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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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99 results for "dead"
1. Septuagint, Malachi, 26.3, 67.8-67.13 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, cave of the column Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 309, 322
2. Septuagint, Joel, 2.20 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 207
3. Septuagint, Ezekiel, 27.17, 47.1-47.12 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, medicinal herbs, growing of •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, medicinal resources, use of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, specific locus of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel •dead sea and area,section as gift from herod Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 209, 309, 310, 342
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.16-21.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
21.16. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 21.17. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אִישׁ מִזַּרְעֲךָ לְדֹרֹתָם אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרַב לְהַקְרִיב לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו׃", 21.18. "כִּי כָל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרָב אִישׁ עִוֵּר אוֹ פִסֵּחַ אוֹ חָרֻם אוֹ שָׂרוּעַ׃", 21.19. "אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה בוֹ שֶׁבֶר רָגֶל אוֹ שֶׁבֶר יָד׃", 21.21. "כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה מוּם בּוֹ אֵת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב׃", 21.22. "לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וּמִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים יֹאכֵל׃", 21.23. "אַךְ אֶל־הַפָּרֹכֶת לֹא יָבֹא וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִגַּשׁ כִּי־מוּם בּוֹ וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֶת־מִקְדָּשַׁי כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃", 21.24. "וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו וְאֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 21.16. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 21.17. "Speak unto Aaron, saying: Whosoever he be of thy seed throughout their generations that hath a blemish, let him not approach to offer the bread of his God.", 21.18. "For whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach: a blind man, or a lame, or he that hath any thing maimed, or anything too long,", 21.19. "or a man that is broken-footed, or broken-handed,", 21.20. "or crook-backed, or a dwarf, or that hath his eye overspread, or is scabbed, or scurvy, or hath his stones crushed;", 21.21. "no man of the seed of Aaron the priest, that hath a blemish, shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the LORD made by fire; he hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God.", 21.22. "He may eat the bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy.", 21.23. "Only he shall not go in unto the veil, nor come nigh unto the altar, because he hath a blemish; that he profane not My holy places; for I am the LORD who sanctify them.", 21.24. "So Moses spoke unto Aaron, and to his sons, and unto all the children of Israel.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.14, 4.7, 7.13-7.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 144, 209, 317
1.14. "אֶשְׁכֹּל הַכֹּפֶר דּוֹדִי לִי בְּכַרְמֵי עֵין גֶּדִי׃", 4.7. "כֻּלָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי וּמוּם אֵין בָּךְ׃", 7.13. "נַשְׁכִּימָה לַכְּרָמִים נִרְאֶה אִם פָּרְחָה הַגֶּפֶן פִּתַּח הַסְּמָדַר הֵנֵצוּ הָרִמּוֹנִים שָׁם אֶתֵּן אֶת־דֹּדַי לָךְ׃", 7.14. "הַדּוּדָאִים נָתְנוּ־רֵיחַ וְעַל־פְּתָחֵינוּ כָּל־מְגָדִים חֲדָשִׁים גַּם־יְשָׁנִים דּוֹדִי צָפַנְתִּי לָךְ׃", 1.14. My beloved is unto me as a cluster of henna In the vineyards of En-gedi. 4.7. Thou art all fair, my love; And there is no spot in thee. 7.13. Let us get up early to the vineyards; let us see whether the vine hath budded, whether the vine-blossom be opened, and the pomegranates be in flower; there will I give thee my love. 7.14. The mandrakes give forth fragrance, and at our doors are all manner of precious fruits, new and old, which I have laid up for thee, O my beloved.
6. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.5, 3.17, 4.49, 32.49, 34.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, byzantine period •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, mineral salts/chemicals in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 146, 207, 208, 209, 313
1.5. "בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב הוֹאִיל מֹשֶׁה בֵּאֵר אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת לֵאמֹר׃", 3.17. "וְהָעֲרָבָה וְהַיַּרְדֵּן וּגְבֻל מִכִּנֶּרֶת וְעַד יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם הַמֶּלַח תַּחַת אַשְׁדֹּת הַפִּסְגָּה מִזְרָחָה׃", 4.49. "וְכָל־הָעֲרָבָה עֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן מִזְרָחָה וְעַד יָם הָעֲרָבָה תַּחַת אַשְׁדֹּת הַפִּסְגָּה׃", 32.49. "עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה הַר־נְבוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וּרְאֵה אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲחֻזָּה׃", 34.3. "וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃", 1.5. "beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, took Moses upon him to expound this law, saying:", 3.17. "the Arabah also, the Jordan being the border thereof, from Chinnereth even unto the sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, under the slopes of Pisgah eastward.", 4.49. "and all the Arabah beyond the Jordan eastward, even unto the sea of the Arabah, under the slopes of Pisgah.", 32.49. "’Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession;", 34.3. "and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.2, 1.6-1.7, 1.10, 1.20-1.22, 10.19, 13.10-13.12, 14.3, 15.2, 15.5, 19.1-19.29, 30.14-30.16, 37.25, 42.11, 43.11, 49.10, 50.10-50.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of •dead sea and area, mineral salts/chemicals in •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, medicinal herbs, growing of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 146, 147, 184, 206, 207, 208, 209, 230, 231, 310, 315, 317
1.1. "וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃", 1.1. "בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 1.2. "וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃", 1.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃", 1.7. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃", 1.21. "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃", 1.22. "וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים לֵאמֹר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וְהָעוֹף יִרֶב בָּאָרֶץ׃", 10.19. "וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד־עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה וּצְבֹיִם עַד־לָשַׁע׃", 13.11. "וַיִּבְחַר־לוֹ לוֹט אֵת כָּל־כִּכַּר הַיַּרְדֵּן וַיִּסַּע לוֹט מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּפָּרְדוּ אִישׁ מֵעַל אָחִיו׃", 13.12. "אַבְרָם יָשַׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־כְּנָעַן וְלוֹט יָשַׁב בְּעָרֵי הַכִּכָּר וַיֶּאֱהַל עַד־סְדֹם׃", 14.3. "כָּל־אֵלֶּה חָבְרוּ אֶל־עֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים הוּא יָם הַמֶּלַח׃", 15.2. "וְאֶת־הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי וְאֶת־הָרְפָאִים׃", 15.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר׃", 15.5. "וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃", 19.1. "וַיָּבֹאוּ שְׁנֵי הַמַּלְאָכִים סְדֹמָה בָּעֶרֶב וְלוֹט יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־סְדֹם וַיַּרְא־לוֹט וַיָּקָם לִקְרָאתָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃", 19.1. "וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֶת־יָדָם וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־לוֹט אֲלֵיהֶם הַבָּיְתָה וְאֶת־הַדֶּלֶת סָגָרוּ׃", 19.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּה נָּא־אֲדֹנַי סוּרוּ נָא אֶל־בֵּית עַבְדְּכֶם וְלִינוּ וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשְׁכַּמְתֶּם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם לְדַרְכְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹּא כִּי בָרְחוֹב נָלִין׃", 19.2. "הִנֵּה־נָא הָעִיר הַזֹּאת קְרֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁמָּה וְהִיא מִצְעָר אִמָּלְטָה נָּא שָׁמָּה הֲלֹא מִצְעָר הִוא וּתְחִי נַפְשִׁי׃", 19.3. "וַיִּפְצַר־בָּם מְאֹד וַיָּסֻרוּ אֵלָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם מִשְׁתֶּה וּמַצּוֹת אָפָה וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 19.3. "וַיַּעַל לוֹט מִצּוֹעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב בָּהָר וּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו עִמּוֹ כִּי יָרֵא לָשֶׁבֶת בְּצוֹעַר וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּמְּעָרָה הוּא וּשְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו׃", 19.4. "טֶרֶם יִשְׁכָּבוּ וְאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר אַנְשֵׁי סְדֹם נָסַבּוּ עַל־הַבַּיִת מִנַּעַר וְעַד־זָקֵן כָּל־הָעָם מִקָּצֶה׃", 19.5. "וַיִּקְרְאוּ אֶל־לוֹט וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ אַיֵּה הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־בָּאוּ אֵלֶיךָ הַלָּיְלָה הוֹצִיאֵם אֵלֵינוּ וְנֵדְעָה אֹתָם׃", 19.6. "וַיֵּצֵא אֲלֵהֶם לוֹט הַפֶּתְחָה וְהַדֶּלֶת סָגַר אַחֲרָיו׃", 19.7. "וַיֹּאמַר אַל־נָא אַחַי תָּרֵעוּ׃", 19.8. "הִנֵּה־נָא לִי שְׁתֵּי בָנוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ אִישׁ אוֹצִיאָה־נָּא אֶתְהֶן אֲלֵיכֶם וַעֲשׂוּ לָהֶן כַּטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵיכֶם רַק לָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵל אַל־תַּעֲשׂוּ דָבָר כִּי־עַל־כֵּן בָּאוּ בְּצֵל קֹרָתִי׃", 19.9. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ גֶּשׁ־הָלְאָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָאֶחָד בָּא־לָגוּר וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שָׁפוֹט עַתָּה נָרַע לְךָ מֵהֶם וַיִּפְצְרוּ בָאִישׁ בְּלוֹט מְאֹד וַיִּגְּשׁוּ לִשְׁבֹּר הַדָּלֶת׃", 19.11. "וְאֶת־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת הִכּוּ בַּסַּנְוֵרִים מִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּלְאוּ לִמְצֹא הַפָּתַח׃", 19.12. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֶל־לוֹט עֹד מִי־לְךָ פֹה חָתָן וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ בָּעִיר הוֹצֵא מִן־הַמָּקוֹם׃", 19.13. "כִּי־מַשְׁחִתִים אֲנַחְנוּ אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי־גָדְלָה צַעֲקָתָם אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ יְהוָה לְשַׁחֲתָהּ׃", 19.14. "וַיֵּצֵא לוֹט וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־חֲתָנָיו לֹקְחֵי בְנֹתָיו וַיֹּאמֶר קוּמוּ צְּאוּ מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי־מַשְׁחִית יְהוָה אֶת־הָעִיר וַיְהִי כִמְצַחֵק בְּעֵינֵי חֲתָנָיו׃", 19.15. "וּכְמוֹ הַשַּׁחַר עָלָה וַיָּאִיצוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים בְּלוֹט לֵאמֹר קוּם קַח אֶת־אִשְׁתְּךָ וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּי בְנֹתֶיךָ הַנִּמְצָאֹת פֶּן־תִּסָּפֶה בַּעֲוֺן הָעִיר׃", 19.16. "וַיִּתְמַהְמָהּ וַיַּחֲזִקוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים בְּיָדוֹ וּבְיַד־אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבְיַד שְׁתֵּי בְנֹתָיו בְּחֶמְלַת יְהוָה עָלָיו וַיֹּצִאֻהוּ וַיַּנִּחֻהוּ מִחוּץ לָעִיר׃", 19.17. "וַיְהִי כְהוֹצִיאָם אֹתָם הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הִמָּלֵט עַל־נַפְשֶׁךָ אַל־תַּבִּיט אַחֲרֶיךָ וְאַל־תַּעֲמֹד בְּכָל־הַכִּכָּר הָהָרָה הִמָּלֵט פֶּן־תִּסָּפֶה׃", 19.18. "וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹט אֲלֵהֶם אַל־נָא אֲדֹנָי׃", 19.19. "הִנֵּה־נָא מָצָא עַבְדְּךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתַּגְדֵּל חַסְדְּךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי לְהַחֲיוֹת אֶת־נַפְשִׁי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אוּכַל לְהִמָּלֵט הָהָרָה פֶּן־תִּדְבָּקַנִי הָרָעָה וָמַתִּי׃", 19.21. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נָשָׂאתִי פָנֶיךָ גַּם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי הָפְכִּי אֶת־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃", 19.22. "מַהֵר הִמָּלֵט שָׁמָּה כִּי לֹא אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר עַד־בֹּאֲךָ שָׁמָּה עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שֵׁם־הָעִיר צוֹעַר׃", 19.23. "הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָצָא עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְלוֹט בָּא צֹעֲרָה׃", 19.24. "וַיהוָה הִמְטִיר עַל־סְדֹם וְעַל־עֲמֹרָה גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ מֵאֵת יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 19.25. "וַיַּהֲפֹךְ אֶת־הֶעָרִים הָאֵל וְאֵת כָּל־הַכִּכָּר וְאֵת כָּל־יֹשְׁבֵי הֶעָרִים וְצֶמַח הָאֲדָמָה׃", 19.26. "וַתַּבֵּט אִשְׁתּוֹ מֵאַחֲרָיו וַתְּהִי נְצִיב מֶלַח׃", 19.27. "וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־עָמַד שָׁם אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה׃", 19.28. "וַיַּשְׁקֵף עַל־פְּנֵי סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה וְעַל־כָּל־פְּנֵי אֶרֶץ הַכִּכָּר וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה עָלָה קִיטֹר הָאָרֶץ כְּקִיטֹר הַכִּבְשָׁן׃", 19.29. "וַיְהִי בְּשַׁחֵת אֱלֹהִים אֶת־עָרֵי הַכִּכָּר וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־לוֹט מִתּוֹךְ הַהֲפֵכָה בַּהֲפֹךְ אֶת־הֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־יָשַׁב בָּהֵן לוֹט׃", 30.14. "וַיֵּלֶךְ רְאוּבֵן בִּימֵי קְצִיר־חִטִּים וַיִּמְצָא דוּדָאִים בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּבֵא אֹתָם אֶל־לֵאָה אִמּוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל אֶל־לֵאָה תְּנִי־נָא לִי מִדּוּדָאֵי בְּנֵךְ׃", 30.15. "וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְעַט קַחְתֵּךְ אֶת־אִישִׁי וְלָקַחַת גַּם אֶת־דּוּדָאֵי בְּנִי וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל לָכֵן יִשְׁכַּב עִמָּךְ הַלַּיְלָה תַּחַת דּוּדָאֵי בְנֵךְ׃", 30.16. "וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה בָּעֶרֶב וַתֵּצֵא לֵאָה לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלַי תָּבוֹא כִּי שָׂכֹר שְׂכַרְתִּיךָ בְּדוּדָאֵי בְּנִי וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא׃", 37.25. "וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃", 42.11. "כֻּלָּנוּ בְּנֵי אִישׁ־אֶחָד נָחְנוּ כֵּנִים אֲנַחְנוּ לֹא־הָיוּ עֲבָדֶיךָ מְרַגְּלִים׃", 43.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיהֶם אִם־כֵּן אֵפוֹא זֹאת עֲשׂוּ קְחוּ מִזִּמְרַת הָאָרֶץ בִּכְלֵיכֶם וְהוֹרִידוּ לָאִישׁ מִנְחָה מְעַט צֳרִי וּמְעַט דְּבַשׁ נְכֹאת וָלֹט בָּטְנִים וּשְׁקֵדִים׃", 50.11. "וַיַּרְא יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֶת־הָאֵבֶל בְּגֹרֶן הָאָטָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵבֶל־כָּבֵד זֶה לְמִצְרָיִם עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ אָבֵל מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן׃", 1.1. "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.", 1.2. "Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.", 1.6. "And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’", 1.7. "And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.", 1.10. "And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good.", 1.20. "And God said: ‘Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.’", 1.21. "And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good.", 1.22. "And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’", 10.19. "And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, as thou goest toward Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim, unto Lasha.", 13.10. "And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of the Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou goest unto Zoar.", 13.11. "So Lot chose him all the plain of the Jordan; and Lot journeyed east; and they separated themselves the one from the other.", 13.12. "Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelt in the cities of the Plain, and moved his tent as far as Sodom.", 14.3. "All these came as allies unto the vale of Siddim—the same is the Salt Sea.", 15.2. "And Abram said: ‘O Lord GOD, what wilt Thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?’", 15.5. "And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’", 19.1. "And the two angels came to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them; and he fell down on his face to the earth;", 19.2. "and he said: ‘Behold now, my lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servant’s house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up early, and go on your way.’ And they said: ‘Nay; but we will abide in the broad place all night.’", 19.3. "And he urged them greatly; and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat.", 19.4. "But before they lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both young and old, all the people from every quarter.", 19.5. "And they called unto Lot, and said unto him: ‘Where are the men that came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them.’", 19.6. "And Lot went out unto them to the door, and shut the door after him.", 19.7. "And he said: ‘I pray you, my brethren, do not so wickedly.", 19.8. "Behold now, I have two daughters that have not known man; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes; only unto these men do nothing; forasmuch as they are come under the shadow of my roof.’", 19.9. "And they said: ‘Stand back.’ And they said: ‘This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will needs play the judge; now will we deal worse with thee, than with them.’ And they pressed sore upon the man, even Lot, and drew near to break the door.", 19.10. "But the men put forth their hand, and brought Lot into the house to them, and the door they shut.", 19.11. "And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great; so that they wearied themselves to find the door.", 19.12. "And the men said unto Lot: ‘Hast thou here any besides? son-in-law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whomsoever thou hast in the city; bring them out of the place;", 19.13. "for we will destroy this place, because the cry of them is waxed great before the LORD; and the LORD hath sent us to destroy it.’", 19.14. "And Lot went out, and spoke unto his sons-in-law, who married his daughters, and said: ‘Up, get you out of this place; for the LORD will destroy the city.’ But he seemed unto his sons-in-law as one that jested.", 19.15. "And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying: ‘Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are here; lest thou be swept away in the iniquity of the city.’", 19.16. "But he lingered; and the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful unto him. And they brought him forth, and set him without the city.", 19.17. "And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that he said: ‘Escape for thy life; look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the Plain; escape to the mountain, lest thou be swept away.’", 19.18. "And Lot said unto them: ‘Oh, not so, my lord;", 19.19. "behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shown unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and I die.", 19.20. "Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one; oh, let me escape thither—is it not a little one?—and my soul shall live.’", 19.21. "And he said unto him: ‘See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken.", 19.22. "Hasten thou, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither.’—Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.—", 19.23. "The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came unto Zoar.", 19.24. "Then the LORD caused to rain upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;", 19.25. "and He overthrow those cities, and all the Plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.", 19.26. "But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.", 19.27. "And Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the LORD.", 19.28. "And he looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the Plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the land went up as the smoke of a furnace.", 19.29. "And it came to pass, when God destroyed the cities of the Plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, when He overthrew the cities in which Lot dwelt.", 30.14. "And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah: ‘Give me, I pray thee, of thy son’s mandrakes.’", 30.15. "And she said unto her: ‘Is it a small matter that thou hast taken away my husband? and wouldest thou take away my son’s mandrakes also?’ And Rachel said: ‘Therefore he shall lie with thee to-night for thy son’s mandrakes.’", 30.16. "And Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said: ‘Thou must come in unto me; for I have surely hired thee with my son’s mandrakes.’ And he lay with her that night.", 37.25. "And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt.", 42.11. "We are all one man’s sons; we are upright men, thy servants are no spies.’", 43.11. "And their father Israel said unto them: ‘If it be so now, do this: take of the choice fruits of the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spicery and ladanum, nuts, and almonds;", 49.10. "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.", 50.10. "And they came to the threshing-floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, and there they wailed with a very great and sore wailing; and he made a mourning for his father seven days.", 50.11. "And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said: ‘This is a grievous amourning to the Egyptians.’ Wherefore the name of it was called Abel-mizraim, which is beyond the Jordan.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Job, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, in pliny •dead sea and area, mineral salts/chemicals in •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, toxicity of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 323
30.4. "הַקֹּטְפִים מַלּוּחַ עֲלֵי־שִׂיחַ וְשֹׁרֶשׁ רְתָמִים לַחְמָם׃", 30.4. "They pluck salt-wort with wormwood; And the roots of the broom are their food.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 34.3, 34.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 207
34.3. "וְהָיָה לָכֶם פְּאַת־נֶגֶב מִמִּדְבַּר־צִן עַל־יְדֵי אֱדוֹם וְהָיָה לָכֶם גְּבוּל נֶגֶב מִקְצֵה יָם־הַמֶּלַח קֵדְמָה׃", 34.12. "וְיָרַד הַגְּבוּל הַיַּרְדֵּנָה וְהָיוּ תוֹצְאֹתָיו יָם הַמֶּלַח זֹאת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם הָאָרֶץ לִגְבֻלֹתֶיהָ סָבִיב׃", 34.3. "Thus your south side shall be from the wilderness of Zin close by the side of Edom, and your south border shall begin at the end of the Salt Sea eastward;", 34.12. "and the border shall go down to the Jordan, and the goings out thereof shall be at the Salt Sea; this shall be your land according to the borders thereof round about.’",
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 14.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 207
14.25. "הוּא הֵשִׁיב אֶת־גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִלְּבוֹא חֲמָת עַד־יָם הָעֲרָבָה כִּדְבַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד־עַבְדּוֹ יוֹנָה בֶן־אֲמִתַּי הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר מִגַּת הַחֵפֶר׃", 14.25. "He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath unto the sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which He spoke by the hand of His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher.",
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 5.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
5.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כָּל־מַכֵּה יְבֻסִי וְיִגַּע בַּצִּנּוֹר וְאֶת־הַפִּסְחִים וְאֶת־הַעִוְרִים שנאו [שְׂנֻאֵי] נֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד עַל־כֵּן יֹאמְרוּ עִוֵּר וּפִסֵּחַ לֹא יָבוֹא אֶל־הַבָּיִת׃", 5.8. "And David said on that day, Whoever smites the Yevusi, and gets up to the aqueduct, and smites the lame and the blind (that are hated of David’s soul) – therefore the saying, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.16, 12.3, 15.5-15.6, 18.19, 18.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, medicinal herbs, growing of •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 146, 207, 310
3.16. "וַיַּעַמְדוּ הַמַּיִם הַיֹּרְדִים מִלְמַעְלָה קָמוּ נֵד־אֶחָד הַרְחֵק מְאֹד באדם [מֵאָדָם] הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר מִצַּד צָרְתָן וְהַיֹּרְדִים עַל יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם־הַמֶּלַח תַּמּוּ נִכְרָתוּ וְהָעָם עָבְרוּ נֶגֶד יְרִיחוֹ׃", 12.3. "וְהָעֲרָבָה עַד־יָם כִּנְרוֹת מִזְרָחָה וְעַד יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם־הַמֶּלַח מִזְרָחָה דֶּרֶךְ בֵּית הַיְשִׁמוֹת וּמִתֵּימָן תַּחַת אַשְׁדּוֹת הַפִּסְגָּה׃", 15.5. "וּגְבוּל קֵדְמָה יָם הַמֶּלַח עַד־קְצֵה הַיַּרְדֵּן וּגְבוּל לִפְאַת צָפוֹנָה מִלְּשׁוֹן הַיָּם מִקְצֵה הַיַּרְדֵּן׃", 15.5. "וַעֲנָב וְאֶשְׁתְּמֹה וְעָנִים׃", 15.6. "קִרְיַת־בַּעַל הִיא קִרְיַת יְעָרִים וְהָרַבָּה עָרִים שְׁתַּיִם וְחַצְרֵיהֶן׃", 15.6. "וְעָלָה הַגְּבוּל בֵּית חָגְלָה וְעָבַר מִצְּפוֹן לְבֵית הָעֲרָבָה וְעָלָה הַגְּבוּל אֶבֶן בֹּהַן בֶּן־רְאוּבֵן׃", 18.19. "וְעָבַר הַגְּבוּל אֶל־כֶּתֶף בֵּית־חָגְלָה צָפוֹנָה והיה [וְהָיוּ ] תצאותיו [תֹּצְאוֹת] הַגְּבוּל אֶל־לְשׁוֹן יָם־הַמֶּלַח צָפוֹנָה אֶל־קְצֵה הַיַּרְדֵּן נֶגְבָּה זֶה גְּבוּל נֶגֶב׃", 18.21. "וְהָיוּ הֶעָרִים לְמַטֵּה בְּנֵי בִנְיָמִן לְמִשְׁפְּחוֹתֵיהֶם יְרִיחוֹ וּבֵית־חָגְלָה וְעֵמֶק קְצִיץ׃", 3.16. "that the waters which came down from above stood, and rose up in one heap, a great way off from Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan; and those that went down toward the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea, were wholly cut off; and the people passed over right against Jericho.", 12.3. "and the Arabah unto the sea of Chinneroth, eastward, and unto the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea, eastward, the way to Beth-jeshimoth; and on the south, under the slopes of Pisgah;", 15.5. "And the east border was the Salt Sea, even unto the end of the Jordan. And the border of the north side was from the bay of the sea at the end of the Jordan.", 15.6. "And the border went up to Beth-hoglah, and passed along by the north of Beth-arabah; and the border went up to the Stone of Bohan the son of Reuben.", 18.19. "And the border passed along to the side of Beth-hoglah northward; and the goings out of the border were at the north bay of the Salt Sea, at the south end of the Jordan; this was the south border.", 18.21. "Now the cities of the tribe of the children of Benjamin according to their families were Jericho, and Beth-hoglah, and Emek-keziz;",
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1.16, 3.13, 14.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, byzantine period •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, mineral salts/chemicals in •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 208, 313, 319
1.16. "וּבְנֵי קֵינִי חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה עָלוּ מֵעִיר הַתְּמָרִים אֶת־בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר בְּנֶגֶב עֲרָד וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיֵּשֶׁב אֶת־הָעָם׃", 3.13. "וַיֶּאֱסֹף אֵלָיו אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַעֲמָלֵק וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּךְ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־עִיר הַתְּמָרִים׃", 14.8. "וַיָּשָׁב מִיָּמִים לְקַחְתָּהּ וַיָּסַר לִרְאוֹת אֵת מַפֶּלֶת הָאַרְיֵה וְהִנֵּה עֲדַת דְּבוֹרִים בִּגְוִיַּת הָאַרְיֵה וּדְבָשׁ׃", 1.16. "And the children of the Qeni, Moshe’s father in law, went up out of the city of palm trees with the children of Yehuda into the wilderness of Yehuda, which lies in the south of ῾Arad; and they went and dwelt among the people.", 3.13. "And he gathered to him the children of ῾Ammon and ῾Amaleq, and went and smote Yisra᾽el, and they seized the city of palm trees.", 14.8. "And after a time he returned to take her, and he turned aside to see the carcass of the lion: and, behold, there was a swarm of bees and honey in the carcass of the lion.",
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 14.25-14.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 319
14.25. "וְכָל־הָאָרֶץ בָּאוּ בַיָּעַר וַיְהִי דְבַשׁ עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃", 14.26. "וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־הַיַּעַר וְהִנֵּה הֵלֶךְ דְּבָשׁ וְאֵין־מַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ אֶל־פִּיו כִּי־יָרֵא הָעָם אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה׃", 14.27. "וְיוֹנָתָן לֹא־שָׁמַע בְּהַשְׁבִּיעַ אָבִיו אֶת־הָעָם וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־קְצֵה הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ וַיִּטְבֹּל אוֹתָהּ בְּיַעְרַת הַדְּבָשׁ וַיָּשֶׁב יָדוֹ אֶל־פִּיו ותראנה [וַתָּאֹרְנָה] עֵינָיו׃", 14.28. "וַיַּעַן אִישׁ מֵהָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הַשְׁבֵּעַ הִשְׁבִּיעַ אָבִיךָ אֶת־הָעָם לֵאמֹר אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יֹאכַל לֶחֶם הַיּוֹם וַיָּעַף הָעָם׃", 14.29. "וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹנָתָן עָכַר אָבִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ רְאוּ־נָא כִּי־אֹרוּ עֵינַי כִּי טָעַמְתִּי מְעַט דְּבַשׁ הַזֶּה׃", 14.25. "And all the people came to a wood; and there was honey on the ground.", 14.26. "And when the people were come into the wood, behold, a stream of honey; but no man put his hand to his mouth: for the people feared the oath.", 14.27. "But Yonatan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath: and he put out the end of the rod that was in his hand, and dipped it in a honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were brightened.", 14.28. "Then one of the people answered and said, Thy father strictly charged the people with an oath, saying, Cursed be the man that eats any food this day. And the people were faint.", 14.29. "Then said Yonatan, My father has troubled the land: see, I pray you, how my eyes have brightened, because I tasted a little of this honey.",
15. Septuagint, Isaiah, 61.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 309
16. Septuagint, Jeremiah, 2.22, 8.22, 24.1, 46.11, 51.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, cave of the column •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 209, 317, 322
17. Septuagint, Zechariah, 14.3, 14.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 207, 309
18. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 4.8.20-4.8.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 319
4.8.20. καὶ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα οὐδὲν ὅ τι καὶ ἐθαύμασαν· τὰ δὲ σμήνη πολλὰ ἦν αὐτόθι, καὶ τῶν κηρίων ὅσοι ἔφαγον τῶν στρατιωτῶν πάντες ἄφρονές τε ἐγίγνοντο καὶ ἤμουν καὶ κάτω διεχώρει αὐτοῖς καὶ ὀρθὸς οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο ἵστασθαι, ἀλλʼ οἱ μὲν ὀλίγον ἐδηδοκότες σφόδρα μεθύουσιν ἐῴκεσαν, οἱ δὲ πολὺ μαινομένοις, οἱ δὲ καὶ ἀποθνῄσκουσιν. 4.8.21. ἔκειντο δὲ οὕτω πολλοὶ ὥσπερ τροπῆς γεγενημένης, καὶ πολλὴ ἦν ἀθυμία. τῇ δʼ ὑστεραίᾳ ἀπέθανε μὲν οὐδείς, ἀμφὶ δὲ τὴν αὐτήν πως ὥραν ἀνεφρόνουν· τρίτῃ δὲ καὶ τετάρτῃ ἀνίσταντο ὥσπερ ἐκ φαρμακοποσίας. 4.8.20. Now for the most part there was nothing here which they really found strange; but the swarms of bees in the neighbourhood were numerous, and the soldiers who ate of the honey all went off their heads, and suffered from vomiting and diarrhoea, and not one of them could stand up, but those who had eaten a little were like people exceedingly drunk, while those who had eaten a great deal seemed like crazy, or even, in some cases, dying men. 4.8.21. So they lay there in great numbers as though the army had suffered a defeat, and great despondency prevailed. On the next day, however, no one had died, and at approximately the same hour as they had eaten the honey they began to come to their senses; and on the third or fourth day they got up, as if from a drugging.
19. Herodotus, Histories, 1.105, 2.104, 3.5, 3.91, 3.116, 4.39, 7.89 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in pliny Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 134, 146, 147
1.105. From there they marched against Egypt : and when they were in the part of Syria called Palestine , Psammetichus king of Egypt met them and persuaded them with gifts and prayers to come no further. ,So they turned back, and when they came on their way to the city of Ascalon in Syria , most of the Scythians passed by and did no harm, but a few remained behind and plundered the temple of Heavenly Aphrodite. ,This temple, I discover from making inquiry, is the oldest of all the temples of the goddess, for the temple in Cyprus was founded from it, as the Cyprians themselves say; and the temple on Cythera was founded by Phoenicians from this same land of Syria . ,But the Scythians who pillaged the temple, and all their descendants after them, were afflicted by the goddess with the “female” sickness: and so the Scythians say that they are afflicted as a consequence of this and also that those who visit Scythian territory see among them the condition of those whom the Scythians call “Hermaphrodites”. 2.104. For it is plain to see that the Colchians are Egyptians; and what I say, I myself noted before I heard it from others. When it occurred to me, I inquired of both peoples; and the Colchians remembered the Egyptians better than the Egyptians remembered the Colchians; ,the Egyptians said that they considered the Colchians part of Sesostris' army. I myself guessed it, partly because they are dark-skinned and woolly-haired; though that indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too; but my better proof was that the Colchians and Egyptians and Ethiopians are the only nations that have from the first practised circumcision. ,The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine acknowledge that they learned the custom from the Egyptians, and the Syrians of the valleys of the Thermodon and the Parthenius, as well as their neighbors the Macrones, say that they learned it lately from the Colchians. These are the only nations that circumcise, and it is seen that they do just as the Egyptians. ,But as to the Egyptians and Ethiopians themselves, I cannot say which nation learned it from the other; for it is evidently a very ancient custom. That the others learned it through traffic with Egypt , I consider clearly proved by this: that Phoenicians who traffic with Hellas cease to imitate the Egyptians in this matter and do not circumcise their children. 3.5. Now the only apparent way of entry into Egypt is this. The road runs from Phoenicia as far as the borders of the city of Cadytis, which belongs to the so-called Syrians of Palestine . ,From Cadytis (which, as I judge, is a city not much smaller than Sardis ) to the city of Ienysus the seaports belong to the Arabians; then they are Syrian again from Ienysus as far as the Serbonian marsh, beside which the Casian promontory stretches seawards; ,from this Serbonian marsh, where Typho is supposed to have been hidden, the country is Egypt . Now between Ienysus and the Casian mountain and the Serbonian marsh there lies a wide territory for as much as three days' journey, terribly arid. 3.91. The fifth province was the country (except the part belonging to the Arabians, which paid no tribute) between Posideion, a city founded on the Cilician and Syrian border by Amphilochus son of Amphiaraus, and Egypt ; this paid three hundred and fifty talents; in this province was all Phoenicia , and the part of Syria called Palestine , and Cyprus . ,The sixth province was Egypt and the neighboring parts of Libya , and Cyrene and Barca , all of which were included in the province of Egypt . From here came seven hundred talents, besides the income in silver from the fish of the lake Moeris ; ,besides that silver and the assessment of grain that was given also, seven hundred talents were paid; for a hundred and twenty thousand bushels of grain were also assigned to the Persians quartered at the White Wall of Memphis and their allies. ,The Sattagydae, Gandarii, Dadicae, and Aparytae paid together a hundred and seventy talents; this was the seventh province; the eighth was Susa and the rest of the Cissian country, paying three hundred talents. 3.116. But in the north of Europe there is by far the most gold. In this matter again I cannot say with assurance how the gold is produced, but it is said that one-eyed men called Arimaspians steal it from griffins. ,But I do not believe this, that there are one-eyed men who have a nature otherwise the same as other men. ,The most outlying lands, though, as they enclose and wholly surround all the rest of the world, are likely to have those things which we think the finest and the rarest. 4.39. This is the first peninsula. But the second, beginning with Persia, stretches to the Red Sea, and is Persian land; and next, the neighboring land of Assyria; and after Assyria, Arabia; this peninsula ends (not truly but only by common consent) at the Arabian Gulf, to which Darius brought a canal from the Nile. ,Now from the Persian country to Phoenicia there is a wide and vast tract of land; and from Phoenicia this peninsula runs beside our sea by way of the Syrian Palestine and Egypt, which is at the end of it; in this peninsula there are just three nations. 7.89. The number of the triremes was twelve hundred and seven, and they were furnished by the following: the Phoenicians with the Syrians of Palestine furnished three hundred; for their equipment, they had on their heads helmets very close to the Greek in style; they wore linen breastplates, and carried shields without rims, and javelins. ,These Phoenicians formerly dwelt, as they themselves say, by the Red Sea; they crossed from there and now inhabit the seacoast of Syria. This part of Syria as far as Egypt is all called Palestine. ,The Egyptians furnished two hundred ships. They wore woven helmets and carried hollow shields with broad rims, and spears for sea-warfare, and great battle-axes. Most of them wore cuirasses and carried long swords.
20. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.2, 28.15 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, mineral salts/chemicals in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 207, 208
20.2. "וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּגִּידוּ לִיהוֹשָׁפָט לֵאמֹר בָּא עָלֶיךָ הָמוֹן רָב מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם מֵאֲרָם וְהִנָּם בְּחַצְצוֹן תָּמָר הִיא עֵין גֶּדִי׃", 20.2. "וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיֵּצְאוּ לְמִדְבַּר תְּקוֹעַ וּבְצֵאתָם עָמַד יְהוֹשָׁפָט וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמָעוּנִי יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם הַאֲמִינוּ בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְתֵאָמֵנוּ הַאֲמִינוּ בִנְבִיאָיו וְהַצְלִיחוּ׃", 28.15. "וַיָּקֻמוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־נִקְּבוּ בְשֵׁמוֹת וַיַּחֲזִיקוּ בַשִּׁבְיָה וְכָל־מַעֲרֻמֵּיהֶם הִלְבִּישׁוּ מִן־הַשָּׁלָל וַיַּלְבִּשׁוּם וַיַּנְעִלוּם וַיַּאֲכִלוּם וַיַּשְׁקוּם וַיְסֻכוּם וַיְנַהֲלוּם בַּחֲמֹרִים לְכָל־כּוֹשֵׁל וַיְבִיאוּם יְרֵחוֹ עִיר־הַתְּמָרִים אֵצֶל אֲחֵיהֶם וַיָּשׁוּבוּ שֹׁמְרוֹן׃", 20.2. "Then there came some that told Jehoshaphat, saying: ‘There cometh a great multitude against thee from beyond the sea from Aram; and, behold, they are in Hazazon-tamar’—the same is En-gedi.", 28.15. "And the men that have been mentioned by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them upon asses, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm-trees, unto their brethren; then they returned to Samaria.",
21. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, sodom, association with Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 147
22d. ἀληθές ἐστι τῶν περὶ γῆν κατʼ οὐρανὸν ἰόντων παράλλαξις καὶ διὰ μακρῶν χρόνων γιγνομένη τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς πυρὶ πολλῷ φθορά. τότε οὖν ὅσοι κατʼ ὄρη καὶ ἐν ὑψηλοῖς τόποις καὶ ἐν ξηροῖς οἰκοῦσιν μᾶλλον διόλλυνται τῶν ποταμοῖς καὶ θαλάττῃ προσοικούντων· ἡμῖν δὲ ὁ Νεῖλος εἴς τε τἆλλα σωτὴρ καὶ τότε ἐκ ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας σῴζει λυόμενος. ὅταν δʼ αὖ θεοὶ τὴν γῆν ὕδασιν καθαίροντες κατακλύζωσιν, οἱ μὲν ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν διασῴζονται βουκόλοι νομῆς τε, οἱ δʼ ἐν ταῖς 22d. the occurrence of a shifting of the bodies in the heavens which move round the earth, and a destruction of the things on the earth by fierce fire, which recurs at long intervals. At such times all they that dwell on the mountains and in high and dry places suffer destruction more than those who dwell near to rivers or the sea; and in our case the Nile , our Saviour in other ways, saves us also at such times from this calamity by rising high. And when, on the other hand, the Gods purge the earth with a flood of waters, all the herdsmen and shepherds that are in the mountains are saved,
22. Theophrastus, De Odoribus, 8, 32 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 214
23. Theophrastus, Research On Plants, 2.6.2-2.6.8, 4.2.2-4.2.6, 9.1.2, 9.1.6-9.1.7, 9.4.1-9.4.4, 9.6.1-9.6.4, 9.8.8 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, byzantine period •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 213, 214, 229, 311, 313, 315, 317
24. Aristotle, Meteorology, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, herod the greats development of •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, in aristotle •dead sea and area, name of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 145, 146, 147, 210, 211, 241
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 24.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the jordan river •dead sea and area, in genesis Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 209
26. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 11.14-11.43, 14.20-14.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, name of •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 222, 223
11.14. Now Alexander the king was in Cilicia at that time, because the people of that region were in revolt. 11.15. And Alexander heard of it and came against him in battle. Ptolemy marched out and met him with a strong force, and put him to flight. 11.16. So Alexander fled into Arabia to find protection there, and King Ptolemy was exalted. 11.17. And Zabdiel the Arab cut off the head of Alexander and sent it to Ptolemy. 11.18. But King Ptolemy died three days later, and his troops in the strongholds were killed by the inhabitants of the strongholds. 11.19. So Demetrius became king in the one hundred and sixty-seventh year. 11.20. In those days Jonathan assembled the men of Judea to attack the citadel in Jerusalem, and he built many engines of war to use against it. 11.21. But certain lawless men who hated their nation went to the king and reported to him that Jonathan was besieging the citadel. 11.22. When he heard this he was angry, and as soon as he heard it he set out and came to Ptolemais; and he wrote Jonathan not to continue the siege, but to meet him for a conference at Ptolemais as quickly as possible. 11.23. When Jonathan heard this, he gave orders to continue the siege; and he chose some of the elders of Israel and some of the priests, and put himself in danger, 11.24. for he went to the king at Ptolemais, taking silver and gold and clothing and numerous other gifts. And he won his favor. 11.25. Although certain lawless men of his nation kept making complaints against him, 11.26. the king treated him as his predecessors had treated him; he exalted him in the presence of all his friends. 11.27. He confirmed him in the high priesthood and in as many other honors as he had formerly had, and made him to be regarded as one of his chief friends. 11.28. Then Jonathan asked the king to free Judea and the three districts of Samaria from tribute, and promised him three hundred talents. 11.29. The king consented, and wrote a letter to Jonathan about all these things; its contents were as follows: 11.30. King Demetrius to Jonathan his brother and to the nation of the Jews, greeting. 11.31. This copy of the letter which we wrote concerning you to Lasthenes our kinsman we have written to you also, so that you may know what it says. 11.32. `King Demetrius to Lasthenes his father, greeting. 11.33. To the nation of the Jews, who are our friends and fulfil their obligations to us, we have determined to do good, because of the good will they show toward us. 11.34. We have confirmed as their possession both the territory of Judea and the three districts of Aphairema and Lydda and Rathamin; the latter, with all the region bordering them, were added to Judea from Samaria. To all those who offer sacrifice in Jerusalem, we have granted release from the royal taxes which the king formerly received from them each year, from the crops of the land and the fruit of the trees. 11.35. And the other payments henceforth due to us of the tithes, and the taxes due to us, and the salt pits and the crown taxes due to us -- from all these we shall grant them release. 11.36. And not one of these grants shall be canceled from this time forth for ever. 11.37. Now therefore take care to make a copy of this, and let it be given to Jonathan and put up in a conspicuous place on the holy mountain." 11.38. Now when Demetrius the king saw that the land was quiet before him and that there was no opposition to him, he dismissed all his troops, each man to his own place, except the foreign troops which he had recruited from the islands of the nations. So all the troops who had served his fathers hated him. 11.39. Now Trypho had formerly been one of Alexanders supporters. He saw that all the troops were murmuring against Demetrius. So he went to Imalkue the Arab, who was bringing up Antiochus, the young son of Alexander, 11.40. and insistently urged him to hand Antiochus over to him, to become king in place of his father. He also reported to Imalkue what Demetrius had done and told of the hatred which the troops of Demetrius had for him; and he stayed there many days. 11.41. Now Jonathan sent to Demetrius the king the request that he remove the troops of the citadel from Jerusalem, and the troops in the strongholds; for they kept fighting against Israel. 11.42. And Demetrius sent this message to Jonathan, "Not only will I do these things for you and your nation, but I will confer great honor on you and your nation, if I find an opportunity. 11.43. Now then you will do well to send me men who will help me, for all my troops have revolted." 14.20. This is a copy of the letter which the Spartans sent: "The rulers and the city of the Spartans to Simon the high priest and to the elders and the priests and the rest of the Jewish people, our brethren, greeting. 14.21. The envoys who were sent to our people have told us about your glory and honor, and we rejoiced at their coming. 14.22. And what they said we have recorded in our public decrees, as follows, `Numenius the son of Antiochus and Antipater the son of Jason, envoys of the Jews, have come to us to renew their friendship with us. 14.23. It has pleased our people to receive these men with honor and to put a copy of their words in the public archives, so that the people of the Spartans may have a record of them. And they have sent a copy of this to Simon the high priest." 14.24. After this Simon sent Numenius to Rome with a large gold shield weighing a thousand minas, to confirm the alliance with the Romans.
27. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.4-7.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.12, 15.15-15.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316, 319
29. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.13-24.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 314
24.13. "I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon. 24.14. I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall.
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 12.12, 15.15-15.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316, 319
31. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.4, 2.28, 2.48.6-2.48.9, 2.55.60, 19.98-19.100, 19.98.1, 19.99.1-19.99.3, 19.100.1-19.100.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, in strabo •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, in aristotle •dead sea and area, name of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, in pliny •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, and the jordan river Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 134, 145, 147, 211, 212, 216, 221, 246, 304, 311, 314, 319
2.4. 1.  Since after the founding of this city Ninus made a campaign against Bactriana, where he married Semiramis, the most renowned of all women of whom we have any record, it is necessary first of all to tell how she rose from a lowly fortune to such fame.,2.  Now there is in Syria a city known as Ascalon, and not far from it a large and deep lake, full of fish. On its shore is a precinct of a famous goddess whom the Syrians call Derceto; and this goddess has the head of a woman but all the rest of her body is that of a fish, the reason being something like this.,3.  The story as given by the most learned of the inhabitants of the region is as follows: Aphrodite, being offended with this goddess, inspired in her a violent passion for a certain handsome youth among her votaries; and Derceto gave herself to the Syrian and bore a daughter, but then, filled with shame of her sinful deed, she killed the youth and exposed the child in a rocky desert region, while as for herself, from shame and grief she threw herself into the lake and was changed as to the form of her body into a fish; and it is for this reason that the Syrians to this day abstain from this animal and honour their fish as gods.,4.  But about the region where the babe was exposed a great multitude of doves had their nests, and by them the child was nurtured in an astounding and miraculous manner; for some of the doves kept the body of the babe warm on all sides by covering it with their wings, while others, when they observed that the cowherds and other keepers were absent from the nearby steadings, brought milk therefrom in their beaks and fed the babe by putting it drop by drop between its lips.,5.  And when the child was a year old and in need of more solid nourishment, the doves, pecking off bits from the cheeses, supplied it with sufficient nourishment. Now when the keepers returned and saw that the cheeses had been nibbled about the edges, they were astonished at the strange happening; they accordingly kept a look-out, and on discovering the cause found the infant, which was of surpassing beauty.,6.  At once, then, bringing it to their steadings they turned it over to the keeper of the royal herds, whose name was Simmas; and Simmas, being childless, gave every care to the rearing of the girl, as his own daughter, and called her Semiramis, a name slightly altered from the word which, in the language of the Syrians, means "doves," birds which since that time all the inhabitants of Syria have continued to honour as goddesses. 2.28. 1.  Thereupon, after the new king had distributed among the generals who had aided him in the struggle gifts corresponding to their several deserts, and as he was appointing satraps over the nations, Belesys the Babylonian, who had foretold to Arbaces that he would be king of Asia, coming to him, reminded him of his good services, and asked that he be given the governorship of Babylonia, as had been promised at the outset.,2.  He also explained that when their cause was endangered he had made a vow to Belus that, if Sardanapallus were defeated and his palace went up in flames, he would bring its ashes to Babylon, and depositing them near the river and the sacred precinct of the god he would construct a mound which, for all who sailed down the Euphrates, would stand as an eternal memorial of the man who had overthrown the rule of the Assyrians.,3.  This request he made because he had learned from a certain eunuch, who had made his escape and come to Belesys and was kept hidden by him, of the facts regarding the silver and gold.,4.  Now since Arbaces knew nothing of this, by reason of the fact that all the inmates of the palace had been burned along with the king, he allowed him both to carry the ashes away and to hold be able without the payment of tribute. Thereupon Belesys procured boats and at once sent off to Babylon along with the ashes practically all the silver and gold; and the king, having been informed of the act which Belesys had been caught perpetrating, appointed as judges the generals who had served with him in the war.,5.  And when the accused acknowledged his guilt, the court sentenced him to death, but the king, being a magimous man and wishing to make his rule at the outset known for clemency, both freed Belesys from the danger threatening him and allowed him to keep the silver and gold which he had carried off; likewise, he did not even take from him the governorship over Babylon which had originally been given to him, saying that his former services were greater than his subsequent misdeeds.,6.  When this act of clemency was noised about, he won no ordinary loyalty on the part of his subjects as well as renown among the nations, all judging that a man who had conducted himself in this wise towards wrongdoers was worthy of the kingship.,7.  Arbaces, however, showing clemency towards the inhabitants of the city, settled them in villages and returned to each man his personal possessions, but the city he levelled to the ground. Then the silver and gold, amounting to many talents, which had been left in the pyre, he collected and took off to Ecbatana in Media.,8.  So the empire of the Assyrians, which had endured from the time of Ninus through thirty generations, for more than one thousand three hundred years, was destroyed by the Medes in the manner described above. 2.48.6.  There is also in the land of the Nabataeans a rock, which is exceedingly strong since it has but one approach, and using this ascent they mount it a few at a time and thus store their possessions in safety. And a large lake is also there which produces asphalt in abundance, and from it they derive not a little revenue. 2.48.7.  It has a length of about five hundred stades and a width of about sixty, and its water is so ill-smelling and so very bitter that it cannot support fish or any of the other animals which commonly live in water. And although great rivers of remarkable sweetness empty into it, the lake gets the better of them by reason of its evil smell, and from its centre it spouts forth once a year a great mass of asphalt, which sometimes extends for more than three plethra, and sometimes for only two; and when this occurs the barbarians who live about the lake usually call the larger flow a "bull" and to the smaller one they give the name "calf." 2.48.8.  Since the asphalt floats on the surface of the lake, to those who view it from a distance it takes the appearance of an island. And the fact is that the emission of the asphalt is made known to the natives twenty days before it takes place; for to a distance of many stades around the lake the odour, borne on the wind, assails them, and every piece of silver and gold and brass in the locality loses it characteristic lustre. But this returns again as soon as all the asphalt has been spouted forth; and the region round about, by reason of its being exposed to fire and to the evil odours, renders the bodies of the inhabitants susceptible to disease and makes the people very short-lived. 2.48.9.  Yet the land is good for the growing of palms, wherever it happens to be traversed by rivers with usable water or to be supplied with springs which can irrigate it. And there is also found in these regions in a certain valley the balsam tree, as it is called, from which they receive a substantial revenue, since this tree is found nowhere else in the inhabited world and the use of it for medicinal purposes is most highly valued by physicians. •  That part of Arabia which borders upon the waterless and desert country is so different from it that, because both of the multitude of fruits which grow therein and of its other good things, it has been called Arabia Felix. 19.99. 1.  When the asphalt has been ejected, the people who live about the sea on both sides carry it off like plunder of war since they are hostile to each other, making the collection without boats in a peculiar fashion. They make ready large bundles of reeds and cast them into the sea. On these not more than three men take their places, two of whom row with oars, which are lashed on, but one carries a bow and repels any who sail against them from the other shore or who venture to interfere with them.,2.  When they have come near the asphalt they jump upon it with axes and, just as it were soft stone, they cut out pieces and load them on the raft, after which they sail back. If the raft comes to pieces and one of them who does not know how to swim falls off, he does not sink as he would in other waters, but stays afloat as well as do those who know.,3.  For this liquid by its nature supports heavy bodies that have the power of growth or of breathing, except for solid ones that seem to have a density like that of silver, gold, lead, and the like; and even these sink much more slowly than do these exact bodies if they are cast into other lakes. The barbarians who enjoy this source of income take the asphalt to Egypt and sell it for the embalming of the dead; for unless this is mixed with the other aromatic ingredients, the preservation of the bodies cannot be permanent. 19.99.1.  When the asphalt has been ejected, the people who live about the sea on both sides carry it off like plunder of war since they are hostile to each other, making the collection without boats in a peculiar fashion. They make ready large bundles of reeds and cast them into the sea. On these not more than three men take their places, two of whom row with oars, which are lashed on, but one carries a bow and repels any who sail against them from the other shore or who venture to interfere with them. 19.99.2.  When they have come near the asphalt they jump upon it with axes and, just as it were soft stone, they cut out pieces and load them on the raft, after which they sail back. If the raft comes to pieces and one of them who does not know how to swim falls off, he does not sink as he would in other waters, but stays afloat as well as do those who know. 19.99.3.  For this liquid by its nature supports heavy bodies that have the power of growth or of breathing, except for solid ones that seem to have a density like that of silver, gold, lead, and the like; and even these sink much more slowly than do these exact bodies if they are cast into other lakes. The barbarians who enjoy this source of income take the asphalt to Egypt and sell it for the embalming of the dead; for unless this is mixed with the other aromatic ingredients, the preservation of the bodies cannot be permanent. 19.100. 1.  Antigonus, when Demetrius returned and made a detailed report of what he had done, rebuked him for the treaty with the Nabataeans, saying that he had made the barbarians much bolder by leaving them unpunished, since it would seem to them that they had gained pardon not through his kindness but through his inability to overcome them; but he praised him for examining the lake and apparently having found a source of revenue for the kingdom. In charge of this he placed Hieronymus, the writer of the history,,2.  and instructed him to prepare boats, collect all the asphalt, and bring it together in a certain place. But the result was not in accord with the expectations of Antigonus; for the Arabs, collecting to the number of six thousand and sailing up on their rafts of reeds against those on the boats, killed almost all of them with their arrows.,3.  As a result, Antigonus gave up this source of revenue because of the defeat he had suffered and because his mind was engaged with other and weightier matters. For there came to him at this time a dispatch-bearer with a letter from Nicanor, the general of Media and the upper satrapies. In this letter was written an account of Seleucus' march inland and of the disasters that had been suffered in connection with him.,4.  Therefore Antigonus, worried about the upper satrapies, sent his son Demetrius with five thousand Macedonian and ten thousand mercenary foot-soldiers and four thousand horse; and he ordered him to go up as far as Babylon and then, after recovering the satrapy, to come down to the sea at full speed.,5.  So Demetrius, having set out from Damascus in Syria, carried out his father's orders with zeal. Patrocles, who had been established as general of Babylonia by Seleucus, hearing that the enemy was on the frontiers of Mesopotamia, did not dare await their arrival since he had few men at hand; but he gave orders to the civilians to leave the city, bidding some of them cross the Euphrates and take refuge in the desert and some of them pass over the Tigris and go into Susianê to Euteles and to the Red Sea;,6.  and he himself with what soldiers he had, using river courses and canals as defences, kept moving about in the satrapy, watching the enemy and at the same time sending word into Media to Seleucus about what was taking place from time to time and urging him to send aid as soon as possible.,7.  When Demetrius on his arrival at Babylon found the city abandoned, he began to besiege the citadels. He took one of these and delivered it to his own soldiers for plundering; the other he besieged for a few days and then, since the capture required time, left Archelaüs, one of his friends, as general for the siege, giving him five thousand infantry and one thousand cavalry, while he himself, the time being close at hand at which he had been ordered to return, made the march down to the sea with the rest of his army. 19.100.1.  Antigonus, when Demetrius returned and made a detailed report of what he had done, rebuked him for the treaty with the Nabataeans, saying that he had made the barbarians much bolder by leaving them unpunished, since it would seem to them that they had gained pardon not through his kindness but through his inability to overcome them; but he praised him for examining the lake and apparently having found a source of revenue for the kingdom. In charge of this he placed Hieronymus, the writer of the history, 19.100.2.  and instructed him to prepare boats, collect all the asphalt, and bring it together in a certain place. But the result was not in accord with the expectations of Antigonus; for the Arabs, collecting to the number of six thousand and sailing up on their rafts of reeds against those on the boats, killed almost all of them with their arrows.
32. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 75, 84 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 241
84. Accordingly, the sacred volumes present an infinite number of instances of the disposition devoted to the love of God, and of a continued and uninterrupted purity throughout the whole of life, of a careful avoidance of oaths and of falsehood, and of a strict adherence to the principle of looking on the Deity as the cause of everything which is good and of nothing which is evil. They also furnish us with many proofs of a love of virtue, such as abstinence from all covetousness of money, from ambition, from indulgence in pleasures, temperance, endurance, and also moderation, simplicity, good temper, the absence of pride, obedience to the laws, steadiness, and everything of that kind; and, lastly, they bring forward as proofs of the love of mankind, goodwill, equality beyond all power of description, and fellowship, about which it is not unreasonable to say a few words.
33. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.8, 11.11 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, cave of the column Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 318, 322
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 23, 22 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 136, 246
22. and from all quarters those who are the best of these therapeutae proceed on their pilgrimage to some most suitable place as if it were their country, which is beyond the Mareotic lake, lying in a somewhat level plain a little raised above the rest, being suitable for their purpose by reason of its safety and also of the fine temperature of the air.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.35 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, in strabo Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 218
1.35. And it appears to me, that it is not without reason that both these things are called praiseworthy; for these two things, the heaven and the mind, are the things which are able to utter, with all becoming dignity, the praises, and hymns, and glory, and beatitude of the Father who created them: for man has received an especial honour beyond all other animals, namely, that of ministering to the living God. And the heaven is always singing melodies, perfecting an all-musical harmony, in accordance with the motions of all the bodies which exist therein;
36. Plutarch, Mark Antony, 58 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, byzantine period Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 300
37. Mela, De Chorographia, 1.54 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, sodom, association with Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 147
38. Ptolemy, Geography, 5.15.6, 5.16 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, herod the greats development of •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, in pliny •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 135, 233, 238, 321
39. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.169, 1.203, 4.100, 8.42, 8.43, 8.44, 8.45, 8.46, 8.47, 8.48, 8.49, 8.174, 9.7, 13.382, 13.393, 13.394, 13.397, 14.18, 14.54, 14.120, 15.50, 15.51, 15.52, 15.53, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 15.96, 15.106-7, 15.121, 15.122, 15.185, 15.187, 15.188, 15.189, 15.190, 15.191, 15.192, 15.193, 15.194, 15.195, 15.196, 15.197, 15.198, 15.199, 15.200, 15.201, 15.294, 15.371, 16.145, 17.169, 17.170, 17.171, 17.172, 17.173, 17.174, 17.175, 17.176, 17.277, 17.289, 17.340, 18.27, 18.31, 132 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 233
15.55. At first they were only spectators of Herod’s servants and acquaintance as they were swimming; but after a while, the young man, at the instigation of Herod, went into the water among them, while such of Herod’s acquaintance, as he had appointed to do it, dipped him as he was swimming, and plunged him under water, in the dark of the evening, as if it had been done in sport only; nor did they desist till he was entirely suffocated.
40. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 2.9, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 290
2.9. מַרְחִיקִין אֶת הַנְּבֵלוֹת וְאֶת הַקְּבָרוֹת וְאֶת הַבֻּרְסְקִי מִן הָעִיר חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה. אֵין עוֹשִׂין בֻּרְסְקִי אֶלָּא לְמִזְרַח הָעִיר. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לְכָל רוּחַ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, חוּץ מִמַּעֲרָבָהּ, וּמַרְחִיק חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה. 6.7. מִי שֶׁהָיְתָה דֶרֶךְ הָרַבִּים עוֹבֶרֶת בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ, נְטָלָהּ וְנָתַן לָהֶם מִן הַצַּד, מַה שֶּׁנָּתַן נָתַן, וְשֶׁלּוֹ לֹא הִגִּיעוֹ. דֶּרֶךְ הַיָּחִיד, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. דֶּרֶךְ הָרַבִּים, שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה. דֶּרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ, אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר. דֶּרֶךְ הַקֶּבֶר, אֵין לָהּ שִׁעוּר. הַמַּעֲמָד, דַּיָּנֵי צִפּוֹרִי אָמְרוּ, בֵּית אַרְבַּעַת קַבִּין. 2.9. "Animal carcasses, graves and tanneries must be distanced fifty cubits from a town. A tannery may be set up only to the east of a town. Rabbi Akiva says: “It may be set up on any side save the west, and it must be distanced fifty cubits [from the town].", 6.7. "If a public path passed through a man’s field and he took it and gave them [another path] by the side of the field, what he has given he has given and what he has taken for himself does not become his. A private path is four cubits. A public path is sixteen cubits. The king’s path has no prescribed measure. The path to a grave has no prescribed measure. The halting places, according to the judges of Tzippori, should be four kab’s space of ground.",
41. New Testament, Mark, 1.6, 8.22-8.28, 10.46-10.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316, 319
1.6. καὶ ἦν ὁ Ἰωάνης ἐνδεδυμένος τρίχας καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσθων ἀκρίδας καὶ μέλι ἄγριον. 8.22. Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς Βηθσαιδάν. Καὶ φέρουσιν αὐτῷ τυφλὸν καὶ παρακαλοῦσιν αὐτὸν ἵνα αὐτοῦ ἅψηται. 8.23. καὶ ἐπιλαβόμενος τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ τυφλοῦ ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτὸν ἔξω τῆς κώμης, καὶ πτύσας εἰς τὰ ὄμματα αὐτοῦ, ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ, ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν Εἴ τι βλέπεις; 8.24. καὶ ἀναβλέψας ἔλεψεν Βλέπω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ὅτι ὡς δένδρα ὁρῶ περιπατοῦντας. 8.25. εἶτα πάλιν ἔθηκεν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ, καὶ διέβλεψεν, καὶ ἀπεκατέστη, καὶ ἐνέβλεπεν τηλαυγῶς ἅπαντα. 8.26. καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν εἰς οἶκον αὐτοῦ λέγων Μηδὲ εἰς τὴν κώμην εἰσέλθῃς 8.27. Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς κώμας Καισαρίας τῆς Φιλίππου· καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἐπηρώτα τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγων αὐτοῖς Τίνα με λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι; 8.28. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες ὅτι Ἰωάνην τὸν βαπτιστήν, καὶ ἄλλοι Ἠλείαν, ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι εἷς τῶν προφητῶν. 10.46. Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς Ἰερειχώ. Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ Ἰερειχὼ καὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ ὄχλου ἱκανοῦ ὁ υἱὸς Τιμαίου Βαρτίμαιος τυφλὸς προσαίτης ἐκάθητο παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν. 10.47. καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζαρηνός ἐστιν ἤρξατο κράζειν καὶ λέγειν Υἱὲ Δαυεὶδ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλέησόν με. 10.48. καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοὶ ἵνα σιωπήσῃ· ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν Υἱὲ Δαυείδ, ἐλέησόν με. 10.49. καὶ στὰς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Φωνήσατε αὐτόν. καὶ φωνοῦσι τὸν τυφλὸν λέγοντες αὐτῷ Θάρσει, ἔγειρε, φωνεῖ σε. 10.50. ὁ δὲ ἀποβαλὼν τὸ ἱμάτιον αὐτοῦ ἀναπηδήσας ἦλθεν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν. 10.51. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Τί σοι θέλεις ποιήσω; ὁ δὲ τυφλὸς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ῥαββουνεί, ἵνα ἀναβλέψω. 10.52. καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ὕπαγε, ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε. καὶ εὐθὺς ἀνέβλεψεν, καὶ ἠκολούθει αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 8.22. He came to Bethsaida. They brought a blind man to him, and begged him to touch him. 8.23. He took hold of the blind man by the hand, and brought him out of the village. When he had spit on his eyes, and laid his hands on him, he asked him if he saw anything. 8.24. He looked up, and said, "I see men; for I see them like trees walking." 8.25. Then again he laid his hands on his eyes. He looked intently, and was restored, and saw everyone clearly. 8.26. He sent him away to his house, saying, "Don't enter into the village, nor tell anyone in the village." 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am?" 8.28. They told him, "John the Baptizer, and others say Elijah, but others: one of the prophets." 10.46. They came to Jericho. As he went out from Jericho, with his disciples and a great multitude, the son of Timaeus, Bartimaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the road. 10.47. When he heard that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to cry out, and say, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me!" 10.48. Many rebuked him, that he should be quiet, but he cried out much more, "You son of David, have mercy on me!" 10.49. Jesus stood still, and said, "Call him."They called the blind man, saying to him, "Cheer up! Get up. He is calling you!" 10.50. He, casting away his cloak, sprang up, and came to Jesus. 10.51. Jesus asked him, "What do you want me to do for you?"The blind man said to him, "Rhabboni, that I may see again." 10.52. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your faith has made you well." Immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.
42. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.79 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, in strabo Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 216
2.79. 7. However, I cannot but admire those other authors who furnished this man with such his materials; I mean Posidonius and Apollonius [the son of] Molo, who while they accuse us for not worshipping the same gods whom others worship, they think themselves not guilty of impiety when they tell lies of us, and frame absurd and reproachful stories about our temple; whereas it is a most shameful thing for freemen to forge lies on any occasion, and much more so to forge them about our temple, which was so famous over all the world, and was preserved so sacred by us;
43. Celsus, On Medicine, 3.18.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 317
3.18.12.  But certainly for all so affected sleep is both difficult and especially necessary; for under it many get well. Beneficial for this, as also for composing the mind itself, is saffron ointment with orris applied to the head. If in spite of this the patients are wakeful, some endeavour to induce sleep by draughts of decoction of poppy or hyoscyamus; others put mandrake apples under the pillow; others smear the forehead with cardamomum balsam or sycamine tears. This name I find used by practitioners, but there are no tears on the mulberry, although the Greeks call the mulberry sycaminon. What in fact is meant are the tears of a tree growing in Egypt, which they call in that country sycamoros. Many foment the face and head at intervals with a sponge dipped in a decoction of poppy heads. Asclepiades said that these things were of no benefit, because they often produced a change into lethargy (III.20); but he prescribed for the patient that during the first day he should keep from food, drink and sleep, in the evening water should be given him to drink, after which he should be rubbed with gentleness, but the rubber must not press hard even with the hand (II.14); during the day following the same was to be done, then in the evening gruel and water should be given and rubbing again applied: for by this he said we should succeed in bringing on sleep. This does happen sometimes, and to such a degree that Asclepiades allowed that excess of rubbing may even cause danger of lethargy. But if sleep does not thus occur, then at length it is to be procured by the above medicaments, having regard, of course, to the same moderation, which is necessary here also, for fear we may afterwards not be able to wake up the patient whom we wish to put to sleep. Sleep is also assisted by the sound of falling water near by, also rocking after food and at night, and especially the motion of a slung hammock (II.15). If blood has not been let before, and the patient's mind is unstable and sleep does not occur, it is not unfitting to apply a cup over an incision into the occiput, which can produce sleep because it relieves the disease. Now moderation in food is also to be observed: for the patient ought not to be surfeited lest it madden him, and he should certainly not be tormented by fasting lest he collapse through debility. The food should be light, in particular gruel, and hydromel for drink, of which three cups are enough, given twice a day in winter, and four times in summer.
44. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 2.106226, 3.12109, 4.726, 5.1161, 5.1570-3, 5.1572, 5.1573, 6.31-32133, 6.2373-4, 7.1565, 12.46-7100-103, 12.54111-15, 12.54111-23, 12.54115-16, 12.54117, 12.54118-23, 12.54118, 12.54118-19, 13.626-49, 13.626, 13.944, 19, 19.1747, 19.45156, 20.1531-43, 23.4-5, 23.19-2631-53, 23.28-854-9, 23.4792, 23.5197, 23.5298, 23.56105, 24.5694, 25.94147-50, 25.94149, 28.2380, 31-2, 31.4598, 35.5015, 35.51178, 35.52183-5, 37-40, 136, 146, 227-9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 233
45. Tacitus, Histories, 5.6-5.7, 5.6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, in strabo •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 146, 147, 183, 216, 230, 237, 311
5.6.  Their land is bounded by Arabia on the east, Egypt lies on the south, on the west are Phoenicia and the sea, and toward the north the people enjoy a wide prospect over Syria. The inhabitants are healthy and hardy. Rains are rare; the soil is fertile; its products are like ours, save that the balsam and the palm also grow there. The palm is a tall and handsome tree; the balsam a mere shrub: if a branch, when swollen with sap, is pierced with steel, the veins shrivel up; so a piece of stone or a potsherd is used to open them; the juice is employed by physicians. of the mountains, Lebanon rises to the greatest height, and is in fact a marvel, for in the midst of the excessive heat its summit is shaded by trees and covered with snow; it likewise is the source and supply of the river Jordan. This river does not empty into the sea, but after flowing with volume undiminished through two lakes is lost in the third. The last is a lake of great size: it is like the sea, but its water has a nauseous taste, and its offensive odour is injurious to those who live near it. Its waters are not moved by the wind, and neither fish nor water-fowl can live there. Its lifeless waves bear up whatever is thrown upon them as on a solid surface; all swimmers, whether skilled or not, are buoyed up by them. At a certain season of the year the sea throws up bitumen, and experience has taught the natives how to collect this, as she teaches all arts. Bitumen is by nature a dark fluid which coagulates when sprinkled with vinegar, and swims on the surface. Those whose business it is, catch hold of it with their hands and haul it on shipboard: then with no artificial aid the bitumen flows in and loads the ship until the stream is cut off. Yet you cannot use bronze or iron to cut the bituminous stream; it shrinks from blood or from a cloth stained with a woman's menses. Such is the story told by ancient writers, but those who are acquainted with the country aver that the floating masses of bitumen are driven by the winds or drawn by hand to shore, where later, after they have been dried by vapours from the earth or by the heat of the sun, they are split like timber or stone with axes and wedges. 5.7.  Not far from this lake is a plain which, according to report, was once fertile and the site of great cities, but which was later devastated by lightning; and it is said that traces of this disaster still exist there, and that the very ground looks burnt and has lost its fertility. In fact, all the plants there, whether wild or cultivated, turn black, become sterile, and seem to wither into dust, either in leaf or in flower or after they have reached their usual mature form. Now for my part, although I should grant that famous cities were once destroyed by fire from heaven, I still think that it is the exhalations from the lake that infect the ground and poison the atmosphere about this district, and that this is the reason that crops and fruits decay, since both soil and climate are deleterious. The river Belus also empties into the Jewish Sea; around its mouth a kind of sand is gathered, which when mixed with soda is fused into glass. The beach is of moderate size, but it furnishes an inexhaustible supply.
46. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, None (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 145
23.9.  Int. What you have said so far I think has been quite reasonable; but how are we to consider any spirit to be wicked and unjust and senseless, I am unable to say; and besides, it is not like you philosophers, if you really hold that the guiding spirit is divine, to assume any such thing. Dio. Well, just now I have not been expressing my own view for the most part except in this one matter — that I believe every wise man is fortunate and happy and he alone; but in everything else I have accepted the views of the majority of men, that I may not seem to be forcing my own views on them.
47. Dioscorides Pedanius, De Materia Medica, 1.18, 1.19.1, 1.73, 1.164, 2.101, 3.52, 3.160, 4.75-4.76, 5.123, 5.126-5.130 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 226, 229, 311, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320
48. New Testament, Matthew, 3.4, 9.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316, 319
3.4. Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἰωάνης εἶχεν τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τριχῶν καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ, ἡ δὲ τροφὴ ἦν αὐτοῦ ἀκρίδες καὶ μέλι ἄγριον. 9.27. Καὶ παράγοντι ἐκεῖθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠκολούθησαν δύο τυφλοὶ κράζοντες καὶ λέγοντες Ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, υἱὲ Δαυείδ. 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 9.27. As Jesus passed by from there, two blind men followed him, calling out and saying, "Have mercy on us, son of David!"
49. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.89, 1.104-1.106, 1.113, 1.138, 1.180, 1.361-1.362, 1.374, 1.386-1.396, 1.437, 1.656-1.659, 2.59, 2.69, 2.129, 2.135-2.136, 3.445-3.542, 4.7, 4.402-4.405, 4.439, 4.442, 4.451-4.485, 7.163-7.189, 7.252-7.404 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 135, 147, 219, 220, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234, 240, 241, 262, 269, 270, 304, 306, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322
1.89. And when he had slain more than six thousand of the rebels, he made an incursion into Arabia; and when he had taken that country, together with the Gileadites and Moabites, he enjoined them to pay him tribute, and returned to Amathus; and as Theodorus was surprised at his great success, he took the fortress, and demolished it. 1.104. But Alexander, when he had taken Pella, marched to Gerasa again, out of the covetous desire he had of Theodorus’s possessions; and when he had built a triple wall about the garrison, he took the place by force. 1.105. He also demolished Golan, and Seleucia, and what was called the Valley of Antiochus; besides which, he took the strong fortress of Gamala, and stripped Demetrius, who was governor therein, of what he had, on account of the many crimes laid to his charge, and then returned into Judea, after he had been three whole years in this expedition. And now he was kindly received of the nation, because of the good success he had. So when he was at rest from war, he fell into a distemper; 1.106. for he was afflicted with a quartan ague, and supposed that, by exercising himself again in martial affairs, he should get rid of this distemper; but by making such expeditions at unseasonable times, and forcing his body to undergo greater hardships than it was able to bear, he brought himself to his end. He died, therefore, in the midst of his troubles, after he had reigned seven and twenty years. 1.113. 3. Accordingly, they themselves slew Diogenes, a person of figure, and one that had been a friend to Alexander; and accused him as having assisted the king with his advice, for crucifying the eight hundred men [before mentioned]. They also prevailed with Alexandra to put to death the rest of those who had irritated him against them. Now, she was so superstitious as to comply with their desires, and accordingly they slew whom they pleased themselves. 1.138. 6. But Pompey did not give him time to make any preparations [for a siege], but followed him at his heels; he was also obliged to make haste in his attempt, by the death of Mithridates, of which he was informed about Jericho. Now here is the most fruitful country of Judea, which bears a vast number of palm trees besides the balsam tree, whose sprouts they cut with sharp stones, and at the incisions they gather the juice, which drops down like tears. 1.180. 9. But now Cassius, after Crassus, put a stop to the Parthians, who were marching in order to enter Syria. Cassius had fled into that province, and when he had taken possession of the same, he made a hasty march into Judea; and, upon his taking Taricheae, he carried thirty thousand Jews into slavery. He also slew Pitholaus, who had supported the seditious followers of Aristobulus; and it was Antipater who advised him so to do. 1.361. 5. Now as to these her injunctions to Antony, he complied in part; for though he esteemed it too abominable a thing to kill such good and great kings, yet was he thereby alienated from the friendship he had for them. He also took away a great deal of their country; nay, even the plantation of palm trees at Jericho, where also grows the balsam tree, and bestowed them upon her; as also all the cities on this side the river Eleutherus, Tyre and Sidon excepted. 1.362. And when she was become mistress of these, and had conducted Antony in his expedition against the Parthians as far as Euphrates, she came by Apamia and Damascus into Judea and there did Herod pacify her indignation at him by large presents. He also hired of her those places that had been torn away from his kingdom, at the yearly rent of two hundred talents. He conducted her also as far as Pelusium, and paid her all the respects possible. 1.374. but we may easily observe that fortune is mutable, and goes from one side to another; and this you may readily learn from examples among yourselves; for when you were once victors in the former fight, your enemies overcame you at last; and very likely it will now happen so, that these who think themselves sure of beating you will themselves be beaten. For when men are very confident, they are not upon their guard, while fear teaches men to act with caution; insomuch that I venture to prove from your very timorousness that you ought to take courage; 1.386. 1. But now Herod was under immediate concern about a most important affair, on account of his friendship with Antony, who was already overcome at Actium by Caesar; yet he was more afraid than hurt; for Caesar did not think he had quite undone Antony, while Herod continued his assistance to him. 1.387. However, the king resolved to expose himself to dangers: accordingly he sailed to Rhodes, where Caesar then abode, and came to him without his diadem, and in the habit and appearance of a private person, but in his behavior as a king. So he concealed nothing of the truth, but spoke thus before his face:— 1.388. “O Caesar, as I was made king of the Jews by Antony, so do I profess that I have used my royal authority in the best manner, and entirely for his advantage; nor will I conceal this further, that thou hadst certainly found me in arms, and an inseparable companion of his, had not the Arabians hindered me. However, I sent him as many auxiliaries as I was able, and many ten thousand [cori] of corn. Nay, indeed, I did not desert my benefactor after the blow that was given him at Actium; but I gave him the best advice I was able, 1.389. when I was no longer able to assist him in the war; and I told him that there was but one way of recovering his affairs, and that was to kill Cleopatra; and I promised him, that if she were once dead, I would afford him money and walls for his security, with an army and myself to assist him in his war against thee: 1.390. but his affections for Cleopatra stopped his ears, as did God himself also, who hath bestowed the government on thee. I own myself also to be overcome together with him; and with his last fortune I have laid aside my diadem, and am come hither to thee, having my hopes of safety in thy virtue; and I desire that thou wilt first consider how faithful a friend, and not whose friend, I have been.” 1.391. 2. Caesar replied to him thus:—“Nay, thou shalt not only be in safety, but thou shalt be a king; and that more firmly than thou wast before; for thou art worthy to reign over a great many subjects, by reason of the fastness of thy friendship; and do thou endeavor to be equally constant in thy friendship to me, upon my good success, which is what I depend upon from the generosity of thy disposition. However, Antony hath done well in preferring Cleopatra to thee; for by this means we have gained thee by her madness, 1.392. and thus thou hast begun to be my friend before I began to be thine; on which account Quintus Didius hath written to me that thou sentest him assistance against the gladiators. I do therefore assure thee that I will confirm the kingdom to thee by decree: I shall also endeavor to do thee some further kindness hereafter, that thou mayst find no loss in the want of Antony.” 1.393. 3. When Caesar had spoken such obliging things to the king, and had put the diadem again about his head, he proclaimed what he had bestowed on him by a decree, in which he enlarged in the commendation of the man after a magnificent manner. Whereupon Herod obliged him to be kind to him by the presents he gave him, and he desired him to forgive Alexander, one of Antony’s friends, who was become a supplicant to him. But Caesar’s anger against him prevailed, and he complained of the many and very great offenses the man whom he petitioned for had been guilty of; and by that means he rejected his petition. 1.394. After this, Caesar went for Egypt through Syria, when Herod received him with royal and rich entertainments; and then did he first of all ride along with Caesar, as he was reviewing his army about Ptolemais, and feasted him with all his friends, and then distributed among the rest of the army what was necessary to feast them withal. 1.395. He also made a plentiful provision of water for them, when they were to march as far as Pelusium, through a dry country, which he did also in like manner at their return thence; nor were there any necessaries wanting to that army. It was therefore the opinion, both of Caesar and of his soldiers, that Herod’s kingdom was too small for those generous presents he made them; 1.396. for which reason, when Caesar was come into Egypt, and Cleopatra and Antony were dead, he did not only bestow other marks of honor upon him, but made an addition to his kingdom, by giving him not only the country which had been taken from him by Cleopatra, but besides that, Gadara, and Hippos, and Samaria; and moreover, of the maritime cities, Gaza and Anthedon, and Joppa, and Strato’s Tower. 1.437. She had indeed but too just a cause of indignation from what he had done, while her boldness proceeded from his affection to her; so she openly reproached him with what he had done to her grandfather Hyrcanus, and to her brother Aristobulus; for he had not spared this Aristobulus, though he were but a child; for when he had given him the high priesthood at the age of seventeen, he slew him quickly after he had conferred that dignity upon him; but when Aristobulus had put on the holy vestments, and had approached to the altar at a festival, the multitude, in great crowds, fell into tears; whereupon the child was sent by night to Jericho, and was there dipped by the Galls, at Herod’s command, in a pool till he was drowned. 1.656. 5. After this, the distemper seized upon his whole body, and greatly disordered all its parts with various symptoms; for there was a gentle fever upon him, and an intolerable itching over all the surface of his body, and continual pains in his colon, and dropsical tumors about his feet, and an inflammation of the abdomen,—and a putrefaction of his privy member, that produced worms. Besides which he had a difficulty of breathing upon him, and could not breathe but when he sat upright, and had a convulsion of all his members, insomuch that the diviners said those diseases were a punishment upon him for what he had done to the Rabbins. 1.657. Yet did he struggle with his numerous disorders, and still had a desire to live, and hoped for recovery, and considered of several methods of cure. Accordingly, he went over Jordan, and made use of those hot baths at Callirrhoe, which ran into the lake Asphaltitis, but are themselves sweet enough to be drunk. And here the physicians thought proper to bathe his whole body in warm oil, by letting it down into a large vessel full of oil; whereupon his eyes failed him, and he came and went as if he was dying; 1.658. and as a tumult was then made by his servants, at their voice he revived again. Yet did he after this despair of recovery, and gave orders that each soldier should have fifty drachmae a piece, and that his commanders and friends should have great sums of money given them. 1.659. 6. He then returned back and came to Jericho, in such a melancholy state of body as almost threatened him with present death, when he proceeded to attempt a horrid wickedness; for he got together the most illustrious men of the whole Jewish nation, out of every village, into a place called the Hippodrome, and there shut them in. 2.59. His footmen were slain in the battle in abundance; Gratus also cut to pieces Simon himself, as he was flying along a strait valley, when he gave him an oblique stroke upon his neck, as he ran away, and broke it. The royal palaces that were near Jordan at Betharamptha were also burnt down by some other of the seditious that came out of Perea. 2.69. but as for Varus himself, he marched to Samaria with his whole army, where he did not meddle with the city itself, because he found that it had made no commotion during these troubles, but pitched his camp about a certain village which was called Arus. It belonged to Ptolemy, and on that account was plundered by the Arabians, who were very angry even at Herod’s friends also. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 3.445. But as soon as he was informed that Tiberias was fond of innovations, and that Taricheae had revolted, both which cities were parts of the kingdom of Agrippa, and was satisfied within himself that the Jews were everywhere perverted [from their obedience to their governors], he thought it seasonable to make an expedition against these cities, and that for the sake of Agrippa, and in order to bring his cities to reason. 3.446. So he sent away his son Titus to [the other] Caesarea, that he might bring the army that lay there to Scythopolis, which is the largest city of Decapolis, and in the neighborhood of Tiberias, 3.447. whither he came, and where he waited for his son. He then came with three legions, and pitched his camp thirty furlongs off Tiberias, at a certain station easily seen by the innovators; it is named Sennabris. 3.448. He also sent Valerian, a decurion, with fifty horsemen, to speak peaceably to those that were in the city, and to exhort them to give him assurances of their fidelity; for he had heard that the people were desirous of peace, but were obliged by some of the seditious part to join with them, and so were forced to fight for them. 3.449. When Valerian had marched up to the place, and was near the wall, he alighted off his horse, and made those that were with him do the same, that they might not be thought to come to skirmish with them; but before they could come to a discourse one with another, the most potent men among the seditious made a sally upon them armed; 3.450. their leader was one whose name was Jesus, the son of Shaphat, the principal head of a band of robbers. 3.451. Now Valerian, neither thinking it safe to fight contrary to the commands of the general, though he were secure of a victory, and knowing that it was a very hazardous undertaking for a few to fight with many, for those that were unprovided to fight those that were ready, 3.452. and being on other accounts surprised at this unexpected onset of the Jews, he ran away on foot, as did five of the rest in like manner, and left their horses behind them; which horses Jesus led away into the city, and rejoiced as if they had taken them in battle, and not by treachery. 3.453. 8. Now the seniors of the people, and such as were of principal authority among them, fearing what would be the issue of this matter, fled to the camp of the Romans; 3.454. they then took their king along with them, and fell down before Vespasian, to supplicate his favor, and besought him not to overlook them, nor to impute the madness of a few to the whole city, 3.455. to spare a people that had been ever civil and obliging to the Romans; but to bring the authors of this revolt to due punishment, who had hitherto so watched them, that though they were zealous to give them the security of their right hands of a long time, yet could they not accomplish the same. 3.456. With these supplications the general complied, although he were very angry at the whole city about the carrying off his horses, 3.457. and this because he saw that Agrippa was under a great concern for them. So when Vespasian and Agrippa had accepted of their right hands by way of security, Jesus and his party thought it not safe for them to continue at Tiberias, so they ran away to Taricheae. 3.458. The next day Vespasian sent Trajan before with some horsemen to the citadel, to make trial of the multitude, whether they were all disposed for peace; 3.459. and as soon as he knew that the people were of the same mind with the petitioner, he took his army, and went to the city; upon which the citizens opened to him their gates, and met him with acclamations of joy, and called him their savior and benefactor. 3.460. But as the army was a great while in getting in at the gates, they were so narrow, Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken down, and so made a broad passage for their entrance. 3.461. However, he charged them to abstain from rapine and injustice, in order to gratify the king; and on his account spared the rest of the wall, while the king undertook for them that they should continue [faithful to the Romans] for the time to come. And thus did he restore this city to a quiet state, after it had been grievously afflicted by the sedition. 3.462. 1. And now Vespasian pitched his camp between this city and Taricheae, but fortified his camp more strongly, as suspecting that he should be forced to stay there, and have a long war; 3.463. for all the innovators had gotten together at Taricheae, as relying upon the strength of the city, and on the lake that lay by it. This lake is called by the people of the country the Lake of Gennesareth. 3.464. The city itself is situated like Tiberias, at the bottom of a mountain, and on those sides which are not washed by the sea, had been strongly fortified by Josephus, though not so strongly as Tiberias; 3.465. for the wall of Tiberias had been built at the beginning of the Jews’ revolt, when he had great plenty of money, and great power, but Taricheae partook only the remains of that liberality. 3.466. Yet had they a great number of ships gotten ready upon the lake, that, in case they were beaten at land, they might retire to them; and they were so fitted up, that they might undertake a Sea-fight also. 3.467. But as the Romans were building a wall about their camp, Jesus and his party were neither affrighted at their number, nor at the good order they were in, but made a sally upon them; 3.468. and at the very first onset the builders of the wall were dispersed; and these pulled what little they had before built to pieces; but as soon as they saw the armed men getting together, and before they had suffered anything themselves, they retired to their own men. But then the Romans pursued them, and drove them into their ships, 3.469. where they launched out as far as might give them the opportunity of reaching the Romans with what they threw at them, and then cast anchor, and brought their ships close, as in a line of battle, and thence fought the enemy from the sea, who were themselves at land. 3.470. But Vespasian hearing that a great multitude of them were gotten together in the plain that was before the city, he thereupon sent his son, with six hundred chosen horsemen, to disperse them. 3.471. 2. But when Titus perceived that the enemy was very numerous, he sent to his father, and informed him that he should want more forces. But as he saw a great many of the horsemen eager to fight, and that before any succors could come to them, and that yet some of them were privately under a sort of consternation at the multitude of the Jews, he stood in a place whence he might be heard, and said to them, 3.472. “My brave Romans! for it is right for me to put you in mind of what nation you are, in the beginning of my speech, that so you may not be ignorant who you are, and who they are against whom we are going to fight. 3.473. For as to us, Romans, no part of the habitable earth hath been able to escape our hands hitherto; but as for the Jews, that I may speak of them too, though they have been already beaten, yet do they not give up the cause; and a sad thing it would be for us to grow weary under good success, when they bear up under their misfortunes. 3.474. As to the alacrity which you show publicly, I see it, and rejoice at it; yet am I afraid lest the multitude of the enemy should bring a concealed fright upon some of you: 3.475. let such a one consider again, who we are that are to fight, and who those are against whom we are to fight. Now these Jews, though they be very bold and great despisers of death, are but a disorderly body, and unskillful in war, and may rather be called a rout than an army; while I need say nothing of our skill and our good order; for this is the reason why we Romans alone are exercised for war in time of peace, that we may not think of number for number when we come to fight with our enemies: 3.476. for what advantage should we reap by our continual sort of warfare, if we must still be equal in number to such as have not been used to war. 3.477. Consider further, that you are to have a conflict with men in effect unarmed, while you are well armed; with footmen, while you are horsemen; with those that have no good general, while you have one; and as these advantages make you in effect manifold more than you are, so do their disadvantages mightily diminish their number. 3.478. Now it is not the multitude of men, though they be soldiers, that manages wars with success, but it is their bravery that does it, though they be but a few; for a few are easily set in battle-array, and can easily assist one another, while over-numerous armies are more hurt by themselves than by their enemies. 3.479. It is boldness and rashness, the effects of madness, that conduct of the Jews. Those passions indeed make a great figure when they succeed, but are quite extinguished upon the least ill success; but we are led on by courage, and obedience, and fortitude, which shows itself indeed in our good fortune, but still does not forever desert us in our ill fortune. 3.480. Nay, indeed, your fighting is to be on greater motives than those of the Jews; for although they run the hazard of war for liberty, and for their country, yet what can be a greater motive to us than glory? and that it may never be said, that after we have got dominion of the habitable earth, the Jews are able to confront us. 3.481. We must also reflect upon this, that there is no fear of our suffering any incurable disaster in the present case; for those that are ready to assist us are many, and at hand also; yet it is in our power to seize upon this victory ourselves; and I think we ought to prevent the coming of those my father is sending to us for our assistance, that our success may be peculiar to ourselves, and of greater reputation to us. 3.482. And I cannot but think this an opportunity wherein my father, and I, and you shall be all put to the trial, whether he be worthy of his former glorious performances, whether I be his son in reality, and whether you be really my soldiers; for it is usual for my father to conquer; and for myself, I should not bear the thoughts of returning to him if I were once taken by the enemy. 3.483. And how will you be able to avoid being ashamed, if you do not show equal courage with your commander, when he goes before you into danger? For you know very well that I shall go into the danger first, and make the first attack upon the enemy. 3.484. Do not you therefore desert me, but persuade yourselves that God will be assisting to my onset. Know this also before we begin, that we shall now have better success than we should have, if we were to fight at a distance.” 3.485. 3. As Titus was saying this, an extraordinary fury fell upon the men; and as Trajan was already come before the fight began, with four hundred horsemen, they were uneasy at it, because the reputation of the victory would be diminished by being common to so many. 3.486. Vespasian had also sent both Antonius and Silo, with two thousand archers, and had given it them in charge to seize upon the mountain that was over against the city, and repel those that were upon the wall; 3.487. which archers did as they were commanded, and prevented those that attempted to assist them that way; And now Titus made his own horse march first against the enemy, as did the others with a great noise after him, and extended themselves upon the plain as wide as the enemy which confronted them; by which means they appeared much more numerous than they really were. 3.488. Now the Jews, although they were surprised at their onset, and at their good order, made resistance against their attacks for a little while; but when they were pricked with their long poles, and overborne by the violent noise of the horsemen, they came to be trampled under their feet; 3.489. many also of them were slain on every side, which made them disperse themselves, and run to the city, as fast as every one of them were able. 3.490. So Titus pressed upon the hindmost, and slew them; and of the rest, some he fell upon as they stood on heaps, and some he prevented, and met them in the mouth, and run them through; many also he leaped upon as they fell one upon another, and trod them down, 3.491. and cut off all the retreat they had to the wall, and turned them back into the plain, till at last they forced a passage by their multitude, and got away, and ran into the city. 3.492. 4. But now there fell out a terrible sedition among them within the city; for the inhabitants themselves, who had possessions there, and to whom the city belonged, were not disposed to fight from the very beginning; and now the less so, because they had been beaten; 3.493. but the foreigners, which were very numerous, would force them to fight so much the more, insomuch that there was a clamor and a tumult among them, as all mutually angry one at another. 3.494. And when Titus heard this tumult, for he was not far from the wall, he cried out, “Fellow soldiers, now is the time; and why do we make any delay, when God is giving up the Jews to us? Take the victory which is given you: do not you hear what a noise they make? 3.495. Those that have escaped our hands are in an uproar against one another. We have the city if we make haste; but besides haste, we must undergo some labor, and use some courage; for no great thing uses to be accomplished without danger: 3.496. accordingly, we must not only prevent their uniting again, which necessity will soon compel them to do, but we must also prevent the coming of our own men to our assistance, that, as few as we are, we may conquer so great a multitude, and may ourselves alone take the city.” 3.497. 5. As soon as ever Titus had said this, he leaped upon his horse, and rode apace down to the lake; by which lake he marched, and entered into the city the first of them all, as did the others soon after him. 3.498. Hereupon those that were upon the walls were seized with a terror at the boldness of the attempt, nor durst anyone venture to fight with him, or to hinder him; so they left guarding the city, and some of those that were about Jesus fled over the country, 3.499. while others of them ran down to the lake, and met the enemy in the teeth, and some were slain as they were getting up into the ships, but others of them as they attempted to overtake those that were already gone abroad. 3.500. There was also a great slaughter made in the city, while those foreigners that had not fled away already made opposition; but the natural inhabitants were killed without fighting: for in hopes of Titus’s giving them his right hand for their security, and out of a consciousness that they had not given any consent to the war, they avoided fighting, 3.501. till Titus had slain the authors of this revolt, and then put a stop to any further slaughters, out of commiseration of these inhabitants of the place. 3.502. But for those that had fled to the lake, upon seeing the city taken, they sailed as far as they possibly could from the enemy. 3.503. 6. Hereupon Titus sent one of his horsemen to his father, and let him know the good news of what he had done; 3.504. at which, as was natural, he was very joyful, both on account of the courage and glorious actions of his son; for he thought that now the greatest part of the war was over. He then came thither himself, and set men to guard the city, and gave them command to take care that nobody got privately out of it, but to kill such as attempted so to do. 3.505. And on the next day he went down to the lake, and commanded that vessels should be fitted up, in order to pursue those that had escaped in the ships. These vessels were quickly gotten ready accordingly, because there was great plenty of materials, and a great number of artificers also. 3.506. 7. Now this lake of Gennesareth is so called from the country adjoining it. Its breadth is forty furlongs, and its length one hundred and forty; its waters are sweet, and very agreeable for drinking, 3.507. for they are finer than the thick waters of other fens; the lake is also pure, and on every side ends directly at the shores, and at the sand; it is also of a temperate nature when you draw it up, and of a more gentle nature than river or fountain water, and yet always cooler than one could expect in so diffuse a place as this is. 3.508. Now when this water is kept in the open air, it is as cold as that snow which the country people are accustomed to make by night in summer. There are several kinds of fish in it, different both to the taste and the sight from those elsewhere. 3.509. It is divided into two parts by the river Jordan. Now Panium is thought to be the fountain of Jordan, but in reality it is carried thither after an occult manner from the place called Phiala: 3.510. this place lies as you go up to Trachonitis, and is a hundred and twenty furlongs from Caesarea, and is not far out of the road on the right hand; 3.511. and indeed it hath its name of Phiala [vial or bowl] very justly, from the roundness of its circumference, as being round like a wheel; its water continues always up to its edges, without either sinking or running over. 3.512. And as this origin of Jordan was formerly not known, it was discovered so to be when Philip was tetrarch of Trachonitis; 3.513. for he had chaff thrown into Phiala, and it was found at Panium, where the ancients thought the fountainhead of the river was, whither it had been therefore carried [by the waters]. 3.514. As for Panium itself, its natural beauty had been improved by the royal liberality of Agrippa, and adorned at his expenses. 3.515. Now Jordan’s visible stream arises from this cavern, and divides the marshes and fens of the lake Semechonitis; when it hath run another hundred and twenty furlongs, it first passes by the city Julias, and then passes through the middle of the lake Gennesareth; after which it runs a long way over a desert, and then makes its exit into the lake Asphaltitis. 3.516. 8. The country also that lies over against this lake hath the same name of Gennesareth; its nature is wonderful as well as its beauty; its soil is so fruitful that all sorts of trees can grow upon it, and the inhabitants accordingly plant all sorts of trees there; for the temper of the air is so well mixed, that it agrees very well with those several sorts, 3.517. particularly walnuts, which require the coldest air, flourish there in vast plenty; there are palm trees also, which grow best in hot air; fig trees also and olives grow near them, which yet require an air that is more temperate. 3.518. One may call this place the ambition of nature, where it forces those plants that are naturally enemies to one another to agree together; it is a happy contention of the seasons, as if every one of them laid claim to this country; 3.519. for it not only nourishes different sorts of autumnal fruit beyond men’s expectation, but preserves them a great while; it supplies men with the principal fruits, with grapes and figs continually, during ten months of the year and the rest of the fruits as they become ripe together through the whole year; for besides the good temperature of the air, it is also watered from a most fertile fountain. The people of the country call it Capharnaum. 3.520. Some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria. 3.521. The length of this country extends itself along the banks of this lake that bears the same name for thirty furlongs, and is in breadth twenty, And this is the nature of that place. 3.522. 9. But now, when the vessels were gotten ready, Vespasian put upon shipboard as many of his forces as he thought sufficient to be too hard for those that were upon the lake, and set sail after them. Now these which were driven into the lake could neither fly to the land, where all was in their enemies’ hand, and in war against them; nor could they fight upon the level by sea, 3.523. for their ships were small and fitted only for piracy; they were too weak to fight with Vespasian’s vessels, and the mariners that were in them were so few, that they were afraid to come near the Romans, who attacked them in great numbers. 3.524. However, as they sailed round about the vessels, and sometimes as they came near them, they threw stones at the Romans when they were a good way off, or came closer and fought them; 3.525. yet did they receive the greatest harm themselves in both cases. As for the stones they threw at the Romans, they only made a sound one after another, for they threw them against such as were in their armor, while the Roman darts could reach the Jews themselves; and when they ventured to come near the Romans, they became sufferers themselves before they could do any harm to the other, and were drowned, they and their ships together. 3.526. As for those that endeavored to come to an actual fight, the Romans ran many of them through with their long poles. Sometimes the Romans leaped into their ships, with swords in their hands, and slew them; but when some of them met the vessels, the Romans caught them by the middle, and destroyed at once their ships and themselves who were taken in them. 3.527. And for such as were drowning in the sea, if they lifted their heads up above the water, they were either killed by darts, or caught by the vessels; but if, in the desperate case they were in, they attempted to swim to their enemies, the Romans cut off either their heads or their hands; 3.528. and indeed they were destroyed after various manners everywhere, till the rest being put to flight, were forced to get upon the land, while the vessels encompassed them about [on the sea]: 3.529. but as many of these were repulsed when they were getting ashore, they were killed by the darts upon the lake; and the Romans leaped out of their vessels, and destroyed a great many more upon the land: one might then see the lake all bloody, and full of dead bodies, for not one of them escaped. 3.530. And a terrible stink, and a very sad sight there was on the following days over that country; for as for the shores, they were full of shipwrecks, and of dead bodies all swelled; and as the dead bodies were inflamed by the sun, and putrefied, they corrupted the air, insomuch that the misery was not only the object of commiseration to the Jews, but to those that hated them, and had been the authors of that misery. 3.531. This was the upshot of the sea-fight. The number of the slain, including those that were killed in the city before, was six thousand and five hundred. 3.532. 10. After this fight was over, Vespasian sat upon his tribunal at Taricheae, in order to distinguish the foreigners from the old inhabitants; for those foreigners appear to have begun the war. So he deliberated with the other commanders, whether he ought to save those old inhabitants or not. 3.533. And when those commanders alleged that the dismission of them would be to his own disadvantage, because, when they were once set at liberty, they would not be at rest, since they would be people destitute of proper habitations, and would be able to compel such as they fled toto fight against us, 3.534. Vespasian acknowledged that they did not deserve to be saved, and that if they had leave given them to fly away, they would make use of it against those that gave them that leave. But still he considered with himself after what manner they should be slain; 3.535. for if he had them slain there, he suspected the people of the country would thereby become his enemies; for that to be sure they would never bear it, that so many that had been supplicants to him should be killed; and to offer violence to them, after he had given them assurances of their lives, he could not himself bear to do it. 3.536. However, his friends were too hard for him, and pretended that nothing against Jews could be any impiety, and that he ought to prefer what was profitable before what was fit to be done, where both could not be made consistent. 3.537. So he gave them an ambiguous liberty to do as they advised, and permitted the prisoners to go along no other road than that which led to Tiberias only. 3.538. So they readily believed what they desired to be true, and went along securely, with their effects, the way which was allowed them, while the Romans seized upon all the road that led to Tiberias, that none of them might go out of it, and shut them up in the city. 3.539. Then came Vespasian, and ordered them all to stand in the stadium, and commanded them to kill the old men, together with the others that were useless, which were in number a thousand and two hundred. 3.540. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus, and sold the remainder for slaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa; 3.541. for as to those that belonged to his kingdom, he gave him leave to do what he pleased with them; however, the king sold these also for slaves; 3.542. but for the rest of the multitude, who were Trachonites, and Gaulanites, and of Hippos, and some of Gadara, the greatest part of them were seditious persons and fugitives, who were of such shameful characters, that they preferred war before peace. These prisoners were taken on the eighth day of the month Gorpiaeus [Elul]. 4.7. On its acclivity, which is straight, houses are built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs so strangely, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itself, so sharp is it at the top. 4.402. and at the feast of unleavened bread, which the Jews celebrate in memory of their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, when they were sent back into the country of their forefathers, they came down by night, without being discovered by those that could have prevented them, and overran a certain small city called Engaddi:— 4.403. in which expedition they prevented those citizens that could have stopped them, before they could arm themselves, and fight them. They also dispersed them, and cast them out of the city. As for such as could not run away, being women and children, they slew of them above seven hundred. 4.404. Afterward, when they had carried everything out of their houses, and had seized upon all the fruits that were in a flourishing condition, they brought them into Masada. 4.405. And indeed these men laid all the villages that were about the fortress waste, and made the whole country desolate; while there came to them every day, from all parts, not a few men as corrupt as themselves. 4.439. He then put his soldiers on board the ships, and slew such as had fled to the lake, insomuch that all Perea had either surrendered themselves, or were taken by the Romans, as far as Macherus. 4.442. while therefore the winter was his hinderance [from going into the field], he put garrisons into the villages and smaller cities for their security; he put decurions also into the villages, and centurions into the cities: he besides this rebuilt many of the cities that had been laid waste; 4.451. 2. Hereupon a great multitude prevented their approach, and came out of Jericho, and fled to those mountainous parts that lay over against Jerusalem, while that part which was left behind was in a great measure destroyed; 4.452. they also found the city desolate. It is situated in a plain; but a naked and barren mountain, of a very great length, hangs over it, 4.453. which extends itself to the land about Scythopolis northward, but as far as the country of Sodom, and the utmost limits of the lake Asphaltitis, southward. This mountain is all of it very uneven and uninhabited, by reason of its barrenness: 4.454. there is an opposite mountain that is situated over against it, on the other side of Jordan; this last begins at Julias, and the northern quarters, and extends itself southward as far as Somorrhon, which is the bounds of Petra, in Arabia. In this ridge of mountains there is one called the Iron Mountain, that runs in length as far as Moab. 4.455. Now the region that lies in the middle between these ridges of mountains is called the Great Plain; it reaches from the village Ginnabris, as far as the lake Asphaltitis; 4.456. its length is two hundred and thirty furlongs, and its breadth a hundred and twenty, and it is divided in the midst by Jordan. It hath two lakes in it, that of Asphaltitis, and that of Tiberias, whose natures are opposite to each other; for the former is salt and unfruitful, but that of Tiberias is sweet and fruitful. 4.457. This plain is much burnt up in summertime, and, by reason of the extraordinary heat, contains a very unwholesome air; 4.458. it is all destitute of water excepting the river Jordan, which water of Jordan is the occasion why those plantations of palm trees that are near its banks are more flourishing, and much more fruitful, as are those that are remote from it not so flourishing, or fruitful. 4.459. 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.460. The report is, that this fountain, at the beginning, caused not only the blasting of the earth and the trees, but of the children born of women, and that it was entirely of a sickly and corruptive nature to all things whatsoever; but that it was made gentle, and very wholesome and fruitful, by the prophet Elisha. This prophet was familiar with Elijah, and was his successor, 4.461. who, when he once was the guest of the people at Jericho, and the men of the place had treated him very kindly, he both made them amends as well as the country, by a lasting favor; 4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.465. Accordingly, the power of it is so great in watering the ground, that if it does but once touch a country, it affords a sweeter nourishment than other waters do, when they lie so long upon them, till they are satiated with them. 4.466. For which reason, the advantage gained from other waters, when they flow in great plenty, is but small, while that of this water is great when it flows even in little quantities. 4.467. Accordingly, it waters a larger space of ground than any other waters do, and passes along a plain of seventy furlongs long, and twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. 4.468. There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. 4.469. This country withal produces honey from bees; it also bears that balsam which is the most precious of all the fruits in that place, cypress trees also, and those that bear myrobalanum; so that he who should pronounce this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced as are very rare, and of the most excellent sort. 4.470. And indeed, if we speak of those other fruits, it will not be easy to light on any climate in the habitable earth that can well be compared to it,—what is here sown comes up in such clusters; 4.471. the cause of which seems to me to be the warmth of the air, and the fertility of the waters; the warmth calling forth the sprouts, and making them spread, and the moisture making every one of them take root firmly, and supplying that virtue which it stands in need of in summertime. Now this country is then so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it; 4.472. and if the water be drawn up before sunrising, and after that exposed to the air, it becomes exceeding cold, and becomes of a nature quite contrary to the ambient air; 4.473. as in winter again it becomes warm; and if you go into it, it appears very gentle. The ambient air is here also of so good a temperature, that the people of the country are clothed in linen-only, even when snow covers the rest of Judea. 4.474. This place is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The country, as far as Jerusalem, is desert and stony; but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asphaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be equally desert and barren. 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation. 4.476. 4. The nature of the lake Asphaltitis is also worth describing. It is, as I have said already, bitter and unfruitful. It is so light [or thick] that it bears up the heaviest things that are thrown into it; nor is it easy for anyone to make things sink therein to the bottom, if he had a mind so to do. 4.477. Accordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, he commanded that some who could not swim should have their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep, when it so happened that they all swam as if a wind had forced them upwards. 4.478. Moreover, the change of the color of this lake is wonderful, for it changes its appearance thrice every day; and as the rays of the sun fall differently upon it, the light is variously reflected. 4.479. However, it casts up black clods of bitumen in many parts of it; these swim at the top of the water, and resemble both in shape and bigness headless bulls; 4.480. and when the laborers that belong to the lake come to it, and catch hold of it as it hangs together, they draw it into their ships; but when the ship is full, it is not easy to cut off the rest, for it is so tenacious as to make the ship hang upon its clods till they set it loose with the menstrual blood of women, and with urine, to which alone it yields. 4.481. This bitumen is not only useful for the caulking of ships, but for the cure of men’s bodies; accordingly, it is mixed in a great many medicines. 4.482. The length of this lake is five hundred and eighty furlongs, where it is extended as far as Zoar in Arabia; and its breadth is a hundred and fifty. 4.483. The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484. It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces [or shadows] of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. 4.485. And thus what is related of this land of Sodom hath these marks of credibility which our very sight affords us. 7.163. 1. Now Lucilius Bassus was sent as legate into Judea, and there he received the army from Cerealis Vitellius, and took that citadel which was in Herodium, together with the garrison that was in it; 7.164. after which he got together all the soldiery that was there (which was a large body, but dispersed into several parties), with the tenth legion, and resolved to make war upon Macherus; for it was highly necessary that this citadel should be demolished, lest it might be a means of drawing away many into a rebellion, by reason of its strength; 7.165. for the nature of the place was very capable of affording the surest hopes of safety to those that possessed it, as well as delay and fear to those that should attack it; 7.166. for what was walled in was itself a very rocky hill, elevated to a very great height; which circumstance alone made it very hard to be subdued. It was also so contrived by nature, that it could not be easily ascended; 7.167. for it is, as it were, ditched about with such valleys on all sides, and to such a depth, that the eye cannot reach their bottoms, and such as are not easily to be passed over, and even such as it is impossible to fill up with earth. 7.168. For that valley which cuts it on the west extends to threescore furlongs, and did not end till it came to the lake Asphaltitis; on the same side it was also that Macherus had the tallest top of its hill elevated above the rest. 7.169. But then for the valleys that lay on the north and south sides, although they be not so large as that already described, yet it is in like manner an impracticable thing to think of getting over them; 7.170. and for the valley that lies on the east side, its depth is found to be no less than a hundred cubits. It extends as far as a mountain that lies over against Macherus, with which it is bounded. 7.171. 2. Now when Alexander [Janneus], the king of the Jews, observed the nature of this place, he was the first who built a citadel here, which afterwards was demolished by Gabinius, when he made war against Aristobulus. 7.172. But when Herod came to be king, he thought the place to be worthy of the utmost regard, and of being built upon in the firmest manner, and this especially because it lay so near to Arabia; for it is seated in a convenient place on that account, and hath a prospect toward that country; 7.173. he therefore surrounded a large space of ground with walls and towers, and built a city there, out of which city there was a way that led up to the very citadel itself on the top of the mountain; 7.174. nay, more than this, he built a wall round that top of the hill, and erected towers at the corners, of a hundred and sixty cubits high; 7.175. in the middle of which place he built a palace, after a magnificent manner, wherein were large and beautiful edifices. 7.176. He also made a great many reservoirs for the reception of water, that there might be plenty of it ready for all uses, and those in the properest places that were afforded him there. Thus did he, as it were, contend with the nature of the place, that he might exceed its natural strength and security (which yet itself rendered it hard to be taken) by those fortifications which were made by the hands of men. 7.177. Moreover, he put a large quantity of darts and other machines of war into it, and contrived to get everything thither that might any way contribute to its inhabitants’ security, under the longest siege possible. 7.178. 3. Now within this place there grew a sort of rue that deserves our wonder on account of its largeness, for it was no way inferior to any fig tree whatsoever, either in height or in thickness; 7.179. and the report is, that it had lasted ever since the times of Herod, and would probably have lasted much longer, had it not been cut down by those Jews who took possession of the place afterwards. 7.180. But still in that valley which encompasses the city on the north side there is a certain place called Baaras, which produces a root of the same name with itself; 7.181. its color is like to that of flame, and towards the evenings it sends out a certain ray like lightning. It is not easily taken by such as would do it, but recedes from their hands, nor will yield itself to be taken quietly, until either the urine of a woman, or her menstrual blood, be poured upon it; 7.182. nay, even then it is certain death to those that touch it, unless anyone take and hang the root itself down from his hand, and so carry it away. 7.183. It may also be taken another way, without danger, which is this: they dig a trench quite round about it, till the hidden part of the root be very small, 7.184. they then tie a dog to it, and when the dog tries hard to follow him that tied him, this root is easily plucked up, but the dog dies immediately, as if it were instead of the man that would take the plant away; nor after this need anyone be afraid of taking it into their hands. 7.185. Yet, after all this pains in getting, it is only valuable on account of one virtue it hath, that if it be only brought to sick persons, it quickly drives away those called demons, which are no other than the spirits of the wicked, that enter into men that are alive and kill them, unless they can obtain some help against them. 7.186. Here are also fountains of hot water, that flow out of this place, which have a very different taste one from the other; for some of them are bitter, and others of them are plainly sweet. 7.187. Here are also many eruptions of cold waters, and this not only in the places that lie lower, and have their fountains near one another, 7.188. but, what is still more wonderful, here is to be seen a certain cave hard by, whose cavity is not deep, but it is covered over by a rock that is prominent; 7.189. above this rock there stand up two [hills or] breasts, as it were, but a little distant one from another, the one of which sends out a fountain that is very cold, and the other sends out one that is very hot; which waters, when they are mingled together, compose a most pleasant bath; they are medicinal indeed for other maladies, but especially good for strengthening the nerves. This place has in it also mines of sulfur and alum. 7.252. 1. When Bassus was dead in Judea, Flavius Silva succeeded him as procurator there; who, when he saw that all the rest of the country was subdued in this war, and that there was but one only stronghold that was still in rebellion, he got all his army together that lay in different places, and made an expedition against it. This fortress was called Masada. 7.253. It was one Eleazar, a potent man, and the commander of these Sicarii, that had seized upon it. He was a descendant from that Judas who had persuaded abundance of the Jews, as we have formerly related, not to submit to the taxation when Cyrenius was sent into Judea to make one; 7.254. for then it was that the Sicarii got together against those that were willing to submit to the Romans, and treated them in all respects as if they had been their enemies, both by plundering them of what they had, by driving away their cattle, and by setting fire to their houses; 7.255. for they said that they differed not at all from foreigners, by betraying, in so cowardly a manner, that freedom which Jews thought worthy to be contended for to the utmost, and by owning that they preferred slavery under the Romans before such a contention. 7.256. Now this was in reality no better than a pretense and a cloak for the barbarity which was made use of by them, and to color over their own avarice, which they afterwards made evident by their own actions; 7.257. for those that were partners with them in their rebellion joined also with them in the war against the Romans, and went further lengths with them in their impudent undertakings against them; 7.258. and when they were again convicted of dissembling in such their pretenses, they still more abused those that justly reproached them for their wickedness. 7.259. And indeed that was a time most fertile in all manner of wicked practices, insomuch that no kind of evil deeds were then left undone; nor could anyone so much as devise any bad thing that was new, 7.260. o deeply were they all infected, and strove with one another in their single capacity, and in their communities, who should run the greatest lengths in impiety towards God, and in unjust actions towards their neighbors; the men of power oppressing the multitude, and the multitude earnestly laboring to destroy the men of power. 7.261. The one part were desirous of tyrannizing over others, and the rest of offering violence to others, and of plundering such as were richer than themselves. 7.262. They were the Sicarii who first began these transgressions, and first became barbarous towards those allied to them, and left no words of reproach unsaid, and no works of perdition untried, in order to destroy those whom their contrivances affected. 7.263. Yet did John demonstrate by his actions that these Sicarii were more moderate than he was himself, for he not only slew all such as gave him good counsel to do what was right, but treated them worst of all, as the most bitter enemies that he had among all the Citizens; nay, he filled his entire country with ten thousand instances of wickedness, such as a man who was already hardened sufficiently in his impiety towards God would naturally do; 7.264. for the food was unlawful that was set upon his table, and he rejected those purifications that the law of his country had ordained; so that it was no longer a wonder if he, who was so mad in his impiety towards God, did not observe any rules of gentleness and common affection towards men. 7.265. Again, therefore, what mischief was there which Simon the son of Gioras did not do? or what kind of abuses did he abstain from as to those very free-men who had set him up for a tyrant? 7.266. What friendship or kindred were there that did not make him more bold in his daily murders? for they looked upon the doing of mischief to strangers only as a work beneath their courage, but thought their barbarity towards their nearest relations would be a glorious demonstration thereof. 7.267. The Idumeans also strove with these men who should be guilty of the greatest madness! for they [all], vile wretches as they were, cut the throats of the high priests, that so no part of a religious regard to God might be preserved; they thence proceeded to destroy utterly the least remains of a political government, 7.268. and introduced the most complete scene of iniquity in all instances that were practicable; under which scene that sort of people that were called zealots grew up, and who indeed corresponded to the name; 7.269. for they imitated every wicked work; nor, if their memory suggested any evil thing that had formerly been done, did they avoid zealously to pursue the same; 7.270. and although they gave themselves that name from their zeal for what was good, yet did it agree to them only by way of irony, on account of those they had unjustly treated by their wild and brutish disposition, or as thinking the greatest mischiefs to be the greatest good. 7.271. Accordingly, they all met with such ends as God deservedly brought upon them in way of punishment; 7.272. for all such miseries have been sent upon them as man’s nature is capable of undergoing, till the utmost period of their lives, and till death came upon them in various ways of torment; 7.273. yet might one say justly that they suffered less than they had done, because it was impossible they could be punished according to their deserving. 7.274. But to make a lamentation according to the deserts of those who fell under these men’s barbarity, this is not a proper place for it;—I therefore now return again to the remaining part of the present narration. 7.275. 2. For now it was that the Roman general came, and led his army against Eleazar and those Sicarii who held the fortress Masada together with him; and for the whole country adjoining, he presently gained it, and put garrisons into the most proper places of it; 7.276. he also built a wall quite round the entire fortress, that none of the besieged might easily escape; he also set his men to guard the several parts of it; 7.277. he also pitched his camp in such an agreeable place as he had chosen for the siege, and at which place the rock belonging to the fortress did make the nearest approach to the neighboring mountain, which yet was a place of difficulty for getting plenty of provisions; 7.278. for it was not only food that was to be brought from a great distance [to the army], and this with a great deal of pain to those Jews who were appointed for that purpose, but water was also to be brought to the camp, because the place afforded no fountain that was near it. 7.279. When therefore Silva had ordered these affairs beforehand, he fell to besieging the place; which siege was likely to stand in need of a great deal of skill and pains, by reason of the strength of the fortress, the nature of which I will now describe. 7.280. 3. There was a rock, not small in circumference, and very high. It was encompassed with valleys of such vast depth downward, that the eye could not reach their bottoms; they were abrupt, and such as no animal could walk upon, excepting at two places of the rock, where it subsides, in order to afford a passage for ascent, though not without difficulty. 7.281. Now, of the ways that lead to it, one is that from the lake Asphaltitis, towards the sunrising, and another on the west, where the ascent is easier: 7.282. the one of these ways is called the Serpent, as resembling that animal in its narrowness and its perpetual windings; for it is broken off at the prominent precipices of the rock, and returns frequently into itself, and lengthening again by little and little, hath much ado to proceed forward; 7.283. and he that would walk along it must first go on one leg, and then on the other; there is also nothing but destruction, in case your feet slip; for on each side there is a vastly deep chasm and precipice, sufficient to quell the courage of everybody by the terror it infuses into the mind. 7.284. When, therefore, a man hath gone along this way for thirty furlongs, the rest is the top of the hill—not ending at a small point, but is no other than a plain upon the highest part of the mountain. 7.285. Upon this top of the hill, Jonathan the high priest first of all built a fortress, and called it Masada: after which the rebuilding of this place employed the care of king Herod to a great degree; 7.286. he also built a wall round about the entire top of the hill, seven furlongs long; it was composed of white stone; its height was twelve, and its breadth eight cubits; 7.287. there were also erected upon that wall thirty-eight towers, each of them fifty cubits high; out of which you might pass into lesser edifices, which were built on the inside, round the entire wall; 7.288. for the king reserved the top of the hill, which was of a fat soil, and better mould than any valley for agriculture, that such as committed themselves to this fortress for their preservation might not even there be quite destitute of food, in case they should ever be in want of it from abroad. 7.289. Moreover, he built a palace therein at the western ascent; it was within and beneath the walls of the citadel, but inclined to its north side. Now the wall of this palace was very high and strong, and had at its four corners towers sixty cubits high. 7.290. The furniture also of the edifices, and of the cloisters, and of the baths, was of great variety, and very costly; and these buildings were supported by pillars of single stones on every side; the walls and also the floors of the edifices were paved with stones of several colors. He also had cut many and great pits, as reservoirs for water, out of the rocks, 7.291. at every one of the places that were inhabited, both above and round about the palace, and before the wall; and by this contrivance he endeavored to have water for several uses, as if there had been fountains there. 7.292. Here was also a road digged from the palace, and leading to the very top of the mountain, which yet could not be seen by such as were without [the walls]; nor indeed could enemies easily make use of the plain roads; 7.293. for the road on the east side, as we have already taken notice, could not be walked upon, by reason of its nature; and for the western road, he built a large tower at its narrowest place, at no less a distance from the top of the hill than a thousand cubits; which tower could not possibly be passed by, nor could it be easily taken; nor indeed could those that walked along it without any fear (such was its contrivance) easily get to the end of it; 7.294. and after such a manner was this citadel fortified, both by nature and by the hands of men, in order to frustrate the attacks of enemies. 7.295. 4. As for the furniture that was within this fortress, it was still more wonderful on account of its splendor and long continuance; 7.296. for here was laid up corn in large quantities, and such as would subsist men for a long time; here was also wine and oil in abundance, with all kinds of pulse and dates heaped up together; 7.297. all which Eleazar found there, when he and his Sicarii got possession of the fortress by treachery. These fruits were also fresh and full ripe, and no way inferior to such fruits newly laid in, although they were little short of a hundred years from the laying in these provisions [by Herod], till the place was taken by the Romans; nay, indeed, when the Romans got possession of those fruits that were left, they found them not corrupted all that while; 7.298. nor should we be mistaken, if we supposed that the air was here the cause of their enduring so long; this fortress being so high, and so free from the mixture of all terrene and muddy particles of matter. 7.299. There was also found here a large quantity of all sorts of weapons of war, which had been treasured up by that king, and were sufficient for ten thousand men; there was cast iron, and brass, and tin, which show that he had taken much pains to have all things here ready for the greatest occasions; 7.300. for the report goes how Herod thus prepared this fortress on his own account, as a refuge against two kinds of danger; the one for fear of the multitude of the Jews, lest they should depose him, and restore their former kings to the government; the other danger was greater and more terrible, which arose from Cleopatra queen of Egypt, 7.301. who did not conceal her intentions, but spoke often to Antony, and desired him to cut off Herod, and entreated him to bestow the kingdom of Judea upon her. 7.302. And certainly it is a great wonder that Antony did never comply with her commands in this point, as he was so miserably enslaved to his passion for her; nor should anyone have been surprised if she had been gratified in such her request. 7.303. So the fear of these dangers made Herod rebuild Masada, and thereby leave it for the finishing stroke of the Romans in this Jewish war. 7.304. 5. Since therefore the Roman commander Silva had now built a wall on the outside, round about this whole place, as we have said already, and had thereby made a most accurate provision to prevent anyone of the besieged running away, he undertook the siege itself, though he found but one single place that would admit of the banks he was to raise; 7.305. for behind that tower which secured the road that led to the palace, and to the top of the hill from the west; there was a certain eminency of the rock, very broad and very prominent, but three hundred cubits beneath the highest part of Masada; it was called the White Promontory. 7.306. Accordingly, he got upon that part of the rock, and ordered the army to bring earth; and when they fell to that work with alacrity, and abundance of them together, the bank was raised, and became solid for two hundred cubits in height. 7.307. Yet was not this bank thought sufficiently high for the use of the engines that were to be set upon it; but still another elevated work of great stones compacted together was raised upon that bank; this was fifty cubits, both in breadth and height. 7.308. The other machines that were now got ready were like to those that had been first devised by Vespasian, and afterward by Titus, for sieges. 7.309. There was also a tower made of the height of sixty cubits, and all over plated with iron, out of which the Romans threw darts and stones from the engines, and soon made those that fought from the walls of the place to retire, and would not let them lift up their heads above the works. 7.310. At the same time Silva ordered that great battering-ram which he had made to be brought thither, and to be set against the wall, and to make frequent batteries against it, which with some difficulty broke down a part of the wall, and quite overthrew it. 7.311. However, the Sicarii made haste, and presently built another wall within that, which should not be liable to the same misfortune from the machines with the other; it was made soft and yielding, and so was capable of avoiding the terrible blows that affected the other. It was framed after the following manner: 7.312. They laid together great beams of wood lengthways, one close to the end of another, and the same way in which they were cut: there were two of these rows parallel to one another, and laid at such a distance from each other as the breadth of the wall required, and earth was put into the space between those rows. 7.313. Now, that the earth might not fall away upon the elevation of this bank to a greater height, they further laid other beams over across them, and thereby bound those beams together that lay lengthways. 7.314. This work of theirs was like a real edifice; and when the machines were applied, the blows were weakened by its yielding; and as the materials by such concussion were shaken closer together, the pile by that means became firmer than before. 7.315. When Silva saw this, he thought it best to endeavor the taking of this wall by setting fire to it; so he gave order that the soldiers should throw a great number of burning torches upon it: 7.316. accordingly, as it was chiefly made of wood, it soon took fire; and when it was once set on fire, its hollowness made that fire spread to a mighty flame. 7.317. Now, at the very beginning of this fire, a north wind that then blew proved terrible to the Romans; for by bringing the flame downward, it drove it upon them, and they were almost in despair of success, as fearing their machines would be burnt: 7.318. but after this, on a sudden the wind changed into the south, as if it were done by Divine Providence, and blew strongly the contrary way, and carried the flame, and drove it against the wall, which was now on fire through its entire thickness. 7.319. So the Romans, having now assistance from God, returned to their camp with joy, and resolved to attack their enemies the very next day; on which occasion they set their watch more carefully that night, lest any of the Jews should run away from them without being discovered. 7.320. 6. However, neither did Eleazar once think of flying away, nor would he permit anyone else to do so; 7.321. but when he saw their wall burned down by the fire, and could devise no other way of escaping, or room for their further courage, and setting before their eyes what the Romans would do to them, their children, and their wives, if they got them into their power, he consulted about having them all slain. 7.322. Now, as he judged this to be the best thing they could do in their present circumstances, he gathered the most courageous of his companions together, and encouraged them to take that course by a speech which he made to them in the manner following: 7.323. “Since we, long ago, my generous friends, resolved never to be servants to the Romans, nor to any other than to God himself, who alone is the true and just Lord of mankind, the time is now come that obliges us to make that resolution true in practice. 7.324. And let us not at this time bring a reproach upon ourselves for self-contradiction, while we formerly would not undergo slavery, though it were then without danger, but must now, together with slavery, choose such punishments also as are intolerable; I mean this, upon the supposition that the Romans once reduce us under their power while we are alive. We were the very first that revolted from them, and we are the last that fight against them; 7.325. and I cannot but esteem it as a favor that God hath granted us, that it is still in our power to die bravely, and in a state of freedom, which hath not been the case of others, who were conquered unexpectedly. 7.326. It is very plain that we shall be taken within a day’s time; but it is still an eligible thing to die after a glorious manner, together with our dearest friends. This is what our enemies themselves cannot by any means hinder, although they be very desirous to take us alive. Nor can we propose to ourselves any more to fight them, and beat them. 7.327. It had been proper indeed for us to have conjectured at the purpose of God much sooner, and at the very first, when we were so desirous of defending our liberty, and when we received such sore treatment from one another, and worse treatment from our enemies, and to have been sensible that the same God, who had of old taken the Jewish nation into his favor, had now condemned them to destruction; 7.328. for had he either continued favorable, or been but in a lesser degree displeased with us, he had not overlooked the destruction of so many men, or delivered his most holy city to be burnt and demolished by our enemies. 7.329. To be sure we weakly hoped to have preserved ourselves, and ourselves alone, still in a state of freedom, as if we had been guilty of no sins ourselves against God, nor been partners with those of others; we also taught other men to preserve their liberty. 7.330. Wherefore, consider how God hath convinced us that our hopes were in vain, by bringing such distress upon us in the desperate state we are now in, and which is beyond all our expectations; 7.331. for the nature of this fortress which was in itself unconquerable, hath not proved a means of our deliverance; and even while we have still great abundance of food, and a great quantity of arms, and other necessaries more than we want, we are openly deprived by God himself of all hope of deliverance; 7.332. for that fire which was driven upon our enemies did not of its own accord turn back upon the wall which we had built; this was the effect of God’s anger against us for our manifold sins, which we have been guilty of in a most insolent and extravagant manner with regard to our own countrymen; 7.333. the punishments of which let us not receive from the Romans, but from God himself, as executed by our own hands; for these will be more moderate than the other. 7.334. Let our wives die before they are abused, and our children before they have tasted of slavery; and after we have slain them, let us bestow that glorious benefit upon one another mutually, and preserve ourselves in freedom, as an excellent funeral monument for us. 7.335. But first let us destroy our money and the fortress by fire; for I am well assured that this will be a great grief to the Romans, that they shall not be able to seize upon our bodies, and shall fail of our wealth also; 7.336. and let us spare nothing but our provisions; for they will be a testimonial when we are dead that we were not subdued for want of necessaries, but that, according to our original resolution, we have preferred death before slavery.” 7.337. 7. This was Eleazar’s speech to them. Yet did not the opinions of all the auditors acquiesce therein; but although some of them were very zealous to put his advice in practice, and were in a manner filled with pleasure at it, and thought death to be a good thing, 7.338. yet had those that were most effeminate a commiseration for their wives and families; and when these men were especially moved by the prospect of their own certain death, they looked wistfully at one another, and by the tears that were in their eyes declared their dissent from his opinion. 7.339. When Eleazar saw these people in such fear, and that their souls were dejected at so prodigious a proposal, he was afraid lest perhaps these effeminate persons should, by their lamentations and tears, enfeeble those that heard what he had said courageously; 7.340. o he did not leave off exhorting them, but stirred up himself, and recollecting proper arguments for raising their courage, he undertook to speak more briskly and fully to them, and that concerning the immortality of the soul. 7.341. So he made a lamentable groan, and fixing his eyes intently on those that wept, he spake thus:—“Truly, I was greatly mistaken when I thought to be assisting to brave men who struggled hard for their liberty, and to such as were resolved either to live with honor, or else to die; 7.342. but I find that you are such people as are no better than others, either in virtue or in courage, and are afraid of dying, though you be delivered thereby from the greatest miseries, while you ought to make no delay in this matter, nor to await anyone to give you good advice; 7.343. for the laws of our country, and of God himself, have from ancient times, and as soon as ever we could use our reason, continually taught us, and our forefathers have corroborated the same doctrine by their actions, and by their bravery of mind, that it is life that is a calamity to men, and not death; 7.344. for this last affords our souls their liberty, and sends them by a removal into their own place of purity, where they are to be insensible of all sorts of misery; for while souls are tied down to a mortal body, they are partakers of its miseries; and really, to speak the truth, they are themselves dead; for the union of what is divine to what is mortal is disagreeable. 7.345. It is true, the power of the soul is great, even when it is imprisoned in a mortal body; for by moving it after a way that is invisible, it makes the body a sensible instrument, and causes it to advance further in its actions than mortal nature could otherwise do. 7.346. However, when it is freed from that weight which draws it down to the earth and is connected with it, it obtains its own proper place, and does then become a partaker of that blessed power, and those abilities, which are then every way incapable of being hindered in their operations. It continues invisible, indeed, to the eyes of men, as does God himself; 7.347. for certainly it is not itself seen while it is in the body; for it is there after an invisible manner, and when it is freed from it, it is still not seen. It is this soul which hath one nature, and that an incorruptible one also; but yet it is the cause of the change that is made in the body; 7.348. for whatsoever it be which the soul touches, that lives and flourishes; and from whatsoever it is removed, that withers away and dies; such a degree is there in it of immortality. 7.349. Let me produce the state of sleep as a most evident demonstration of the truth of what I say; wherein souls, when the body does not distract them, have the sweetest rest depending on themselves, and conversing with God, by their alliance to him; they then go everywhere, and foretell many futurities beforehand. 7.350. And why are we afraid of death, while we are pleased with the rest that we have in sleep? And how absurd a thing is it to pursue after liberty while we are alive, and yet to envy it to ourselves where it will be eternal! 7.351. We, therefore, who have been brought up in a discipline of our own, ought to become an example to others of our readiness to die; yet if we dostand in need of foreigners to support us in this matter, let us regard those Indians who profess the exercise of philosophy; 7.352. for these good men do but unwillingly undergo the time of life, and look upon it as a necessary servitude, 7.353. and make haste to let their souls loose from their bodies; nay, when no misfortune presses them to it, nor drives them upon it, these have such a desire of a life of immortality, that they tell other men beforehand that they are about to depart; and nobody hinders them, but everyone thinks them happy men, and gives them letters to be carried to their familiar friends [that are dead]; 7.354. o firmly and certainly do they believe that souls converse with one another [in the other world]. 7.355. So when these men have heard all such commands that were to be given them, they deliver their body to the fire; and, in order to their getting their soul a separation from the body in the greatest purity, they die in the midst of hymns of commendations made to them; 7.356. for their dearest friends conduct them to their death more readily than do any of the rest of mankind conduct their fellow-citizens when they are going a very long journey, who at the same time weep on their own account, but look upon the others as happy persons, as so soon to be made partakers of the immortal order of beings. 7.357. Are not we, therefore, ashamed to have lower notions than the Indians? and by our own cowardice to lay a base reproach upon the laws of our country, which are so much desired and imitated by all mankind? 7.358. But put the case that we had been brought up under another persuasion, and taught that life is the greatest good which men are capable of, and that death is a calamity; however, the circumstances we are now in ought to be an inducement to us to bear such calamity courageously, since it is by the will of God, and by necessity, that we are to die; 7.359. for it now appears that God hath made such a decree against the whole Jewish nation, that we are to be deprived of this life which [he knew] we would not make a due use of. 7.360. For do not you ascribe the occasion of our present condition to yourselves, nor think the Romans are the true occasion that this war we have had with them is become so destructive to us all: these things have not come to pass by their power, but a more powerful cause hath intervened, and made us afford them an occasion of their appearing to be conquerors over us. 7.361. What Roman weapons, I pray you, were those by which the Jews at Caesarea were slain? 7.362. On the contrary, when they were no way disposed to rebel, but were all the while keeping their seventh day festival, and did not so much as lift up their hands against the citizens of Caesarea, yet did those citizens run upon them in great crowds, and cut their throats, and the throats of their wives and children, and this without any regard to the Romans themselves, who never took us for their enemies till we revolted from them. 7.363. But some may be ready to say, that truly the people of Caesarea had always a quarrel against those that lived among them, and that when an opportunity offered itself, they only satisfied the old rancor they had against them. 7.364. What then shall we say to those of Scythopolis, who ventured to wage war with us on account of the Greeks? Nor did they do it by way of revenge upon the Romans, when they acted in concert with our countrymen. 7.365. Wherefore you see how little our goodwill and fidelity to them profited us, while they were slain, they and their whole families, after the most inhuman manner, which was all the requital that was made them for the assistance they had afforded the others; 7.366. for that very same destruction which they had prevented from falling upon the others did they suffer themselves from them, as if they had been ready to be the actors against them. It would be too long for me to speak at this time of every destruction brought upon us; 7.367. for you cannot but know that there was not anyone Syrian city which did not slay their Jewish inhabitants, and were not more bitter enemies to us than were the Romans themselves; 7.368. nay, even those of Damascus, when they were able to allege no tolerable pretense against us, filled their city with the most barbarous slaughters of our people, and cut the throats of eighteen thousand Jews, with their wives and children. 7.369. And as to the multitude of those that were slain in Egypt, and that with torments also, we have been informed they were more than sixty thousand; those, indeed, being in a foreign country, and so naturally meeting with nothing to oppose against their enemies, were killed in the manner forementioned. As for all those of us who have waged war against the Romans in our own country, had we not sufficient reason to have sure hopes of victory? 7.370. For we had arms, and walls, and fortresses so prepared as not to be easily taken, and courage not to be moved by any dangers in the cause of liberty, which encouraged us all to revolt from the Romans. 7.371. But then these advantages sufficed us but for a short time, and only raised our hopes, while they really appeared to be the origin of our miseries; for all we had hath been taken from us, and all hath fallen under our enemies, as if these advantages were only to render their victory over us the more glorious, and were not disposed for the preservation of those by whom these preparations were made. 7.372. And as for those that are already dead in the war, it is reasonable we should esteem them blessed, for they are dead in defending, and not in betraying their liberty; but as to the multitude of those that are now under the Romans, who would not pity their condition? and who would not make haste to die, before he would suffer the same miseries with them? 7.373. Some of them have been put upon the rack, and tortured with fire and whippings, and so died. Some have been halfdevoured by wild beasts, and yet have been reserved alive to be devoured by them a second time, in order to afford laughter and sport to our enemies; 7.374. and such of those as are alive still are to be looked on as the most miserable, who, being so desirous of death, could not come at it. 7.375. And where is now that great city, the metropolis of the Jewish nation, which was fortified by so many walls round about, which had so many fortresses and large towers to defend it, which could hardly contain the instruments prepared for the war, and which had so many ten thousands of men to fight for it? 7.376. Where is this city that was believed to have God himself inhabiting therein? It is now demolished to the very foundations, and hath nothing but that monument of it preserved, I mean the camp of those that hath destroyed it, which still dwells upon its ruins; 7.377. ome unfortunate old men also lie upon the ashes of the temple, and a few women are there preserved alive by the enemy, for our bitter shame and reproach. 7.378. Now, who is there that revolves these things in his mind, and yet is able to bear the sight of the sun, though he might live out of danger? Who is there so much his country’s enemy, or so unmanly, and so desirous of living, as not to repent that he is still alive? 7.379. And I cannot but wish that we had all died before we had seen that holy city demolished by the hands of our enemies, or the foundations of our holy temple dug up after so profane a manner. 7.380. But since we had a generous hope that deluded us, as if we might perhaps have been able to avenge ourselves on our enemies on that account, though it be now become vanity, and hath left us alone in this distress, let us make haste to die bravely. Let us pity ourselves, our children, and our wives while it is in our own power to show pity to them; 7.381. for we were born to die, as well as those were whom we have begotten; nor is it in the power of the most happy of our race to avoid it. 7.382. But for abuses, and slavery, and the sight of our wives led away after an ignominious manner, with their children, these are not such evils as are natural and necessary among men; although such as do not prefer death before those miseries, when it is in their power so to do, must undergo even them, on account of their own cowardice. 7.383. We revolted from the Romans with great pretensions to courage; and when, at the very last, they invited us to preserve ourselves, we would not comply with them. 7.384. Who will not, therefore, believe that they will certainly be in a rage at us, in case they can take us alive? Miserable will then be the young men who will be strong enough in their bodies to sustain many torments! miserable also will be those of elder years, who will not be able to bear those calamities which young men might sustain. 7.385. One man will be obliged to hear the voice of his son implore help of his father, when his hands are bound. 7.386. But certainly our hands are still at liberty, and have a sword in them; let them then be subservient to us in our glorious design; let us die before we become slaves under our enemies, and let us go out of the world, together with our children and our wives, in a state of freedom. 7.387. This it is that our laws command us to do; this it is that our wives and children crave at our hands; nay, God himself hath brought this necessity upon us; while the Romans desire the contrary, and are afraid lest any of us should die before we are taken. 7.388. Let us therefore make haste, and instead of affording them so much pleasure, as they hope for in getting us under their power, let us leave them an example which shall at once cause their astonishment at our death, and their admiration of our hardiness therein.” 7.389. 1. Now as Eleazar was proceeding on in this exhortation, they all cut him off short, and made haste to do the work, as full of an unconquerable ardor of mind, and moved with a demoniacal fury. So they went their ways, as one still endeavoring to be before another, and as thinking that this eagerness would be a demonstration of their courage and good conduct, if they could avoid appearing in the last class; so great was the zeal they were in to slay their wives and children, and themselves also! 7.390. Nor, indeed, when they came to the work itself, did their courage fail them, as one might imagine it would have done, but they then held fast the same resolution, without wavering, which they had upon the hearing of Eleazar’s speech, while yet every one of them still retained the natural passion of love to themselves and their families, because the reasoning they went upon appeared to them to be very just, even with regard to those that were dearest to them; 7.391. for the husbands tenderly embraced their wives, and took their children into their arms, and gave the longest parting kisses to them, with tears in their eyes. 7.392. Yet at the same time did they complete what they had resolved on, as if they had been executed by the hands of strangers; and they had nothing else for their comfort but the necessity they were in of doing this execution, to avoid that prospect they had of the miseries they were to suffer from their enemies. 7.393. Nor was there at length anyone of these men found that scrupled to act their part in this terrible execution, but every one of them dispatched his dearest relations. Miserable men indeed were they! whose distress forced them to slay their own wives and children with their own hands, as the lightest of those evils that were before them. 7.394. So they being not able to bear the grief they were under for what they had done any longer, and esteeming it an injury to those they had slain, to live even the shortest space of time after them,—they presently laid all they had upon a heap, and set fire to it. 7.395. They then chose ten men by lot out of them to slay all the rest; every one of whom laid himself down by his wife and children on the ground, and threw his arms about them, and they offered their necks to the stroke of those who by lot executed that melancholy office; 7.396. and when these ten had, without fear, slain them all, they made the same rule for casting lots for themselves, that he whose lot it was should first kill the other nine, and after all should kill himself. Accordingly, all these had courage sufficient to be no way behind one another in doing or suffering; 7.397. o, for a conclusion, the nine offered their necks to the executioner, and he who was the last of all took a view of all the other bodies, lest perchance some or other among so many that were slain should want his assistance to be quite dispatched; and when he perceived that they were all slain, he set fire to the palace, and with the great force of his hand ran his sword entirely through himself, and fell down dead near to his own relations. 7.398. So these people died with this intention, that they would not leave so much as one soul among them all alive to be subject to the Romans. 7.399. Yet was there an ancient woman, and another who was of kin to Eleazar, and superior to most women in prudence and learning, with five children, who had concealed themselves in caverns under ground, and had carried water thither for their drink, and were hidden there when the rest were intent upon the slaughter of one another. 7.400. Those others were nine hundred and sixty in number, the women and children being withal included in that computation. 7.401. This calamitous slaughter was made on the fifteenth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan]. 7.402. 2. Now for the Romans, they expected that they should be fought in the morning, when, accordingly, they put on their armor, and laid bridges of planks upon their ladders from their banks, to make an assault upon the fortress, which they did; 7.403. but saw nobody as an enemy, but a terrible solitude on every side, with a fire within the place, as well as a perfect silence. So they were at a loss to guess at what had happened. At length they made a shout, as if it had been at a blow given by the batteringram, to try whether they could bring anyone out that was within; 7.404. the women heard this noise, and came out of their underground cavern, and informed the Romans what had been done, as it was done; and the second of them clearly described all both what was said and what was done, and the manner of it;
50. Celsus, De Medicina, 3.18.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 317
51. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 184
3.4. דֹּב אֹרֵב הוּא לִי, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר. אֲרִי בְּמִסְתָּרִים, זֶה נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דֹּב אֹרֵב, זֶה אַסְפַּסְיָאנוּס. אֲרִי בְּמִסְתָּרִים, זֶה טְרָכִינוּס. דְּרָכַי סוֹרֵר וַיְפַשְּׁחֵנִי. תִּילְהֵי, כִּדְאַמְרִינַן אִילָן שֶׁנִּפְשַׁח קוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. דָּרַךְ קַשְׁתּוֹ וַיַּצִּיבֵנִי כְּמַטָּרָה לַחֵץ, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין, חַד אֲמַר כְּבוּרְמָא לְאַסְפְּרִיסָא, וְחַד אֲמַר כְּקוֹרַת חִצִּים שֶׁהַכֹּל מוֹרִים בָּהּ וְהִיא נִצֶּבֶת. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר וְגִבְּרַנִי לַעֲמֹד בְּכֻלָּן, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא אַחַר מֵאָה חָסֵר שְׁתֵּי תּוֹכָחוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמִשְׁנֵה תוֹרָה, מַה כְּתִיב (דברים כט, ט): אַתֶּם נִצָּבִים הַיּוֹם כֻּלְּכֶם, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן אַתּוּן קַיָּימִין גִּבּוֹרִים לַעֲמֹד בְּכֻלָּן.
52. Galen, On The Powers of Foods, 2.26.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 314
53. Galen, On Antidotes, 1.1-1.12, 2.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 311, 312, 320
54. Galen, On The Powers of Simple Remedies, 4.19-4.20, 4.20.60-4.20.75, 11.2.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, ezekiels sanctuary water as healing •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, curse of sodom and gomorra •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, medicinal herbs, growing of •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area,sanctuary water and prophecy of ezekiel •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 310, 311, 320
55. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.7.4-5.7.5, 5.7.50, 9.19.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, in strabo Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 145, 216, 238
5.7.4. ὅσοι δὲ Ἑλλήνων ἢ Αἰγυπτίων ἐς Αἰθιοπίαν τὴν ὑπὲρ Συήνης καὶ ἐς Μερόην Αἰθιόπων πόλιν ἀναβεβήκασι, λέγουσιν οὗτοι τὸν Νεῖλον, ἐσιόντα ἐς λίμνην καὶ διʼ αὐτῆς διεξιόντα ὥσπερ ἐκ χέρσου, μετὰ τοῦτο ἤδη διʼ Αἰθιοπίας τῆς κάτω καὶ ἐς Αἴγυπτον ῥεύσαντα ἐπὶ Φάρον καὶ τὴν ταύτῃ θάλασσαν κατέρχεσθαι. ἐν δὲ τῇ γῇ ποταμὸν τῇ Ἑβραίων Ἰάρδανον καὶ αὐτὸς οἶδα λίμνην Τιβεριάδα ὀνομαζομένην διοδεύοντα, ἐς δὲ λίμνην ἑτέραν καλουμένην θάλασσαν Νεκράν, ἐς ταύτην ἐσιόντα καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς λίμνης αὐτὸν ἀναλούμενον. 5.7.5. ἡ δὲ θάλασσα ἡ Νεκρὰ πάσχει παντὶ ὕδατι ἄλλῳ τὰ ἐναντία· ἐν ᾗ γε τὰ μὲν ζῶντα πέφυκεν οὐ νηχόμενα ἐποχεῖσθαι, τὰ δὲ θνήσκοντα ἐς βυθὸν χωρεῖν. ταύτῃ ἄκαρπος καὶ ἰχθύων ἡ λίμνη· ἅτε ἀπὸ τοῦ φανερωτάτου κινδύνου ἐπὶ τὸ ὕδωρ ἀναφεύγουσιν ὀπίσω τὸ οἰκεῖον. τῷ δὲ Ἀλφειῷ τὸ αὐτὸ πάσχει καὶ ὕδωρ ἄλλο ἐν Ἰωνίᾳ· τούτου δὲ τοῦ ὕδατος πηγὴ μέν ἐστιν ἐν Μυκάλῃ τῷ ὄρει, διεξελθὸν δὲ θάλασσαν τὴν μεταξὺ ἄνεισιν αὖθις κατὰ Βραγχίδας πρὸς λιμένι ὀνομαζομένῳ Πανόρμῳ. 9.19.8. φοίνικες δὲ πρὸ τοῦ ἱεροῦ πεφύκασιν, οὐκ ἐς ἅπαν ἐδώδιμον παρεχόμενοι καρπὸν ὥσπερ ἐν τῇ Παλαιστίνῃ, τοῦ δὲ ἐν Ἰωνίᾳ τῶν φοινίκων καρποῦ πεπανώτερον. ἄνθρωποι δὲ ἐν τῇ Αὐλίδι οἰκοῦσιν οὐ πολλοί, γῆς δέ εἰσιν οὗτοι κεραμεῖς· νέμονται δὲ Ταναγραῖοι ταύτην τε τὴν χώραν καὶ ὅση περὶ Μυκαλησσόν ἐστι καὶ Ἅρμα. 5.7.4. Those Greeks or Egyptians who have gone up into Ethiopia beyond Syene as far as the Ethiopian city of Meroe all say that the Nile enters a lake, and passes through it as though it were dry land, and that after this it flows through lower Aethiopia into Egypt before coming down into the sea at Pharos. And in the land of the Hebrews, as I can myself bear witness, the river Jordan passes through a lake called Tiberias , and then, entering another lake called the Dead Sea , it disappears in it. 5.7.5. The Dead Sea has the opposite qualities to those of any other water. Living creatures float in it naturally without swimming; dying creatures sink to the bottom. Hence the lake is barren of fish; their danger stares them in the face, and they flee back to the water which is their native element. The peculiarity of the Alpheius is shared by a river of Ionia . The source of it is on Mount Mycale, and having gone through the intervening sea the river rises again opposite Branchidae at the harbor called Panormus . 9.19.8. In front of the sanctuary grow palm-trees, the fruit of which, though not wholly edible like the dates of Palestine , yet are riper than those of Ionia . There are but few inhabitants of Aulis , and these are potters. This land, and that about Mycalessus and Harma , is tilled by the people of Tanagra .
56. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, in pliny Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 135
57. Galen, On The Causes of Symptoms, 3.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 311
58. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 312
26a. לימא מר מפני שהוא עף חדא ועוד קאמר חדא מפני שהוא עף ועוד גזירה שמא יסתפק ממנו,ההיא חמתא דהות סניאה לה לכלתה אמרה לה זיל איקשיט במשחא דאפרסמא אזלא איקשיט כי אתת אמרה לה זיל איתלי שרגא אזלא אתלא שרגא אינפח בה נורא ואכלתה:,(ירמיהו נב, טז) ומדלת הארץ השאיר נבוזראדן רב טבחים לכורמים וליוגבים כורמים תני רב יוסף אלו מלקטי אפרסמון מעין גדי ועד רמתא יוגבים אלו ציידי חלזון מסולמות של צור ועד חיפה:,ת"ר אין מדליקין בטבל טמא בחול ואצ"ל בשבת כיוצא בו אין מדליקין בנפט לבן בחול ואצ"ל בשבת בשלמא נפט לבן מפני שהוא עף אבל טבל טמא מאי טעמא,אמר קרא (במדבר יח, ח) ואני הנה נתתי לך את משמרת תרומותי בשתי תרומות הכתוב מדבר אחת תרומה טהורה ואחת תרומה טמאה מה תרומה טהורה אין לך בה אלא משעת הרמה ואילך אף תרומה טמאה אין לך בה אלא משעת הרמה ואילך:,גופא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אין מדליקין בצרי וכן היה רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר צרי אינו אלא שרף מעצי הקטף ר' ישמעאל אומר כל היוצא מן העץ אין מדליקין בו ר' ישמעאל בן ברוקה אומר אין מדליקין אלא ביוצא מן הפרי ר' טרפון אומר אין מדליקין אלא בשמן זית בלבד,עמד רבי יוחנן בן נורי על רגליו ואמר מה יעשו אנשי בבל שאין להם אלא שמן שומשמין ומה יעשו אנשי מדי שאין להם אלא שמן אגוזים ומה יעשו אנשי אלכסנדריא שאין להם אלא שמן צנונות ומה יעשו אנשי קפוטקיא שאין להם לא כך ולא כך אלא נפט אלא אין לך אלא מה שאמרו חכמים אין מדליקין,ומדליקין בשמן דגים ובעטרן רבי שמעון שזורי אומר מדליקין בשמן פקועות ובנפט סומכוס אומר כל היוצא מן הבשר אין מדליקין בו אלא בשמן דגים סומכוס היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו דרב ברונא אמר רב ולא מסיימי,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר כל היוצא מן העץ אין בו משום שלש על שלש ומסככין בו חוץ מפשתן אמר אביי 26a. b Let the Master say /b a different reason: b Because /b tar b is volatile, /b i.e., it is liable to evaporate quickly and cause a fire. The Gemara answers: b He stated one /b reason b and another: One, because it is volatile /b and potentially dangerous; b and, furthermore, /b due to b a decree lest one take /b sap b from it. /b ,The Gemara relates: b A mother-in-law who hated her daughter-in-law said to her: Go adorn yourself with balsam oil. She went /b and b adorned herself. When she came, /b her mother-in-law b said to her: Go light the lamp. She went /b and b lit the lamp. She caught fire and was burned. /b ,Since balsam oil was discussed, the Gemara cites the verse: b “But Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard left of the poorest of the land to be vinedressers and husbandmen” /b (Jeremiah 52:16). The Gemara explains the verse: With regard to b vinedressers, Rav Yosef taught: These /b poorest of the land were b the balsam collectors /b in the south of Eretz Yisrael, in the expanse b from Ein Gedi to Ramata. And /b the b husbandmen; these are the trappers of the snail [ i ḥilazon /i ], /b from which the sky blue dye is produced in the north of the country, in the area b between the Promontory of Tyre and Ḥaifa. /b Only a small number of poor people could barely eke out a living from these tasks, which involved mere gathering., b The Sages taught: One may not light with ritually impure untithed produce [ i tevel /i ] during the week, and needless to say /b one may not light with it b on Shabbat. On a similar note, one may not light with white naphtha during the week, and needless to say /b one may not light with it b on Shabbat. Granted, /b with regard to b white naphtha, /b its prohibition is understandable b because it is volatile /b and potentially dangerous. b However, /b with regard to b ritually impure i tevel /i , what is the reason /b that the Sages prohibited lighting with it?,The Gemara answers that b the verse said: “And I, behold, I have given you the charge of My i terumot /i ” /b (Numbers 18:8). From the fact that i terumot /i is plural, the Sages derived that b the verse is speaking of two /b i terumot /i : b Both /b i teruma /i b that is ritually pure and /b i teruma /i b that is ritually impure. Just as /b with regard to b i teruma /i that is ritually pure, you, /b the priest, b have /b permission to benefit b from it only from the time /b i teruma /i b was separated and onward, so too, /b with regard to b i teruma /i that is ritually impure, you have /b permission to benefit from b it only from the time /b i teruma /i b was separated and onward. /b Since a portion of the untithed produce is i teruma /i that has not yet been separated, it is prohibited even for a priest to use it.,The Gemara proceeds to discuss b the matter /b of the i Tosefta /i b itself, /b the case of lighting with sap from balsam trees on Shabbat. b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One may not light with i tzori /i /b on Shabbat. b And Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar would also say: i Tzori /i , /b which is one of the component spices of the incense in the Temple, b is merely the sap /b that emerges b from balsam trees, /b and is not part of the balsam tree itself. b Rabbi Yishmael says: Anything that originates from the tree, one may not light with it; /b only materials that do not come from trees may be used. b Rabbi Yishmael ben Beroka says: One may only light with /b a substance b that emerges from the fruit. Rabbi Tarfon says: One may only light with olive oil alone. /b ,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Yoḥa ben Nuri stood on his feet and, /b contrary to this statement, b said: And what shall the people of Babylonia, who have only sesame oil, do? And what shall the people of Medea, who have only nut oil, do? And what shall the people of Alexandria, who have only radish oil, do? And what shall the people of Cappadocia, who have neither this nor that but only naphtha, do? Rather, you have /b a prohibition b only /b with regard to those substances with regard to b which the Sages said: One may not light with them. /b All other oils are permitted., b And one may light with fish oil and tar. Rabbi Shimon Shezuri says: One may light with gourd oil and naphtha. Sumakhos says: Among the /b substances b that emerge from the flesh /b of living beings, b one may light only with fish oil. /b The Gemara asks: The opinion of b Sumakhos /b is identical to the opinion of the b first i tanna /i , /b who also permits lighting with fish oil. The Gemara answers: b There is /b a practical difference b between them /b with regard to what b Rav Beruna said /b that b Rav said: /b One is permitted to use molten fat to which oil was added for lighting. They disagree with regard to this i halakha /i ; however, their opinions b are not defined /b and it is unclear which of them permits using it and which prohibits using it., b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Anything that emerges from the tree /b does b not have /b the legal status of an area of b three by three /b fingerbreadths. Even if it is three by three fingerbreadths, it is not considered sufficiently large to become ritually impure. b And, /b therefore, b one may roof /b his i sukka /i b with it, /b as the roofing of his i sukka /i may not be made from any material that can become ritually impure. This is the case for everything that originates from a tree b with the exception of linen, /b which has a unique legal status. b Abaye said: /b
59. Eusebius of Caesarea, Onomasticon, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 12.17, 12.18, 16.4, 22.27, 22.28, 42, 42.3, 44.21, 44.21-46.2, 44.22, 44.23, 60, 74, 86.16, 86.17, 86.18, 86.19, 112.17, 120, 138.20, 138.21, 150, 162 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 238
60. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.17 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 183
61. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 225
66a. b Your ox was used /b by a man b for an act of bestiality /b and is therefore unfit for an offering, b and the other, /b the owner of the ox, b is silent, /b the witness is b deemed credible. And the i tanna /i /b of the mishna also b taught /b ( i Bekhorot /i 41a): b And /b with regard to an animal b that was used for a transgression /b or b that killed, /b if this is attested to b by one witness or by the owner, /b he is b deemed credible. /b The Gemara clarifies this case: b What are the circumstances /b of b this /b case of the mishna, where the knowledge is established b by one witness? If the owner admits /b to the claim, b this is /b the same as: b By the owner. Rather, is it not /b referring to a case b where /b the owner remains b silent? /b ,The Gemara comments: b And /b each of these statements of Abaye is b necessary. As, had he taught us /b only b that first /b case, where the witness said someone ate forbidden fat, one might have said that he is deemed credible for the following reason: b Were it not /b for the fact b that he himself /b was b convinced that he had committed /b a transgression, b he would not /b commit the transgression of b bringing a non-sacred /b animal b to /b the Temple b courtyard /b on the basis of the testimony of one witness. Consequently, his silence is evidently an admission., b But /b if the witness said: b Your ritually pure /b foods b were rendered ritually impure, /b and the accused was silent, b we would say: /b The reason b that /b he is b silent /b and refrains from denying the claim is b that he thinks /b he is not suffering any significant loss, as the food b is fit for him /b to eat b on his days of ritual impurity, /b because he is not required to destroy ritually impure foods., b And had /b Abaye b taught us /b only the case of: Your ritually pure food was rendered ritually impure, one might have said that the reason b this /b witness is deemed credible is b that he causes him a loss on his days of ritual impurity, /b and therefore his silence is tantamount to a confession. b But /b in the case of: b His ox was used /b by a man b for an act of bestiality, /b the owner of the ox b can say /b with regard to his animal: b Not all the oxen stand /b ready to be sacrificed b as /b an offering on the b altar. /b Perhaps one would think that the owner does not bother denying the claim because he merely forfeits the possibility of sacrificing his ox as an offering, which he considers an inconsequential matter. It is only if there were two witnesses to the act that the animal is put to death, whereas here there was only one witness. It is therefore b necessary /b for Abaye to specify all these cases.,§ b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: If a husband is told b by one witness /b that b his wife committed adultery, and /b the husband remains b silent, what is /b the i halakha /i ? b Abaye said: /b The witness is b deemed credible. Rava said: He is not deemed credible. /b Why not? Because b it is a matter involving forbidden relations, and there is no matter /b of testimony b for forbidden sexual relations /b that can be attested to by b fewer than two /b witnesses., b Abaye said: From where do I say /b this claim of mine? It happened b that /b there was b a certain blind man who would review i mishnayot /i before Mar Shmuel. One day /b the blind man b was late for him and was not arriving. /b Mar Shmuel b sent a messenger after him /b to assist him. b While /b the b messenger was going /b to the blind man’s house b by one way, /b the blind man b arrived /b at the house of study b by a different /b route, and therefore the messenger missed him and reached his house. b When /b the b messenger came /b back, b he said /b that he had been to the blind man’s house and saw that b his wife committed adultery. /b The blind man b came before Mar Shmuel /b to inquire whether he must pay heed to this testimony. Mar Shmuel b said to him: If /b this messenger b is trusted by you, go /b and b divorce her, but if not, do not divorce /b her.,Abaye comments: b What, is it not /b correct to say that this means that b if he is trusted by you that he is not a thief /b but is a valid witness, you must rely on him? This would prove that a single witness can testify in a case of this kind. b And Rava /b explains that Mar Shmuel meant: b If /b he b is trusted by you like two /b witnesses, b go /b and b divorce her, but if not, do not divorce /b her. Consequently, Rava maintains that this episode affords no proof., b And Abaye said: From where do I say /b this claim of mine? b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b An incident /b occurred b with King Yannai, who went to /b the region of b Koḥalit in the desert and conquered sixty cities there. And upon his return he rejoiced /b with b a great happiness /b over his victory. b And he /b subsequently b summoned all the Sages of the Jewish people /b and b said to them: Our ancestors /b in their poverty b would eat salty foods when they were busy with the building of the Temple; we too shall eat salty foods in memory of our ancestors. And they brought salty food on tables of gold, and ate. /b , b And there was one /b person b present, a scoffer, /b a man of b an evil heart and a scoundrel called Elazar ben Po’ira. And Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the hearts of the Pharisees, /b the Sages, b are against you. /b In other words, they harbor secret resentment against you and do not like you. The king replied: b And what shall I do /b to clarify this matter? Elazar responded: b Have them stand by /b wearing b the frontplate between your eyes. /b Since the frontplate bears the Divine Name, they should stand in its honor. Yannai, who was a member of the priestly Hasmonean family, also served as High Priest, who wears the frontplate. b He had /b the Pharisees b stand by /b wearing b the frontplate between his eyes. /b ,Now b there was a certain elder present called Yehuda ben Gedidya, and Yehuda ben Gedidya said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the crown of the monarchy suffices for you, /b i.e., you should be satisfied that you are king. b Leave the crown of the priesthood for the descendants of Aaron. /b The Gemara explains this last comment: b As they would say /b that Yannai’s b mother was taken captive in Modi’in, /b and she was therefore disqualified from marrying into the priesthood, which meant that Yannai was a i ḥalal /i . b And the matter was investigated and was not discovered, /b i.e., they sought witnesses for that event but none were found. b And the Sages of Israel were expelled in /b the king’s b rage, /b due to this rumor., b And Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, such is the judgment of a common person in Israel. /b In other words, merely expelling a slanderer is appropriate if the subject of the slander is a commoner. b But you are a king and a High Priest. /b Is b this your judgment /b as well? Yannai replied: b And what should I do? /b Elazar responded: b If you listen to my advice, crush them. /b Yannai countered: b But what will become of the Torah? /b He retorted: b Behold, /b it b is wrapped and placed in the corner. Anyone who wishes to study can come and study. /b We have no need for the Sages.,The Gemara interjects: b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Immediately, heresy was injected into /b Yannai, b as he should have said /b to Elazar ben Po’ira: This b works out well /b with regard to b the Written Torah, /b as it can be studied by all on their own, but b what /b will become of b the Oral Torah? /b The Oral Torah is transmitted only by the Sages. The i baraita /i continues: b Immediately, the evil /b arose and b caught fire through Elazar ben Po’ira, and all the Sages of the Jewish people were killed. And the world was desolate /b of Torah b until Shimon ben Shataḥ came and restored the Torah to its former /b glory. This completes the i baraita /i .,Abaye asks: b What are the circumstances /b of this case? How did those who conducted the investigation refute the rumor that Yannai’s mother had been taken captive? b If we say that two /b witnesses b said /b that b she was taken captive, and two /b others b said /b that b she was not taken captive, what did you see that you rely on these /b who said that she was not taken captive? Instead, b rely on these /b who said that she was taken captive. In such a scenario, one cannot say definitively that the matter was investigated and found to be false., b Rather, /b it must be referring b to one witness /b who testified she was taken captive, and two testified that she was not taken captive. b And the reason /b that the lone witness is not deemed credible is only b that he is contradicted by the /b other b two, /b from which it may be inferred that b if not for that /b fact, b he would be deemed credible. /b This supports Abaye’s claim that an uncontested lone witness is deemed credible in a case of this kind., b And Rava /b could reply that this incident affords no proof, for the following reason: b Actually, /b one can say that there were b two /b witnesses who testified that she was captured b and two /b who testified that she was not, b and /b the case was decided b in accordance with that /b which b Rav Aḥa bar Rav Minyumi says /b in a different context, that it is referring b to conspiring witnesses. /b The second pair of witnesses did not contradict the testimony of the first pair but established them as liars by stating that the first pair were not there to witness the event. This serves to disqualify the testimony of the first pair altogether. b Here too, /b it is referring b to /b witnesses who rendered the first set b conspiring witnesses. /b , b And if you wish, say /b that this is b in accordance with /b the version of the story stated b by Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: They replaced /b Yannai’s mother b with a maidservant. /b The first witnesses saw that Yannai’s mother was about to be taken captive, but the second pair revealed that she had actually been replaced with a maidservant, thereby negating the testimony of the first set., b Rava says: /b
62. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 219
5b. וכי נס אחד נעשה בשמן המשחה והלא נסים הרבה נעשו בו מתחלתו ועד סופו תחלתו לא היה אלא י"ב לוג ובו נמשח המשכן וכליו ואהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים וכולו קיים לעתיד לבא,שנאמר (שמות ל, לא) שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם זה בגימטריא י"ב לוגין הויין,ת"ר (ויקרא ח, י) ויקח משה את שמן המשחה וימשח את המשכן וגו' רבי יהודה אומר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר הרבה נסים נעשו בו מתחלתו ועד סופו תחלתו לא היה אלא י"ב לוגין כמה יורה בולעת כמה עיקרין בולעין כמה האור שורף ובו נמשח משכן וכליו אהרן ובניו כל ז' ימי המלואים,ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים ואפי' כהן גדול בן כ"ג טעון משיחה ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניה ואת יהואש מפני עתליה ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים אחיו שהיה גדול מאחיו שתי שנים,אמר מר ואפי' כ"ג בן כ"ג טעון משיחה מנלן דכתיב (ויקרא ו, טו) והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו נימא קרא והכהן שתחתיו מבניו מאי המשיח הא קמ"ל דאפי' מבניו ההוא דמשח הוי כ"ג ואי לא משח לא הוי כ"ג,אמר מר אין מושחין מלך בן מלך מנלן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב דכתיב (דברים יז, כ) למען יאריך ימים על ממלכתו הוא ובניו כל הימים ירושה היא,ומפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניה מנלן דכי אתי מחלוקת בעי משיחה ולא כל דבעי מלכא מורית ליה מלכותא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים יז, כ) בקרב ישראל בזמן ששלום בישראל,תנא אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב אמאי תיפוק ליה דמלך ראשון הוא חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני מלכי בית דוד מושחין מלכי ישראל אין מושחין ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו יהוא בן נמשי מפני מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב,אמר מר מלכי בית דוד מושחין ואין מלכי ישראל מושחין מנלן דכתיב (שמואל א טז, יב) קום משחהו כי זה הוא זה טעון משיחה ואין אחר טעון משיחה,אמר מר מפני מחלוקת יורם ומשום מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב נמעל בשמן המשחה כדאמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא ה"נ באפרסמא דכיא,ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומי קשיש והכתיב (דברי הימים א ג, טו) ובני יאשיה הבכור יוחנן והשני יהויקים והשלישי צדקיהו והרביעי שלום וא"ר יוחנן הוא יהואחז הוא צדקיהו הוא שלום,אלא לעולם יהויקים קשיש ואמאי קרי ליה בכור שהוא בכור למלכות ומי מוקמינן זוטא קמי קשישא והכתיב (דברי הימים ב כא, ג) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור ההוא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה,אמר מר הוא שלום הוא צדקיה והא בדרי קחשיב ומאי קרי ליה שלישי שהוא שלישי לבנים ומאי קרי ליה רביעי שהוא רביעי למלכות משום דמלך יכניה קמיה בתחלה מלך יהואחז וסוף מלך יהויקים וסוף מלך יכניה וסוף מלך צדקיה,ת"ר הוא שלום הוא צדקיה ולמה נקרא שמו שלום שהיה שלם במעשיו דבר אחר שלום ששלם מלכות בית דוד בימיו ומה שמו מתניה שמו שנאמר (מלכים ב כד, יז) וימלך את מתניה דודו תחתיו ויסב שמו צדקיה,דאמר לו יה יצדיק עליך את הדין אם תמרוד בי שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לו, יג) וגם במלך נבוכדנאצר מלך בבל מרד אשר השביעו באלהים,ומי הוה שמן המשחה והתניא משנגנז ארון נגנז צנצנת המן וצלוחית שמן המשחה ומקלו של אהרן שקדים ופרחים,וארגז ששגרו פלשתים דורון לאלהי ישראל שנאמר (שמואל א ו, ח) ואת כלי הזהב אשר השיבותם לו אשם תשימו בארגז מצדו ומי גנזו יאשיה מלך יהודה גנזו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לה, ג) ויאמר המלך אל הכהנים תנו את ארון הקדש,ואמר רבי אלעזר אתיא שם שם,אתיא דורות דורות,אתיא משמרת משמרת אמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא,ת"ר מושחין את המלכים כמין נזר ואת הכהנים כמין כי אמר רב מנשיה כמין כי יוני תני חדא בתחלה מציק שמן על ראשו ואחר כך נותן לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ותני אחריתי בתחלה נותן לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ואחר כך מציק לו שמן על ראשו,תנאי היא איכא למאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא ואיכא למאן דאמר יציקה עדיפא מאי טעמא דמ"ד יציקה עדיפא שנאמר (ויקרא ח, יב) ויצק משמן המשחה על ראש אהרן ומאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא קסבר שכן נתרבה אצל כלי שרת,והכתיב ויצק ולבסוף וימשח ה"ק מה טעם ויצק משום וימשח אותו לקדשו,ת"ר (תהילים קלג, ב) כשמן הטוב היורד על הראש וגו' כמין שתי טיפין מרגליות היו תלויות לאהרן בזקנו אמר רב כהנא תנא כשהוא מספר עולות ויושבות בעיקרי זקנו ועל דבר זה היה משה רבינו דואג שמא חס ושלום מעלתי בשמן המשחה,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהילים קלג, ג) כטל חרמון שיורד על הררי ציון מה טל אין בו מעילה אף שמן שיורד על זקן אהרן אין בו מעילה,ועדיין אהרן היה דואג שמא משה לא מעל ואני מעלתי יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו (תהילים קלג, א) הנה מה טוב ומה נעים שבת אחים גם יחד מה משה לא מעל אף אתה לא מעלת,ת"ר אין מושחין את המלכים אלא על המעיין כדי שתימשך מלכותן שנאמ' (מלכים א א, לג-לד) ויאמר המלך (אל בניהו) וגו' והורדתם אותו על גיחון (וגו') ומשח אותו שם,אמר רב אמי האי מאן דבעי לידע אי משכא שתא אי לא מייתי שרגא בהלין עשרה יומין דבין ריש שתא ליומא דכיפורי וניתלי בביתא דלא נשיב זיקא אי משיך נהוריה נידע דמסיק שתיה,ומאן דבעי נעביד עיסקי ובעי דנידע אי מצלח עיסקי אי לא נירבי תרנגולא אי שמין ושפר נידע דמצלח,האי מאן דבעי ניפוק באורחא ובעי דנידע אי הדר לביתיה ניעול ניקום בביתא דבהתא אם חזי 5b. b And was /b just b one miracle performed with the anointing oil? But many miracles were performed with it, from its initial /b preparation b to its end. /b He explains: b Its initial /b preparation b was only /b the measure of b twelve i log /i , and /b even so b the Tabernacle and its vessels were anointed with it, and /b likewise b Aaron and his sons /b were anointed with it b all the seven days of inauguration, and High Priests and kings were anointed with it /b throughout the generations, b and /b yet despite the reduction in the amount of oil during its preparation process, as well as its multiple uses throughout history, b it all /b remains b intact for /b its use in b the future. /b ,Rabbi Yehuda adds that this is b as it is stated: “This [ i zeh /i ] shall be a sacred anointing oil to Me throughout your generations” /b (Exodus 30:31). The word b i zeh /i has a numerical value [ i bigimatriya /i ] /b of b twelve, /b which teaches that the original twelve b i log /i /b of oil that existed at the outset b are /b extant throughout all the generations. If so, i.e., if such miracles were performed in connection with the oil, it is no wonder that its initial preparation was miraculous., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the Tabernacle /b and all that was in it and sanctified them” (Leviticus 8:10). b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b With regard to b the anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, many miracles were performed with it, from its initial /b preparation b to its end. Its initial /b preparation b was only twelve i log /i ; /b consider b how much /b of it b a cauldron absorbs /b from what is cooked inside it, b and how much /b of it the b roots /b of the plants b absorb, how much /b of it b the fire burns, and /b yet b the Tabernacle, and its vessels, /b and b Aaron, and his sons were /b all b anointed with it all seven days of the inauguration. /b ,The i baraita /i adds: b And High Priests and kings were anointed with it, and even a High Priest, the son of a High Priest, requires anointing /b with the oil. b But one does not anoint a king, the son of a king. And if you say: /b If so, b for what /b reason b did they anoint King Solomon, /b who was the son of King David? It was b due to the dispute /b over the throne instigated by his older brother b Adonijah, /b who attempted to usurp the monarchy. b And /b similarly b Joash, /b son of Ahaziah, was anointed king (see II Kings 11:12) b due to /b the threat of b Athaliah, /b his paternal grandmother, who attempted to seize the monarchy for herself (II Kings 11:1–3). b And Jehoahaz, /b son of Josiah, was anointed as king (II Kings 23:30) b due to /b the competition from b Jehoiakim, his brother, who was two years older than his brother, /b i.e., Jehoahaz. Ordinarily the older brother succeeds the father, but Jehoahaz was more worthy of the throne.,The Gemara clarifies several aspects of this i baraita /i . b The Master said /b earlier: b And even a High Priest, the son of a High Priest, requires anointing. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this i halakha /i ? It is derived from a verse, b as it is written: “And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons” /b (Leviticus 6:15). b Let the verse say /b merely: b The priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons. What /b is taught by the addition of the term b “anointed”? This teaches us that even /b when the new High Priest is b from among /b the b sons /b of the previous High Priest, only b that /b priest b who is anointed /b with oil b is /b the b High Priest, but if /b he is b not anointed /b with oil he b is not /b the b High Priest. /b , b The Master said /b earlier: b But one does not anoint a king, the son of a king. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this i halakha /i ? b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said /b that this is b as it is written: In order that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his sons, all the days /b in the midst of Israel (see Deuteronomy 17:20). The mention of a king’s sons teaches that the kingdom b is an inheritance, /b which does not need to be confirmed by anointing.,The i baraita /i further taught: b And for what /b reason b did they anoint King Solomon? Due to the dispute /b over the throne instigated by his older brother b Adonijah. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive b that /b in a situation b where there is a dispute /b the new king b requires anointing, and the /b current b king cannot /b simply b grant the kingship as an inheritance to whomever he desires? Rav Pappa said /b that b the verse states: /b “He and his children b in the midst of Israel” /b (Deuteronomy 17:20). b At a time when there is peace in Israel /b the monarchy transfers smoothly to the king’s son, but not when there is a dispute.,It was b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Also Jehu, /b son of Jehoshaphat, b son of Nimshi, was anointed /b by Elisha the prophet b only due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram, son of Ahab, /b who was the incumbent king, against whose reign Jehu rebelled (see II Kings 9:1–6). The Gemara asks: b Why /b is it necessary to state this reason? b Let /b the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i b derive /b that Jehu required anointing due to the fact b that he /b was b the first king /b of his lineage, as Jehu was not the son of a king. The Gemara answers: The i baraita /i b is incomplete, and this /b is what b it is teaching: One anoints the kings of the house of David /b with the anointing oil, but b one does not anoint the kings /b from the kingdom b of Israel. And if you say: For what /b reason b did /b Elisha b anoint Jehu, /b son of Jehoshaphat, b son of Nimshi? /b This was b due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram, son of Ahab. /b , b The Master said /b earlier: b One anoints the kings of the house of David /b with the anointing oil, but b one does not anoint the kings of Israel. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this i halakha /i ? It is derived from a verse, b as it is written /b with regard to the anointing of David: b “Arise, anoint him; for this is he” /b (I Samuel 16:12). b This /b king, i.e., any king from the house of David, b requires anointing, but another /b king, i.e., from the kingdom of Israel, whose kings were not descendants of the house of David, b does not require anointing. /b , b The Master said /b earlier that Jehu was anointed b due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram. /b The Gemara asks: b And due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram, son of Ahab, will we misuse /b consecrated property by anointing someone unnecessarily b with the anointing oil, /b which is called “a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30:31)? After all, kings of the kingdom of Israel do not require anointing. The Gemara answers: This is b as Rav Pappa said /b with regard to Jehoahaz: They anointed him b with pure balsam /b oil, rather than with the anointing oil. b Here too, /b Elisha anointed Jehu b with pure balsam /b oil, not the anointing oil.,It was further stated in the i baraita /i : b And Jehoahaz, /b son of Josiah, was anointed b due to /b the competition from b Jehoiakim, his brother, who was two years older than him. /b The Gemara asks: b And was /b Jehoiakim in fact b older /b than Jehoahaz? b But isn’t it written: “And the sons of Josiah: The firstborn Joha, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum” /b (I Chronicles 3:15); b and Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b The one who is called Joha in that verse b is /b also called b Jehoahaz, /b and the one who b is /b called b Zedekiah is /b the same as the one called b Shallum. /b If so, Jehoahaz is the eldest son, not Jehoiakim. Why, then, was it necessary to anoint Jehoahaz?,The Gemara answers: b Rather, Jehoiakim /b was b actually older /b than Jehoahaz. b And why /b does the verse b call /b Jehoahaz the b firstborn? /b This is referring to the fact b that /b Jehoahaz was the b firstborn with regard to the monarchy, /b i.e., he became king first. The Gemara asks: b And do we establish the younger /b son as king b before the older /b son? b But isn’t it written /b with regard to Jehoshaphat: b “And he gave the kingdom to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn” /b (II Chronicles 21:3)? The Gemara answers: Jehoram b was /b one b who filled the place of his fathers, /b i.e., he was fit to serve as king, and therefore as he was firstborn he received the kingship, whereas Jehoiakim was deemed unworthy of the honor, despite being the oldest among his brothers., b The Master said /b earlier: The one who b is /b called b Shallum is /b also called b Zedekiah. /b The Gemara objects: b But the Torah counts /b these individuals b in a row, /b i.e., one after the other, as I Chronicles 3:15 mentions the first, second, third, and fourth sons. This indicates that they are different people. The Gemara answers: Shallum and Zedekiah are in fact one and the same, b and what /b is the reason the verse b calls /b Zedekiah the b third? /b The reason is b that he is third of the sons, /b i.e., the third in order of birth. b And what /b is the reason the verse b calls /b Shallum the b fourth? /b The reason is b that he is fourth to the kingship, because Jeconiah reigned before him. /b How so? b Initially Jehoahaz reigned, and afterward Jehoiakim /b reigned, b and afterward Jeconiah /b reigned, b and afterward Zedekiah /b reigned. Accordingly, Zedekiah, called Shallum, was fourth to the kingship., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The one who b is /b called b Shallum is /b also called b Zedekiah, and why was he called Shallum? Because he was perfect [ i shalem /i ] in his /b good b deeds. Alternatively, /b he was called b Shallum because in his days the kingdom of the house of David was completed [ i shalam /i ], /b as he was the last king in the Davidic dynasty. b And what /b was b his /b true b name? Mattaniah /b was b his name, as it is stated: “And the king of Babylonia made Mattaniah, his father’s brother, king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah” /b (II Kings 24:17).,The i baraita /i explains: Why did the king of Babylonia, Nebuchadnezzar, call him by the name Zedekiah? The reason is b that /b Nebuchadnezzar b said to him: God will justify [ i yatzdik /i ] the judgment over you if you rebel against me, as it is stated /b with regard to Nebuchadnezzar and Jehoiachin: b “And brought him to Babylon” /b (II Chronicles 36:10), and with regard to Zedekiah it is stated: b “And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God” /b (II Chronicles 36:13).,§ The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the statement that Jehoahaz was anointed: b And was there anointing oil /b in the days of Jehoahaz? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Yoma /i 2:15) that b from when /b the b Ark was sequestered, /b along with it b was sequestered the jar of manna /b that was next to it (see Exodus 16:33), b and the flask of the anointing oil, and Aaron’s staff /b with its b almonds and blossoms /b (see Numbers 17:23).,The i baraita /i continues: b And /b also sequestered with the Ark was the b chest that the Philistines sent as a gift to the God of Israel /b after they captured the Ark and were stricken by several plagues, b as it is stated: “And put the jewels of gold that you return to Him for a guilt offering, in a coffer by its side, /b and send it away that it may go” (I Samuel 6:8). b And who sequestered /b the Ark? b Josiah, king of Judah, sequestered it, as it is stated: And the king said to the priests: Put the sacred Ark /b in the house that Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel, built (see II Chronicles 35:3)., b And Rabbi Elazar says: /b How do we know that all these items needed to be sequestered together with the Ark? The i halakha /i that the jar of manna was to be kept with the Ark is b derived /b through a verbal analogy between the words b “there” /b and b “there.” /b The word “there” is stated with regard to the Ark: “Where I will meet with you there” (Exodus 30:6), and it is also stated with regard to the manna: “And put there” (Exodus 16:33).,The i halakha /i that the anointing oil was to be kept together with the Ark is b derived /b through a verbal analogy between the words b “generations” /b and b “generations.” /b This term is stated with regard to the jar of manna: “To be kept throughout your generations” (Exodus 16:33), and also with regard to the anointing oil: “This shall be a sacred anointing oil to Me throughout your generations” (Exodus 30:31).,Finally, the i halakha /i that Aaron’s staff was to be kept together with the Ark is b derived /b through a verbal analogy between the terms b “to be kept” /b and b “to be kept.” /b This term is stated with regard to the jar of manna, and also with regard to Aaron’s staff: “To be kept there, for a token against the rebellious children” (Numbers 17:25). All these items, which are connected through these verbal analogies, including the anointing oil, were kept by the side of the Ark, and therefore they were sequestered together with the Ark. If so, how was Jehoahaz anointed with the anointing oil? b Rav Pappa said: /b They did not anoint Jehoahaz with the anointing oil, but b with pure balsam. /b ,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One anoints the kings /b by placing the oil around the head in a shape b similar /b to b a crown, and one anoints the /b High b Priests /b by placing the oil upon the head in the shape b similar /b to b chi. /b In explanation of this statement, b Rav Menashya says: /b It is placed in a shape b similar /b to the b Greek /b letter b chi, /b which looks like the letter Χ. It b is taught /b in b one /b i baraita /i : b First, one pours oil on /b the b head of /b the High Priest, b and afterward one places oil between his eyelashes. And it is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : b First, one places oil between his eyelashes, and afterward one pours oil on his head. /b The i baraitot /i contradict each other.,The Gemara explains: This b is /b a matter of dispute between b i tanna’im /i , /b as b there is /b a i tanna /i b who says: Anointing /b between his eyelashes is b preferable /b to pouring on the head and therefore comes first, b and there is /b a i tanna /i b who says /b that b pouring /b on the head is b preferable /b to anointing between his eyelashes, and therefore comes first. b What is the reasoning of the one who says /b that b pouring /b on the head is b preferable? As it is stated: “And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron’s head /b and anointed him to sanctify him” (Leviticus 8:12), which indicates that pouring is first, followed by anointing. b And /b as for b the one who says /b that b anointing /b between his eyelashes is b preferable /b to pouring on the head and precedes it, b he holds /b that anointing is preferable b in that /b its use b is increased, /b i.e., it is performed b on the service vessels, /b whereas pouring is not mentioned with regard to the service vessels.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b according to the opinion that anointing is preferable, b isn’t it written: “He poured,” and ultimately: “He anointed” /b (Leviticus 8:12)? The Gemara explains that b this /b is what the verse b is saying: What is the reason /b for b “he poured”? /b This action was made possible b due to /b the fact that he had already: b “Anointed him to sanctify him.” /b In other words, the pouring came after the anointing, which is the primary act., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “It is like the precious oil upon the head /b descending upon the beard; the beard of Aaron, that descends upon the collar of his garments” (Psalms 133:2). b Two drops /b of anointing oil shaped b like pearls hung from Aaron’s beard. Rav Kahana says /b it is b taught: When /b Aaron b would speak /b his beard would move, and these drops b would /b miraculously b rise and sit on the roots of his beard, /b so that they would not fall to the ground. b And with regard to this matter Moses, our teacher, was concerned, /b thinking: b Perhaps, God forbid, I misused the anointing oil /b by pouring too much, which resulted in these two additional drops., b A Divine Voice emerged and said: /b “It is like the precious oil upon the head, descending upon the beard; the beard of Aaron, that descends upon the collar of his garments, b like the dew of the Hermon that comes down upon the mountains of Zion” /b (Psalms 133:2–3). This comparison serves to teach: b Just as the Hermon’s dew is not subject to misuse /b of consecrated property, as it is not consecrated but can be used by all, b so too, /b the anointing b oil that descends upon Aaron’s beard is not subject to misuse /b of consecrated property., b And still Aaron himself was concerned, /b thinking: b Perhaps Moses did not misuse /b consecrated property b but I misused /b the oil, as the additional oil is on my body and I derive benefit from it. b A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity” /b (Psalms 133:1). b Just as /b your brother b Moses did not misuse /b consecrated property, b so too, you did not misuse /b consecrated property.,§ The Gemara cites a i baraita /i which discusses the anointing of kings. b The Sages taught: One may anoint kings only next to a spring. /b This is done as a fortuitous sign, b so that their kingdom should continue /b uninterrupted just as the waters of the spring flow uninterrupted throughout the year. b As it is stated /b with regard to the coronation of Solomon in the days of King David: b And the king said to Benaiah: /b Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon my own mule, b and bring him down to Gihon. And /b let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet b anoint him there /b king over Israel (see I Kings 1:33–34). The Sages derived from here that all kings should be anointed near a spring.,Parenthetical to this matter of performing an act as a fortuitous sign, the Gemara cites that which b Rav Ami says: One who desires to know if he will /b live b through /b this current b year or not should bring /b a lit b candle during those ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur and hang it in a house /b through b which wind does not blow, /b and he should watch it carefully: b If its light continues he shall know that he will live out his year. /b , b And one who desires to conduct business and wants to know if /b his b business will succeed or not should raise a rooster. If /b the rooster b gets fat and beautiful he shall know that /b the venture b will succeed. /b , b This one who wishes to leave on a journey and wants to know whether he will return to his home should enter a dark house. If he sees /b
63. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 242
3b. בשנים ואיתא להא ואיתא להא,וניעבדו תלתין אמין בבנין ואידך ניעביד פרוכת כי קאי תלתין אמהתא נמי אגב תקרה ומעזיבה הוה קאי בלא תקרה ומעזיבה לא הוה קאי,וליעביד מה דאפשר בבנין וליעביד אידך פרוכת אמר אביי גמירי אי כולהו בבנין אי כולהו בפרוכת אי כולהו בבנין ממקדש אי כולהו בפרוכת ממשכן ,איבעיא להו הן וסידן או דילמא הן בלא סידן אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא הן וסידן דאי ס"ד הן בלא סידן ליתנייה לשיעוריה אלא לאו ש"מ הן וסידן לא לעולם אימא לך הן בלא סידן וכיון דלא הוי טפח לא תני,והא קתני בלבינין זה נותן טפח ומחצה וזה נותן טפח ומחצה התם חזי לאיצטרופי,ת"ש הקורה שאמרו רחבה כדי לקבל אריח והאריח חצי לבינה של ג' טפחים,התם ברברבתא דיקא נמי דקתני של שלשה טפחים מכלל דאיכא זוטרא ש"מ:,אמר רב חסדא לא ליסתור איניש בי כנישתא עד דבני בי כנישתא אחריתי איכא דאמרי משום פשיעותא ואיכא דאמרי משום צלויי,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאיכא (בי כנישתא אחריתי) מרימר ומר זוטרא סתרי ובנו בי קייטא בסיתווא ובנו בי סיתווא בקייטא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי גבו זוזי ומחתי מאי אמר ליה דילמא מיתרמי להו פדיון שבויים ויהבי להו,שריגי ליבני והדרי הודרי ומחתי כשורי מאי אמר ליה זמנין דמתרמי להו פדיון שבויים מזבני ויהבי להו א"ה אפילו בנו נמי אמר ליה דירתיה דאינשי לא מזבני,ולא אמרן אלא דלא חזי בה תיוהא אבל חזי בה תיוהא סתרי ובני כי הא דרב אשי חזא בה תיוהא בכנישתא דמתא מחסיא סתריה ועייל לפורייה להתם ולא אפקיה עד דמתקין ליה שפיכי,ובבא בן בוטא היכי אסביה ליה עצה להורדוס למיסתריה לבית המקדש והאמר רב חסדא לא ליסתור איניש בי כנישתא עד דבני בי כנישתא אחריתא אי בעית אימא תיוהא חזא ביה איבעית אימא מלכותא שאני דלא הדרא ביה דאמר שמואל אי אמר מלכותא עקרנא טורי עקר טורי ולא הדר ביה ,הורדוס עבדא דבית חשמונאי הוה נתן עיניו באותה תינוקת יומא חד שמע ההוא גברא בת קלא דאמר כל עבדא דמריד השתא מצלח קם קטלינהו לכולהו מרותיה ושיירה לההיא ינוקתא כי חזת ההיא ינוקתא דקא בעי למינסבה סליקא לאיגרא ורמא קלא אמרה כל מאן דאתי ואמר מבית חשמונאי קאתינא עבדא הוא דלא אישתיירא מינייהו אלא ההיא ינוקתא וההיא ינוקתא נפלה מאיגרא לארעא,טמנה שבע שנין בדובשא איכא דאמרי בא עליה איכא דאמרי לא בא עליה דאמרי לה בא עליה הא דטמנה ליתוביה ליצריה ודאמרי לה לא בא עליה האי דטמנה כי היכי דנאמרו בת מלך נסב,אמר מאן דריש (דברים יז, טו) מקרב אחיך תשים עליך מלך רבנן קם קטלינהו לכולהו רבנן שבקיה לבבא בן בוטא למשקל עצה מניה 3b. that it will be greater b in years, /b meaning that the Second Temple will stand for a longer period of time than the First Temple. b And /b the Gemara comments that b this is /b true b and that is /b true, meaning that the Second Temple was taller than the First Temple and also stood for a longer period of time.,The Gemara asks: If so, if the Second Temple building was taller, then to separate between the Holy of Holies and the Sanctuary in the Second Temple b they should have made a wall thirty cubits /b high b and /b then b made a curtain /b for b the rest /b of the height, the seventy-cubit difference in height between the First and Second Temples. The Gemara answers: This would have been impossible, as b even when a thirty-cubit /b wall that is six handbreadths thick b stands, it is due to the ceiling and plaster /b which attaches it to the ceiling that b it stands. /b But b without a ceiling and plaster /b holding it in place, b it does not stand. /b ,The Gemara continues: b But they should have made a wall /b as high b as /b can b possibly /b stand by itself, b and /b then should have b made a curtain /b for b the rest /b of the height. b Abaye said: /b The Sages b learned /b as a tradition that the partition separating the Holy of Holies from the Sanctuary should be built b either entirely as a wall or entirely as a curtain. /b It should be built b either entirely as a wall, /b as is learned b from /b the First b Temple, or /b it should be built b entirely as a curtain, /b as is learned b from /b the b Tabernacle. /b At no time, however, was there a partition that combined a wall and a curtain.,§ b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: Do the measurements given in the mishna apply to b them, /b the thickness of the materials themselves, b and the plaster /b with which the materials were coated, b or perhaps /b just to b them without their plaster? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable /b to say the measurements refer to b them and their plaster, as, if /b it should b enter your mind /b to say they refer to b them without their plaster, /b then the i tanna /i b should have taught the measurements /b of the plaster as well. b Rather, isn’t it /b correct to b conclude from here /b that the measurements refer to b them and their plaster? /b The Gemara rejects this conclusion: b No, actually I /b could b say to you /b that they apply to b them without their plaster, and since /b the plaster b does not have /b the thickness of b one handbreadth /b the i tanna /i b did not teach /b such a small measurement.,The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t /b the i tanna /i b teach with regard to bricks /b that b this /b one b provides one and a half handbreadths, and that /b one b provides one and a half handbreadths? /b Evidently, the i tanna /i lists even an amount less than one handbreadth. The Gemara answers: b There /b mention is made of half-handbreadths because b they are fit to be combined /b into a full handbreadth.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a solution to the question, from a mishna ( i Eiruvin /i 13b) in which it is taught: b The /b cross b beam, which /b the Sages b stated /b may be used to render an alleyway fit for one to carry within it on Shabbat, must be b wide enough to receive /b and hold b a small brick. And /b this b small brick /b is b half a large brick, /b the width b of /b which is b three handbreadths. /b That mishna is referring to a brick without the plaster.,The Gemara answers: b There, /b the mishna in i Eiruvin /i is referring to b large bricks /b that measure three full handbreadths, whereas here the mishna is referring to bricks that measure slightly less than three handbreadths, and the measurement of three handbreadths includes the plaster with which they are coated. The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna there b is also precise, as it teaches /b about a brick b of three handbreadths, /b from which one can conclude b by inference that there exists /b also b a smaller- /b sized brick. The Gemara affirms: b Learn from here /b that the mishna there is referring to large bricks.,§ b Rav Ḥisda says: A person may not demolish a synagogue until he /b first b builds another synagogue /b to take its place. b There are /b those b who say /b that the reason for this i halakha /i is b due to /b potential b negligence, /b lest he fail to build a new structure after the old one has been razed. b And there are /b those b who say /b that the reason for this i halakha /i is b due to /b the disruption of b prayer, /b for in the meantime there will be nowhere to pray.,The Gemara asks: b What is /b the practical difference b between /b these two explanations? The Gemara answers that b there is /b a difference b between them /b in a situation b where there is another synagogue. /b Even though the community has an alternative place to pray there is still a concern that the new synagogue will never get built. It is related that b Mareimar and Mar Zutra demolished and built a summer synagogue in the winter, and, /b in like manner, b they built a winter synagogue in the summer, /b so that the community would never be left without a synagogue., b Ravina said to Rav Ashi: What /b is the i halakha /i if b money /b for the construction of a new synagogue b has /b already b been collected and it rests /b before us for that purpose? Is it then permitted to demolish the old synagogue before building the new one? Rav Ashi b said to him: /b Even if the money has been collected there is still concern that b perhaps /b an opportunity for b redeeming captives will present itself, and they will hand over /b the money for that urgent requirement, and the community will be left without a synagogue.,Ravina continues: b What /b is the i halakha /i if b the bricks /b to be used for the construction of the new synagogue b are piled up, the boards are prepared, and the beams are ready? /b Is it permitted to demolish the old synagogue before building the new one? Rav Ashi b said to him: /b Even so, b sometimes /b an opportunity for b redeeming captives will present itself, and they will sell /b the building materials b and hand over /b the proceeds for this purpose. Ravina raises an objection: b If so, /b that is, if you are concerned that they will sell the materials to redeem captives, then b even /b in a case where b they /b already b built /b the synagogue there should be a concern that they might come to sell the structure for that purpose, and therefore one should never be permitted to destroy an old synagogue. Rav Ashi b said to him: People do not sell their residences, /b and certainly not their synagogues.,The Gemara comments: b And we said /b that an old synagogue must not be razed before its replacement is built b only /b in a case b where cracks are not seen /b in the old synagogue. b But if cracks are seen they may /b first b demolish /b the old synagogue b and /b then b build /b the new one. b This is like /b the incident involving b Rav Ashi, /b who b saw cracks in the synagogue /b in his town b of Mata Meḥasya /b and immediately b demolished it. He /b then b brought his bed in there, /b to the building site, so that there should be no delays in the construction, as he himself required shelter from the rain, b and he did not remove /b his bed from there b until they /b finished building the synagogue and even b affixed drainpipes /b to the structure.,The Gemara asks: b How could Bava ben Buta have advised Herod to raze the Temple /b and build another in its place, as will be described later? b But doesn’t Rav Ḥisda say /b that b a person must not demolish a synagogue unless he /b first b builds another synagogue /b to take its place? The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that b he saw cracks in /b the old Temple structure. And b if you wish, say /b that actions taken by b the government are different, as /b the government b does not go back /b on its decisions. Therefore, there is no need to be concerned about negligence, as there is in the case of ordinary people. b As Shmuel says: If the government says /b it will b uproot mountains, it will uproot mountains and not retract /b its word.,§ The Gemara elaborates on the episode involving Bava ben Buta. b Herod was a slave in the house of the Hasmoneans. He set his eyes upon a certain young girl /b from the house of the Hasmoneans. b One day that man, /b Herod, b heard a Divine Voice that said: Any slave who rebels now will succeed. He rose up /b and b killed all his masters, but spared that girl. When that girl saw that he wanted to marry her, she went up to the roof and raised her voice, /b and b said: Whoever comes and says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneans, is a slave, since only that girl, /b i.e., I, b remained from them. And that girl fell from the roof to the ground /b and died.,It is related that Herod b preserved /b the girl’s body b in honey for seven years /b to prevent it from decaying. b There are /b those b who say /b that b he engaged in necrophilia with her /b corpse and b there are /b those b who say he did not engage in necrophilia with her /b corpse. According to those b who say he engaged in necrophilia with her /b corpse, the reason b that he preserved her /b body was b to gratify his /b carnal b desires. And /b according to those b who say he did not engage in necrophilia with her /b corpse, the reason b that he preserved her /b body was b so that /b people b would say he married a king’s daughter. /b ,Herod b said /b to himself: b Who expounds /b the verse: b “One from among your brothers you shall set as king over you” /b (Deuteronomy 17:15) as meaning that he who is appointed as king must come from a Jewish family and cannot be an emancipated slave or a convert? It is b the Sages /b who expound the verse in this manner, insisting that a king must have Jewish roots. b He /b then b rose up and killed all the Sages, /b but b spared Bava ben Buta in order to take counsel with him. /b
64. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, herod the greats development of •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, name of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 242
23a. בעתם בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות,שכן מצינו בימי שמעון בן שטח שירדו להם גשמים בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות עד שנעשו חטים ככליות ושעורים כגרעיני זיתים ועדשים כדינרי זהב וצררו מהם דוגמא לדורות להודיע כמה החטא גורם שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, כה) עונותיכם הטו אלה וחטאתיכם מנעו הטוב מכם,וכן מצינו בימי הורדוס שהיו עוסקין בבנין בהמ"ק והיו יורדין גשמים בלילה למחר נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם למלאכתן וידעו שמלאכת שמים בידיהם:,מעשה ששלחו לחוני המעגל וכו': ת"ר פעם אחת יצא רוב אדר ולא ירדו גשמים שלחו לחוני המעגל התפלל וירדו גשמים התפלל ולא ירדו גשמים עג עוגה ועמד בתוכה כדרך שעשה חבקוק הנביא שנאמר (חבקוק ב, א) על משמרתי אעמדה ואתיצבה על מצור וגו',אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בניך שמו פניהם עלי שאני כבן בית לפניך נשבע אני בשמך הגדול שאיני זז מכאן עד שתרחם על בניך התחילו גשמים מנטפין אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא להתיר שבועתך,אמר לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי בורות שיחין ומערות ירדו בזעף עד שכל טפה וטפה כמלא פי חבית ושיערו חכמים שאין טפה פחותה מלוג אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא לאבד העולם,אמר לפניו לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי רצון ברכה ונדבה ירדו כתיקנן עד שעלו כל העם להר הבית מפני הגשמים אמרו לו רבי כשם שהתפללת שירדו כך התפלל וילכו להם אמר להם כך מקובלני שאין מתפללין על רוב הטובה,אעפ"כ הביאו לי פר הודאה הביאו לו פר הודאה סמך שתי ידיו עליו ואמר לפניו רבש"ע עמך ישראל שהוצאת ממצרים אינן יכולין לא ברוב טובה ולא ברוב פורענות כעסת עליהם אינן יכולין לעמוד השפעת עליהם טובה אינן יכולין לעמוד יהי רצון מלפניך שיפסקו הגשמים ויהא ריוח בעולם מיד נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם לשדה והביאו להם כמהין ופטריות,שלח לו שמעון בן שטח אלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נידוי שאילו שנים כשני אליהו שמפתחות גשמים בידו של אליהו לא נמצא שם שמים מתחלל על ידך,אבל מה אעשה לך שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא על אביו ועושה לו רצונו ואומר לו אבא הוליכני לרחצני בחמין שטפני בצונן תן לי אגוזים שקדים אפרסקים ורמונים ונותן לו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,תנו רבנן מה שלחו בני לשכת הגזית לחוני המעגל (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך ועל דרכיך נגה אור,ותגזר אומר אתה גזרת מלמטה והקדוש ברוך הוא מקיים מאמרך מלמעלה ועל דרכיך נגה אור דור שהיה אפל הארת בתפלתך,כי השפילו ותאמר גוה דור שהיה שפל הגבהתו בתפלתך ושח עינים יושיע דור ששח בעונו הושעתו בתפלתך ימלט אי נקי דור שלא היה נקי מלטתו בתפלתך ונמלט בבור כפיך מלטתו במעשה ידיך הברורין,אמר ר' יוחנן כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מצטער על מקרא זה (תהלים קכו, א) שיר המעלות בשוב ה' את שיבת ציון היינו כחולמים אמר מי איכא דניים שבעין שנין בחלמא,יומא חד הוה אזל באורחא חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה נטע חרובא אמר ליה האי עד כמה שנין טעין אמר ליה עד שבעין שנין אמר ליה פשיטא לך דחיית שבעין שנין אמר ליה האי [גברא] עלמא בחרובא אשכחתיה כי היכי דשתלי לי אבהתי שתלי נמי לבראי,יתיב קא כריך ריפתא אתא ליה שינתא נים אהדרא ליה משוניתא איכסי מעינא ונים שבעין שנין כי קם חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מלקט מינייהו אמר ליה את הוא דשתלתיה א"ל בר בריה אנא אמר ליה שמע מינה דניימי שבעין שנין חזא לחמריה דאתיילידא ליה רמכי רמכי,אזל לביתיה אמר להו בריה דחוני המעגל מי קיים אמרו ליה בריה ליתא בר בריה איתא אמר להו אנא חוני המעגל לא הימנוהו אזל לבית המדרש שמעינהו לרבנן דקאמרי נהירן שמעתתין כבשני חוני המעגל דכי הוי עייל לבית מדרשא כל קושיא דהוו להו לרבנן הוה מפרק להו אמר להו אנא ניהו לא הימנוהו ולא עבדי ליה יקרא כדמבעי ליה חלש דעתיה בעי רחמי ומית אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברותא או מיתותא,אבא חלקיה בר בריה דחוני המעגל הוה וכי מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוו משדרי רבנן לגביה ובעי רחמי ואתי מיטרא זימנא חדא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא שדור רבנן זוגא דרבנן לגביה למבעי רחמי דניתי מיטרא אזול לביתיה ולא אשכחוהו אזול בדברא ואשכחוהו דהוה קא רפיק יהבו ליה שלמא 23a. b “In their season” /b means b on Wednesday eves, /b i.e., Tuesday nights, b and on Shabbat eves, /b i.e., Friday nights, because at these times people are not out in the streets, either due to fear of demonic forces that were thought to wander on Tuesday nights or due to the sanctity of Shabbat., b As we found /b in b the days of Shimon ben Shetaḥ that rain /b invariably b fell for them on Wednesday eves and on Shabbat eves, until wheat grew /b as big b as kidneys, and barley /b as big b as olive pits, and lentils as golden dinars. And they tied /b up some b of /b these crops as b an example [ i dugma /i ] for /b future b generations, to convey /b to them b how much /b damage b sin causes, as it is stated: /b “The Lord our God, Who gives rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in its season that keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest. b Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld the good from you” /b (Jeremiah 5:24–25)., b And we likewise found /b that b in the days of Herod /b that b they were occupied in the building of the Temple, and rain would fall at night. And the next day the wind would blow, the clouds would disperse, the sun would shine, and the people would go out to their work. And /b as rain would fall only at a time when it would not interfere with their labor, the nation b knew /b that b the work of Heaven /b was being performed b by their hands. /b ,§ The mishna taught: b An incident /b occurred in b which /b the people b sent /b a message b to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. /b This event is related in greater detail in the following i baraita /i . b The Sages taught: Once, most of /b the month of b Adar had passed but rain had /b still b not fallen. They sent /b this message b to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray, and rain will fall. He prayed, but no rain fell. He drew a circle /b in the dust b and stood inside it, in the manner that the prophet Habakkuk did, as it is stated: “And I will stand upon my watch and set myself upon the tower, /b and I will look out to see what He will say to me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved” (Habakkuk 2:1). This verse is taken to mean that Habakkuk fashioned a kind of prison for himself where he sat.,Ḥoni b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. /b Therefore, b I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until you have mercy upon Your children /b and answer their prayers for rain. b Rain began to trickle /b down, but only in small droplets. b His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen /b that b you /b can perform great wonders, b but /b this quantity of rain is not enough to ensure that b we will not die. It appears to us that /b a small amount of b rain is falling only /b to enable you b to dissolve your oath, /b but it is not nearly enough to save us.,Ḥoni b said /b to God: b I did not ask for this, but /b for b rain to /b fill the b cisterns, ditches, and caves. /b Rain b began to fall furiously, until each and every drop /b was as big b as the mouth of a barrel, and the Sages estimated that no drop was less than a i log /i /b in size. b His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen /b that b you /b can call on God to perform miracles b and we will not die, /b but now b it appears to us that rain is falling only to destroy the world. /b ,Ḥoni again b said before /b God: b I did not ask for this /b harmful rain either, b but /b for b rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity. /b Subsequently, the rains b fell in their standard manner, until all of the people /b sought higher ground and b ascended to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They said to him: Rabbi, just as you prayed that /b the rains b should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: This is /b the tradition that b I received, that one does not pray over an excess of good. /b ,Ḥoni continued: b Nevertheless, bring me a bull. /b I will sacrifice it as b a thanks-offering /b and pray at the same time. b They brought him a bull /b for b a thanks-offering. He placed his two hands on its /b head b and said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, Your nation Israel, whom You brought out of Egypt, cannot /b bear b either an excess of good or an excess of punishment. You grew angry with them /b and withheld rain, b and they are unable to bear /b it. b You bestowed upon them /b too much b good, and they were /b also b unable to bear /b it. b May it be Your will that the rain stop and that there be relief for the world. Immediately, the wind blew, the clouds dispersed, the sun shone, and everyone went out to the fields and gathered for themselves truffles and mushrooms /b that had sprouted in the strong rain., b Shimon ben Shetaḥ relayed to /b Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: b If you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you. For were /b these b years like the years of Elijah, when the keys of rain /b were entrusted b in Elijah’s hands, /b and he swore it would not rain, b wouldn’t the name of Heaven have been desecrated by your /b oath not to leave the circle until it rained? Once you have pronounced this oath, either yours or Elijah’s must be falsified., b However, what can I do to you, as you nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and /b his father b does his bidding. And /b the son b says to /b his father: b Father, take me to be bathed in hot water; wash me with cold water; give me nuts, almonds, peaches, and pomegranates. And /b his father b gives him. About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice” /b (Proverbs 23:25)., b The Sages taught: What /b message did b the members of the Chamber of the Hewn Stone, /b the Great Sanhedrin, b send to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel? /b About you, the verse states: b “You shall also decree a matter, and it shall be established for you; and the light shall shine upon your ways. /b When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up, for He saves the humble person. He will deliver the one who is not innocent and he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands” (Job 22:28–30).,They interpreted: b “You shall also decree a matter”; you, /b Ḥoni, b decree from below, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills your statement from above. “And the light shall shine upon your ways”; a generation that was in darkness, you have illuminated /b it b with your prayer. /b , b “When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up”; a generation that was cast down, you lifted it up with your prayer. “For He saves the humble person”; a generation that was humble in its transgression, you saved it through your prayer. “He will deliver the one who is not innocent”; a generation that was not innocent, you have delivered it through your prayer. “And he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands”; you have delivered /b an undeserving generation b through the clean work of your hands. /b ,§ The Gemara relates another story about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: All the days /b of the life b of that righteous man, /b Ḥoni, b he was distressed over /b the meaning of b this verse: “A song of Ascents: When the Lord brought back those who returned to Zion, we were like those who dream” /b (Psalms 126:1). b He said /b to himself: b Is there /b really a person b who can sleep and dream for seventy years? /b How is it possible to compare the seventy-year exile in Babylonia to a dream?, b One day, he was walking along the road /b when b he saw a certain man planting a carob tree. /b Ḥoni b said to him: This /b tree, b after how many years /b will it b bear /b fruit? The man b said to him: /b It will not produce fruit b until seventy years /b have passed. Ḥoni b said to him: Is it obvious to you that you will live seventy years, /b that you expect to benefit from this tree? b He said to him: That man /b himself b found a world /b full b of carob trees. Just as my ancestors planted for me, I too am planting for my descendants. /b ,Ḥoni b sat and ate bread. Sleep overcame him and he slept. A cliff formed around him, and he disappeared from sight and slept for seventy years. When he awoke, he saw a certain man gathering /b carobs from that tree. Ḥoni b said to him: /b Are b you the one who planted /b this tree? The man b said to him: I am his son’s son. /b Ḥoni b said to him: /b I can b learn from this that I /b have b slept for seventy years, /b and indeed b he saw that his donkey had sired several herds /b during those many years.,Ḥoni b went home and said to /b the members of the household: b Is the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel alive? They said to him: His son is no /b longer with us, but b his son’s son is /b alive. b He said to them: I am Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. They did not believe him. He went to the study hall, /b where he b heard the Sages say /b about one scholar: b His i halakhot /i are as enlightening /b and as clear b as in the years of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, for when /b Ḥoni HaMe’aggel b would enter the study hall he would resolve for the Sages any difficulty they had. /b Ḥoni b said to them: I am he, but they did not believe him and did not pay him proper respect. /b Ḥoni b became very upset, prayed for mercy, and died. Rava said: This /b explains the folk saying b that people say: Either friendship or death, /b as one who has no friends is better off dead.,§ The Gemara relates another story, this time about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s descendants, who were also renowned for their righteous deeds. b Abba Ḥilkiyya was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s son. And when the world was in need of rain they would send Sages to him, and he would pray for mercy, and rain would fall. Once the world was in need of rain, /b and b the Sages sent a pair of Sages to him /b so b that he would pray for mercy and rain would fall. They went to his house but they did not find him /b there. b They went to the field and found him hoeing /b the ground. b They greeted him, /b
65. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.21 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, sodom, association with Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 147
4.21. But I do not understand how he can imagine the overturning of the tower (of Babel) to have happened with a similar object to that of the deluge, which effected a purification of the earth, according to the accounts both of Jews and Christians. For, in order that the narrative contained in Genesis respecting the tower may be held to convey no secret meaning, but, as Celsus supposes, may be taken as true to the letter, the event does not on such a view appear to have taken place for the purpose of purifying the earth; unless, indeed, he imagines that the so-called confusion of tongues is such a purificatory process. But on this point, he who has the opportunity will treat more seasonably when his object is to show not only what is the meaning of the narrative in its historical connection, but what metaphorical meaning may be deduced from it. Seeing that he imagines, however, that Moses, who wrote the account of the tower, and the confusion of tongues, has perverted the story of the sons of Aloeus, and referred it to the tower, we must remark that I do not think any one prior to the time of Homer has mentioned the sons of Aloeus, while I am persuaded that what is related about the tower has been recorded by Moses as being much older not only than Homer, but even than the invention of letters among the Greeks. Who, then, are the perverters of each other's narratives? Whether do they who relate the story of the Aload pervert the history of the time, or he who wrote the account of the tower and the confusion of tongues the story of the Aload ? Now to impartial hearers Moses appears to be more ancient than Homer. The destruction by fire, moreover, of Sodom and Gomorrha on account of their sins, related by Moses in Genesis, is compared by Celsus to the story of Ph thon - all these statements of his resulting from one blunder, viz., his not attending to the (greater) antiquity of Moses. For they who relate the story of Ph thon seem to be younger even than Homer, who, again, is much younger than Moses. We do not deny, then, that the purificatory fire and the destruction of the world took place in order that evil might be swept away, and all things be renewed; for we assert that we have learned these things from the sacred books of the prophets. But since, as we have said in the preceding pages, the prophets, in uttering many predictions regarding future events, show that they have spoken the truth concerning many things that are past, and thus give evidence of the indwelling of the Divine Spirit, it is manifest that, with respect to things still future, we should repose faith in them, or rather in the Divine Spirit that is in them.
66. Epiphanius, Panarion, 1.1.10-1.1.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 184
67. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.4.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of •dead sea and area, in strabo Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 224
68. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 2.4.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of •dead sea and area, in strabo Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 224
69. Martianus Capella, On The Marriage of Philology And Mercury, 6.679 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, herod the greats development of •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 233, 239
70. Adamnan, De Locis Santis, 2.17.2, 2.17.7, 13.5 (7th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, byzantine period Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 232, 315, 320
71. Bede The Venerable, De Locis Santis, a b c d\n0 11.1 11.1 11 1 \n1 11/317 11/317 11/317 None \n2 9.3/314 9.3/314 9 3/314 (7th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 232
72. Papyri, P.Yadin, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 242, 269
73. Justinus, Epitome Historiarum Philippicarum, 36.1-36.3, 36.3.1, 36.3.6  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, name of •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 222, 223
74. Martianus Capella, De Nuptiis Philologiae Et Mercurii, 6.679  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, herod the greats development of •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 233, 239
75. Papyri, P.Hever, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 242
76. Papyri, P.Murabba'T, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 243
77. Solinus C. Julius, Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium, 35.1-35.12  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, herod the greats development of •dead sea and area, in pliny •dead sea and area, in strabo •josephus dead sea area, location of essenes and •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 230, 233, 234, 245, 314, 321
78. Synesius of Crete, Dio, 3.2  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 144
79. Sozomenus, Ecclesiastical History, 6.32  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 183
6.32. Many monastical institutions flourished in Palestine. Many of those whom I enumerated under the reign of Constantius were still cultivating the science. They and their associates attained the summit of philosophical perfection, and added still greater reputation to their monasteries; and among them Hesycas, a companion of Hilarion, and Epiphanius, afterwards bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, deserve to be particularly noticed. Hesycas devoted himself to a life of philosophy in the same locality where his master had formerly resided; and Epiphanius fixed his abode near the village of Besauduc, which was his birthplace, in the government of Eleutheropolis. Having been instructed from his youth by the most celebrated ascetics, and having on this account passed the most of his time in Egypt, Epiphanius became most celebrated in Egypt and Palestine by his attainments in monastic philosophy, and was chosen by the inhabitants of Cyprus to act as bishop of the metropolis of their island. Hence he is, I think, the most revered man under the whole heaven, so to speak; for he fulfilled his priesthood in the concourse of a large city and in a seaport; and when he threw himself into civil affairs, he conducted them with so much virtue that he became known in a little while to all citizens and every variety of foreigner; to some, because they had seen the man himself, and had experience of his manner of living; and to others, who had learned it from these spectators. Before he went to Cyprus, he resided for some time, during the present reign, in Palestine. At the same period in the monasteries, Salamines, Phuscon, Malachion, and Crispion, four brethren, were highly distinguished: they practiced philosophy near Bethelia, a village of Gaza; they were of a resident noble family, and had been instructed in philosophy by Hilarion. It is related that the brothers were once journeying homewards, when Malachion was suddenly snatched away and became invisible; soon afterwards, however, he reappeared and continued the journey with his brothers. He did not long survive this occurrence, but died in the flower of his youth. He was not behind men of advanced age in the philosophy of virtuous life and of piety. Ammonius lived at a distance of ten stadia from those last mentioned; he dwelt near Capharcobra, the place of his birth, a town of Gaza. He was very exact and courageous in carrying through asceticism. I think that Silvanus, a native of Palestine, to whom, on account of his high virtue, an angel was once seen to minister, practiced philosophy about the same time in Egypt. Then he lived at Mount Sinai, and afterwards founded at Gerari, in the wady, a very extensive and most noted cœnobium for many good men, over which the excellent Zacharias subsequently presided.
80. Strabo, Geography, 3.5.7-3.5.8, 6.2, 6.2.44, 11.1, 16.2.8, 16.2.16, 16.2.28, 16.2.34-16.2.46, 16.4.2, 16.4.21, 17.1.15  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, in strabo •dead sea and area, sodom, association with •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of •dead sea and area, in genesis •dead sea and area, name of •dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty •dead sea and area, dead water term, usage of •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, and soap production •dead sea and area, medicinal products of •dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of •dead sea and area, and noxious vapours •dead sea and area, in pliny •dead sea and area, toxicity of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 136, 145, 147, 215, 216, 217, 218, 222, 224, 230, 231, 246, 304, 311, 314
3.5.7. Polybius relates that there is a spring within the sanctuary of Hercules at Gades, having a descent of a few steps to fresh water, which is affected in a manner the reverse of the sea tides, subsiding at the flow of the tide, and springing at the ebb. He assigns as the cause of this phenomenon, that air rises from the interior to the surface of the earth; when this surface is covered by the waves, at the rising of the sea, the air is deprived of its ordinary vents, and returns to the interior, stopping up the passages of the spring, and causing a want of water, but when the surface is again laid bare, the air having a direct exit liberates the channels which feed the spring, so that it gushes freely. Artemidorus rejects this explanation, and substitutes one of his own, recording at the same time the opinion of the historian Silanus; but neither one or other of their views seems to me worth relating, since both he and Silanus were ignorant in regard to these matters. Posidonius asserts that the entire account is false, and adds that there are two wells in the sanctuary of Hercules, and a third in the city. That the smaller of the two in the sanctuary of Hercules, if drawn from frequently, will become for a time exhausted, but that on ceasing to draw from it, it fills again: while in regard to the larger, it may be drawn from during the whole day; that it is true it becomes lower, like all other wells, but that it fills again during the night when drawing ceases. [He adds] that the ebb tide frequently happening to occur during the period of its re-filling, gave rise to the groundless belief of the inhabitants as to its being affected in an opposite manner [to the tides of the ocean]. However it is not only related by him that it is a commonly believed fact, but we have received it from tradition as much referred to amongst paradoxes. We have likewise heard that there are wells both within the city and also in the gardens without, but that on account of the inferiority of this water, tanks are generally constructed throughout the city for the supply of water: whether likewise any of these reservoirs give any signs of being affected in an opposite manner to the tides, we know not. If such be the case, the causes thereof should be received as amongst phenomena hard to be explained. It is likely that Polybius may have assigned the proper reason; but it is also likely that certain of the channels of the springs being damped outside become relaxed, and so let the water run out into the surrounding land, instead of forcing it along its ancient passage to the spring; and there will of course be moisture when the tide overflows. But if, as Athenodorus asserts, the ebb and flow resemble the inspiration and expiration of the breath, it is possible that some of the currents of water which naturally have an efflux on to the surface of the earth, through various channels, the mouths of which we denominate springs and fountains, are by other channels drawn towards the depths of the sea, and raise it, so as to produce a flood-tide; when the expiration is sufficient, they leave off the course in which they are then flowing, and again revert to their former direction, when that again takes a change. 3.5.8. I cannot tell how it is that Posidonius, who describes the Phoenicians as sagacious in other things, should here attribute to them folly rather than shrewdness. The sun completes his revolution in the space of a day and night, being a portion of the time beneath the earth, and a portion of the time shining upon it. Now he asserts that the motion of the sea corresponds with the revolution of the heavenly bodies, and experiences a diurnal, monthly, and annual change, in strict accordance with the changes of the moon. For [he continues] when the moon is elevated one sign of the zodiac above the horizon, the sea begins sensibly to swell and cover the shores, until she has attained her meridian; but when that satellite begins to decline, the sea again retires by degrees, until the moon wants merely one sign of the zodiac from setting; it then remains stationary until the moon has set, and also descended one sign of the zodiac below the horizon, when it again rises until she has attained her meridian below the earth; it then retires again until the moon is within one sign of the zodiac of her rising above the horizon, when it remains stationary until the moon has risen one sign of the zodiac above the earth, and then begins to rise as before. Such he describes to be the diurnal revolution. In respect to the monthly revolution, [he says] that the spring-tides occur at the time of the new moon, when they decrease until the first quarter; they then increase until full moon, when they again decrease until the last quarter, after which they increase till the new moon; [he adds] that these increases ought to be understood both of their duration and speed. In regard to the annual revolution, he says that he learned from the statements of the Gaditanians, that both the ebb and flow tides were at their extremes at the summer solstice: and that hence he conjectured that they decreased until the [autumnal] equinox; then increased till the winter solstice; then decreased again until the vernal equinox; and [finally] increased until the summer solstice. But since these revolutions occur twice in the four-and-twenty hours, the sea rising twice and receding twice, and that regularly every day and night, how is it that the filling and failing of the well do not frequently occur during the ebb and flow of the tide? or if it be allowed that this does often occur, why does it not do so in the same proportion? and if it does so in the same proportion, how comes it that the Gaditanians are not competent to observe what is of daily occurrence, while they are nevertheless competent to the observing of revolutions which occur but once in the year. That Posidonius himself credited these reports is evident from his own conjecture respecting the decrease and increase [of the sea] from solstice to solstice. However, it is not likely, being an observant people, that they should be ignorant of what actually occurred, whilst giving credit to imaginary phenomena. 6.2. 1. Sicily Sicily is triangular in shape; and for this reason it was at first called Trinacria, though later the name was changed to the more euphonious Thrinacis. Its shape is defined by three capes: Pelorias, which with Caenys and Columna Rheginorum forms the strait, and Pachynus, which lies out towards the east and is washed by the Sicilian Sea, thus facing towards the Peloponnesus and the sea-passage to Crete, and, third, Lilybaion, the cape that is next to Libya, thus facing at the same time towards Libya and the winter sunset. As for the sides which are marked off by the three capes, two of them are moderately concave, whereas the third, the one that reaches from Lilybaion to Pelorias, is convex; and this last is the longest, being one thousand seven hundred stadia in length, as Poseidonius states, though he adds twenty stadia more. of the other two sides, the one from Lilybaion to Pachynus is longer than the other, and the one next to the strait and Italy, from Pelorias to Pachynus, is shortest, being about one thousand one hundred and thirty stadia long. And the distance round the island by sea, as declared by Poseidonius, is four thousand stadia. But in the Chorography the distances given are longer, marked off in sections and given in miles: from Pelorias to Mylae, twenty-five miles; the same from Mylae to Tyndaris; then to Agathyrnum thirty, and the same to Alaesa, and again the same to Cephaloedium, these being small towns; and eighteen to the River Himera, which flows through the middle of Sicily; then to Panormus thirty-five, and thirty-two to the Emporium of the Aegestes, and the rest of the way, to Lilybaion, thirty-eight. Thence, on doubling Lilybaion, to the adjacent side, to the Heracleium seventy-five miles, and to the Emporium of the Acragantini twenty, and another twenty to Camarina; and then to Pachynus fifty. Thence again along the third side: to Syracuse thirty-six, and to Catana sixty; then to Tauromenium thirty-three; and then to Messene thirty. On foot, however, the distance from Pachynus to Pelorias is one hundred and sixty-eight miles, and from Messene to Lilybaion by the Valerian Way two hundred and thirty-five. But some writers have spoken in a more general way, as, for example, Ephorus: At any rate, the voyage round the island takes five days and nights. Further, Poseidonius, in marking off the boundaries of the island by means of the climata, puts Pelorias towards the north, Lilybaion towards the south, and Pachynus towards the east. But since the climata are each divided off into parallelograms, necessarily the triangles that are inscribed (particularly those which are scalene and of which no side fits on any one of the sides of the parallelogram) cannot, because of their slant, be fitted to the climata. However this may be, one might fairly say, in the case of the climata of Sicily, which is situated south of Italy, that Pelorias is the most northerly of the three corners; and therefore the side that joins Pelorias to Pachynus will lie out towards the east, thus facing towards the north, and also will form the side that is on the strait. But this side must take a slight turn toward the winter sunrise, for the shore bends aside in this direction as one proceeds from Catana to Syracuse and Pachynus. Now the distance from Pachynus across to the mouth of the Alpheius is four thousand stadia; but when Artemidorus says that it is four thousand six hundred stadia from Pachynus to Taenarum and one thousand one hundred and thirty from the Alpheius to the Pamisus, he seems to me to afford us reason for suspecting that his statement is not in agreement with that of the man who says that the distance to the Alpheius from Pachynus is four thousand stadia. Again, the side that extends from Pachynus to Lilybaion, which is considerably farther west than Pelorias, should itself also be made to slant considerably from its southernmost point towards the west, and should face at the same time towards the east and towards the south, one part being washed by the Sicilian Sea and the other by the Libyan Sea that reaches from Carthaginia to the Syrtes. The shortest passage from Lilybaion across to Libya in neighborhood of Carthage is one thousand five hundred stadia; and on this passage, it is said, some man of sharp vision, from a look-out, used to report to the men in Lilybaion the number of ships that were putting to sea from Carthage. Again, the side that extends from Lilybaion to Pelorias necessarily slants towards the east, and faces towards the region that is between the west and the north, having Italy on the north and on the west the Tyrrhenian sea and the Islands of Aeolus.,2. The cities along the side that forms the Strait are, first, Messene, and then Tauromenium, Catana, and Syracuse; but those that were between Catana and Syracuse have disappeared — Naxus and Megara; and on this coast are the outlets of the Symaethus and all rivers that flow down from Aetna and have good harbors at their mouths; and here too is the promontory of Xiphonia. According to Ephorus these were the earliest Greek cities to be founded in Sicily, that is, in the tenth generation after the Trojan war; for before that time men were so afraid of the bands of Tyrrhenian pirates and the savagery of the barbarians in this region that they would not so much as sail thither for trafficking; but though Theocles, the Athenian, borne out of his course by the winds to Sicily, clearly perceived both the weakness of the peoples and the excellence of the soil, yet, when he went back, he could not persuade the Athenians, and hence took as partners a considerable number of Euboean Chalcidians and some Ionians and also some Dorians (most of whom were Megarians) and made the voyage; so the Chalcidians founded Naxos, whereas the Dorians founded Megara, which in earlier times had been called Hybla. The cities no longer exist, it is true, but the name of Hybla still endures, because of the excellence of the Hyblaean honey.,3. As for the cities that still endure along the aforementioned side: Messene is situated in a gulf of Pelorias, which bends considerably towards the east and forms an armpit, so to speak; but though the distance across to Messene from Rhegium is only sixty stadia, it is much less from Columna. Messene was founded by the Messenians of the Peloponnesus, who named it after themselves, changing its name; for formerly it was called Zancle, on account of the crookedness of the coast (anything crooked was called zanclion), having been founded formerly by the Naxians who lived near Catana. But the Mamertini, a tribe of the Campani, joined the colony later on. Now the Romans used it as a base of operations for their Sicilian war against the Carthaginians; and afterwards Pompeius Sextus, when at war with Augustus Caesar, kept his fleet together there, and when ejected from the island also made his escape thence. And in the ship-channel, only a short distance off the city, is to be seem Charybdis, a monstrous deep, into which the ships are easily drawn by the refluent currents of the strait and plunged prow-foremost along with a mighty eddying of the whirlpool; and when the ships are gulped down and broken to pieces, the wreckage is swept along to the Tauromenian shore, which, from this occurrence, is called Copria. The Mamertini prevailed to such an extent among the Messenii that they got control of the city; and the people are by all called mamertini rather than Messenii; and further, since the country is exceedingly productive of wine, the wine is called, not Messenian, but Mamertine, and it rivals the best of the Italian wines. The city is fairly populous, though Catana is still more so, and in fact has received Romans as inhabitants; but Tauromenium is less populous than either. Catana, moreover, was founded by the same Naxians, whereas Tauromenium was founded by the Zanclaeans of Hybla; but Catana lost its original inhabitants when Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, established a different set of colonists there and called it Aetna instead of Catana. And Pindar too calls him the founder of Aetna when he say: Attend to what I say to thee, O Father, whose name is that of the holy sacrifices, founder of Aetna. But at the death of Hiero the Catanaeans came back, ejected the inhabitants, and demolished the tomb of the tyrant. And the Aetnaeans, on withdrawing, took up their abode in a hilly district of Aetna called Innesa, and called the place, which is eighty stadia from Catana, Aetna, and declared Hiero its founder. Now the city of Aetna is situated in the interior about over Catana, and shares most in the devastation caused by the action of the craters; in fact the streams of lava rush down very nearly as far as the territory of Catana; and here is the scene of the act of filial piety, so often recounted, of Amphinomus and Anapias, who lifted their parents on their shoulders and saved them from the doom that was rushing upon them. According to Poseidonius, when the mountain is in action, the fields of the Catanaeans are covered with ash-dust to a great depth. Now although the ash is an affliction at the time, it benefits the country in later times, for it renders it fertile and suited to the vine, the rest of the country not being equally productive of good wine; further, the roots produced by the fields that have been covered with ash-dust make the sheep so fat, it is said, that they choke; and this is why blood is drawn from their ears every four or five days — a thing of which I have spoken before as occurring near Erytheia. But when the lava changes to a solid, it turns the surface of the earth into stone to a considerable depth, so that quarrying is necessary on the part of any who wish to uncover the original surface; for when the mass of rock in the craters melts and then is thrown up, the liquid that is poured out over the top is black mud and flows down the mountain, and then, solidifying, becomes millstone, keeping the same color it had when in a liquid state. And ash is also produced when the stones are burnt, as from wood; therefore, just as wood-ashes nourish rue, so the ashes of Aetna, it is reasonable to suppose, have some quality that is peculiarly suited to the vine.,4. Syracuse was founded by Archias, who sailed from Corinth about the same time that Naxos and Megara were colonized. It is said that Archias went to Delphi at the same time as Myscellus, and when they were consulting the oracle, the god asked them whether they chose wealth or health; now Archias chose wealth, and Myscellus health; accordingly, the god granted to the former to found Syracuse, and to the latter Croton. And it actually came to pass that the Crotoniates took up their abode in a city that was exceedingly healthful, as I have related, and that Syracuse fell into such exceptional wealth that the name of the Syracusans was spread abroad in a proverb applied to the excessively extravagant — the tithe of the Syracusans would not be sufficient for them. And when Archias, the story continues, was on his voyage to Sicily, he left Chersicrates, of the race of the Heracleidae, with a part of the expedition to help colonize what is now called Corcyra, but was formerly called Scheria; Chersicrates, however, ejected the Liburnians, who held possession of the island, and colonized it with new settlers, whereas Archias landed at Zephyrium, found that some Dorians who had quit the company of the founders of Megara and were on their way back home had arrived there from Sicily, took them up and in common with them founded Syracuse. And the city grew, both on account of the fertility of the soil and on account of the natural excellence of its harbors. Furthermore, the men of Syracuse proved to have the gift of leadership, with the result that when the Syracusans were ruled by tyrants they lorded it over the rest, and when set free themselves they set free those who were oppressed by the barbarians. As for these barbarians, some were native inhabitants, whereas others came over from the mainland. The Greeks would permit none of them to lay hold of the seaboard, but were not strong enough to keep them altogether away from the interior; indeed, to this day the Siceli, the Sicani, the Morgetes, and certain others have continued to live in the island, among whom there used to be Iberians, who, according to Ephorus, were said to be the first barbarian settlers of Sicily. Morgantium, it is reasonable to suppose, was settled by the Morgetes; it used to be a city, but now it does not exist. When the Carthaginians came over they did not cease to abuse both these people and the Greeks, but the Syracusans nevertheless held out. But the Romans later on ejected the Carthaginians and took Syracuse by siege. And in our own time, because Pompeius abused, not only the other cities, but Syracuse in particular, Augustus Caesar sent a colony and restored a considerable part of the old settlement; for in olden times it was a city of five towns, with a wall of one hundred and eighty stadia. Now it was not at all necessary to fill out the whole of this circuit, but it was necessary, he thought, to build up in a better way only the part that was settled — the part adjacent to the Island of Ortygia which had a sufficient circuit to make a notable city. Ortygia is connected with the mainland, near which it lies, by a bridge, and has the fountain of Arethusa, which sends forth a river that empties immediately into the sea. People tell the mythical story that the river Arethusa is the Alpheius, which latter, they say, rises in the Peloponnesus, flows underground through the sea as far as Arethusa, and then empties thence once more into the sea. And the kind of evidence they adduce is as follows: a certain cup, they think, was thrown out into the river at Olympia and was discharged into the fountain; and again, the fountain was discolored as the result of the sacrifices of oxen at Olympia. Pindar follows these reports when he says: O resting-place august of Alpheius, Ortygia, scion of famous Syracuse. And in agreement with Pindar Timaeus the historian also declares the same thing. Now if the Alpheius fell into a pit before joining the sea, there would be some plausibility in the view that the stream extends underground from Olympia as far as Sicily, thereby preserving its potable water unmixed with the sea; but since the mouth of the river empties into the sea in full view, and since near this mouth, on the transit, there is no mouth visible that swallows up the stream of the river (though even so the water could not remain fresh; yet it might, the greater part of it at least, if it sank into the underground channel), the thing is absolutely impossible. For the water of Arethusa bears testimony against it, since it is potable; and that the stream of the river should hold together through so long a transit without being diffused with the seawater, that is, until it falls into the fancied underground passage, is utterly mythical. Indeed, we can scarcely believe this in the case of the Rhodanus, although its stream does hold together when it passes through a lake, keeping its course visible; in this case, however, the distance is short and the lake does not rise in waves, whereas in case of the sea in question, where there are prodigious storms and surging waves, the tale is foreign to all plausibility. And the citing of the story of the cup only magnifies the falsehood, for a cup does not of itself readily follow the current of any stream, to say nothing of a stream that flows so great a distance and through such passages. Now there are many rivers in many parts of the world that flow underground, but not for such a distance; and even if this is possible, the stories aforesaid, at least, are impossible, and those concerning the river Inachus are like a myth: For it flows from the heights of Pindus, says Sophocles, and from Lacmus, from the land of the Perrhaebians, into the lands of the Amphilochians and Acarians, and mingles with the waters of Achelous, and, a little below, he adds, whence it cleaves the waves to Argos and comes to the people of Lyrceium. Marvellous tales of this sort are stretched still further by those who make the Inopus cross over from the Nile to Delos. And Zoilus the rhetorician says in his Eulogy of the Tenedians that the Alpheius rises in Tenedos — the man who finds fault with Homer as a writer of myths! And Ibycus says that the Asopus in Sikyon rises in Phrygia. But the statement of Hecataeus is better, when he says that the Inachus among the Amphilochians, which flows from Lacmus, as does also the Aeas, is different from the river of Argos, and that it was named by Amphilochus, the man who called the city Argos Amphilochicum. Now Hecataeus says that this river does empty into the Achelous, but that the Aeas flows towards the west into Apollonia. On either side of the island of Ortygia is a large harbor; the larger of the two is eighty stadia in circuit. Caesar restored this city and also Catana; and so, in the same way, Centoripa, because it contributed much to the overthrow of Pompeius. Centoripa lies above Catana, bordering on the Aetnaean mountains, and on the Symaethus River, which flows into the territory of Catana.,5. of the remaining sides of Sicily, that which extends from Pachynus to Lilybaion has been utterly deserted, although it preserves traces of the old settlements, among which was Camarina, a colony of the Syracusans; Acragas, however, which belongs to the Geloans, and its seaport, and also Lilybaion still endure. For since this region was most exposed to attack on the part of Carthage, most of it was ruined by the long wars that arose one after another. The last and longest side is not populous either, but still it is fairly well peopled; in fact, Alaesa, Tyndaris, the Emporium of the Aegestes, and Cephaloedis are all cities, and Panormus has also a Roman settlement. Aegestaea was founded, it is said, by those who crossed over with Philoctetes to the territory of Croton, as I have stated in my account of Italy; they were sent to Sicily by him along with Aegestes the Trojan.,6. In the interior is Enna, where is the sanctuary of Demeter, with only a few inhabitants; it is situated on a hill, and is wholly surrounded by broad plateaus that are tillable. It suffered most at the hands of Eunus and his runaway slaves, who were besieged there and only with difficulty were dislodged by the Romans. The inhabitants of Catana and Tauromenium and also several other peoples suffered this same fate. Eryx, a lofty hill, is also inhabited. It has a sanctuary of Aphrodite that is held in exceptional honor, and in early times was full of female temple-slaves, who had been dedicated in fulfillment of vows not only by the people of Sicily but also by many people from abroad; but at the present time, just as the settlement itself, so the sanctuary is in want of men, and the multitude of temple-slaves has disappeared. In Rome, also, there is a likeness of this goddess, I mean the sanctuary before the Colline Gate which is called that of Venus Erycina and is remarkable for its temple and surrounding colonnade. But the rest of the settlements as well as most of the interior have come into the possession of shepherds; for I do not know of any settled population still living in either Himera, or Gela, or Callipolis or Selinus or Euboea or several other places. of these cities Himera was founded by the Zanclaeans of Mylae, Callipolis by the Naxians, Selinus by the Megarians of the Sicilian Megara, and Euboea by the Leontines. Many of the barbarian cities, also, have been wiped out; for example Camici, the royal residence of Cocalus, at which Minos is said to have been murdered by treachery. The Romans, therefore, taking notice that the country was deserted, took possession of the mountains and most of the plains and then gave them over to horseherds, cowherds, and shepherds; and by these herdsmen the island was many times put in great danger, because, although at first they only turned to brigandage in a sporadic way, later they both assembled in great numbers and plundered the settlements, as, for example, when Eunus and his men took possession of Enna. And recently, in my own time, a certain Selurus, called the son of Aetna, was sent up to Rome because he had put himself at the head of an army and for a long time had overrun the regions round about Aetna with frequent raids; I saw him torn to pieces by wild beasts at an appointed combat of gladiators in the Forum; for he was placed on a lofty scaffold, as though on Aetna, and the scaffold was made suddenly to break up and collapse, and he himself was carried down with it into cages of wild beasts — fragile cages that had been prepared beneath the scaffold for that purpose.,7. As for the fertility of the country, why should I speak of it, since it is on the lips of all men, who declare that it is no whit inferior to that of Italy? And in the matter of grain, honey, saffron, and certain other products, one might call it even superior. There is, furthermore, its propinquity; for the island is a part of Italy, as it were, and readily and without great labor supplies Rome with everything it has, as though from the fields of Italy. And in fact it is called the storehouse of Rome, for everything it produces is brought hither except a few things that are consumed at home, and not the fruits only, but also cattle, hides, wool, and the like. Poseidonius says that Syracuse and Eryx are each situated like an acropolis by the sea, whereas Enna lies midway between the two above the encircling plains. The whole of the territory of Leontini, also, which likewise belonged to the Naxians of Sicily, has been devastated; for although they always shared with the Syracusans in their misfortunes, it was not always so with their good fortunes.,8. Near Centoripa is the town of Aetna, which was mentioned a little above, whose people entertain and conduct those who ascend the mountain; for the mountain-summit begins here. The upper districts are bare and ash-like and full of snow during the winter, whereas the lower are divided up by forests and plantations of every sort. The topmost parts of the mountain appear to undergo many changes because of the way the fire distributes itself, for at one time the fire concentrates in one crater, but at another time divides, while at one time the mountain sends forth lava, at another, flames and fiery smoke, and at still other times it also emits red-hot masses; and the inevitable result of these disturbances is that not only the underground passages, but also the orifices, sometimes rather numerous, which appear on the surface of the mountain all round, undergo changes at the same time. Be this as it may, those who recently made the ascent gave me the following account: They found at the top a level plain, about twenty stadia in circuit, enclosed by a rim of ashes the height of a house-wall, so that any who wished to proceed into the plain had to leap down from the wall; they saw in the center of the plain a mound of the color of ashes, in this respect being like the surface of the plain as seen from above, and above the mound a perpendicular cloud rising straight up to a height of about two hundred feet, motionless (for it was a windless day) and resembling smoke; and two of the men had the hardihood to proceed into the plain, but because the sand they were walking on got hotter and deeper, they turned back, and so were unable to tell those who were observing from a distance anything more than what was already apparent. But they believed, from such a view as they had, that many of the current stories are mythical, and particularly those which some tell about Empedocles, that he leaped down into the crater and left behind, as a trace of the fate he suffered, one of the brazen sandals which he wore; for it was found, they say, a short distance outside the rim of the crater, as though it had been thrown up by the force of the fire. Indeed, the place is neither to be approached nor to be seen, according to my informants; and further, they surmised that nothing could be thrown down into it either, owing to the contrary blasts of the winds arising from the depths, and also owing to the heat, which, it is reasonable to suppose, meets one long before one comes near the mouth of the crater; but even if something should be thrown down into it, it would be destroyed before it could be thrown up in anything like the shape it had when first received; and although it is not unreasonable to assume that at times the blasts of the fire die down when at times the fuel is deficient, yet surely this would not last long enough to make possible the approach of man against so great a force. Aetna dominates more especially the seaboard in the region of the Strait and the territory of Catana, but also that in the region of the Tyrrhenian sea and the Liparaean Islands. Now although by night a brilliant light shines from the summit, by day it is covered with smoke and haze.,9. Over against Aetna rise the Nebrodes Mountains, which, though lower than Aetna, exceed it considerably in breadth. The whole island is hollow down beneath the ground, and full of streams and of fire, as is the case with the Tyrrhenian sea, as far as the Cumaean country, as I have said before. At all events, the island has at many places springs of hot waters which spout up, of which those of Selinus and those of Himera are brackish, whereas those of Aegesta are potable. Near Acragas are lakes which, though they have the taste of seawater, are different in nature; for even people who cannot swim do not sink, but float on the surface like wood. The territory of the Palici has craters that spout up water in a dome-like jet and receive it back again into the same recess. The cavern near Mataurus contains an immense gallery through which a river flows invisible for a considerable distance, and then emerges to the surface, as is the case with the Orontes in Syria, which sinks into the chasm (called Charybdis) between Apameia and Antiocheia and rises again forty stadia away. Similar, too, are the cases both of the Tigris in Mesopotamia and of the Nile in Libya, only a short distance from their sources. And the water in the territory of Stymphalus first flows underground for two hundred stadia and then issues forth in Argeia as the Erasinus River; and again, the water near the Arcadian Asea is first forced below the surface and then, much later, emerges as both the Eurotas and the Alpheius; and hence the belief in a certain fabulous utterance, that if two wreaths be dedicated separately to each of the two rivers and thrown into the common stream, each will reappear, in accordance with the dedication, in the appropriate river. And I have already mentioned what is told about the Timavus River.,10. Phenomena akin both to these and to those in Sicily are to be seen about the Liparaean Islands and Lipara itself. The islands are seven in number, but the largest is Lipara (a colony of the Cnidians), which, Thermessa excepted, lies nearest to Sicily. It was formerly called Meligunis; and it not only commanded a fleet, but for a long time resisted the incursions of the Tyrrheni, for it held in obedience all the Liparaean Islands, as they are now called, though by some they are called the Islands of Aeolus. Furthermore, it often adorned the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi with dedications from the first fruits of victory. It has also a fruitful soil, and a mine of styptic earth that brings in revenues, and hot springs, and fire blasts. Between Lipara and Sicily is Thermessa, which is now called Hiera of Hephaestus; the whole island is rocky, desert, and fiery, and it has three fire blasts, rising from three openings which one might call craters. From the largest the flames carry up also red-hot masses, which have already choked up a considerable part of the Strait. From observation it has been believed that the flames, both here and on Aetna, are stimulated along with the winds and that when the winds cease the flames cease too. And this is not unreasonable, for the winds are begotten by the evaporations of the sea and after they have taken their beginning are fed thereby; and therefore it is not permissible for any who have any sort of insight into such matters to marvel if the fire too is kindled by a cognate fuel or disturbance. According to Polybius, one of the three craters has partially fallen in, whereas the others remain whole; and the largest has a circular rim five stadia in circuit, but it gradually contracts to a diameter of fifty feet; and the altitude of this crater above the level of the sea is a stadium, so that the crater is visible on windless days. But if all this is to be believed, perhaps one should also believe the mythical story about Empedocles. Now if the south wind is about to blow, Polybius continues, a cloud-like mist pours down all round the island, so that not even Sicily is visible in the distance; and when the north wind is about to blow, pure flames rise aloft from the aforesaid crater and louder rumblings are sent forth; but the west wind holds a middle position, so to speak, between the two; but though the two other craters are like the first in kind, they fall short in the violence of their spoutings; accordingly, both the difference in the rumblings, and the place whence the spoutings and the flames and the fiery smoke begin, signify beforehand the wind that is going to blow again three days afterward; at all events, certain of the men in Liparae, when the weather made sailing impossible, predicted, he says, the wind that was to blow, and they were not mistaken; from this fact, then, it is clear that that saying of the Poet which is regarded as most mythical of all was not idly spoken, but that he hinted at the truth when he called Aeolus steward of the winds. However, I have already discussed these matters sufficiently. It is the close attention of the Poet to vivid description, one might call it, . . . for both are equally present in rhetorical composition and vivid description; at any rate, pleasure is common to both. But I shall return to the topic which follows that at which I digressed.,11. of Lipara, then, and Thermessa I have already spoken. As for Strongyle, it is so called from its shape, and it too is fiery; it falls short in the violence of its flame, but excels in the brightness of its light; and this is where Aeolus lived, it is said. The fourth island is Didyme, and it too is named after its shape. of the remaining islands, Ericussa and Phoenicussa have been so called from their plants, and are given over to pasturage of flocks. The seventh is Euonymus, which is farthest out in the high sea and is desert; it is so named because it is more to the left than the others, to those who sail from Lipara to Sicily. Again, many times flames have been observed running over the surface of the sea round about the islands when some passage had been opened up from the cavities down in the depths of the earth and the fire had forced its way to the outside. Poseidonius says that within his own recollection, one morning at daybreak about the time of the summer solstice, the sea between Hiera and Euonymus was seen raised to an enormous height, and by a sustained blast remained puffed up for a considerable time, and then subsided; and when those who had the hardihood to sail up to it saw dead fish driven by the current, and some of the men were stricken ill because of the heat and stench, they took flight; one of the boats, however, approaching more closely, lost some of its occupants and barely escaped to Lipara with the rest, who would at times become senseless like epileptics, and then afterwards would recur to their proper reasoning faculties; and many days later mud was seen forming on the surface of the sea, and in many places flames, smoke, and murky fire broke forth, but later the scum hardened and became as hard as mill-stone; and the governor of Sicily, Titus Flaminius, reported the event to the Senate, and the Senate sent a deputation to offer propitiatory sacrifices, both in the islet and in Liparae, to the gods both of the underworld and of the Sea. Now, according to the Chorographer, the distance from Ericodes to Phoenicodes is ten miles, and thence to Didyme thirty, and thence to the northern part of Lipara twenty-nine, and thence to Sicily nineteen, but from Strongyle sixteen. off Pachynus lie Melita, whence come the little dogs called Melitaean, and Gaudos, both eighty-eight miles distant from the Cape. Cossura lies off Lilybaion, and off Aspis, a Carthaginian city whose Latin name is Clupea; it lies midway between the two, and is the aforesaid distance from either. Aegimurus, also, and other small islands lie off Sicily and Libya. So much for the islands. 11.1. 1. Overview of AsiaAsia is adjacent to Europe, bordering thereon along the Tanais River. I must therefore describe this country next, first dividing it, for the sake of clearness, by means of certain natural boundaries. That is, I must do for Asia precisely what Eratosthenes did for the inhabited world as a whole.,2. The Taurus forms a partition approximately through the middle of this continent, extending from the west towards the east, leaving one portion of it on the north and the other on the south. of these portions, the Greeks call the one the Cis-Tauran Asia and the other Trans-Tauran. I have said this before, but let me repeat it by way of reminder.,3. Now the mountain has in many places as great a breadth as three thousand stadia, and a length as great as that of Asia itself, that is, about forty-five thousand stadia, reckoning from the coast opposite Rhodes to the eastern extremities of India and Scythia.,4. It has been divided into many parts with many names, determined by boundaries that circumscribe areas both large and small. But since certain tribes are comprised within the vast width of the mountain, some rather insignificant, but others extremely well known (as, for instance, the Parthians, the Medes, the Armenians, a part of the Cappadocians, the Cilicians, and the Pisidians), those which lie for the most part in its northerly parts must be assigned there, and those in its southern parts to the southern, while those which are situated in the middle of the mountains should, because of the likeness of their climate, be assigned to the north, for the climate in the middle is cold, whereas that in the south is hot. Further, almost all the rivers that rise in the Taurus flow in contrary directions, that is, some into the northern region and others into the southern (they do so at first, at least, although later some of them bend towards the east or west), and they therefore are naturally helpful in our use of these mountains as boundaries in the two-fold division of Asia — just as the sea inside the Pillars, which for the most part is approximately in a straight line with these mountains, has proved convenient in the forming of two continents, Europe and Libya, it being the noteworthy boundary between the two.,5. As we pass from Europe to Asia in our geography, the northern division is the first of the two divisions to which we come; and therefore we must begin with this. of this division the first portion is that in the region of the Tanais River, which I have taken as the boundary between Europe and Asia. This portion forms, in a way, a peninsula, for it is surrounded on the west by the Tanais River and Lake Maeotis as far as the Bosporus and that part of the coast of the Euxine Sea which terminates at Colchis; and then on the north by the Ocean as far as the mouth of the Caspian Sea; and then on the east by this same sea as far as the boundary between Albania and Armenia, where empty the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, the Araxes flowing through Armenia and the Cyrus through Iberia and Albania; and lastly, on the south by the tract of country which extends from the outlet of the Cyrus River to Colchis, which is about three thousand stadia from sea to sea, across the territory of the Albanians and the Iberians, and therefore is described as an isthmus. But those writers who have reduced the width of the isthmus as much as Cleitarchus has, who says that it is subject to inundation from either sea, should not be considered even worthy of mention. Poseidonius states that the isthmus is fifteen hundred stadia across, as wide as the isthmus from Pelusium to the Red Sea. And in my opinion, he says, the isthmus from Lake Maeotis to the Ocean does not differ much therefrom.,6. But I do not know how anyone can trust him concerning things that are uncertain if he has nothing plausible to say about them, when he reasons so illogically about things that are obvious; and this too, although he was a friend of Pompey, who made an expedition against the Iberians and the Albanians, from sea to sea on either side, both the Caspian and the Colchian Seas. At any rate, it is said that Pompey, upon arriving at Rhodes on his expedition against the pirates (immediately thereafter he was to set out against both Mithridates and the tribes which extended as far as the Caspian Sea), happened to attend one of the lectures of Poseidonius, and that when he went out he asked Poseidonius whether he had any orders to give, and that Poseidonius replied: Ever bravest be, and preeminent o'er others. 12Add to this that among other works he wrote also the history of Pompey. So for this reason he should have been more regardful of the truth.,7. The second portion would be that beyond the Hyrcanian Sea, which we call the Caspian Sea, as far as the Scythians near India. The third portion would consist of the part which is adjacent to the isthmus above mentioned and of those parts of the region inside Taurus and nearest Europe which come next after this isthmus and the Caspian Gates, I mean Media and Armenia and Cappadocia and the intervening regions. The fourth portion is the land inside the Halys River, and all the region in the Taurus itself and outside thereof which falls within the limits of the peninsula which is formed by the isthmus that separates the Pontic and the Cilician Seas. As for the other countries, I mean the Trans-Tauran, I place among them not only India, but also Ariana as far as the tribes that extend to the Persian Sea and the Arabian Gulf and the Nile and the Egyptian and Issic Seas. 16.2.8. Then follows the district of Cyrrhestica, which extends as far as that of Antioch. On the north near it are Mount Amanus and Commagene. Cyrrhestica extends as far as these places, and touches them. Here is situated a city, Gindarus, the acropolis of Cyrrhestica, and a convenient resort for robbers, and near it a place called Heracleium. It was near these places that Pacorus, the eldest of the sons of the Parthian king, who had invaded Syria, was defeated by Ventidius, and killed.Pagrae, in the district of Antioch, is close to Gindarus. It is a strong fortress situated on the pass over the Amanus, which leads from the gates of the Amanus into Syria. Below Pagrae lies the plain of Antioch, through which flow the rivers Arceuthus, Orontes, and Labotas. In this plain is also the trench of Meleagrus, and the river Oenoparas, on the banks of which Ptolemy Philometor, after having defeated Alexander Balas, died of his wounds.Above these places is a hill called Trapezon from its form, and upon it Ventidius engaged Phranicates the Parthian general.After these places, near the sea, are Seleuceia and Pieria, a mountain continuous with the Amanus and Rhosus, situated between Issus and Seleuceia.Seleuceia formerly had the name of Hydatopotami (rivers of water). It is a considerable fortress, and may defy all attacks; wherefore Pompey, having excluded from it Tigranes, declared it a free city.To the south of Antioch is Apameia, situated in the interior, and to the south of Seleuceia, the mountains Casius and Anti-Casius.Still further on from Seleuceia are the mouths of the Orontes, then the Nymphaeum, a kind of sacred cave, next Casium, then follows Poseidium a small city, and Heracleia. 16.2.16. There are two mountains, which form Coele-Syria, as it is called, lying nearly parallel to each other; the commencement of the ascent of both these mountains, Libanus and Antilibanus, is a little way from the sea; Libanus rises above the sea near Tripolis and Theoprosopon, and Antilibanus, above the sea near Sidon. They terminate somewhere near the Arabian mountains, which are above the district of Damascus and the Trachones as they are there called, where they form fruitful hills. A hollow plain lies between them, the breadth of which towards the sea is 200 stadia, and the length from the sea to the interior is about twice that number of stadia. Rivers flow through it, the largest of which is the Jordan, which water a country fertile and productive of all things. It contains also a lake, which produces the aromatic rush and reed. In it are also marshes. The name of the lake is Gennesaritis. It produces also balsamum.Among the rivers is the Chrysorrhoas, which commences from the city and territory of Damascus, and is almost entirely drained by water-courses; for it supplies with water a large tract of country, with a very deep soil.The Lycus and the Jordan are navigated upwards chiefly by the Aradii, with vessels of burden. 16.2.28. Then Joppa, where the coast of Egypt, which at first stretches towards the east, makes a remarkable bend towards the north. In this place, according to some writers, Andromeda was exposed to the sea-monster. It is sufficiently elevated; it is said to command a view of Jerusalem, the capital of the Jews, who, when they descended to the sea, used this place as a naval arsenal. But the arsenals of robbers are the haunts of robbers. Carmel, and the forest, belonged to the Jews. The district was so populous that the neighbouring village Iamneia, and the settlements around, could furnish forty thousand soldiers.Thence to Casium, near Pelusium, are little more than 1000 stadia, and 1300 to Pelusium itself. 16.2.34. The western extremities of Judaea towards Casius are occupied by Idumaeans, and by the lake [Sirbonis]. The Idumaeans are Nabataeans. When driven from their country by sedition, they passed over to the Jews, and adopted their customs. The greater part of the country along the coast to Jerusalem is occupied by the Lake Sirbonis, and by the tract contiguous to it; for Jerusalem is near the sea, which, as we have said, may be seen from the arsenal of Joppa. These districts (of Jerusalem and Joppa) lie towards the north; they are inhabited generally, and each place in particular, by mixed tribes of Egyptians, Arabians, and Phoenicians. of this description are the inhabitants of Galilee, of the plain of Jericho, and of the territories of Philadelphia and Samaria, surnamed Sebaste by Herod; but although there is such a mixture of inhabitants, the report most credited, [one] among many things believed respecting the temple [and the inhabitants] of Jerusalem, is, that the Egyptians were the ancestors of the present Jews. 16.2.35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the Lower [Egypt] * * * *, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and taught that the Egyptians and Africans entertained erroneous sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks also were in error in making images of their gods after the human form. For God [said he] may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things. Who then of any understanding would venture to form an image of this Deity, resembling anything with which we are conversant? on the contrary, we ought not to carve any images, but to set apart some sacred ground and a shrine worthy of the Deity, and to worship Him without any similitude. He taught that those who made fortunate dreams were to be permitted to sleep in the temple, where they might dream both for themselves and others; that those who practised temperance and justice, and none else, might expect good, or some gift or sign from the God, from time to time. 16.2.36. By such doctrine Moses persuaded a large body of right-minded persons to accompany him to the place where Jerusalem now stands. He easily obtained possession of it, as the spot was not such as to excite jealousy, nor for which there could be any fierce contention; for it is rocky, and, although well supplied with water, it is surrounded by a barren and waterless territory. The space within [the city] is 60 stadia [in circumference], with rock underneath the surface.Instead of arms, he taught that their defence was in their sacred things and the Divinity, for whom he was desirous of finding a settled place, promising to the people to deliver such a kind of worship and religion as should not burthen those who adopted it with great expense, nor molest them with [so-called] divine possessions, nor other absurd practices.Moses thus obtained their good opinion, and established no ordinary kind of government. All the nations around willingly united themselves to him, allured by his discourses and promises. 16.2.37. His successors continued for some time to observe the same conduct, doing justly, and worshipping God with sincerity. Afterwards superstitious persons were appointed to the priesthood, and then tyrants. From superstition arose abstinence from flesh, from the eating of which it is now the custom to refrain, circumcision, excision, and other practices which the people observe. The tyrannical government produced robbery; for the rebels plundered both their own and the neighbouring countries. Those also who shared in the government seized upon the property of others, and ravaged a large part of Syria and of Phoenicia.Respect, however, was paid to the acropolis; it was not abhorred as the seat of tyranny, but honoured and venerated as a temple. 16.2.38. This is according to nature, and common both to Greeks and barbarians. For, as members of a civil community, they live according to a common law; otherwise it would be impossible for the mass to execute any one thing in concert (in which consists a civil state), or to live in a social state at all. Law is twofold, divine and human. The ancients regarded and respected divine, in preference to human, law; in those times, therefore, the number of persons was very great who consulted oracles, and, being desirous of obtaining the advice of Jupiter, hurried to Dodona, to hear the answer of Jove from the lofty oak.The parent went to Delphi, anxious to learn whether the child which had been exposed (to die) was still living;while the child itself was gone to the temple of Apollo, with the hope of discovering its parents.And Minos among the Cretans, the king who in the ninth year enjoyed converse with Great Jupiter, every nine years, as Plato says, ascended to the cave of Jupiter, received ordices from him, and conveyed them to men. Lycurgus, his imitator, acted in a similar manner; for he was often accustomed, as it seemed, to leave his own country to inquire of the Pythian goddess what ordices he was to promulgate to the Lacedaemonians. 16.2.39. What truth there may be in these things I cannot say; they have at least been regarded and believed as true by mankind. Hence prophets received so much honour as to be thought worthy even of thrones, because they were supposed to communicate ordices and precepts from the gods, both during their lifetime and after their death; as for example Teiresias, to whom alone Proserpine gave wisdom and understanding after death: the others flit about as shadows.Such were Amphiaraus, Trophonius, Orpheus, and Musaeus: in former times there was Zamolxis, a Pythagorean, who was accounted a god among the Getae; and in our time, Decaeneus, the diviner of Byrebistas. Among the Bosporani, there was Achaicarus; among the Indians, were the Gymnosophists; among the Persians, the Magi and Necyomanteis, and besides these the Lecanomanteis and Hydromanteis; among the Assyrians, were the Chaldaeans; and among the Romans, the Tyrrhenian diviners of dreams.Such was Moses and his successors; their beginning was good, but they degenerated. 16.2.40. When Judaea openly became subject to a tyrannical government, the first person who exchanged the title of priest for that of king was Alexander. His sons were Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. While they were disputing the succession to the kingdom, Pompey came upon them by surprise, deprived them of their power, and destroyed their fortresses, first taking Jerusalem itself by storm. It was a stronghold, situated on a rock, well fortified and well supplied with water within, but externally entirely parched with drought. A ditch was cut in the rock, 60 feet in depth, and in width 250 feet. On the wall of the temple were built towers, constructed of the materials procured when the ditch was excavated. The city was taken, it is said, by waiting for the day of fast, on which the Jews were in the habit of abstaining from all work. Pompey [availing himself of this], filled up the ditch, and threw bridges over it. He gave orders to raze all the walls, and he destroyed, as far as was in his power, the haunts of the robbers and the treasure-holds of the tyrants. Two of these forts, Thrax and Taurus, were situated in the passes leading to Jericho. Others were Alexandrium, Hyrcanium, Machaerus, Lysias, and those about Philadelphia, and Scythopolis near Galilee. 16.2.41. Jericho is a plain encompassed by a mountainous district, which slopes towards it somewhat in the manner of a theatre. Here is the Phoenicon (or palm plantation), which contains various other trees of the cultivated kind, and producing excellent fruit; but its chief production is the palm tree. It is 100 stadia in length; the whole is watered with streams, and filled with dwellings. Here also is a palace and the garden of the balsamum. The latter is a shrub with an aromatic smell, resembling the cytisus and the terminthus. Incisions are made in the bark, and vessels are placed beneath to receive the sap, which is like oily milk. After it is collected in vessels, it becomes solid. It is an excellent remedy for headache, incipient suffusion of the eyes, and dimness of sight. It bears therefore a high price, especially as it is produced in no other place. This is the case also with the Phoenicon, which alone contains the caryotes palm, if we except the Babylonian plain, and the country above it towards the east: a large revenue is derived from the palms and balsamum; xylobalsamum is also used as a perfume. 16.2.42. The Lake Sirbonis is of great extent. Some say that it is 1000 stadia in circumference. It stretches along the coast, to the distance of a little more than 200 stadia. It is deep, and the water is exceedingly heavy, so that no person can dive into it; if any one wades into it up to the waist, and attempts to move forward, he is immediately lifted out of the water It abounds with asphaltus, which rises, not however at any regular seasons, in bubbles, like boiling water, from the middle of the deepest part. The surface is convex, and presents the appearance of a hillock. Together with the asphaltus, there ascends a great quantity of sooty vapour, not perceptible to the eye, which tarnishes copper, silver, and everything bright — even gold. The neighbouring people know by the tarnishing of their vessels that the asphaltus is beginning to rise, and they prepare to collect it by means of rafts composed of reeds. The asphaltus is a clod of earth, liquefied by heat; the air forces it to the surface, where it spreads itself. It is again changed into so firm and solid a mass by cold water, such as the water of the lake, that it requires cutting or chopping (for use). It floats upon the water, which, as I have described, does not admit of diving or immersion, but lifts up the person who goes into it. Those who go on rafts for the asphaltus cut it in pieces, and take away as much as they are able to carry. 16.2.43. Such are the phenomena. But Posidonius says, that the people being addicted to magic, and practising incantations, (by these means) consolidate the asphaltus, pouring upon it urine and other fetid fluids, and then cut it into pieces. (Incantations cannot be the cause), but perhaps urine may have some peculiar power (in effecting the consolidation) in the same manner that chrysocolla is formed in the bladders of persons who labour under the disease of the stone, and in the urine of children.It is natural for these phenomena to take place in the middle of the lake, because the source of the fire is in the centre, and the greater part of the asphaltus comes from thence. The bubbling up, however, of the asphaltus is irregular, because the motion of fire, like that of many other vapours, has no order perceptible to observers. There are also phenomena of this kind at Apollonia in Epirus. 16.2.44. Many other proofs are produced to show that this country is full of fire. Near Moasada are to be seen rugged rocks, bearing the marks of fire; fissures in many places; a soil like ashes; pitch falling in drops from the rocks; rivers boiling up, and emitting a fetid odour to a great distance; dwellings in every direction overthrown; whence we are inclined to believe the common tradition of the natives, that thirteen cities once existed there, the capital of which was Sodom, but that a circuit of about 60 stadia around it escaped uninjured; shocks of earthquakes, however, eruptions of flames and hot springs, containing asphaltus and sulphur, caused the lake to burst its bounds, and the rocks took fire; some of the cities were swallowed up, others were abandoned by such of the inhabitants as were able to make their escape.But Eratosthenes asserts, on the contrary, that the country was once a lake, and that the greater part of it was uncovered by the water discharging itself through a breach, as was the case in Thessaly. 16.2.45. In the Gadaris, also, there is a lake of noxious water. If beasts drink it, they lose their hair, hoofs, and horns. At the place called Taricheae, the lake supplies the best fish for curing. On its banks grow trees which bear a fruit like the apple. The Egyptians use the asphaltus for embalming the bodies of the dead. 16.2.46. Pompey curtailed the territory which had been forcibly appropriated by the Jews, and assigned to Hyrcanus the priesthood. Some time afterwards, Herod, of the same family, and a native of the country, having surreptitiously obtained the priesthood, distinguished himself so much above his predecessors, particularly in his intercourse, both civil and political, with the Romans, that he received the title and authority of king, first from Antony, and afterwards from Augustus Caesar. He put to death some of his sons, on the pretext of their having conspired against him; other sons he left at his death, to succeed him, and assigned to each, portions of his kingdom. Caesar bestowed upon the sons also of Herod marks of honour, on his sister Salome, and on her daughter Berenice. The sons were unfortunate, and were publicly accused. One of them died in exile among the Galatae Allobroges, whose country was assigned for his abode. The others, by great interest and solicitation, but with difficulty, obtained leave to return to their own country, each with his tetrarchy restored to him. 16.4.2. I return to the opinions of Eratosthenes, which he next delivers respecting Arabia. He is speaking of the northern and desert part, lying between Arabia Felix, Coele-Syria, and Judaea, to the recess of the Arabian Gulf.From Heroopolis, situated in that recess of the Arabian Gulf which is on the side of the Nile, to Babylon, towards Petra of the Nabataei, are 5600 stadia. The whole tract lies in the direction of the summer solstice (i. e. east and west), and passes through the adjacent Arabian tribes, namely Nabataei, Chaulotaei, and Agraei. Above these people is Arabia Felix, stretching out 12,000 stadia towards the south to the Atlantic Sea.The first people, next after the Syrians and Jews, who occupy this country are husbandmen. These people are succeeded by a barren and sandy tract, producing a few palms, the acanthus, and tamarisk; water is obtained by digging [wells] as in Gedrosia. It is inhabited by Arabian Scenitae, who breed camels. The extreme parts towards the south, and opposite to Ethiopia, are watered by summer showers, and are sowed twice, like the land in India. Its rivers are exhausted in watering plains, and by running into lakes. The general fertility of the country is very great; among other products, there is in particular an abundant supply of honey; except horses, there are numerous herds of animals, mules (asses?), and swine; birds also of every kind, except geese and the gallinaceous tribe.Four of the most populous nations inhabit the extremity of the above-mentioned country; namely, the Minaei the part towards the Red Sea, whose largest city is Carna or Cara. Next to these are the Sabaeans, whose chief city is Mariaba. The third nation are the Cattabaneis, extending to the straits and the passage across the Arabian Gulf. Their royal seat is called Tamna. The Chatramotitae are the furthest of these nations towards the east. Their city is Sabata. 16.4.21. The Nabataeans and Sabaeans, situated above Syria, are the first people who occupy Arabia Felix. They were frequently in the habit of overrunning this country before the Romans became masters of it, but at present both they and the Syrians are subject to the Romans.The capital of the Nabataeans is called Petra. It is situated on a spot which is surrounded and fortified by a smooth and level rock (petra), which externally is abrupt and precipitous, but within there are abundant springs of water both for domestic purposes and for watering gardens. Beyond the enclosure the country is for the most part a desert, particularly towards Judaea. Through this is the shortest road to Jericho, a journey of three or four days, and five days to the Phoenicon (or palm plantation). It is always governed by a king of the royal race. The king has a minister who is one of the Companions, and is called Brother. It has excellent laws for the administration of public affairs.Athenodorus, a philosopher, and my friend, who had been at Petra, used to relate with surprise, that he found many Romans and also many other strangers residing there. He observed the strangers frequently engaged in litigation, both with one another and with the natives; but the natives had never any dispute amongst themselves, and lived together in perfect harmony. 17.1.15. The byblus and the Egyptian bean grow in the marshes and lakes; from the latter the ciborium is made. The stalks of the bean are nearly of equal height, and grow to the length of ten feet. The byblus is a bare stem, with a tuft on the top. But the bean puts out leaves and flowers in many parts, and bears a fruit similar to our bean, differing only in size and taste. The bean-grounds present an agreeable sight, and afford amusement to those who are disposed to recreate themselves with convivial feasts. These entertainments take place in boats with cabins; they enter the thickest part of the plantation, where they are overshadowed with the leaves, which are very large, and serve for drinking-cups and dishes, having a hollow which fits them for the purpose. They are found in great abundance in the shops in Alexandreia, where they are used as vessels. One of the sources of land revenue is the sale of these leaves. Such then is the nature of this bean.The byblus does not grow here in great abundance, for it is not cultivated. But it abounds in the lower parts of the Delta. There is one sort inferior to the other. The best is the hieratica. Some persons intending to augment the revenue, employed in this case a method which the Jews practised with the palm, especially the caryotic, and with the balsamum. In many places it is not allowed to be cultivated, and the price is enhanced by its rarity: the revenue is indeed thus increased, but the general consumption [of the article] is injured.
81. Egeria (Eucheria), Itinerarium, 12.1, 12.5-12.7  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, byzantine period Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 232
84. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q186=4Qzodiacal Physiognomy, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and the tourist industry Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 328
85. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q534-6=4Qbirthnoah, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and the tourist industry Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 328
86. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q560=4Qexorcism Ar, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and the tourist industry Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 328
87. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q561=4Qphysiognomy Ar, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and the tourist industry Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 328
88. Dead Sea Scrolls, '5Q14=5Qcurses, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, and the tourist industry Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 328
89. Epiphanius The Monk, Civitas Sancti, 32  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area •dead sea and area, byzantine period •dead sea and area, destroyed cities, myth of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 231, 232
90. Piacenza Pilgrim, Itinerarium, 10/166, 14/169, 9/165, 15/169-70  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 232
91. Pseudo-Tertullian, Topographia Terrae Sanctae, 20, 19/145  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 232, 314, 321
92. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q521=4Qapocmess, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
93. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q395=4Qmmtb, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
94. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q341=‘4Qtherapeia’, 0  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
95. Dead Sea Scrolls, '11Q19=11Qtemple, 45.12-45.14  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 316
97. Jerome, De Locis Sanctis, 19, 45.25-47.2, 87  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 313
98. Pseudo-Apuleius, Herbarius, 131  Tagged with subjects: •dead sea and area, dead sea and healing •dead sea and area, medicinal products of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 317, 318