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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
1 maccabees, dating of Schwartz (2008) 15, 520, 521
3 maccabees, dating of Schwartz (2008) 87
[kallirrhoë], date, palms in callirhoe Taylor (2012) 314
acts of paul and thecla, dating Pinheiro et al (2012b) 4
adversus nationes, dating evidence in jerome Simmons(1995) 48
aramaic levi document, dating Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 250
archytas, dating of texts Martens (2003) 9, 35, 169
argonautica, apollonius, dating of the argonauts’ foundational deeds Walter (2020) 124, 125, 126
avot, dating Hayes (2022) 514
bavli, dating of anonymous sections Kalmin (1998) 149
book of secrets, dating of Janowitz (2002b) 86
calcidius, dating of Hoenig (2018) 160, 161
carbon dating Brand (2022) 254
carbon dating, east cemetery Brand (2022) 254
christian inscriptions, dating Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 562, 563
corpus, date, and composition of hippocratic Jouanna (2012) 74
correspondence, royal, in 2 macc., dating of Schwartz (2008) 396, 410, 411, 412
cult of saints, dating of Moss (2012) 73, 183
date Griffiths (1975) 7, 349
date, 62 or campanian earthquake, 63? Williams (2012) 10, 213
date, a, n, noubion Bremmer (2017) 254
date, acts of andrew Bremmer (2017) 119
date, acts of andrew and matthias König (2012) 314, 315
date, acts of john Bremmer (2017) 111, 112
date, acts of paul Bremmer (2017) 163, 223
date, acts of peter Bremmer (2017) 145, 146, 147, 223
date, acusmata, pythagorean, origins and Wolfsdorf (2020) 4
date, alciphron, letters König (2012) 254
date, alexandra, authorship and Liapis and Petrides (2019) 116, 118, 119, 120
date, alexandra, lycophron, provenance and Pillinger (2019) 109, 110, 140
date, and audience, libanius, autobiography Renberg (2017) 690
date, and balsam plantations in jericho, Udoh (2006) 66, 147, 163
date, and identity of palaephatus Hawes (2014) 229, 230, 231
date, and location, arabic epitome Bremmer (2017) 240
date, and nature of de astronomia, hyginus Green (2014) 125, 126
date, and origin of scholia bobiensia Bua (2019) 79
date, and place of clementines, pseudo- Bremmer (2017) 239, 240
date, and place of composition, aḥiqar Toloni (2022) 166, 170
date, and place of composition, job, book of Toloni (2022) 94
date, and place of composition, tobit Toloni (2022) 27, 60, 166
date, and place, apocalypse of elijah Bremmer (2017) 325, 326
date, and place, apocalypse of zephaniah Bremmer (2017) 326, 327
date, and structure of aratea, cicero Green (2014) 133, 134
date, and structure of aratea, germanicus Green (2014) 143, 146
date, and structure of de divinatione, cicero Green (2014) 75, 76
date, and writing of mareotis, lake Taylor (2012) 117, 118
date, apocalypse of paul Bremmer (2017) 300, 301
date, apocalypse of peter Bremmer (2017) 282, 283
date, aqiba, r., yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 189, 190
date, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 83
date, bavli, yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 259
date, birth Schiffman (1983) 35
date, book of judith Gera (2014) 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 55, 132, 184, 256, 259, 266, 267, 362, 385, 397, 407, 419, 422
date, calendar court, yavne, yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 188, 189, 190, 191, 192
date, calendar, and consular Rohland (2022) 79, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102
date, conclusion, pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 126, 129
date, de doctrina christiana, augustine, composition Yates and Dupont (2020) 321, 322
date, demetrius, chronographer Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 10, 158
date, description of judea, pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 115, 126, 127, 129, 132
date, dialog, yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 189
date, dissoi logoi Wolfsdorf (2020) 293, 512
date, dream of nektanebos, demotic prophecy of petesis, significance of Renberg (2017) 79, 90, 739
date, easter, calculation of Rüpke (2011) 156, 157, 164, 168, 172
date, epidauros miracle inscriptions Renberg (2017) 172
date, eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 123
date, ezekiel, tragedian Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 3, 166
date, formulae, pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 119, 120, 123, 124
date, gangplank story, yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 259
date, hecataeus of abdera Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 12
date, hippocratic corpus, authorship and Jouanna (2012) 55
date, honey, date, palms, and Taylor (2012) 226, 311, 314, 318, 336, 337
date, isocrates, areopagitikos of Papazarkadas (2011) 78, 239, 266
date, joshua, r, yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 259
date, odes, horace, publication Yona (2018) 36, 204
date, of Parker (2005) 194, 207
date, of achilles tatius Bremmer (2017) 152
Pinheiro et al (2012a) 230
date, of acts of thomas Bremmer (2017) 169
date, of adoption, tamid psalms Trudinger (2004) 48, 49, 50
date, of adv. nat., jerome, correct Simmons(1995) 48
date, of agathonicãª's martyrdom Tabbernee (2007) 226
date, of aischines, birth, and family Humphreys (2018) 316, 389, 457, 467, 511, 698, 903, 1024, 1216
date, of aischines, birth, and names Humphreys (2018) 272, 285
date, of aischines, birth, embassies Humphreys (2018) 500, 503, 1031
date, of aischines, birth, lawsuits Humphreys (2018) 903, 976, 977
date, of aischines, birth, phratry Humphreys (2018) 572, 601, 698, 1001, 1002
date, of astronomica, manilius Green (2014) 11, 14
date, of aula isiaca, situla from Griffiths (1975) 327
date, of birth, aischines Humphreys (2018) 159, 849
date, of birth, arnobius Simmons(1995) 50
date, of cicero, aratea, composition and Gee (2013) 61
date, of composition of jewish war, history by josephus Feldman (2006) 317, 318
date, of composition of works, ambrosiaster Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 12, 13, 14
date, of composition, abot Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 558, 559
date, of composition, acts Matthews (2010) 5, 43
date, of composition, namatianus, rutilius claudius Blum and Biggs (2019) 251
date, of composition, scriptores historiae augustae, real Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 863, 865
date, of composition, tamid tractate Trudinger (2004) 29
date, of de architectura, vitruvius Green (2014) 109
date, of de excidio Bay (2022) 21, 22
date, of de fato, cicero Green (2014) 86, 87
date, of death, arnobius Simmons(1995) 49, 50
date, of decian persecution Tabbernee (2007) 192
date, of drn, lucretius, composition and Gee (2013) 61
date, of establishment, oropos amphiareion Renberg (2017) 674, 675
date, of first veneration by christians, maccabees Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 479, 480
date, of foundation, onias temple Piotrkowski (2019) 4, 8, 33, 82, 103, 104, 106, 332, 415, 437
date, of his death, christ O, Daly (2020) 313
date, of latin version, physiologus Hillier (1993) 190, 191
date, of middle persian, literature Secunda (2014) 75, 122
date, of odes, horace Green (2014) 122
date, of oedipus the king, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 87, 88
date, of origin of montanism Tabbernee (2007) 46, 47, 48, 82, 174, 228, 229, 230, 299
date, of persecution at lugdunum Tabbernee (2007) 16
date, of persians, the, aeschylus Jouanna (2018) 87
date, of peyras, j. Simmons(1995) 26
date, of play, aristophaness plutus incubation scene Renberg (2017) 137
date, of polycarp's martyrdom Tabbernee (2007) 228, 229, 230
date, of prophecies against persia, zechariah Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008
date, of qedushta shir ha-shirim, anonymous Lieber (2014) 162
date, of quintus', abortive, martyrdom Tabbernee (2007) 229, 230
date, of redaction of letter of aristeas Honigman (2003) 2, 5, 119, 128
date, of sarapis cult, menander, source for Renberg (2017) 403
date, of seven against thebes, aeschylus Jouanna (2018) 87
date, of translation, of lxx, in history Honigman (2003) 5, 96
date, officials, pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 125, 126
date, palms Taylor (2012) 43, 214, 226, 315, 339
date, palms in en gedi Taylor (2012) 313, 314, 339
date, palms, and essenes Taylor (2012) 314
date, palms, as judaean symbol Taylor (2012) 314
date, palms, as medicinal plants Taylor (2012) 226, 236, 314
date, production/processing, ain feshkha, einot tsukim, and Taylor (2012) 337
date, qumran and pharmacological production, honey/wine, processing of Taylor (2012) 336, 337
date, rhesus by pseudo-euripides, authenticity and Liapis and Petrides (2019) 83, 84, 85, 86
date, samaritan petition Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 310, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 400
date, septuagint Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 37, 171
date, sibylline oracle, third Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44
date, sibylline oracles Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44
date, sikyon asklepieion, cult statues Renberg (2017) 180
date, tefillah Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 568, 569, 580, 581, 582, 584
date, testament of adam, provenance and Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 62
date, testament of moses Collins (2016) 160
date, testaments of the xii patriarchs Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 293
date, useless criteria, pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 109, 112, 113, 115
date, wine, and consular Rohland (2022) 86, 87, 88
date, wisdom of solomon Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 215
date, yom kippur Simon-Shushan (2012) 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 259
date, zacharias scholasticus, life of severus Renberg (2017) 371
dated, xvii, tertullian, his treatises Sider (2001) 140
dates Cain (2016) 230
McGowan (1999) 39
dates, and dating of dead sea scrolls Taylor (2012) 299
dates, antonius albus, l., proconsul of asia, proconsulate Kalinowski (2021) 298
dates, consular Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 47, 102, 206, 354, 373, 378, 452
dates, development of palliata Richlin (2018) 12, 35
dates, during/times of flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck (2007) 616, 655
dates, fasti capitolini, consular Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 278
dates, in 2 macc. Schwartz (2008) 11, 12, 15, 29, 30, 230, 231, 373, 447, 448, 466
dates, in documents, maccabees, books Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 1138, 1139
dates, late antique, consular Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 446
dates, martyrs deaths, cyprian Simmons(1995) 79
dates, of marcion Matthews (2010) 46
dates, of sophocles’ life, general Jouanna (2018) 627
dates, of sophocles’ works, general Jouanna (2018) 480, 491, 501, 502, 526, 535, 545
dates, of sosates Cohen (2010) 21
dates, of triumphs, third-century Konrad (2022) 190, 191
dates, plautus floruit Richlin (2018) 12, 34
dates, romes monetization Richlin (2018) 385, 440
dates, start of roman drama Richlin (2018) 2, 12
dates, the adv. nat., jerome, erroneously Simmons(1995) 6, 48
dates, the coming of tiberius, his reign christ Sider (2001) 63
dates, varronian Konrad (2022) 190
dates, wine McGowan (1999) 77
dating Hanghan (2019) 21, 60, 73, 76, 89, 106, 170, 174
Hitch (2017) 21, 60, 73, 76, 89, 106, 170, 174
Martin (2009) 14, 120, 128, 137, 220, 229, 232
dating forms Czajkowski et al (2020) 52, 102, 116, 119, 120, 122, 127, 130, 142, 292, 293
dating of Schwartz (2008) 86
dating of non-literary sources Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 1, 139
dating of non-literary sources, of archaeological evidence Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 24, 180, 346, 405
dating of non-literary sources, of inscriptions Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 23, 24, 233
dating systems Beyerle and Goff (2022) 111, 121, 122, 177, 236, 254, 255, 259, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 478
Hallmannsecker (2022) 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159
dating systems, as marker of identity Hallmannsecker (2022) 10
dating, of ach. tatius Pinheiro et al (2015) 136
dating, of heliodorus Pinheiro et al (2015) 136
dating, of iambulus Pinheiro et al (2015) 19
dating, of posthomerica Greensmith (2021) 26
dating, of texts Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 127, 159
Pinheiro et al (2012a) 51, 155
de abrahamo, dating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
dead sea scrolls, access to, dating of Fraade (2011) 43, 53, 61, 154, 290, 291, 292
era dating Hallmannsecker (2022) 145, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159
era dating, actian Hallmannsecker (2022) 156, 159
era dating, apotheosis of augustus Hallmannsecker (2022) 159
era dating, in ephesos Hallmannsecker (2022) 158, 159
era dating, of roman colony on samos Hallmannsecker (2022) 159
era dating, pharsalian Hallmannsecker (2022) 145, 156, 159
era dating, provincial Hallmannsecker (2022) 155
era dating, seleucid Hallmannsecker (2022) 155, 156
era dating, sullan Hallmannsecker (2022) 155
essenes, dates, use of solinus' Taylor (2012) 314
euripides’ ion, dating Barbato (2020) 108
euripides’ suppliant women, dating Barbato (2020) 194
exposition of the law, dating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
hekhalot texts, dating of Janowitz (2002b) 72
inscriptions, dating of Kraemer (2020) 9, 10, 11, 12
john chrysostom, dating sermons of Azar (2016) 102
lactantius, and dating the adv. nat. Simmons(1995) 53
letters, dating Schwartz (2008) 11, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 528, 529
lysias’ funeral oration, dating Barbato (2020) 40, 101
mark, gospel of dating of Peppard (2011) 90
martyrdom of polycarp, dating of Moss (2012) 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 184
metre, tragedy, and the dating of the gyges fragment Liapis and Petrides (2019) 104
natural questions, dating Williams (2012) 2, 10
origen, dating texts of Azar (2016) 55
panathenaea, dating Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 33, 350, 351, 352
plato, and dating of parmenides Folit-Weinberg (2022) 65
platonic, dating Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
preservation of eponymous dating in monumental reuse Wilding (2022) 218, 220, 234
priestly source, p, dating Feder (2022) 17, 187
proselytes in greco-roman inscriptions, dating of inscriptions Kraemer (2010) 201, 202
pseudo-cyprianic treatises, dating, during cyprian Yates and Dupont (2020) 150, 151
pseudo-cyprianic treatises, dating, overview Yates and Dupont (2020) 149
pseudo-cyprianic treatises, dating, post-cyprian Yates and Dupont (2020) 151, 152, 153, 154
pseudo-cyprianic treatises, dating, pre-cyprian Yates and Dupont (2020) 149, 150
rabbinic literature, dating Schremer (2010) 9, 10, 29, 40, 42, 160, 162, 167, 205, 210, 223
saecular games, dating Davies (2004) 216, 217, 220
saeculum corruptissimum, dating Davies (2004) 216, 217, 218, 219, 220
script, as dating criterion Papazarkadas (2011) 11, 21, 139, 184, 268, 288, 294, 298
second temple, and dating of ezekiel Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 124
targum, dating Levine (2005) 159, 160, 161, 162
tosefta, dating Hayes (2022) 167, 202
treatise on the resurrection, dating of Mcglothlin (2018) 138
yerushalmi and amoraic midrashim, dating Hayes (2022) 21

List of validated texts:
29 validated results for "date"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 11.14 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, date • Tobit, date and place of composition

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 407; Toloni (2022) 27

11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.1-4.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dating systems • Second Temple, and dating of Ezekiel

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 259; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 124

4.1. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה נָכוֹן בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא הוּא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ עָלָיו עַמִּים׃
4.1. חוּלִי וָגֹחִי בַּת־צִיּוֹן כַּיּוֹלֵדָה כִּי־עַתָּה תֵצְאִי מִקִּרְיָה וְשָׁכַנְתְּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וּבָאת עַד־בָּבֶל שָׁם תִּנָּצֵלִי שָׁם יִגְאָלֵךְ יְהוָה מִכַּף אֹיְבָיִךְ׃ 4.2. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה וְאֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃''. None
4.1. But in the end of days it shall come to pass, That the mountain of the LORD’S house shall be established as the top of the mountains, And it shall be exalted above the hills; And peoples shall flow unto it. 4.2. And many nations shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, And to the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths’; For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more.''. None
3. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Easter, date of • Tamid Psalms, date of adoption • Tefillah, Date • date palm

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 581; Esler (2000) 494; Estes (2020) 115, 116, 117; Trudinger (2004) 48, 49, 50

4. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Second Temple, and dating of Ezekiel • date palm

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 117; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 124

5. Herodotus, Histories, 7.94 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Euripides’ Ion, dating • date palm

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 108; Torok (2014) 116

7.94. Ἴωνες δὲ ἑκατὸν νέας παρείχοντο ἐσκευασμένοι ὡς Ἕλληνες. Ἴωνες δὲ ὅσον μὲν χρόνον ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ οἴκεον τὴν νῦν καλεομένην Ἀχαιίην, καὶ πρὶν ἢ Δαναόν τε καὶ Ξοῦθον ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Πελοπόννησον, ὡς Ἕλληνες λέγουσι, ἐκαλέοντο Πελασγοὶ Αἰγιαλέες, ἐπὶ δὲ Ἴωνος τοῦ Ξούθου Ἴωνες.''. None
7.94. The Ionians furnished a hundred ships; their equipment was like the Greek. These Ionians, as long as they were in the Peloponnese, dwelt in what is now called Achaia, and before Danaus and Xuthus came to the Peloponnese, as the Greeks say, they were called Aegialian Pelasgians. They were named Ionians after Ion the son of Xuthus. ''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 11.14, 11.29-11.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dates (in 2 macc.) • Dating systems • Onias Temple, date of foundation • Testaments of the XII Patriarchs, Date

 Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022) 453, 457; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 282; Piotrkowski (2019) 103; Schwartz (2008) 230, 373

11.14. וּבָעִתִּים הָהֵם רַבִּים יַעַמְדוּ עַל־מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וּבְנֵי פָּרִיצֵי עַמְּךָ יִנַּשְּׂאוּ לְהַעֲמִיד חָזוֹן וְנִכְשָׁלוּ׃
11.29. לַמּוֹעֵד יָשׁוּב וּבָא בַנֶּגֶב וְלֹא־תִהְיֶה כָרִאשֹׁנָה וְכָאַחֲרֹנָה׃' '. None
11.14. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south; also the children of the violent among thy people shall lift themselves up to establish the vision; but they shall stumble.
11.29. At the time appointed he shall return, and come into the south; but it shall not be in the latter time as it was in the former. 11.30. For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall be cowed, and he shall return, and have indignation against the holy covet, and shall do his pleasure; and he shall return, and have regard unto them that forsake the holy covet.' '. None
7. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 6.55, 11.30, 13.38, 13.41, 16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • 1 maccabees, Dating of • Dates (in 2 macc.) • Maccabees (Books), Dates in Documents • Pseudo-Aristeas, dating of • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, dating, terminus post quem • Samaritan Petition, Date • Testaments of the XII Patriarchs, Date • letters, Dating

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 123, 134, 277; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 281, 383, 1139; Schwartz (2008) 11, 29, 30, 520, 529

6.55. Then Lysias heard that Philip, whom King Antiochus while still living had appointed to bring up Antiochus his son to be king,
11.30. King Demetrius to Jonathan his brother and to the nation of the Jews, greeting.
13.38. All the grants that we have made to you remain valid, and let the strongholds that you have built be your possession.
13.41. In the one hundred and seventieth year the yoke of the Gentiles was removed from Israel,
16.23. The rest of the acts of John and his wars and the brave deeds which he did, and the building of the walls which he built, and his achievements,''. None
8. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.6, 1.10, 1.16, 4.8, 4.11, 5.1, 11.21, 11.23-11.24, 11.33, 15.12-15.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • 1 maccabees, Dating of • Book of Judith, date • Correspondence, Royal, in 2 macc., Dating of • Dates (in 2 macc.) • Maccabees (Books), Dates in Documents • Onias Temple, date of foundation • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, dating, terminus post quem • Septuagint, Date • Tefillah, Date • letters, Dating

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 134; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 580, 1138; Gera (2014) 43, 362, 397; Piotrkowski (2019) 103; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 171; Schwartz (2008) 11, 12, 15, 230, 231, 373, 410, 411, 412, 520, 521, 523

1.6. We are now praying for you here."' "
1.10. Those in Jerusalem and those in Judea and the senate and Judas,To Aristobulus, who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king, and to the Jews in Egypt,Greeting, and good health.'" "
1.16. Opening the secret door in the ceiling, they threw stones and struck down the leader and his men, and dismembered them and cut off their heads and threw them to the people outside.'" "
4.8. promising the king at an interview three hundred and sixty talents of silver and, from another source of revenue, eighty talents.'" "
4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.'" '
5.1. About this time Antiochus made his second invasion of Egypt."' "
11.21. Farewell. The one hundred and forty-eighth year, Dioscorinthius twenty-fourth.'" "
11.23. Now that our father has gone on to the gods, we desire that the subjects of the kingdom be undisturbed in caring for their own affairs.'" '11.24. We have heard that the Jews do not consent to our father\'s change to Greek customs but prefer their own way of living and ask that their own customs be allowed them."' "
11.33. Farewell. The one hundred and forty-eighth year, Xanthicus fifteenth.'" "
5.12. What he saw was this: Onias, who had been high priest, a noble and good man, of modest bearing and gentle manner, one who spoke fittingly and had been trained from childhood in all that belongs to excellence, was praying with outstretched hands for the whole body of the Jews.'" "1
5.13. Then likewise a man appeared, distinguished by his gray hair and dignity, and of marvelous majesty and authority.'" "1
5.14. And Onias spoke, saying, 'This is a man who loves the brethren and prays much for the people and the holy city, Jeremiah, the prophet of God.'"'. None
9. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tamid tractate, date of composition • Tefillah, Date

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 580; Trudinger (2004) 29

50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service.''. None
10. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birth date • Dead Sea Scrolls, Access to; Dating of

 Found in books: Fraade (2011) 154; Schiffman (1983) 35

11. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, date • Testaments of the XII Patriarchs, Date

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 286; Gera (2014) 362

12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 127 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Archytas, Dating of texts • De Abrahamo, dating • Exposition of the Law, dating • Platonic, dating

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 15; Martens (2003) 169

127. On which account it appears to me that they also originally gave letters their names, and acting as became wise men, did give the name to the number seven from the Respect they had for it, and from regard to the dignity inherent in it. But the Romans, adding the letter S, which had been omitted by the Greeks, show still more conspicuously the correct etymological meaning of the word, calling it septem, as derived from semnos, venerable, as has been said before, and from sebasmos, veneration. XLIII. ''. None
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.323, 12.258-12.264, 12.320, 12.385, 13.65, 13.285 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dates (in 2 macc.) • Dating of • Maccabees (Books), Dates in Documents • Maccabees, Date of First Veneration by Christians • Onias Temple, date of foundation • Pseudo-Aristeas, dating of • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, dating of, terminus ante quem • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, dating, terminus post quem • Samaritan Petition, Date

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 135, 243, 277, 286; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 400, 480, 1138; Piotrkowski (2019) 33, 106, 332, 415; Schwartz (2008) 86, 373

11.323. τοῦτο δ' εἶναι καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ συμφέρον εἰς δύο διῃρῆσθαι τὴν ̓Ιουδαίων δύναμιν, ἵνα μὴ ὁμογνωμονοῦν τὸ ἔθνος μηδὲ συνεστός, εἰ νεωτερίσειέν ποτε, χαλεπὸν ᾖ τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν, καθὼς καὶ πρότερον τοῖς ̓Ασσυρίων ἄρξασιν ἐγένετο." '
12.258. πέμψαντες οὖν πρὸς τὸν ̓Αντίοχον πρέσβεις καὶ ἐπιστολὴν ἐδήλουν τὰ ὑπογεγραμμένα: “βασιλεῖ ̓Αντιόχῳ θεῷ ἐπιφανεῖ ὑπόμνημα παρὰ τῶν ἐν Σικίμοις Σιδωνίων.' "12.259. οἱ ἡμέτεροι πρόγονοι διά τινας αὐχμοὺς τῆς χώρας παρακολουθήσαντες ἀρχαίᾳ τινὶ δεισιδαιμονίᾳ ἔθος ἐποίησαν σέβειν τὴν παρὰ τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις λεγομένην σαββάτων ἡμέραν, ἱδρυσάμενοι δὲ ἀνώνυμον ἐν τῷ Γαριζεὶν λεγομένῳ ὄρει ἱερὸν ἔθυον ἐπ' αὐτοῦ τὰς καθηκούσας θυσίας." "12.261. ἀξιοῦμεν οὖν σε τὸν εὐεργέτην καὶ σωτῆρα προστάξαι ̓Απολλωνίῳ τῷ μεριδάρχῃ καὶ Νικάνορι τῷ τὰ βασιλικὰ πράττοντι μηδὲν ἡμῖν ἐνοχλεῖν προσάπτουσι τὰς τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων αἰτίας, ἡμῶν καὶ τῷ γένει καὶ τοῖς ἔθεσιν ἀλλοτρίων ὑπαρχόντων, προσαγορευθῆναι δὲ τὸ ἀνώνυμον ἱερὸν Διὸς ̔Ελληνίου: γενομένου γὰρ τούτου παυσόμεθα μὲν ἐνοχλούμενοι, τοῖς δ' ἔργοις μετὰ ἀδείας προσανέχοντες μείζονάς σοι ποιήσομεν τὰς προσόδους.”" '12.262. ταῦτα τῶν Σαμαρέων δεηθέντων ἀντέγραψεν αὐτοῖς ὁ βασιλεὺς τάδε: “βασιλεὺς ̓Αντίοχος Νικάνορι. οἱ ἐν Σικίμοις Σιδώνιοι ἐπέδωκαν τὸ κατακεχωρισμένον ὑπόμνημα.' "12.263. ἐπεὶ οὖν συμβουλευομένοις ἡμῖν μετὰ τῶν φίλων παρέστησαν οἱ πεμφθέντες ὑπ' αὐτῶν, ὅτι μηδὲν τοῖς τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἐγκλήμασι προσήκουσιν, ἀλλὰ τοῖς ̔Ελληνικοῖς ἔθεσιν αἱροῦνται χρώμενοι ζῆν, ἀπολύομέν τε αὐτοὺς τῶν αἰτιῶν, καὶ τὸ παρ' αὐτοῖς ἱερόν, καθάπερ ἠξιώκασι, προσαγορευθήτω Διὸς ̔Ελληνίου.”" '12.264. ταῦτα δὲ καὶ ̓Απολλωνίῳ τῷ μεριδάρχῃ ἐπέστειλεν ἕκτῳ ἔτει καὶ τεσσαρακοστῷ μηνὸς ̔Εκατομβαιῶνος ̔Υρκανίου ὀκτωκαιδεκάτῃ.
12.385. πέμψας οὖν τὸν Μενέλαον ὁ βασιλεὺς εἰς Βέροιαν τῆς Συρίας διέφθειρεν ἀρχιερατεύσαντα μὲν ἔτη δέκα, πονηρὸν δὲ γενόμενον καὶ ἀσεβῆ καὶ ἵνα αὐτὸς ἄρχῃ τὸ ἔθνος ἀναγκάσαντα τοὺς ἰδίους παραβῆναι νόμους. ἀρχιερεὺς δὲ ἐγένετο μετὰ τὸν Μενελάου θάνατον ̓́Αλκιμος ὁ καὶ ̓Ιάκιμος κληθείς.
13.65. “πολλὰς καὶ μεγάλας ὑμῖν χρείας τετελεκὼς ἐν τοῖς κατὰ πόλεμον ἔργοις μετὰ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ βοηθείας, καὶ γενόμενος ἔν τε τῇ κοίλῃ Συρίᾳ καὶ Φοινίκῃ, καὶ εἰς Λεόντων δὲ πόλιν τοῦ ̔Ηλιοπολίτου σὺν τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις καὶ εἰς ἄλλους τόπους ἀφικόμενος τοῦ ἔθνους,
13.285. Κλεοπάτρα γὰρ ἡ βασίλισσα πρὸς τὸν υἱὸν στασιάζουσα Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Λάθουρον ἐπιλεγόμενον κατέστησεν ἡγεμόνας Χελκίαν καὶ ̓Ανανίαν υἱοὺς ὄντας ̓Ονίου τοῦ οἰκοδομήσαντος τὸν ναὸν ἐν τῷ ̔Ηλιοπολίτῃ νομῷ πρὸς τὸν ἐν τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις, ὡς καὶ πρόσθεν δεδηλώκαμεν.' ". None
11.323. that it would be for the king’s advantage to have the strength of the Jews divided into two parts, lest when the nation is of one mind, and united, upon any attempt for innovation, it prove troublesome to kings, as it had formerly proved to the kings of Assyria.
12.258. So they sent ambassadors to Antiochus, and an epistle, whose contents are these: “To king Antiochus the god, Epiphanes, a memorial from the Sidonians, who live at Shechem. 12.259. Our forefathers, upon certain frequent plagues, and as following a certain ancient superstition, had a custom of observing that day which by the Jews is called the Sabbath. And when they had erected a temple at the mountain called Gerrizzim, though without a name, they offered upon it the proper sacrifices. 12.261. We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and Savior, to give order to Apollonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbance, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation, and from their customs; but let our temple, which at present hath no name at all be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. If this were once done, we should be no longer disturbed, but should be more intent on our own occupation with quietness, and so bring in a greater revenue to thee.” 12.262. When the Samaritans had petitioned for this, the king sent them back the following answer, in an epistle: “King Antiochus to Nicanor. The Sidonians, who live at Shechem, have sent me the memorial enclosed. 12.263. When therefore we were advising with our friends about it, the messengers sent by them represented to us that they are no way concerned with accusations which belong to the Jews, but choose to live after the customs of the Greeks. Accordingly, we declare them free from such accusations, and order that, agreeable to their petition, their temple be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius.” 12.264. He also sent the like epistle to Apollonius, the governor of that part of the country, in the forty-sixth year, and the eighteenth day of the month Hecatorabeom.
12.385. So the king sent Menelaus to Berea, a city of Syria, and there had him put to death, when he had been high priest ten years. He had been a wicked and an impious man; and, in order to get the government to himself, had compelled his nation to transgress their own laws. After the death of Menelaus, Alcimus, who was also called Jacimus, was made high priest.
13.65. “Having done many and great things for you in the affairs of the war, by the assistance of God, and that in Celesyria and Phoenicia, I came at length with the Jews to Leontopolis, and to other places of your nation,
13.285. for Cleopatra the queen was at variance with her son Ptolemy, who was called Lathyrus, and appointed for her generals Chelcias and Aias, the sons of that Onias who built the temple in the prefecture of Heliopolis, like to that at Jerusalem, as we have elsewhere related.' '. None
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.32-1.33, 4.455-4.475, 7.423 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ain Feshkha (Einot Tsukim), and date production/processing • Callirhoe [Kallirrhoë],date palms in • Dates (in 2 macc.) • En Gedi, date palms in • Jericho, date and balsam plantations in • Onias Temple, date of foundation • Qumran and pharmacological production, date honey/wine, processing of • Solinus' essenes,dates, use of • date palms • date palms, and Essenes • date palms, and date honey • date palms, as Judaean symbol • date palms, as medicinal plants

 Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019) 4, 33, 103, 104, 106, 332, 415; Schwartz (2008) 12, 230; Taylor (2012) 226, 311, 313, 314, 315, 318, 337; Udoh (2006) 66

1.32. ̓Εφ' οἷς χαλεπήνας ̔Ηρώδης ὥρμησεν μὲν ἀμύνασθαι Μαχαιρᾶν ὡς πολέμιον, κρατήσας δὲ τῆς ὀργῆς ἤλαυνεν πρὸς ̓Αντώνιον κατηγορήσων τῆς Μαχαιρᾶ παρανομίας. ὁ δ' ἐν διαλογισμῷ τῶν ἡμαρτημένων γενόμενος ταχέως μεταδιώκει τε τὸν βασιλέα καὶ πολλὰ δεηθεὶς ἑαυτῷ διαλλάττει." "
1.32. οἱ δὲ καταφυγόντες πρὸς ̓Αντίοχον ἱκέτευσαν αὐτοῖς ἡγεμόσι χρώμενον εἰς τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν ἐμβαλεῖν. πείθεται δ' ὁ βασιλεὺς ὡρμημένος πάλαι, καὶ μετὰ πλείστης δυνάμεως αὐτὸς ὁρμήσας τήν τε πόλιν αἱρεῖ κατὰ κράτος καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος τῶν Πτολεμαίῳ προσεχόντων ἀναιρεῖ, ταῖς τε ἁρπαγαῖς ἀνέδην ἐπαφιεὶς τοὺς στρατιώτας αὐτὸς καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἐσύλησε καὶ τὸν ἐνδελεχισμὸν τῶν καθ' ἡμέραν ἐναγισμῶν ἔπαυσεν ἐπ' ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἕξ." "1.33. καὶ προσέβαλλεν μὲν συνεχῶς τῷ φρουρίῳ, πρὶν δὲ ἑλεῖν χειμῶνι βιασθεὶς χαλεπωτάτῳ ταῖς πλησίον ἐνστρατοπεδεύεται κώμαις. ἐπεὶ δ' αὐτῷ μετ' ὀλίγας ἡμέρας καὶ τὸ δεύτερον παρὰ ̓Αντωνίου τάγμα συνέμιξεν, δείσαντες τὴν ἰσχὺν οἱ πολέμιοι διὰ νυκτὸς ἐξέλιπον τὸ ἔρυμα." '1.33. ὁ δ' ἀρχιερεὺς ̓Ονίας πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον διαφυγὼν καὶ παρ' αὐτοῦ λαβὼν τόπον ἐν τῷ ̔Ηλιοπολίτῃ νομῷ πολίχνην τε τοῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἀπεικασμένην καὶ ναὸν ἔκτισεν ὅμοιον: περὶ ὧν αὖθις κατὰ χώραν δηλώσομεν." "
4.455. ἡ μέση δὲ τῶν δύο ὀρέων χώρα τὸ μέγα πεδίον καλεῖται, ἀπὸ κώμης Γινναβρὶν διῆκον μέχρι τῆς ̓Ασφαλτίτιδος.' "4.456. ἔστι δὲ αὐτοῦ μῆκος μὲν σταδίων χιλίων διακοσίων, εὖρος δ' εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατόν, καὶ μέσον ὑπὸ τοῦ ̓Ιορδάνου τέμνεται λίμνας τε ἔχει τήν τε ̓Ασφαλτῖτιν καὶ τὴν Τιβεριέων φύσιν ἐναντίας: ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἁλμυρώδης καὶ ἄγονος, ἡ Τιβεριέων δὲ γλυκεῖα καὶ γόνιμος." "4.457. ἐκπυροῦται δὲ ὥρᾳ θέρους τὸ πεδίον καὶ δι' ὑπερβολὴν αὐχμοῦ περιέχει νοσώδη τὸν ἀέρα:" '4.458. πᾶν γὰρ ἄνυδρον πλὴν τοῦ ̓Ιορδάνου, παρὸ καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἐπὶ ταῖς ὄχθαις φοινικῶνας εὐθαλεστέρους καὶ πολυφορωτέρους εἶναι συμβέβηκεν, ἧττον δὲ τοὺς πόρρω κεχωρισμένους. 4.459. Παρὰ μέντοι τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦν ἐστι πηγὴ δαψιλής τε καὶ πρὸς ἀρδείας λιπαρωτάτη παρὰ τὴν παλαιὰν ἀναβλύζουσα πόλιν, ἣν ̓Ιησοῦς ὁ Ναυῆ παῖς στρατηγὸς ̔Εβραίων πρώτην εἷλε γῆς Χαναναίων δορίκτητον. 4.461. ὃς ἐπιξενωθεὶς τοῖς κατὰ τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦν, περισσὸν δή τι φιλοφρονησαμένων αὐτὸν τῶν ἀνθρώπων αὐτούς τε ἀμείβεται καὶ τὴν χώραν αἰωνίῳ χάριτι. 4.462. προελθὼν γὰρ ἐπὶ τὴν πηγὴν καὶ καταβαλὼν εἰς τὸ ῥεῦμα πλῆρες ἁλῶν ἀγγεῖον κεράμου, ἔπειτα εἰς οὐρανὸν δεξιὰν ἀνατείνας δικαίαν κἀπὶ γῆς σπονδὰς μειλικτηρίους χεόμενος, τὴν μὲν ᾐτεῖτο μαλάξαι τὸ ῥεῦμα καὶ γλυκυτέρας φλέβας ἀνοῖξαι,' "4.463. τὸν δὲ ἐγκεράσασθαι τῷ ῥεύματι γονιμωτέρους τε ἀέρας δοῦναί τε ἅμα καὶ καρπῶν εὐθηνίαν τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις καὶ τέκνων διαδοχήν, μηδ' ἐπιλιπεῖν αὐτοῖς τὸ τούτων γεννητικὸν ὕδωρ, ἕως μένουσι δίκαιοι." '4.464. ταύταις ταῖς εὐχαῖς πολλὰ προσχειρουργήσας ἐξ ἐπιστήμης ἔτρεψε τὴν πηγήν, καὶ τὸ πρὶν ὀρφανίας αὐτοῖς καὶ λιμοῦ παραίτιον ὕδωρ ἔκτοτε εὐτεκνίας καὶ κόρου χορηγὸν κατέστη. 4.465. τοσαύτην γοῦν ἐν ταῖς ἀρδείαις ἔχει δύναμιν ὡς, εἰ καὶ μόνον ἐφάψαιτο τῆς χώρας, νοστιμώτερον εἶναι τῶν μέχρι κόρου χρονιζόντων. 4.466. παρὸ καὶ τῶν μὲν δαψιλεστέρως χρωμένων ἡ ὄνησίς ἐστιν ὀλίγη, τούτου δὲ τοῦ ὀλίγου χορηγία δαψιλής.' "4.467. ἄρδει γοῦν πλέονα τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων, καὶ πεδίον μὲν ἔπεισιν ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίων μῆκος εὖρος δ' εἴκοσιν, ἐκτρέφει δ' ἐν αὐτῷ παραδείσους καλλίστους τε καὶ πυκνοτάτους." '4.468. τῶν δὲ φοινίκων ἐπαρδομένων γένη πολλὰ ταῖς γεύσεσι καὶ ταῖς παρηγορίαις διάφορα: τούτων οἱ πιότεροι πατούμενοι καὶ μέλι δαψιλὲς ἀνιᾶσιν οὐ πολλῷ τοῦ λοιποῦ χεῖρον. 4.469. καὶ μελιττοτρόφος δὲ ἡ χώρα: φέρει δὲ καὶ ὀποβάλσαμον, ὃ δὴ τιμιώτατον τῶν τῇδε καρπῶν, κύπρον τε καὶ μυροβάλανον, ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἁμαρτεῖν τινα εἰπόντα θεῖον εἶναι τὸ χωρίον, ἐν ᾧ δαψιλῆ τὰ σπανιώτατα καὶ κάλλιστα γεννᾶται. 4.471. αἴτιόν μοι δοκεῖ τὸ θερμὸν τῶν ἀέρων καὶ τὸ τῶν ὑδάτων εὔτονον, τῶν μὲν προκαλουμένων τὰ φυόμενα καὶ διαχεόντων, τῆς δὲ ἰκμάδος ῥιζούσης ἕκαστον ἰσχυρῶς καὶ χορηγούσης τὴν ἐν θέρει δύναμιν: περικαὲς δέ ἐστιν οὕτως τὸ χωρίον, ὡς μηδένα ῥᾳδίως προϊέναι. 4.472. τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ πρὸ ἀνατολῆς ἀντλούμενον, ἔπειτα ἐξαιθριασθὲν γίνεται ψυχρότατον καὶ τὴν ἐναντίαν πρὸς τὸ περιέχον φύσιν λαμβάνει, χειμῶνος δὲ ἀνάπαλιν χλιαίνεται καὶ τοῖς ἐμβαίνουσι γίνεται προσηνέστατον. 4.473. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὸ περιέχον οὕτως εὔκρατον, ὡς λινοῦν ἀμφιέννυσθαι τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους νιφομένης τῆς ἄλλης ̓Ιουδαίας. 4.474. ἀπέχει δὲ ἀπὸ ̔Ιεροσολύμων μὲν σταδίους ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα, τοῦ δὲ ̓Ιορδάνου ἑξήκοντα, καὶ τὸ μὲν μέχρι ̔Ιεροσολύμων αὐτῆς ἔρημον καὶ πετρῶδες, τὸ δὲ μέχρι τοῦ ̓Ιορδάνου καὶ τῆς ̓Ασφαλτίτιδος χθαμαλώτερον μέν, ἔρημον δὲ ὁμοίως καὶ ἄκαρπον. 4.475. ἀλλὰ γὰρ τὰ μὲν περὶ ̔Ιεριχοῦν εὐδαιμονεστάτην οὖσαν ἀποχρώντως δεδήλωται.' "
7.423. ̓Ονίας Σίμωνος υἱός, εἷς τῶν ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἀρχιερέων, φεύγων ̓Αντίοχον τὸν Συρίας βασιλέα πολεμοῦντα τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις ἧκεν εἰς ̓Αλεξάνδρειαν, καὶ δεξαμένου Πτολεμαίου φιλοφρόνως αὐτὸν διὰ τὴν πρὸς ̓Αντίοχον ἀπέχθειαν ἔφη σύμμαχον αὐτῷ ποιήσειν τὸ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἔθνος, εἰ πεισθείη τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγομένοις." ". None
1.32. 7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of mal-administration. But Macheras was made sensible of his offenses, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him.
1.32. who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. 1.33. But Onias, the high priest, fled to Ptolemy, and received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like its temple, concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter. 1.33. He also made an immediate and continual attack upon the fortress. Yet was he forced, by a most terrible storm, to pitch his camp in the neighboring villages before he could take it. But when, after a few days’ time, the second legion, that came from Antony, joined themselves to him, the enemy were affrighted at his power, and left their fortifications in the nighttime.
4.455. Now the region that lies in the middle between these ridges of mountains is called the Great Plain; it reaches from the village Ginnabris, as far as the lake Asphaltitis; 4.456. its length is two hundred and thirty furlongs, and its breadth a hundred and twenty, and it is divided in the midst by Jordan. It hath two lakes in it, that of Asphaltitis, and that of Tiberias, whose natures are opposite to each other; for the former is salt and unfruitful, but that of Tiberias is sweet and fruitful. 4.457. This plain is much burnt up in summertime, and, by reason of the extraordinary heat, contains a very unwholesome air; 4.458. it is all destitute of water excepting the river Jordan, which water of Jordan is the occasion why those plantations of palm trees that are near its banks are more flourishing, and much more fruitful, as are those that are remote from it not so flourishing, or fruitful. 4.459. 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.461. who, when he once was the guest of the people at Jericho, and the men of the place had treated him very kindly, he both made them amends as well as the country, by a lasting favor; 4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.465. Accordingly, the power of it is so great in watering the ground, that if it does but once touch a country, it affords a sweeter nourishment than other waters do, when they lie so long upon them, till they are satiated with them. 4.466. For which reason, the advantage gained from other waters, when they flow in great plenty, is but small, while that of this water is great when it flows even in little quantities. 4.467. Accordingly, it waters a larger space of ground than any other waters do, and passes along a plain of seventy furlongs long, and twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. 4.468. There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. 4.469. This country withal produces honey from bees; it also bears that balsam which is the most precious of all the fruits in that place, cypress trees also, and those that bear myrobalanum; so that he who should pronounce this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced as are very rare, and of the most excellent sort. 4.471. the cause of which seems to me to be the warmth of the air, and the fertility of the waters; the warmth calling forth the sprouts, and making them spread, and the moisture making every one of them take root firmly, and supplying that virtue which it stands in need of in summertime. Now this country is then so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it; 4.472. and if the water be drawn up before sunrising, and after that exposed to the air, it becomes exceeding cold, and becomes of a nature quite contrary to the ambient air; 4.473. as in winter again it becomes warm; and if you go into it, it appears very gentle. The ambient air is here also of so good a temperature, that the people of the country are clothed in linen-only, even when snow covers the rest of Judea. 4.474. This place is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The country, as far as Jerusalem, is desert and stony; but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asphaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be equally desert and barren. 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation.
7.423. Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jewish high priests, fled from Antiochus the king of Syria, when he made war with the Jews, and came to Alexandria; and as Ptolemy received him very kindly, on account of his hatred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his assistance;' '. None
15. New Testament, Mark, 15.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, date • Mareotis, Lake, date and writing of

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 266; Taylor (2012) 118

15.42. Καὶ ἤδη ὀψίας γενομένης, ἐπεὶ ἦν παρασκευή, ὅ ἐστιν προσάββατον,''. None
15.42. When evening had now come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath, ''. None
16. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Martyrdom of Polycarp, Dating • Martyrdom of Polycarp, dating of

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021) 238; Moss (2012) 69

17. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 5.1, 7.1, 8.1, 20.1 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Easter, calculation of date • Martyrdom of Polycarp, Dating • Martyrdom of Polycarp, dating of • Polycarp, Date of martyrdom • Tatian and Celsus,, dating of Celsus’ True Doctrine and Tatian’s Oration • cult of saints, dating of • date, of Polycarp's martyrdom • date, of Quintus' (abortive) martyrdom • date, of origin of Montanism

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 47; Bird and Harrower (2021) 237, 241; Moss (2012) 63, 69, 73; Rüpke (2011) 156; Tabbernee (2007) 228, 229

5.1. 1 But the most wonderful Polycarp, when he first heard it, was not disturbed, but wished to remain in the city; but the majority persuaded him to go away quietly, and he went out quietly to a farm, not far distant from the city, and stayed with a few friends, doing nothing but pray night and day for all, and for the Churches throughout the world, as was his custom.
7.1. 1 Taking the slave then police and cavalry went out on Friday about supper-time, with their usual arms, as if they were advancing against a robber. And late in the evening they came up together against him and found him lying in an upper room. And he might have departed to another place, but would not, saying, "the will of God be done."
8.1. 1 Now when he had at last finished his prayer, after remembering all who had ever even come his way, both small and great, high and low, and the whole Catholic Church throughout the world, the hour came for departure, and they set him on an ass, and led him into the city, on a "great Sabbath day."
20.1. 1 You, indeed, asked that the events should be explained to you at length, but we have for the present explained them in summary by our brother Marcion; therefore when you have heard these things, send the letter to the brethren further on, that they also may glorify the Lord, who takes his chosen ones from his own servants. ' '. None
18. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 7.2, 9.36, 9.40 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dating

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 170; Hitch (2017) 170

7.2. To Justus. How can you reconcile your statement that you are kept constantly busy by your never-ceasing engagements, with your request for something of mine to read, when, as a rule, it is all I can do to get people with plenty of leisure to waste time over my writings? I will therefore let the summer go by, when you are always busy and have no time to yourself, and as soon as winter comes - when I suppose you will at least have some leisure at nights - I will look among my trifles for something suitable to lay before you. In the meantime, I shall do well if my letters do not bore you, but, as that is inevitable, they shall be as brief as possible. Farewell.
9.36. To Fuscus. You ask me how I spend the day on my Tuscan villa in summer time. Well, I wake at my own sweet will, usually about the first hour, though it is often before, and rarely later. I keep my windows shut, for it is remarkable how, when all is still and in darkness, and I am withdrawn from distracting influences and am left to myself, and free to do what I like, my thoughts are not led by my eyes, but my eyes by my thoughts; and so my eyes, when they have nothing else to look at, only see the objects which are present before my mind. If I have anything on hand, I think it over, and weigh every word as carefully as though I were actually writing or revising, and in this way I get through more or less work, according as the subject is easy or difficult to compose and bear in mind. I call for a shorthand writer, and, after letting in the daylight, I dictate the passages which I have composed, then he leaves me, and I send for him again, and once again dismiss him. At the fourth or fifth hour, according as the weather tempts me - for I have no fixed and settled plan for the day - I betake myself to my terrace or covered portico, and there again I resume my thinking and dictating. I ride in my carriage, and still continue my mental occupation, just as when I am walking or lying down. My concentration of thought is unaffected, or rather is refreshed by the change. Then I snatch a brief sleep and again walk, and afterwards read aloud a Greek or Latin speech, as clearly and distinctly as I can, not so much to exercise the vocal organs as to help my digestion, though it does at the same time strengthen my voice. I take another walk, then I am anointed, and take exercise and a bath. While I am at dinner, if I am dining with my wife or a few friends, a book is read to us, and afterwards we hear a comic actor or a musician; then I walk with my attendants, some of whom are men of learning. Thus the evening is passed away with talk on all sorts of subjects, and even the longest day is soon done. Sometimes I vary this routine, for, if I have been lying down, or walking for any length of time, as soon as I have had my sleep and read aloud, I ride on horseback instead of in a carriage, as it takes less time, and one gets over the ground faster. My friends come in from the neighbouring towns to see me, and take up part of the day, and occasionally, when I am tired, I welcome their call as a pleasant relief. Sometimes I go hunting, but never without my tablets, so that though I may take no game, I still have something to bring back with me. Part of my time too is given to my tets - though in their opinion not enough - and their clownish complaints give me a fresh zest for my literary work and my round of engagements in town. Farewell.
9.40. To Fuscus. You say that you were very pleased to receive my letter * describing how I spend my leisure time in summer at my Tuscan villa, and you ask what changes I make in my routine in winter time at my Laurentine house. None at all, unless it be that I do without a sleep at midday and steal a good deal of the night, either before daybreak or after sunset, and if, as often happens in winter, I find I have some urgent business on hand, then I forego listening to a comic actor or music after dinner, and instead, I revise again and again what I have dictated, and at the same time improve my memory by making frequent corrections. So now you know my routine both in summer and winter, and to these you may add the spring and autumn, which come between the two other seasons. During these I take care to lose nothing of the days, and also nibble a little bit off the nights. Farewell. %%% ''. None
19. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bavli, dating of anonymous sections • Tefillah, Date

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 568; Kalmin (1998) 149

34a. חברותא כלפי שמיא מי איכא אי לא כוון דעתיה מעיקרא מחינן ליה במרזפתא דנפחא עד דמכוין דעתיה:,
34a. Can one have that degree of familiarity with Heaven, to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? If he did not focus his attention initially, we beat him with a blacksmith’s hammer until he focuses his attention, as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.,(If one says: “May the good bless You,” this is a path of heresy.) One who is passing before the ark, as prayer leader, and erred, another should immediately pass in his place, and at that moment, this replacement should not refuse in the interest of courtesy. The Amida prayer was interrupted and he should replace him as quickly as possible. From where does the replacement commence? From the beginning of the blessing in which the former had erred.,In order to prevent the prayer leader from erring in his prayer, it was said that one who passes before the ark should not respond amen after the blessing of the priests, because of potential confusion. Since the mishna is describing a situation in which he was praying without a prayer book, responding amen would interrupt the order of the prayer and potentially lead him to begin a different blessing. For this reason, even if there is no priest other than the communal prayer leader, he does not lift his hands to bless the people, lest he become confused. And, however, if he is certain that he can lift his hands and resume his prayer without becoming confused, he is permitted to recite the blessing.,Amida prayer should not refuse when approached. The Gemara cites the general halakha with regard to proper conduct when one is approached to serve as prayer leader. The Sages taught in a baraita: One who is approached to pass before the ark to serve as prayer leader, for the sake of propriety should refuse, to avoid creating the impression that he is too eager. And if he does not refuse, but jumps at the opportunity, he is like cooked food without salt, which is to say that he acts in bad taste. However, if he refuses too much this is similarly inappropriate, as he is like cooked food that was ruined by too much salt. So how should he act? The appropriate conduct when approached to serve as communal prayer leader is as follows: When approached the first time, one should refuse; the second time, one should vacillate like a wick that has just begun to catch a flame but is not yet burning; and the third time, he should stretch his legs and descend before the ark.,On this note, the Gemara cites that which the Sages taught in a baraita: There are three things that are harmful in excess but are beneficial when used sparingly. They are: Leavening in dough, salt in a cooked dish and refusal for the sake of propriety.,The mishna states that when one replaces the communal prayer leader, he commences from the beginning of the blessing in which the former had erred. However that is not universally true, as Rav Huna said: One who erred in any of the first three blessings he must return to the beginning of the Amida prayer because the first three blessing comprise a single entity. Likewise, if one erred in any of the thirteen middle blessings, he returns to the blessing of: You grace humanity, the first of the middle blessings. If one erred in any of the three final blessings, he must return to the blessing of Temple service, which is the first of the final blessings.,And Rav Asi disputes one aspect of Rav Huna’s opinion, as he said: The middle blessings have no set order. If one erred in any of them he may insert it at whatever point he becomes aware of his error.,Rav Sheshet raised an objection based on a baraita: From where does he commence repetition of the Amida prayer? He commences from the beginning of the blessing in which the former had erred. If so, this is a conclusive refutation of Rav Huna’s opinion, as Rav Huna said that if one erred in one of the middle blessings, he returns to the beginning of the middle blessings, not to the beginning of that particular blessing.,Rav Huna could have said to you: The middle blessings are all considered one blessing; commencing from the beginning of the blessing means returning to the beginning of the middle blessings.,Rav Yehuda said: There is an additional distinction between the various sections of the Amida prayer: One must never request his own needs in the first three or in the last three blessings; rather, he should do so in the middle blessings. As Rabbi Ḥanina said: During the first three blessings, he is like a servant who arranges praise before his master; during the middle blessings, he is like a servant who requests a reward from his master; during the final three blessings, one is like a servant who already received a reward from his master and is taking his leave and departing.,Continuing on the subject of prayer, the Sages taught: There was an incident where one student descended to serve as prayer leader before the ark in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he was excessively prolonging his prayer. His students complained and said to him: How long-winded he is. He said to them: Is this student prolonging his prayer any more than Moses our teacher did? As about Moses it is written: “And I prostrated myself before the Lord for the forty days and forty nights that I prostrated myself” (Deuteronomy 9:25). There is no limit to the duration of a prayer.,There was again an incident where one student descended to serve as prayer leader before the ark in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he was excessively abbreviating his prayer. His students protested and said to him: How brief is his prayer. He said to them: Is he abbreviating his prayer any more than Moses our teacher did? As it is written with regard to the prayer Moses recited imploring God to cure Miriam of her leprosy: “And Moses cried out to the Lord, saying: ‘Please, God, heal her, please’” (Numbers 12:13). This student’s prayer was certainly no briefer than the few words recited by Moses.,Having mentioned Moses’ prayer for Miriam, the Gemara cites what Rabbi Ya’akov said that Rav Ḥisda said: Anyone who requests mercy on behalf of another need not mention his name, as it is stated: “Please, God, heal her, please,” and he did not mention Miriam’s name.,The Sages taught in a Tosefta: These are the blessings in the Amida prayer in which a person bows: In the first blessing, the blessing of the Patriarchs, one bows at the beginning and the end; in the blessing of thanksgiving, one bows at the beginning and the end; and if one seeks to bow at the end of each and every blessing and at the beginning of each and every blessing, they teach him not to bow so as not to go beyond the ordice instituted by the Sages.,Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of the tanna bar Kappara: An ordinary person hedyot, conducts himself as we said; he bows at the beginning and the end of the blessings of Patriarchs and thanksgiving and is admonished if he seeks to bow at the beginning and end of the other blessings.''. None
20. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bavli, dating of anonymous sections • Book of Judith, date

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 362; Kalmin (1998) 149

14a. משל דאחשורוש והמן למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם לאחד היה לו תל בתוך שדהו ולאחד היה לו חריץ בתוך שדהו בעל חריץ אמר מי יתן לי תל זה בדמים בעל התל אמר מי יתן לי חריץ זה בדמים,לימים נזדווגו זה אצל זה אמר לו בעל חריץ לבעל התל מכור לי תילך אמר לו טול אותה בחנם והלואי,ויסר המלך את טבעתו אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא גדולה הסרת טבעת יותר מארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות שנתנבאו להן לישראל שכולן לא החזירום למוטב ואילו הסרת טבעת החזירתן למוטב,ת"ר ארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות נתנבאו להם לישראל ולא פחתו ולא הותירו על מה שכתוב בתורה חוץ ממקרא מגילה,מאי דרוש אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה ומה מעבדות לחירות אמרי\' שירה ממיתה לחיים לא כל שכן,אי הכי הלל נמי נימא לפי שאין אומרים הלל על נס שבחוצה לארץ יציאת מצרים דנס שבחוצה לארץ היכי אמרינן שירה,כדתניא עד שלא נכנסו ישראל לארץ הוכשרו כל ארצות לומר שירה משנכנסו ישראל לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה,רב נחמן אמר קרייתא זו הלילא רבא אמר בשלמא התם (תהלים קיג, א) הללו עבדי ה\' ולא עבדי פרעה אלא הכא הללו עבדי ה\' ולא עבדי אחשורוש אכתי עבדי אחשורוש אנן,בין לרבא בין לר"נ קשיא והא תניא משנכנסו לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה כיון שגלו חזרו להכשירן הראשון,ותו ליכא והכתיב (שמואל א א, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים צופים אחד ממאתים צופים שנתנבאו להם לישראל,מיהוה טובא הוו כדתניא הרבה נביאים עמדו להם לישראל כפלים כיוצאי מצרים אלא נבואה שהוצרכה לדורות נכתבה ושלא הוצרכה לא נכתבה,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אדם הבא משתי רמות שצופות זו את זו רבי חנין אמר אדם הבא מבני אדם שעומדין ברומו של עולם ומאן נינהו בני קרח דכתיב (במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם ועמדו עליו,שבע נביאות מאן נינהו שרה מרים דבורה חנה אביגיל חולדה ואסתר שרה דכתיב (בראשית יא, כט) אבי מלכה ואבי יסכה ואמר ר\' יצחק יסכה זו שרה ולמה נקרא שמה יסכה שסכתה ברוח הקדש שנאמר (בראשית כא, יב) כל אשר תאמר אליך שרה שמע בקולה ד"א יסכה שהכל סוכין ביופיה,מרים דכתיב (שמות טו, כ) ותקח מרים הנביאה אחות אהרן ולא אחות משה אמר ר"נ אמר רב שהיתה מתנבאה כשהיא אחות אהרן ואומרת עתידה אמי שתלד בן שיושיע את ישראל ובשעה שנולד נתמלא כל הבית כולו אורה עמד אביה ונשקה על ראשה אמר לה בתי נתקיימה נבואתיך,וכיון שהשליכוהו ליאור עמד אביה וטפחה על ראשה ואמר לה בתי היכן נבואתיך היינו דכתיב (שמות ב, ד) ותתצב אחותו מרחוק לדעה לדעת מה יהא בסוף נבואתה,דבורה דכתיב (שופטים ד, ד) ודבורה אשה נביאה אשת לפידות מאי אשת לפידות שהיתה עושה פתילות למקדש,(שופטים ד, ה) והיא יושבת תחת תומר מאי שנא תחת תומר אמר ר\' שמעון בן אבשלום משום יחוד דבר אחר מה תמר זה אין לו אלא לב אחד אף ישראל שבאותו הדור לא היה להם אלא לב אחד לאביהן שבשמים,חנה דכתיב (שמואל א ב, א) ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה\' רמה קרני בה\' רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותן שאול ויהוא שנמשחו בפך לא נמשכה מלכותן,(שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה\' כי אין בלתך אמר רב יהודה בר מנשיא אל תקרי בלתך אלא לבלותך שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא מבלה מעשה ידיו,(שמואל א ב, ב) ואין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו אדם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים אבל הקב"ה צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים,אביגיל דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כ) והיה היא רוכבת על החמור ויורדת בסתר ההר בסתר ההר מן ההר מיבעי ליה,אמר רבה בר שמואל על עסקי דם הבא מן הסתרים נטלה דם והראתה לו אמר לה וכי מראין דם בלילה אמרה לו וכי דנין דיני נפשות בלילה אמר לה''. None
14a. The actions of Ahasuerus and Haman can be understood with a parable; to what may they be compared? To two individuals, one of whom had a mound in the middle of his field and the other of whom had a ditch in the middle of his field, each one suffering from his own predicament. The owner of the ditch, noticing the other’s mound of dirt, said to himself: Who will give me this mound of dirt suitable for filling in my ditch; I would even be willing to pay for it with money, and the owner of the mound, noticing the other’s ditch, said to himself: Who will give me this ditch for money, so that I may use it to remove the mound of earth from my property?,At a later point, one day, they happened to have met one another. The owner of the ditch said to the owner of the mound: Sell me your mound so I can fill in my ditch. The mound’s owner, anxious to rid himself of the excess dirt on his property, said to him: Take it for free; if only you had done so sooner. Similarly, Ahasuerus himself wanted to destroy the Jews. As he was delighted that Haman had similar aspirations and was willing to do the job for him, he demanded no money from him.,§ The verse states: “And the king removed his ring from his hand” (Esther 3:10). Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: The removal of Ahasuerus’s ring for the sealing of Haman’s decree was more effective than the forty-eight prophets and the seven prophetesses who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people. As, they were all unable to return the Jewish people to the right way, but the removal of Ahasuerus’s ring returned them to the right way, since it brought them to repentance.,The Sages taught in a baraita: Forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, and they neither subtracted from nor added onto what is written in the Torah, introducing no changes or additions to the mitzvot except for the reading of the Megilla, which they added as an obligation for all future generations.,The Gemara asks: What exposition led them to determine that this was a proper mode of action? On what basis did they add this mitzva? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said that they reasoned as follows: If, when recalling the exodus from Egypt, in which the Jews were delivered from slavery to freedom, we recite songs of praise, the Song of the Sea and the hymns of hallel, then, in order to properly recall the miracle of Purim and commemorate God’s delivering us from death to life, is it not all the more so the case that we must sing God’s praise by reading the story in the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: If so, our obligation should be at least as great as when we recall the exodus from Egypt, and let us also recite hallel on Purim. The Gemara answers: Hallel is not said on Purim, because hallel is not recited on a miracle that occurred outside Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to the exodus from Egypt as well, which was a miracle that occurred outside Eretz Yisrael, how are we able to recite songs of praise?,The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: Prior to the time when the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, all lands were deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within their borders, as all lands were treated equally. But after the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, and all the other lands were no longer deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within them.,Rav Naḥman said an alternative answer as to why hallel is not recited on Purim: The reading of the Megilla itself is an act of reciting hallel. Rava said a third reason why hallel is not recited on Purim: Granted that hallel is said there, when recalling the exodus from Egypt, as after the salvation there, they could recite the phrase in hallel: “Give praise, O servants of the Lord” (Psalms 113:1); after their servitude to Pharaoh ended with their salvation, they were truly servants of the Lord and not servants of Pharaoh. But can it be said here, after the limited salvation commemorated on Purim: “Give praise, O servants of the Lord,” which would indicate that after the salvation the Jewish people were only servants of the Lord and not servants of Ahasuerus? No, even after the miracle of Purim, we were still the servants of Ahasuerus, as the Jews remained in exile under Persian rule, and consequently the salvation, which was incomplete, did not merit an obligation to say hallel.,The Gemara asks: Both according to the opinion of Rava and according to the opinion of Rav Naḥman, this is difficult. Isn’t it taught in the baraita cited earlier: After the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, and all the other lands were no longer deemed fit for songs of praise to be recited for miracles performed within them. Therefore, there should be no hallel obligation on Purim for the miracle performed outside of the land of Israel, and Rav Naḥman’s and Rava’s alternative explanations are incorrect. The Gemara answers: They understood differently, as it can be argued that when the people were exiled from Eretz Yisrael, the other lands returned to their initial suitability, and were once again deemed fit for reciting hallel on miracles performed within them.,With regard to the statement that forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, the Gemara asks: Is there no one else? Isn’t it written with regard to Samuel’s father, Elkanah: “And there was a certain eḥad man from Ramathaim-zophim” (I\xa0Samuel 1:1), which is expounded as follows to indicate that Elkanah was a prophet: He was one eḥad of two hundred mata’im prophets tzofim who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people. If so, why was it stated here that there were only forty-eight prophets?,The Gemara answers: In fact, there were more prophets, as it is taught in a baraita: Many prophets arose for the Jewish people, numbering double the number of Israelites who left Egypt. However, only a portion of the prophecies were recorded, because only prophecy that was needed for future generations was written down in the Bible for posterity, but that which was not needed, as it was not pertinent to later generations, was not written. Therefore, the fifty-five prophets recorded in the Bible, although not the only prophets of the Jewish people, were the only ones recorded, due to their eternal messages.,Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said another explanation of the verse “And there was a certain man from Ramathaim-zophim”: A man who comes from two heights ramot that face tzofot one another. Rabbi Ḥanin said an additional interpretation: A man who descends from people who stood at the height of rumo the world. The Gemara asks: And who are these people? The Gemara answers: These are the sons of Korah, as it is written: “But the sons of Korah did not die” (Numbers\xa026:11), and with regard to them it is taught in the name of our teacher, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: A high place was set aside for them in Gehenna, as the sons of Korah repented in their hearts, and were consequently not propelled very far down in Gehenna when the earth opened to swallow Korah and his followers; and they stood on this high place and sung to the Lord. They alone stood at the height of the lower world.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the prophetesses recorded in the baraita: Who were the seven prophetesses? The Gemara answers: Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther. The Gemara offers textual support: Sarah, as it is written: “Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah” (Genesis\xa011:29). And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Iscah is in fact Sarah. And why was she called Iscah? For she saw sakhta by means of divine inspiration, as it is stated: “In all that Sarah has said to you, hearken to her voice” (Genesis 21:12). Alternatively, Sarah was also called Iscah, for all gazed sokhin upon her beauty.,Miriam was a prophetess, as it is written explicitly: “And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand” (Exodus 15:20). The Gemara asks: Was she the sister only of Aaron, and not the sister of Moses? Why does the verse mention only one of her brothers? Rav Naḥman said that Rav said: For she prophesied when she was the sister of Aaron, i.e., she prophesied since her youth, even before Moses was born, and she would say: My mother is destined to bear a son who will deliver the Jewish people to salvation. And at the time when Moses was born the entire house was filled with light, and her father stood and kissed her on the head, and said to her: My daughter, your prophecy has been fulfilled.,But once Moses was cast into the river, her father arose and rapped her on the head, saying to her: My daughter, where is your prophecy now, as it looked as though the young Moses would soon meet his end. This is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Miriam’s watching Moses in the river: “And his sister stood at a distance to know what would be done to him” (Exodus 2:4), i.e., to know what would be with the end of her prophecy, as she had prophesied that her brother was destined to be the savior of the Jewish people.,Deborah was a prophetess, as it is written explicitly: “And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth” (Judges 4:4). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of “the wife of Lappidoth”? The Gemara answers: For she used to make wicks for the Sanctuary, and due to the flames lappidot on these wicks she was called the wife of Lappidoth, literally, a woman of flames.,With regard to Deborah, it says: “And she sat under a palm tree” (Judges 4:5). The Gemara asks: What is different and unique with regard to her sitting “under a palm tree” that there is a need for it to be written? Rabbi Shimon ben Avshalom said: It is due to the prohibition against being alone together with a man. Since men would come before her for judgment, she established for herself a place out in the open and visible to all, in order to avoid a situation in which she would be secluded with a man behind closed doors. Alternatively, the verse means: Just as a palm tree has only one heart, as a palm tree does not send out separate branches, but rather has only one main trunk, so too, the Jewish people in that generation had only one heart, directed to their Father in Heaven.,Hannah was a prophetess, as it is written: “And Hannah prayed and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord” (I\xa0Samuel\xa02:1), and her words were prophecy, in that she said: “My horn is exalted,” and not: My pitcher is exalted. As, with regard to David and Solomon, who were anointed with oil from a horn, their kingship continued, whereas with regard to Saul and Jehu, who were anointed with oil from a pitcher, their kingship did not continue. This demonstrates that Hannah was a prophetess, as she prophesied that only those anointed with oil from a horn will merit that their kingships continue.,Apropos the song of Hannah, the Gemara further explains her words: “There is none sacred as the Lord; for there is none beside You biltekha (I\xa0Samuel 2:2). Rav Yehuda bar Menashya said: Do not read it as biltekha, “beside You,” but rather read it as levalotekha, to outlast You. As the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is unlike the attribute of flesh and blood. It is an attribute of man that his handiwork outlasts him and continues to exist even after he dies, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His handiwork, as He exists eternally.,Hannah further said: “Neither is there any rock tzur like our God” (I\xa0Samuel 2:1). This can be understood as saying that there is no artist tzayyar like our God. How is He better than all other artists? Man fashions a form upon a wall, but is unable to endow it with breath and a soul, or fill it with innards and intestines, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions a form of a fetus inside the form of its mother, rather than on a flat surface, and endows it with breath and a soul and fills it with innards and intestines.,Abigail was a prophetess, as it is written: “And it was so, as she rode on the donkey, and came down by the covert of the mountain” (I\xa0Samuel 25:20). The Gemara asks: Why does it say: “By the covert beseter of the mountain”? It should have said: From the mountain.,The Gemara answers that in fact this must be understood as an allusion to something else. Rabba bar Shmuel said: Abigail, in her attempt to prevent David from killing her husband Nabal, came to David and questioned him on account of menstrual blood that comes from the hidden parts setarim of a body. How so? She took a blood-stained cloth and showed it to him, asking him to rule on her status, whether or not she was ritually impure as a menstruating woman. He said to her: Is blood shown at night? One does not examine blood-stained cloths at night, as it is difficult to distinguish between the different shades by candlelight. She said to him: If so, you should also remember another halakha: Are cases of capital law tried at night? Since one does not try capital cases at night, you cannot condemn Nabal to death at night. David said to her:''. None
21. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.1, 5.18.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Acts of Thomas, date of • Mareotis, Lake, date and writing of • Montanism, date of origin • date, of origin of Montanism

 Found in books: Bremmer (2017) 169; Esler (2000) 935; Tabbernee (2007) 46, 47; Taylor (2012) 118

5.18.2. His actions and his teaching show who this new teacher is. This is he who taught the dissolution of marriage; who made laws for fasting; who named Pepuza and Tymion, small towns in Phrygia, Jerusalem, wishing to gather people to them from all directions; who appointed collectors of money; who contrived the receiving of gifts under the name of offerings; who provided salaries for those who preached his doctrine, that its teaching might prevail through gluttony.' '. None
22. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Montanism, date of origin • date, of Polycarp's martyrdom • date, of origin of Montanism

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 933; Tabbernee (2007) 47, 228

23. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dating

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 21, 60, 73, 76, 89, 106, 170, 174; Hitch (2017) 21, 60, 73, 76, 89, 106, 170, 174

24. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dating

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 106; Hitch (2017) 106

25. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 12, 107, 115-117
 Tagged with subjects: • Pseudo-Aristeas, Date, Conclusion • Pseudo-Aristeas, Date, Description of Judea • Pseudo-Aristeas, Date, officials • Pseudo-Aristeas, Date, Useless criteria • Pseudo-Aristeas, dating of

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 278, 284, 286; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 115, 125, 126, 127, 129, 132

12. Thinking that the time had come to press the demand, which I had often laid before Sosibius of Tarentum and Andreas, the chief of the bodyguard, for the emancipation of the Jews who had been transported from Judea by the king's father -" '
107. are bound by the rules of purity, lest they should touch anything which is unlawful. It was not without reason that the original founders of the city built it in due proportions, for they possessed clear insight with regard to what was required. For the country is extensive and beautiful. Some parts of it are level, especially the districts which belong to Samaria, as it is called, and which border on the land of the Idumeans, other parts are mountainous, especially (those which are contiguous to the land of Judea). The people therefore are bound to devote themselves to agriculture and the cultivation of the soil that by this means they may have a plentiful supply of crops. In this way'
115. city is rich in the arts and lacks none of the merchandise which is brought across the sea. It possesses too suitable and commodious harbours at Askalon, Joppa, and Gaza, as well as at Ptolemais which was founded by the King and holds a central position compared with the other places named, being not far distant from any of them. The country produces everything in abundance, 116. ince it is well watered in all directions and well protected from storms. The river Jordan, as it is called, which never runs dry, flows through the land. Originally (the country) contained not less than 60 million acres-though afterwards the neighbouring peoples made incursions against it - and 600,000 men were settled upon it in farms of a hundred acres each. The river like the Nile rises in harvest- time and irrigates a large portion of the land. Near the district belonging to the people of 117. Ptolemais it issues into another river and this flows out into the sea. Other mountain torrents, as they are called, flow down into the plain and encompass the parts about Gaza and the district of' "'. None
26. Demosthenes, Orations, 22.77, 59.117
 Tagged with subjects: • Aischines, date of birth, and family • Lysias’ Funeral Oration, dating • dating

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 101; Humphreys (2018) 467; Martin (2009) 120, 128

22.77. To dedicate those buildings they did not tithe themselves, nor fulfil the imprecations of their enemies by doubling the income-tax, nor was their policy ever guided by such advisers as you. No; they conquered their enemies, they fulfilled the prayers of every sound-hearted man by establishing concord throughout the city; and so they have bequeathed to us their imperishable glory, and excluded from the market-place men whose habits of life were what yours have always been.
59.117. It is, then, a monstrous thing that a man who was of the race of the Eumolpidae, The Eumolpidae were descendants of the legendary Eumolpus. Certain sacred functions connected with the worship of Demeter and Dionysus were theirs by ancestral right; for instance, the Hierophant had always to be a Eumolpid, as therefore Archias was. born of honorable ancestors and a citizen of Athens, should be punished for having transgressed one of your established customs; and the pleadings of his relatives and friends did not save him, nor the public services which he and his ancestors had rendered to the city; no, nor yet his office of hierophant; but you punished him, because he was judged to be guilty;—and this Neaera, who has committed acts of sacrilege against this same god, and has transgressed the laws, shall you not punish her—her and her daughter?''. None
27. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Panathenaea, dating • dating of non-literary sources, of archaeological evidence

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 405; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 351

28. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • dating

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 76; Hitch (2017) 76

29. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Dating forms • dating systems • era dating • era dating, Seleucid • era dating, Sullan • era dating, provincial

 Found in books: Czajkowski et al (2020) 119, 120, 127, 130; Hallmannsecker (2022) 155

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