because /b he was concerned lest b they direct /b the oath b in their minds /b to b idolatry, /b saying that they are taking an oath of loyalty to God but privately intending the oath to be for idolatry? This indicates that the content of an oath can be affected by an oath taker’s private meaning.,The Gemara rejects this: b No, /b Moses explicitly indicated that the oath was according to God’s and his own understanding b because idolatry is also referred to /b with the word: b God, as it is written: /b “You shall not make with Me b gods of silver or gods of gold” /b (Exodus 20:20). Therefore, the generally accepted meaning of the oath is ambiguous.,The Gemara suggests: If private meanings do not affect the content of an oath, b let Moses /b merely b say to them: Keep the Torah. /b The Gemara explains: They could then have taken an oath to keep only b one Torah, /b either the Written or the Oral Torah. The Gemara suggests: b And let him say: Keep two Torahs. /b The Gemara explains: The word: Torah, also has a narrower meaning of a set of halakhic procedures. The Jewish people could then have limited the oath to b the law of [ i torat /i ] the sin-offering /b or b the law of [ i torat /i ] the guilt-offering. /b The Gemara suggests: Let Moses administer an oath to b keep the entire Torah. /b The Gemara replies: That could have been understood as referring only to the prohibition of b idolatry, as the Master says: /b The prohibition of b idolatry is /b so b severe that /b with regard to b one who denies /b idol worship, b it is as if he affirms the entire Torah. /b ,The Gemara suggests: b And let him say to them: Keep /b the b mitzva, /b i.e., that which you are commanded. The Gemara replies: That could have been understood as referring to only b one mitzva. /b The Gemara suggests: Let him say: b Keep mitzvot, /b i.e., in the plural. The Gemara replies: That could be understood as referring to only b two /b mitzvot. The Gemara suggests: Let him say: b All the mitzvot in their entirety. /b The Gemara replies: That could be understood as referring to b the mitzva of ritual fringes, as the Master says: The mitzva of ritual fringes is equivalent to all the /b other b mitzvot. /b ,The Gemara suggests: b And let him say to them: Keep 613 mitzvot. /b The Gemara replies: b And according to your reasoning, let him /b simply b say: /b Take the oath b according to my understanding. Why do I /b need for him to say: b According to the understanding of the Omnipresent? /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 131
81b. b Sit properly /b and do not act in a revolting manner. Satan then b said to him: Give me a cup. They gave him a cup. He coughed up his phlegm and spat it into /b the cup. b They berated him /b for acting this way, at which point Satan pretended to b sink /b down b and die. They heard /b people around them b saying: Peleimu killed a man! Peleimu killed a man! /b Peleimu b fled and hid himself in the bathroom. /b Satan b followed him /b and b fell before him. Upon seeing that /b Peleimu b was suffering, he revealed himself to him. /b Satan b said to him: What is the reason that you spoke this way, /b provoking me by saying: An arrow in the eye of Satan? He replied: b But what then should I say? /b Satan b said to him: Let the Master, /b i.e., Peleimu, b say: /b Let b the Merciful One rebuke the Satan. /b ,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his face /b in prayer: b May the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard him /b saying this prayer. b She said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn from /b engaging in intercourse with b me /b due to his advanced years. b What is the reason that he says this /b prayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior?, b One day, /b while b he was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta, /b a well-known prostitute, b returning from my day /b at work. b He propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the tree /b as payment. b He leapt up, went, /b and b brought it to her, /b and they engaged in intercourse., b When he came home, his wife was lighting /b a fire in the b oven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incident /b occurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. b She said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her, /b thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, b until she gave him signs /b that it was indeed she. b He said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress. /b The Gemara relates: b All the days of that righteous man he would fast /b for the transgression he intended to commit, b until he died by that death /b in his misery.,The Gemara explains the source that one who intended to transgress is punished even though he did not actually sin. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i concerning a husband who nullified the vow of his wife: b “Her husband has made them null; and the Lord will forgive her” /b (Numbers 30:13). b With regard to what /b case b is the verse speaking? /b Why would the woman require forgiveness if her husband has nullified her vow? It is referring b to a woman who vowed /b to b be a nazirite, and her husband heard and nullified her /b vow. b And she did not know that her husband had nullified her /b vow, b and she drank wine and contracted impurity from a corpse, /b violating her presumed vow.,The Gemara relates: b When Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. He said: And if /b with regard to b one who intended to eat pork, and /b kosher b lamb came up in his hand, /b like this woman who intended to violate her vow but in fact did not, b the Torah /b nevertheless b says: She requires atonement and forgiveness, all the more so /b does b one who intended to eat pork and pork came up in his hand /b require atonement and forgiveness., b In a similar manner, you /b can b say /b that the same lesson can be derived from the verse: b “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity” /b (Leviticus 5:17). b When Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. /b He said: b And if /b with regard to b one who intended to eat /b permitted b fat, and /b forbidden b fat /b mistakenly b came up in his hand, the Torah states: “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity,” all the more so /b is this true for b one who intended to eat /b forbidden b fat and /b forbidden b fat came up in his hand. Isi ben Yehuda says /b with regard to the verse b “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”: With regard to this matter all sufferers shall grieve, /b since the verse teaches that one is punished even for sinning unawares.,§ The mishna teaches that b a man may be secluded with his mother. Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav Asi says: A man may be secluded with his sister, and live with his mother or with his daughter /b in a permanent arrangement, without concern. b When he said this before Shmuel, /b the latter b said: It is prohibited to be secluded with all those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah, and even with an animal, /b as it is prohibited to engage in intercourse with an animal as well., b We learned /b in the mishna: b A man may be secluded with his mother, and with his daughter, and sleep alongside them with bodily contact, and /b this appears to be b a conclusive refutation of /b the statement of b Shmuel. /b The Gemara answers: b Shmuel /b could have b said to you: And according to your reasoning, /b how should one explain b that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b his sister, and his mother-in-law, and all those with whom relations are forbidden, /b including his mother and daughter, b one may be secluded with them only /b in the presence b of witnesses, /b from which it can be inferred: In the presence b of witnesses, yes; without /b the presence b of witnesses, no. /b This i baraita /i supports the opinion of Shmuel that one may not be secluded with his mother or sister., b Rather, /b it b is /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i /b as to whether one may be secluded with his mother or sister. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Meir said: Be careful with me because of my daughter, /b i.e., make sure I am not left secluded with her. Similarly, b Rabbi Tarfon said: Be careful with me because of my daughter-in-law. A certain student mocked him /b for being wary of the possibility of sinning with his daughter-in-law. b Rabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: Not many days passed until that student stumbled /b into sin b with his mother-in-law. /b ,The Gemara stated that according to Shmuel it is prohibited for one to be alone b even with an animal. /b The Gemara relates: b Abaye removed /b the animals b from the entire field /b he was in. b Rav Sheshet transferred /b the animals to the other side b of the fence. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a happened /b to come b to Rav Kahana in Pum Nahara. He saw that /b he b was sitting and studying, and an animal was standing before him. /b Rav Ḥa b said to him: Doesn’t the Master hold /b that one may not be secluded b even with an animal? /b Rav Kahana b said to him: It /b did b not /b enter b my mind /b that an animal was before me., b Rava says: A man may be secluded with two sisters-in-law and with two rival wives, /b i.e., two women who share a husband; b with a woman and her mother-in-law; /b and b with a woman and her husband’s daughter. /b Since these women typically dislike each other, each fears that the other will publicize her sins, and they will be careful not to transgress. Similarly, a man may be secluded b with a woman and a girl who knows the meaning of sexual intercourse, /b i.e., one who is old enough to understand the nature of intercourse, b but /b is still young enough that b she does not submit herself to intercourse, /b since she does not yet desire it. In such a situation, the woman is concerned that the child will reveal her behavior.,§ The mishna teaches that b when /b one’s children b have grown up, this one sleeps in his garment /b and that one sleeps in her garment, but they may share a bed. The Gemara asks: b And how /b old must a child be to be considered grown up for the purposes of this i halakha /i ? b Rav Adda bar Rav Azza says /b that b Rav Asi says: A girl /b must reach the b age /b of b nine years and one day; a boy /b must reach the b age /b of b twelve years and one day. There are /b those b who say: A girl /b must reach the b age /b of b twelve years and one day; a boy /b must reach the b age /b of b thirteen /b years b and one day. And /b according to b this and that, /b according to both opinions, the girl is considered a child b until /b she has reached the stage of: b “Your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown” /b (Ezekiel 16:7), meaning the onset of puberty., b Rafram bar Pappa says /b that b Rav Ḥisda says: They taught /b that a man may sleep in close proximity to his minor daughter b only if she is not ashamed to stand naked before him, but /b if she is b ashamed to stand naked before him, it is prohibited /b for him to sleep close to her, regardless of her age. b What is the reason? /b It is that the b inclination has a hold upon her, /b as otherwise she would not be ashamed.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Aḥa bar Abba arrived at the house of Rav Ḥisda, his son-in-law. He took his daughter’s daughter and placed her on his lap. /b Rav Ḥisda b said to him: Doesn’t the Master think that she /b might already be b betrothed? /b Rav Aḥa b said to him: /b If that is true, b you have transgressed /b the ruling b of Rav, as Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says, and some say /b it was said by b Rabbi Elazar: It is prohibited for a man to betroth his daughter when she is a minor, until she grows up and says: I want /b to marry b so-and-so, /b as otherwise she might reject the designated husband and ultimately sin by committing adultery. Rav Ḥisda replied: b The Master has likewise transgressed /b the words b of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: One may not make use of a woman, /b so how can you hold her on your lap? b He said to him: I hold in accordance with another /b statement b of Shmuel, as Shmuel says: /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •deeds vs. study Found in books: Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 62, 111
53a. וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה מוציאין את המדה כנגדן ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרובעת כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני מעברין וחד תני מאברין,מאן דתני מאברין אבר אבר ומאן דתני מעברין כאשה עוברה (בראשית כג, ט),מערת המכפלה רב ושמואל חד אמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה וחד אמר בית ועלייה על גביו,בשלמא למאן דאמר זה על גב זה היינו מכפלה אלא למאן דאמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה מאי מכפלה,שכפולה בזוגות (בראשית לה, כז) ממרא קרית ארבע א"ר יצחק קרית הארבע זוגות אדם וחוה אברהם ושרה יצחק ורבקה יעקב ולאה (בראשית יד, א),ויהי בימי אמרפל רב ושמואל חד אמר נמרוד שמו ולמה נקרא שמו אמרפל שאמר והפיל לאברהם אבינו בתוך כבשן האש וחד אמר אמרפל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נמרוד שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו (שמות א, ח),ויקם מלך חדש על מצרים רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו,מ"ד חדש ממש דכתיב חדש ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו מדלא כתיב וימת וימלוך,ולמאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו הא כתיב (שמות א, ח) אשר לא ידע את יוסף מאי אשר לא ידע את יוסף דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה ליוסף כלל:,(סימן שמונה עשרה ושנים עשר למדנו בדוד ויבן):,א"ר יוחנן י"ח ימים גידלתי אצל רבי אושעיא בריבי ולא למדתי ממנו אלא דבר אחד במשנתינו כיצד מאברין את הערים באלף,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן י"ב תלמידים היו לו לרבי אושעיא בריבי וי"ח ימים גידלתי ביניהן ולמדתי לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד,לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד גמר גמרא לא גמר איבעית אימא מנייהו דידהו גמר מיניה דידיה לא גמר ואב"א דבר אחד במשנתינו קאמר,וא"ר יוחנן כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל ר' אושעיא היינו יושבין ארבעה ארבעה באמה אמר רבי כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל רבי אלעזר בן שמוע היינו יושבין ששה ששה באמה,א"ר יוחנן רבי אושעיא בריבי בדורו כר' מאיר בדורו מה רבי מאיר בדורו לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו אף רבי אושעיא לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו,אמר ר' יוחנן לבן של ראשונים כפתחו של אולם ושל אחרונים כפתחו של היכל ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,ראשונים ר"ע אחרונים ר"א בן שמוע איכא דאמרי ראשונים ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אחרונים ר' אושעיא בריבי ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,אמר אביי ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמרא אמר רבא ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסברא אמר רב אשי אנן כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בני יהודה שהקפידו על לשונם נתקיימה תורתם בידם בני גליל שלא הקפידו על לשונם לא נתקיימה תורתם בידם,מידי בקפידא תליא מילתא אלא בני יהודה דדייקי לישנא ומתנחי להו סימנא נתקיימה תורתן בידן בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא ולא מתנחי להו סימנא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,בני יהודה גמרו מחד רבה נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גמרי מחד רבה לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,רבינא אמר בני יהודה דגלו מסכתא נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גלו מסכתא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,דוד גלי מסכתא שאול לא גלי מסכתא דוד דגלי מסכתא כתיב ביה (תהלים קיט, עד) יראיך יראוני וישמחו שאול דלא גלי מסכתא כתיב ביה ((שמואל א יד, מז) אל כל) אשר יפנה 53a. b and bridges and monuments /b over graves b in which there is a residence, one extends the measure /b of that side of the city as though there were other structures b opposite them /b in the adjacent corner of the city. b And /b prior to measuring the Shabbat limit, b one renders /b the city b like a square tablet so that it gains the corners, /b although there are actually no houses in those corners., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the mishna’s terminology. b Rav and Shmuel /b disagreed: b One taught /b that the term in the mishna is b i me’abberin /i , /b with the letter i ayin /i , b and one taught /b that the term in the mishna is b i me’abberin /i , /b with the letter i alef /i .,The Gemara explains: b The one who taught i me’abberin /i /b with an i alef /i explained the term in the sense of b limb /b [ b i ever /i /b ] by b limb. /b Determination of the city’s borders involves the addition of limbs to the core section of the city. b And the one who taught i me’abberin /i /b with an i ayin /i explained the term in the sense of b a pregt woman /b [ b i ubbera /i /b ] whose belly protrudes. In similar fashion, all the city’s protrusions are incorporated in its Shabbat limit.,Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to b the Machpelah Cave, /b in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried, b Rav and Shmuel /b disagreed. b One said: /b The cave consists of b two rooms, one /b farther b in /b than b the other. And one said: /b It consists of b a room and /b a second b story above it. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b this is understandable b according to the one who said /b the cave consists of b one /b room b above the other, /b as b that is /b the meaning of b Machpelah, double. However, according to the one who said /b it consists of b two rooms, one /b farther b in /b than b the other, /b in b what /b sense is it b Machpelah? /b Even ordinary houses contain two rooms.,Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense b that it is doubled with /b the Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there b in pairs. /b This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: b “Mamre /b of b Kiryat Ha’Arba, /b which is Hebron” (Genesis 35:27). b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: /b The city is called Kiryat Ha’Arba, the city of four, because it is b the city of the four couples /b buried there: b Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, /b and b Jacob and Leah. /b ,They disagreed about this verse as well: b “And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel” /b (Genesis 14:1). b Rav and Shmuel /b both identified Amraphel with Nimrod. However, b one said: Nimrod was his name. And why was his name called Amraphel? /b It is a contraction of two Hebrew words: b As he said [ i amar /i ] /b the command b and cast [ i hippil /i ] our father Abraham into the fiery furnace, /b when Abraham rebelled against and challenged his proclaimed divinity. b And one said: Amraphel was his name. And why was his name called Nimrod? Because he caused the entire world to rebel [ i himrid /i ] /b against b God during his reign. /b ,They also disagreed about this verse: b “There arose a new king over Egypt, /b who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). b Rav and Shmuel /b disagreed. b One said: /b He was b actually /b a b new /b king, b and one said: /b He was in fact the old king, but b his decrees were new. /b ,The Gemara explains. b The one who said /b he was b actually /b a b new /b king based his opinion on the fact b that it is written /b in the verse that he was b new. And the one who said that his decrees were new /b derived his opinion b from /b the fact b that it is not written: And /b the king b died, and /b his successor b reigned, /b as it is written, for example, with regard to the kings of Edom (Genesis 36).,The Gemara asks: b And according to the one who said that his decrees were new, isn’t it written: “Who knew not Joseph”? /b If it were the same king, how could he not know Joseph? The Gemara explains: b What is /b the meaning of the phrase: b “Who knew not Joseph”? /b It means b that he /b conducted himself b like one who did not know Joseph at all. /b ,The Gemara cites a b mnemonic /b of key words from a series of traditions cited below: b Eighteen and twelve we studied, with regard to David, and he will understand. /b , b Rabbi Yoḥa said: I spent eighteen days with Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished [ i Beribbi /i ], and I learned from him only one matter in our Mishna. /b In the phrase: b How does one extend cities, /b the word i me’abberin /i is spelled b with an i alef /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished had twelve students, and I spent eighteen days among them, and I learned the heart of each and every one, /b i.e., the nature and character of each student, b and the /b extent of the b wisdom of each and every one? /b How could Rabbi Yoḥa say that he learned only one matter?,The Gemara answers: It is possible that b he learned the heart of each and every one and the wisdom of each and every one, /b but b he did not learn /b substantive b tradition. /b And b if you wish, say /b instead: b From /b the students b themselves he learned /b many things; b from /b Rabbi Oshaya b himself he did not learn /b anything beyond that one matter. b And if you wish, say /b instead: Rabbi Yoḥa meant to b say /b that he learned only one matter b in our Mishna /b from Rabbi Oshaya, but he learned other matters from him based on i baraitot /i and other sources., b And Rabbi Yoḥa said /b about that period: b When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Oshaya, /b it was so crowded with students that b we would sit four in each /b square b cubit. /b Similarly, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua, we would sit six in each /b square b cubit. /b , b Rabbi Yoḥa said /b about his teacher: b Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished /b was as great b in his generation as Rabbi Meir /b was b in his generation: Just as /b with regard to b Rabbi Meir, in his generation his colleagues were unable to fully grasp /b the profundity of b his thinking /b due to the subtlety of his great mind, b so /b it was with b Rabbi Oshaya; his colleagues were unable to fully grasp /b the profundity of b his thinking. /b ,Similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The hearts, /b i.e., the wisdom, b of /b the b early /b Sages were b like the doorway to the Entrance Hall /b of the Temple, which was twenty by forty cubits, b and /b the hearts b of /b the b later /b Sages b were like the doorway to the Sanctuary, /b which was ten by twenty cubits. b And we, /b i.e., our hearts, b are like /b the b eye of a fine needle. /b ,He explains: The term b early /b Sages is referring to b Rabbi Akiva, /b and the term b later /b Sages is referring to his student, b Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua. Some say /b that the term b early /b Sages refers to b Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua /b and that the term the b later /b Sages refers to b Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished. And we are like /b the b eye of a fine needle. /b ,On the topic of the steady decline of the generations, b Abaye said: And we, /b as far as our capabilities are concerned, b are like a peg in the wall with regard to /b Torah b study. /b Just as a peg enters a wall with difficulty, our studies penetrate our minds only with difficulty. b Rava said: And we are like a finger in wax [ i kira /i ] with regard to logical reasoning. /b A finger is not easily pushed into wax, and it extracts nothing from the wax. b Rav Ashi said: We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness. /b Just as a finger easily enters a large pit, similarly, we quickly forget our studies.,The Gemara continues the discussion relating to study and comprehension, and cites that which b Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: /b With regard to b the people of Judea, who were particular in their speech /b and always made certain that it was both precise and refined, b their Torah /b knowledge b endured for them; /b with regard to b the people of the Galilee, who were not particular in their speech, their Torah /b knowledge b did not endure for them. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is /b this b matter at all dependent on /b being b particular /b with one’s language? b Rather, /b with regard to b the people of Judea, who were precise in their language and /b who b would formulate mnemonics /b for their studies, b their Torah /b knowledge b endured for them; /b with regard to b the people of the Galilee, who were not precise in their language and /b who b would not formulate mnemonics, their Torah /b knowledge b did not endure for them. /b ,Furthermore, with regard to b the people of Judea, /b who b studied from one teacher, their Torah /b knowledge b endured for them, /b as their teacher provided them with a consistent approach; however, with regard to b the people of the Galilee, who did not study from one teacher, /b but rather from several teachers, b their Torah /b knowledge b did not endure for them, /b as it was a combination of the approaches and opinions of a variety of Sages., b Ravina said: /b With regard to b the people of Judea, who would /b publicly b disclose the tractate /b to be studied in the coming term so that everyone could prepare and study it in advance ( i ge’onim /i ), b their Torah /b knowledge b endured for them; /b with regard to b the people of the Galilee, who would not disclose the tractate /b to be studied in the coming term, b their Torah /b knowledge b did not endure for them. /b ,The Gemara relates that King b David would disclose the tractate /b to be studied in advance, whereas b Saul would not disclose the tractate /b to be studied. b With regard to David, who would disclose the tractate, it is written: “Those who fear You will see me and be glad” /b (Psalms 119:74), since all were prepared and could enjoy his Torah. b With regard to Saul, who would not disclose the tractate /b to be studied, b it is written: “And wherever he turned himself /b