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27 results for "cyrus"
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 2.1-2.2, 2.10-2.11, 5.73, 6.23-6.34 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus, king of persia, role of in rebuilding of the temple heightened by josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006) 754, 755, 756, 757
2.1. In the first year of Cyrus as king of the Persians, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, 2.2. the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of the Persians, and he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom and also put it in writing: 2.10. Cyrus the king also brought out the holy vessels of the Lord which Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from Jerusalem and stored in his temple of idols. 2.11. When Cyrus king of the Perians brought these out, he gave them to Mithridates his treasurer, 5.73. and by plots and demagoguery and uprisings they prevented the completion of the building as long as King Cyrus lived. And they were kept from building for two years, until the reign of Darius. 6.23. Then Darius commanded that search be made in the royal archives that were deposited in Babylon. And in Ecbatana, the fortress which is in the country of Media, a scroll was found in which this was recorded: 6.24. "In the first year of the reign of Cyrus, King Cyrus ordered the building of the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, where they sacrifice with perpetual fire; 6.25. its height to be sixty cubits and its breadth sixty cubits, with three courses of hewn stone and one course of new native timber; the cost to be paid from the treasury of Cyrus the king; 6.26. and that the holy vessels of the house of the Lord, both of gold and of silver, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the house in Jerusalem and carried away to Babylon, should be restored to the house in Jerusalem, to be placed where they had been." 6.27. So Darius commanded Sisinnes the governor of Syria and Phoenicia, and Sathrabuzanes, and their associates, and those who were appointed as local rulers in Syria and Phoenicia, to keep away from the place, and to permit Zerubbabel, the servant of the Lord and governor of Judea, and the elders of the Jews to build this house of the Lord on its site. 6.28. "And I command that it be built completely, and that full effort be made to help the men who have returned from the captivity of Judea, until the house of the Lord is finished; 6.29. and that out of the tribute of Coelesyria and Phoenicia a portion be scrupulously given to these men, that is, to Zerubbabel the governor, for sacrifices to the Lord, for bulls and rams and lambs, 6.30. and likewise wheat and salt and wine and oil, regularly every year, without quibbling, for daily use as the priests in Jerusalem may indicate, 6.31. in order that libations may be made to the Most High God for the king and his children, and prayers be offered for their life." 6.32. And he commanded that if any should transgress or nullify any of the things herein written, a beam should be taken out of his house and he should be hanged upon it, and his property should be forfeited to the king. 6.33. Therefore may the Lord, whose name is there called upon, destroy every king and nation that shall stretch out their hands to hinder or damage that house of the Lord in Jerusalem. 6.34. I, King Darius, have decreed that it be done with all diligence as here prescribed.
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 44.28, 45.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus, king of persia, role of in rebuilding of the temple heightened by josephus •cyrus of persia Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 283; Feldman (2006) 754, 755
44.28. "הָאֹמֵר לְכוֹרֶשׁ רֹעִי וְכָל־חֶפְצִי יַשְׁלִם וְלֵאמֹר לִירוּשָׁלִַם תִּבָּנֶה וְהֵיכָל תִּוָּסֵד׃", 45.1. "הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה־תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה־תְּחִילִין׃", 45.1. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ׃", 44.28. "That saith of Cyrus: ‘He is My shepherd, And shall perform all My pleasure’; Even saying of Jerusalem: ‘She shall be built’; And to the temple: ‘My foundation shall be laid.’", 45.1. "Thus saith the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and that the gates may not be shut:",
3. Hesiod, Theogony, 904-906 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 230
906. To echoing along the mountain range.
4. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 7.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia, dreams of Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
5. Aeschylus, Persians, 176-182, 184-199, 183 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 159
183. ἡ δʼ αὖτε Δωρικοῖσιν, εἰς ὄψιν μολεῖν,
6. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.20.2, 1.126-1.127, 1.134, 6.56-6.58 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia, dreams of Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
1.20.2. Ἀθηναίων γοῦν τὸ πλῆθος Ἵππαρχον οἴονται ὑφ’ Ἁρμοδίου καὶ Ἀριστογείτονος τύραννον ὄντα ἀποθανεῖν, καὶ οὐκ ἴσασιν ὅτι Ἱππίας μὲν πρεσβύτατος ὢν ἦρχε τῶν Πεισιστράτου υἱέων, Ἵππαρχος δὲ καὶ Θεσσαλὸς ἀδελφοὶ ἦσαν αὐτοῦ, ὑποτοπήσαντες δέ τι ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ παραχρῆμα Ἁρμόδιος καὶ Ἀριστογείτων ἐκ τῶν ξυνειδότων σφίσιν Ἱππίᾳ μεμηνῦσθαι τοῦ μὲν ἀπέσχοντο ὡς προειδότος, βουλόμενοι δὲ πρὶν ξυλληφθῆναι δράσαντές τι καὶ κινδυνεῦσαι, τῷ Ἱππάρχῳ περιτυχόντες περὶ τὸ Λεωκόρειον καλούμενον τὴν Παναθηναϊκὴν πομπὴν διακοσμοῦντι ἀπέκτειναν. 1.20.2. The general Athenian public fancy that Hipparchus was tyrant when he fell by the hands of Harmodius and Aristogiton; not knowing that Hippias, the eldest of the sons of Pisistratus, was really supreme, and that Hipparchus and Thessalus were his brothers; and that Harmodius and Aristogiton suspecting, on the very day, nay at the very moment fixed on for the deed, that information had been conveyed to Hippias by their accomplices, concluded that he had been warned, and did not attack him, yet, not liking to be apprehended and risk their lives for nothing, fell upon Hipparchus near the temple of the daughters of Leos, and slew him as he was arranging the Panathenaic procession.
7. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 1.5.9, 1.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia •xenophon, attitude towards persia of, on cyrus the great •xenophon, attitude towards persia of, on cyrus the younger Found in books: Isaac (2004) 288
1.5.9. τὸ δὲ σύμπαν δῆλος ἦν Κῦρος ὡς σπεύδων πᾶσαν τὴν ὁδὸν καὶ οὐ διατρίβων ὅπου μὴ ἐπισιτισμοῦ ἕνεκα ἤ τινος ἄλλου ἀναγκαίου ἐκαθέζετο, νομίζων, ὅσῳ θᾶττον ἔλθοι, τοσούτῳ ἀπαρασκευαστοτέρῳ βασιλεῖ μαχεῖσθαι, ὅσῳ δὲ σχολαίτερον, τοσούτῳ πλέον συναγείρεσθαι βασιλεῖ στράτευμα. καὶ συνιδεῖν δʼ ἦν τῷ προσέχοντι τὸν νοῦν τῇ βασιλέως ἀρχῇ πλήθει μὲν χώρας καὶ ἀνθρώπων ἰσχυρὰ οὖσα, τοῖς δὲ μήκεσι τῶν ὁδῶν καὶ τῷ διεσπάσθαι τὰς δυνάμεις ἀσθενής, εἴ τις διὰ ταχέων τὸν πόλεμον ποιοῖτο.
8. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 1.1.4, 8.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia •xenophon, attitude towards persia of, on cyrus the great •xenophon, attitude towards persia of, on cyrus the younger Found in books: Isaac (2004) 288, 290
1.1.4. καὶ γάρ τοι τοσοῦτον διήνεγκε τῶν ἄλλων βασιλέων, καὶ τῶν πατρίους ἀρχὰς παρειληφότων καὶ τῶν διʼ ἑαυτῶν κτησαμένων, ὥσθʼ ὁ μὲν Σκύθης καίπερ παμπόλλων ὄντων Σκυθῶν ἄλλου μὲν οὐδενὸς δύναιτʼ ἂν ἔθνους ἐπάρξαι, ἀγαπῴη δʼ ἂν εἰ τοῦ ἑαυτοῦ ἔθνους ἄρχων διαγένοιτο, καὶ ὁ Θρᾷξ Θρᾳκῶν καὶ ὁ Ἰλλυριὸς Ἰλλυριῶν, καὶ τἆλλα δὲ ὡσαύτως ἔθνη ἀκούομεν τὰ γοῦν ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ἔτι καὶ νῦν αὐτόνομα εἶναι λέγεται καὶ λελύσθαι ἀπʼ ἀλλήλων· Κῦρος δὲ παραλαβὼν ὡσαύτως οὕτω καὶ τὰ ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ ἔθνη αὐτόνομα ὄντα ὁρμηθεὶς σὺν ὀλίγῃ Περσῶν στρατιᾷ ἑκόντων μὲν ἡγήσατο Μήδων, ἑκόντων δὲ Ὑρκανίων, κατεστρέψατο δὲ Σύρους, Ἀσσυρίους, Ἀραβίους, Καππαδόκας, Φρύγας ἀμφοτέρους, Λυδούς, Κᾶρας, Φοίνικας, Βαβυλωνίους, ἦρξε δὲ Βακτρίων καὶ Ἰνδῶν καὶ Κιλίκων, ὡσαύτως δὲ Σακῶν καὶ Παφλαγόνων καὶ Μαγαδιδῶν, καὶ ἄλλων δὲ παμπόλλων ἐθνῶν, ὧν οὐδʼ ἂν τὰ ὀνόματα ἔχοι τις εἰπεῖν, ἐπῆρξε δὲ καὶ Ἑλλήνων τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ, καταβὰς δʼ ἐπὶ θάλατταν καὶ Κυπρίων καὶ Αἰγυπτίων. 1.1.4. But all this is not so surprising after all, so very different was he from all other kings, both those who have inherited their thrones from their fathers and those who have gained their crowns by their own efforts; the Scythian king, for instance, would never be able to extend his rule over any other nation besides his own, although the Scythians are very numerous, but he would be well content if he could maintain himself in power over his own people; so the Thracian king with his Thracians, the Illyrian with his Illyrians, and so also all other nations, we are told. Those in Europe , at any rate, are said to be free and independent of one another even to this day. But Cyrus , finding the nations in Asia also independent in exactly the same way, started out with a little band of Persians and became the leader of the Medes by their full consent and of the Hyrcanians The extent of his kingdom by theirs; he then conquered Syria , Assyria, Arabia , Cappadocia , both Phrygias, Lydia , Caria , Phoenicia , and Babylonia ; he ruled also over Bactria , India , and Cilicia ; and he was likewise king of the Sacians, Paphlagonians, Magadidae, and very many other nations, of which one could not even tell the names; he brought under his sway the Asiatic Greeks also; and, descending to the sea, he added both Cyprus and Egypt to his empire.
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 1.1, 1.6-1.8, 4.5, 6.1-6.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus, king of persia, role of in rebuilding of the temple heightened by josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006) 754, 755, 756, 757
1.1. "כְּפוֹרֵי זָהָב שְׁלֹשִׁים כְּפוֹרֵי כֶסֶף מִשְׁנִים אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים אָלֶף׃", 1.1. "וּבִשְׁנַת אַחַת לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס לִכְלוֹת דְּבַר־יְהוָה מִפִּי יִרְמְיָה הֵעִיר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ־פָּרַס וַיַּעֲבֶר־קוֹל בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וְגַם־בְּמִכְתָּב לֵאמֹר׃", 1.6. "וְכָל־סְבִיבֹתֵיהֶם חִזְּקוּ בִידֵיהֶם בִּכְלֵי־כֶסֶף בַּזָּהָב בָּרְכוּשׁ וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבַמִּגְדָּנוֹת לְבַד עַל־כָּל־הִתְנַדֵּב׃", 1.7. "וְהַמֶּלֶךְ כּוֹרֶשׁ הוֹצִיא אֶת־כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּבֵית אֱלֹהָיו׃", 1.8. "וַיּוֹצִיאֵם כּוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס עַל־יַד מִתְרְדָת הַגִּזְבָּר וַיִּסְפְּרֵם לְשֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר הַנָּשִׂיא לִיהוּדָה׃", 4.5. "וְסֹכְרִים עֲלֵיהֶם יוֹעֲצִים לְהָפֵר עֲצָתָם כָּל־יְמֵי כּוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס וְעַד־מַלְכוּת דָּרְיָוֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ־פָּרָס׃", 6.1. "בֵּאדַיִן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ מַלְכָּא שָׂם טְעֵם וּבַקַּרוּ בְּבֵית סִפְרַיָּא דִּי גִנְזַיָּא מְהַחֲתִין תַּמָּה בְּבָבֶל׃", 6.1. "דִּי־לֶהֱוֺן מְהַקְרְבִין נִיחוֹחִין לֶאֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא וּמְצַלַּיִן לְחַיֵּי מַלְכָּא וּבְנוֹהִי׃", 6.2. "וְהִשְׁתְּכַח בְּאַחְמְתָא בְּבִירְתָא דִּי בְּמָדַי מְדִינְתָּה מְגִלָּה חֲדָה וְכֵן־כְּתִיב בְּגַוַּהּ דִּכְרוֹנָה׃", 6.2. "כִּי הִטַּהֲרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם כְּאֶחָד כֻּלָּם טְהוֹרִים וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ הַפֶּסַח לְכָל־בְּנֵי הַגּוֹלָה וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְלָהֶם׃", 6.3. "בִּשְׁנַת חֲדָה לְכוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא כּוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא שָׂם טְעֵם בֵּית־אֱלָהָא בִירוּשְׁלֶם בַּיְתָא יִתְבְּנֵא אֲתַר דִּי־דָבְחִין דִּבְחִין וְאֻשּׁוֹהִי מְסוֹבְלִין רוּמֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין פְּתָיֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין׃", 6.4. "נִדְבָּכִין דִּי־אֶבֶן גְּלָל תְּלָתָא וְנִדְבָּךְ דִּי־אָע חֲדַת וְנִפְקְתָא מִן־בֵּית מַלְכָּא תִּתְיְהִב׃", 6.5. "וְאַף מָאנֵי בֵית־אֱלָהָא דִּי דַהֲבָה וְכַסְפָּא דִּי נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הַנְפֵּק מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם וְהֵיבֵל לְבָבֶל יַהֲתִיבוּן וִיהָךְ לְהֵיכְלָא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם לְאַתְרֵהּ וְתַחֵת בְּבֵית אֱלָהָא׃", 6.6. "כְּעַן תַּתְּנַי פַּחַת עֲבַר־נַהֲרָה שְׁתַר בּוֹזְנַי וּכְנָוָתְהוֹן אֲפַרְסְכָיֵא דִּי בַּעֲבַר נַהֲרָה רַחִיקִין הֲווֹ מִן־תַּמָּה׃", 6.7. "שְׁבֻקוּ לַעֲבִידַת בֵּית־אֱלָהָא דֵךְ פַּחַת יְהוּדָיֵא וּלְשָׂבֵי יְהוּדָיֵא בֵּית־אֱלָהָא דֵךְ יִבְנוֹן עַל־אַתְרֵהּ׃", 6.8. "וּמִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם לְמָא דִי־תַעַבְדוּן עִם־שָׂבֵי יְהוּדָיֵא אִלֵּךְ לְמִבְנֵא בֵּית־אֱלָהָא דֵךְ וּמִנִּכְסֵי מַלְכָּא דִּי מִדַּת עֲבַר נַהֲרָה אָסְפַּרְנָא נִפְקְתָא תֶּהֱוֵא מִתְיַהֲבָא לְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי־לָא לְבַטָּלָא׃", 6.9. "וּמָה חַשְׁחָן וּבְנֵי תוֹרִין וְדִכְרִין וְאִמְּרִין לַעֲלָוָן לֶאֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא חִנְטִין מְלַח חֲמַר וּמְשַׁח כְּמֵאמַר כָּהֲנַיָּא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם לֶהֱוֵא מִתְיְהֵב לְהֹם יוֹם בְּיוֹם דִּי־לָא שָׁלוּ׃", 6.11. "וּמִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי יְהַשְׁנֵא פִּתְגָמָא דְנָה יִתְנְסַח אָע מִן־בַּיְתֵהּ וּזְקִיף יִתְמְחֵא עֲלֹהִי וּבַיְתֵהּ נְוָלוּ יִתְעֲבֵד עַל־דְּנָה׃", 6.12. "וֵאלָהָא דִּי שַׁכִּן שְׁמֵהּ תַּמָּה יְמַגַּר כָּל־מֶלֶךְ וְעַם דִּי יִשְׁלַח יְדֵהּ לְהַשְׁנָיָה לְחַבָּלָה בֵּית־אֱלָהָא דֵךְ דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם אֲנָה דָרְיָוֶשׁ שָׂמֶת טְעֵם אָסְפַּרְנָא יִתְעֲבִד׃", 1.1. "NOW IN the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying:", 1.6. "And all they that were round about them strengthened their hands with vessels of silver, with gold, with goods, and with beasts, and with precious things, beside all that was willingly offered.", 1.7. "Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;", 1.8. "even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah.", 4.5. "and hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.", 6.1. "Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the archives, where the treasures were laid up, in Babylon.", 6.2. "And there was found at Ahmetha, in the palace that is in the province of Media, a roll, and therein was thus written: ‘A record.", 6.3. "In the first year of Cyrus the king, Cyrus the king made a decree: Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the house be builded, the place where they offer sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof threescore cubits;", 6.4. "with three rows of great stones, and a row of new timber, and let the expenses be given out of the king’s house;", 6.5. "and also let the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, be restored, and brought back unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, every one to its place, and thou shalt put them in the house of God.’", 6.6. "’Now therefore, Tattenai, governor beyond the River, Shethar-bozenai, and your companions the Apharesachites, who are beyond the River, be ye far from thence;", 6.7. "let the work of this house of God alone; let the governor of the Jews and the elders of the Jews build this house of God in its place.", 6.8. "Moreover I make a decree concerning what ye shall do to these elders of the Jews for the building of this house of God; that of the king’s goods, even of the tribute beyond the River, expenses be given with all diligence unto these men, that they be not hindered.", 6.9. "And that which they have need of, both young bullocks, and rams, and lambs, for burnt-offerings to the God of heaven, wheat, salt, wine, and oil, according to the word of the priests that are at Jerusalem, let it be given them day by day without fail;", 6.10. "that they may offer sacrifices of sweet savour unto the God of heaven, and pray for the life of the king, and of his sons.", 6.11. "Also I have made a decree, that whosoever shall alter this word, let a beam be pulled out from his house, and let him be lifted up and fastened thereon; and let his house be made a dunghill for this;", 6.12. "and may the God that hath caused His name to dwell there overthrow all kings and peoples, that shall put forth their hand to alter the same, to destroy this house of God which is at Jerusalem. I Darius have made a decree; let it be done with all diligence.’",
10. Herodotus, Histories, 1.2, 1.5, 1.7, 1.12, 1.21, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 1.33, 1.45, 1.65, 1.66, 1.75, 1.86, 1.87, 1.89, 1.90, 1.91, 1.107, 1.108, 1.118, 1.124, 1.126, 1.138, 1.141, 1.143, 1.153, 1.157, 1.158, 1.159, 1.160, 1.169, 1.187, 1.189, 1.190, 1.204, 1.209, 1.210, 2.83, 2.129, 2.133, 2.139, 3.3, 3.25, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 3.31, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.49, 3.57, 3.58, 3.61, 3.62, 3.63, 3.64, 3.65, 3.66, 3.74, 3.80, 3.81, 3.82, 3.84, 3.108, 3.124, 3.125, 3.133, 3.139, 3.140, 3.141, 3.142, 3.143, 3.144, 3.145, 3.146, 3.147, 3.148, 3.149, 3.153, 3.154, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 5.36, 5.46, 5.47, 5.49, 5.74, 5.75, 5.92, 5.106, 5.114, 5.115, 6.36, 6.37, 6.38, 6.43, 6.44, 6.45, 6.62, 6.63, 6.75, 6.76, 6.79, 6.80, 6.81, 6.82, 6.84, 6.91, 6.107, 6.108, 6.118, 7.6, 7.8, 7.10.ε, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.37, 7.39, 7.46, 7.49, 7.54, 7.57, 7.113, 7.114, 7.117, 7.133, 7.134, 7.135, 7.136, 7.137, 7.142, 7.143, 7.166, 7.167, 7.219, 7.220, 7.221, 7.223, 7.228, 8.51, 8.52, 8.53, 8.54, 8.55, 8.65, 8.96, 8.99, 8.109, 9.1, 9.12, 9.16, 9.36, 9.37, 9.38, 9.41, 9.42, 9.61, 9.62, 9.76, 9.90, 9.91, 9.109, 9.122 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 159, 200, 227
7.14. When the Persians heard that, they rejoiced and made obeisance to him. But when night came on, the same vision stood again over Xerxes as he slept, and said, “Son of Darius, have you then plainly renounced your army's march among the Persians, and made my words of no account, as though you had not heard them? Know for certain that, if you do not lead out your army immediately, this will be the outcome of it: as you became great and mighty in a short time, so in a moment will you be brought low again.”
11. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 20.2-20.3 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
12. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 11.45.5-11.45.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia, dreams of Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
11.45.5.  Pausanias said that he was sorry and went on to ask the man to forgive the mistake; he even implored him to help keep the matter secret, promising him great gifts, and the two then parted. As for the ephors and the others with them, although they had learned the precise truth, at that time they held their peace, but on a later occasion, when the Lacedaemonians were taking up the matter together with the ephors, Pausanias learned of it in advance, acted first, and fled for safety into the temple of Athena of the Brazen House. 11.45.6.  And while the Lacedaemonians were hesitating whether to punish him now that he was a suppliant, we are told that the mother of Pausanias, coming to the temple, neither said nor did anything else than to pick up a brick and lay it against the entrance of the temple, and after she had done this she returned to her home. 11.45.7.  And the Lacedaemonians, falling in with the mother's decision, walled up the entrance and in this manner forced Pausanias to meet his end through starvation. Now the body of the dead man was turned over to his relatives for burial; but the divinity showed its displeasure at the violation of the sanctity of suppliants, 11.45.8.  for once when the Lacedaemonians were consulting the oracle at Delphi about some other matters, the god replied by commanding them to restore her suppliant to the goddess. 11.45.9.  Consequently the Spartans, thinking the oracle's command to be impracticable, were at a loss for a considerable time, being unable to carry out the injunction of the god. Concluding, however, to do as much as was within their power, they made two bronze statues of Pausanias and set them up in the temple of Athena.
13. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 102.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •xenophon, attitude towards persia of, on cyrus the great Found in books: Isaac (2004) 290
14. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 102.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •xenophon, attitude towards persia of, on cyrus the great Found in books: Isaac (2004) 290
15. New Testament, Matthew, 16.16-16.17, 28.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 283
16.16. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος εἶπεν Σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος. 16.17. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Μακάριος εἶ, Σίμων Βαριωνᾶ, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα οὐκ ἀπεκάλυψέν σοι ἀλλʼ ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ ἐν [τοῖς] οὐρανοῖς· 28.17. καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν προσεκύνησαν, οἱ δὲ ἐδίστασαν. 16.16. Simon Peter answered, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." 16.17. Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. 28.17. When they saw him, they bowed down to him, but some doubted.
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.17, 1.165, 2.185, 2.238-2.253, 2.258, 2.262-2.263, 4.107, 5.185-5.186, 10.217, 10.246, 10.254, 11.3-11.8, 11.11-11.18, 11.20, 11.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus, king of persia, role of in rebuilding of the temple heightened by josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006) 754, 755, 756, 757
1.17. As I proceed, therefore, I shall accurately describe what is contained in our records, in the order of time that belongs to them; for I have already promised so to do throughout this undertaking; and this without adding any thing to what is therein contained, or taking away any thing therefrom. 1.165. He then, out of fear, asked Sarai who she was, and who it was that she brought along with her. And when he had found out the truth, he excused himself to Abram, that supposing the woman to be his sister, and not his wife, he set his affections on her, as desiring an affinity with him by marrying her, but not as incited by lust to abuse her. He also made him a large present in money, and gave him leave to enter into conversation with the most learned among the Egyptians; from which conversation his virtue and his reputation became more conspicuous than they had been before. 2.185. After this, he desired Jacob to travel on slowly; but he himself took five of his brethren with him, and made haste to the king, to tell him that Jacob and his family were come; which was a joyful hearing to him. He also bid Joseph tell him what sort of life his brethren loved to lead, that he might give them leave to follow the same, 2.238. 1. Moses, therefore, when he was born, and brought up in the foregoing manner, and came to the age of maturity, made his virtue manifest to the Egyptians; and showed that he was born for the bringing them down, and raising the Israelites. And the occasion he laid hold of was this:— 2.239. The Ethiopians, who are next neighbors to the Egyptians, made an inroad into their country, which they seized upon, and carried off the effects of the Egyptians, who, in their rage, fought against them, and revenged the affronts they had received from them; but being overcome in battle, some of them were slain, and the rest ran away in a shameful manner, and by that means saved themselves; 2.240. whereupon the Ethiopians followed after them in the pursuit, and thinking that it would be a mark of cowardice if they did not subdue all Egypt, they went on to subdue the rest with greater vehemence; and when they had tasted the sweets of the country, they never left off the prosecution of the war: and as the nearest parts had not courage enough at first to fight with them, they proceeded as far as Memphis, and the sea itself, while not one of the cities was able to oppose them. 2.241. The Egyptians, under this sad oppression, betook themselves to their oracles and prophecies; and when God had given them this counsel, to make use of Moses the Hebrew, and take his assistance, the king commanded his daughter to produce him, that he might be the general of their army. 2.242. Upon which, when she had made him swear that he would do him no harm, she delivered him to the king, and supposed his assistance would be of great advantage to them. She withal reproached the priest, who, when they had before admonished the Egyptians to kill him, was not ashamed now to own their want of his help. 2.243. 2. So Moses, at the persuasion both of Thermuthis and the king himself, cheerfully undertook the business: and the sacred scribes of both nations were glad; those of the Egyptians, that they should at once overcome their enemies by his valor, and that by the same piece of management Moses would be slain; but those of the Hebrews, that they should escape from the Egyptians, because Moses was to be their general. 2.244. But Moses prevented the enemies, and took and led his army before those enemies were apprised of his attacking them; for he did not march by the river, but by land, where he gave a wonderful demonstration of his sagacity; 2.245. for when the ground was difficult to be passed over, because of the multitude of serpents, (which it produces in vast numbers, and, indeed, is singular in some of those productions, which other countries do not breed, and yet such as are worse than others in power and mischief, and an unusual fierceness of sight, some of which ascend out of the ground unseen, and also fly in the air, and so come upon men at unawares, and do them a mischief,) Moses invented a wonderful stratagem to preserve the army safe, and without hurt; 2.246. for he made baskets, like unto arks, of sedge, and filled them with ibes, and carried them along with them; which animal is the greatest enemy to serpents imaginable, for they fly from them when they come near them; and as they fly they are caught and devoured by them, as if it were done by the harts; 2.247. but the ibes are tame creatures, and only enemies to the serpentine kind: but about these ibes I say no more at present, since the Greeks themselves are not unacquainted with this sort of bird. As soon, therefore, as Moses was come to the land which was the breeder of these serpents, he let loose the ibes, and by their means repelled the serpentine kind, and used them for his assistants before the army came upon that ground. When he had therefore proceeded thus on his journey, he came upon the Ethiopians before they expected him; 2.248. and, joining battle with them, he beat them, and deprived them of the hopes they had of success against the Egyptians, and went on in overthrowing their cities, and indeed made a great slaughter of these Ethiopians. Now when the Egyptian army had once tasted of this prosperous success, by the means of Moses, they did not slacken their diligence, insomuch that the Ethiopians were in danger of being reduced to slavery, and all sorts of destruction; 2.249. and at length they retired to Saba, which was a royal city of Ethiopia, which Cambyses afterwards named Mero, after the name of his own sister. The place was to be besieged with very great difficulty, since it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, and the other rivers, Astapus and Astaboras, made it a very difficult thing for such as attempted to pass over them; 2.250. for the city was situate in a retired place, and was inhabited after the manner of an island, being encompassed with a strong wall, and having the rivers to guard them from their enemies, and having great ramparts between the wall and the rivers, insomuch, that when the waters come with the greatest violence, it can never be drowned; which ramparts make it next to impossible for even such as are gotten over the rivers to take the city. 2.251. However, while Moses was uneasy at the army’s lying idle, (for the enemies durst not come to a battle,) this accident happened:— 2.252. Tharbis was the daughter of the king of the Ethiopians: she happened to see Moses as he led the army near the walls, and fought with great courage; and admiring the subtilty of his undertakings, and believing him to be the author of the Egyptians’ success, when they had before despaired of recovering their liberty, and to be the occasion of the great danger the Ethiopians were in, when they had before boasted of their great achievements, she fell deeply in love with him; and upon the prevalancy of that passion, sent to him the most faithful of all her servants to discourse with him about their marriage. 2.253. He thereupon accepted the offer, on condition she would procure the delivering up of the city; and gave her the assurance of an oath to take her to his wife; and that when he had once taken possession of the city, he would not break his oath to her. No sooner was the agreement made, but it took effect immediately; and when Moses had cut off the Ethiopians, he gave thanks to God, and consummated his marriage, and led the Egyptians back to their own land. 2.258. 2. For that country having but little water, the shepherds used to seize on the wells before others came, lest their flocks should want water, and lest it should be spent by others before they came. There were now come, therefore, to this well seven sisters that were virgins, the daughters of Raguel, a priest, and one thought worthy by the people of the country of great honor. 2.262. And when Moses came, he told him what testimony his daughters bare to him, that he had assisted them; and that, as he admired him for his virtue, he said that Moses had bestowed such his assistance on persons not insensible of benefits, but where they were both able and willing to return the kindness, and even to exceed the measure of his generosity. 2.263. So he made him his son, and gave him one of his daughters in marriage; and appointed him to be the guardian and superintendent over his cattle; for of old, all the wealth of the barbarians was in those cattle. 4.107. 3. Now the Midianites, at the earnest request and fervent entreaties of Balak, sent other ambassadors to Balaam, who, desiring to gratify the men, inquired again of God; but he was displeased at this [second] trial, and bid him by no means to contradict the ambassadors. Now Balsam did not imagine that God gave this injunction in order to deceive him, so he went along with the ambassadors; 5.185. 1. When Othniel was dead, the affairs of the Israelites fell again into disorder: and while they neither paid to God the honor due to him, nor were obedient to the laws, their afflictions increased, 5.186. till Eglon, king of the Moabites, did so greatly despise them on account of the disorders of their political government, that he made war upon them, and overcame them in several battles, and made the most courageous to submit, and entirely subdued their army, and ordered them to pay him tribute. 10.217. but when none of them could find out the meaning of the dream, nor discover it to the king, Daniel was the only person that explained it; and as he foretold, so it came to pass; for after he had continued in the wilderness the forementioned interval of time, while no one durst attempt to seize his kingdom during those seven years, he prayed to God that he might recover his kingdom, and he returned to it. 10.246. However, he did not refuse what he had promised Daniel, although he were become a foreteller of misfortunes to him, but bestowed it all upon him; as reasoning thus, that what he was to reward was peculiar to himself, and to fate, and did not belong to the prophet, but that it was the part of a good and a just man to give what he had promised, although the events were of a melancholy nature. 10.254. 6. Whereupon the king, not being acquainted with their wicked design, nor suspecting that it was a contrivance of theirs against Daniel, said he was pleased with this decree of theirs, and he promised to confirm what they desired; he also published an edict to promulgate to the people that decree which the princes had made. 11.3. for he stirred up the mind of Cyrus, and made him write this throughout all Asia: “Thus saith Cyrus the king: Since God Almighty hath appointed me to be king of the habitable earth, I believe that he is that God which the nation of the Israelites worship; 11.4. for indeed he foretold my name by the prophets, and that I should build him a house at Jerusalem, in the country of Judea.” 11.5. 2. This was known to Cyrus by his reading the book which Isaiah left behind him of his prophecies; for this prophet said that God had spoken thus to him in a secret vision: “My will is, that Cyrus, whom I have appointed to be king over many and great nations, send back my people to their own land, and build my temple.” 11.6. This was foretold by Isaiah one hundred and forty years before the temple was demolished. Accordingly, when Cyrus read this, and admired the divine power, an earnest desire and ambition seized upon him to fulfill what was so written; so he called for the most eminent Jews that were in Babylon, and said to them, that he gave them leave to go back to their own country, and to rebuild their city Jerusalem, and the temple of God, 11.7. for that he would be their assistant, and that he would write to the rulers and governors that were in the neighborhood of their country of Judea, that they should contribute to them gold and silver for the building of the temple, and besides that, beasts for their sacrifices. 11.8. 3. When Cyrus had said this to the Israelites, the rulers of the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, with the Levites and priests, went in haste to Jerusalem; yet did many of them stay at Babylon, as not willing to leave their possessions; 11.11. So he committed these things to Mithridates, the treasurer, to be sent away, with an order to give them to Sanabassar, that he might keep them till the temple was built; and when it was finished, he might deliver them to the priests and rulers of the multitude, in order to their being restored to the temple. 11.12. Cyrus also sent an epistle to the governors that were in Syria, the contents whereof here follow: “King Cyrus To Sisinnes And Sathrabuzanes Sendeth Greeting. “I have given leave to as many of the Jews that dwell in my country as please to return to their own country, and to rebuild their city, and to build the temple of God at Jerusalem on the same place where it was before. 11.13. I have also sent my treasurer Mithridates, and Zorobabel, the governor of the Jews, that they may lay the foundations of the temple, and may build it sixty cubits high, and of the same latitude, making three edifices of polished stones, and one of the wood of the country, and the same order extends to the altar whereon they offer sacrifices to God. 11.14. I require also that the expenses for these things may be given out of my revenues. Moreover, I have also sent the vessels which king Nebuchadnezzar pillaged out of the temple, and have given them to Mithridates the treasurer, and to Zorobabel the governor of the Jews, that they may have them carried to Jerusalem, and may restore them to the temple of God. 11.15. Now their number is as follows: Fifty chargers of gold, and five hundred of silver; forty Thericlean cups of gold, and five hundred of silver; fifty basons of gold, and five hundred of silver; thirty vessels for pouring [the drink-offerings], and three hundred of silver; thirty vials of gold, and two thousand four hundred of silver; with a thousand other large vessels. 11.16. I permit them to have the same honor which they were used to have from their forefathers, as also for their small cattle, and for wine and oil, two hundred and five thousand and five hundred drachmae; and for wheat flour, twenty thousand and five hundred artabae; and I give order that these expenses shall be given them out of the tributes due from Samaria. 11.17. The priests shall also offer these sacrifices according to the laws of Moses in Jerusalem; and when they offer them, they shall pray to God for the preservation of the king and of his family, that the kingdom of Persia may continue. But my will is, that those who disobey these injunctions, and make them void, shall be hung upon a cross, and their substance brought into the king’s treasury.” 11.18. And such was the import of this epistle. Now the number of those that came out of captivity to Jerusalem, were forty-two thousand four hundred and sixty-two. 11.20. Now as these men were corrupted by them with money, they sold the Cutheans their interest for rendering this building a slow and a careless work, for Cyrus, who was busy about other wars, knew nothing of all this; and it so happened, that when he had led his army against the Massagetae, he ended his life. 11.216. “Artaxerxes, the great king, to the rulers of the hundred twenty and seven provinces, from India to Ethiopia, sends this writing. Whereas I have governed many nations, and obtained the dominions of all the habitable earth, according to my desire, and have not been obliged to do any thing that is insolent or cruel to my subjects by such my power, but have showed myself mild and gentle, by taking care of their peace and good order, and have sought how they might enjoy those blessings for all time to come.
17. Plutarch, Solon, 12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia, dreams of Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
18. Tosefta, Taanit, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 283
19. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 208
20. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 2.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 283
2.5. הָרַס בְּעֶבְרָתוֹ מִבְצְרֵי בַת יְהוּדָה, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר כָּל בִּירָה וּבִירָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בִּירוּשָׁלַם לֹא הָיְתָה רְאוּיָה לְהִכָּבֵשׁ פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, רַבִּי פִּנְחָס אָמַר פָּחוֹת מֵחֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁגָּרְמוּ עֲוֹנוֹת הָרַס בְּעֶבְרָתוֹ מִבְצְרֵי בַת יְהוּדָה הִגִּיעַ לָאָרֶץ. חִלֵּל מַמְלָכָה וְשָׂרֶיהָ, חִלֵּל מַמְלָכָה, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות יט, ו): וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ. וְשָׂרֶיהָ אֵלּוּ שָׂרִים שֶׁל מַעְלָן, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא עַד שֶׁלֹא בָּאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים הָיָה יִרְמְיָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם עֲשׂוּ תְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁלֹא תֵּלְכוּ בַּגָּלוּת, אָמְרוּ לוֹ אִם יָבֹאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים מַה יְּכוֹלִין לַעֲשׂוֹת לָנוּ, חַד אֲמַר אֲנָא מַקֵּיף לָהּ חוֹמַת מַיָּא, וָחֳרִינָא אֲמַר אֲנָא מַקֵּיף לָהּ חוֹמַת נוּרָא, וָחֳרִינָא אֲמַר אֲנָא מַקֵּיף לָהּ חוֹמַת פַּרְזְלָא, אֲמַר לְהוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּדִידִי אַתּוּן מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין, עָמַד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְשִׁנָּה אֶת שְׁמוֹתָם שֶׁל מַלְאָכִים, דְּעַל מַיָא עֲבַד עַל נוּרָא וּדְעַל נוּרָא עֲבַד עַל פַּרְזְלָא, וְהָיוּ מַזְכִּירִין שְׁמוֹתָם מִלְּמַטָּה וְלֹא הָיוּ עוֹנִין לָהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מג, כח): וַאֲחַלֵּל שָׂרֵי קֹדֶשׁ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁגָּרְמוּ הָעֲוֹנוֹת וּבָאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים הִתְחִילוּ מַזְכִּירִין שַׂר פְּלָן אִיתָא עֲבִיד לָן מִילַיָּא פְּלָן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית בְּחֵילִי דַּאֲנָא מֵירִים מִינַהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, חִלֵּל מַמְלָכָה וְשָׂרֶיהָ. חִלֵּל מַמְלָכָה, זֶה צִדְקִיָּה מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה, וְשָׂרֶיהָ, אֵלּוּ שָׂרִים שֶׁל מַעְלָה.
21. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.4.3-3.4.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia, dreams of Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
3.4.3. διατρίβοντος δὲ ἐν Αἰγίνῃ Κλεομένους Δημάρατος ὁ τῆς οἰκίας βασιλεὺς τῆς ἑτέρας διέβαλλεν αὐτὸν ἐς τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων τὸ πλῆθος· Κλεομένης δὲ ὡς ἀνέστρεψεν ἐξ Αἰγίνης, ἔπρασσεν ὅπως Δημάρατον παύσειε βασιλεύοντα, καὶ τήν τε ἐν Δελφοῖς πρόμαντιν ὠνήσατο, Λακεδαιμονίοις αὐτὴν ὁπόσα αὐτὸς ἐδίδασκεν ἐς Δημάρατον χρῆσαι, καὶ Λεωτυχίδην ἄνδρα τοῦ βασιλικοῦ γένους καὶ οἰκίας Δημαράτῳ τῆς αὐτῆς ἐπῆρεν ἀμφισβητεῖν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀρχῆς. 3.4.4. εἴχετο δὲ Λεωτυχίδης λόγων οὓς Ἀρίστων ποτὲ ἐς Δημάρατον τεχθέντα ἐξέβαλεν ὑπὸ ἀμαθίας οὐχ αὑτοῦ παῖδα εἶναι φήσας. τότε δὲ οἱ μὲν ἐς τὸ χρηστήριον οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι τὸ ἐν Δελφοῖς, ὥσπερ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα εἰώθεσαν, ἀνάγουσι καὶ τὸ ἀμφισβήτημα τὸ ὑπὲρ Δημαράτου· ἡ δέ σφισιν ἔχρησεν ἡ πρόμαντις ὁπόσα ἦν Κλεομένει κατὰ γνώμην. 3.4.5. Δημάρατος μὲν δὴ κατὰ ἔχθος τὸ Κλεομένους καὶ οὐ σὺν τῷ δικαίῳ βασιλείας ἐπαύθη, Κλεομένην δὲ ὕστερον τούτων ἐπέλαβεν ἡ τελευτὴ μανέντα· ὡς γὰρ δὴ ἐλάβετο ξίφους, ἐτίτρωσκεν αὐτὸς αὑτὸν καὶ διεξῄει τὸ σῶμα ἅπαν κόπτων τε καὶ λυμαινόμενος. Ἀργεῖοι μὲν δὴ τοῖς ἱκέταις τοῦ Ἄργου διδόντα αὐτὸν δίκην τέλος τοῦ βίου φασὶν εὑρέσθαι τοιοῦτον, Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ ὅτι ἐδῄωσε τὴν Ὀργάδα, Δελφοὶ δὲ τῶν δώρων ἕνεκα ὧν τῇ προμάντιδι ἔδωκεν, ἀναπείσας ἐψευσμένα εἰπεῖν ἐς Δημάρατον. 3.4.6. εἴη δʼ ἂν καὶ τὰ μηνίματα ἔκ τε ἡρώων ὁμοῦ καὶ θεῶν ἐς τὸ αὐτὸ τῷ Κλεομένει συνεληλυθότα, ἐπεί τοι καὶ ἰδίᾳ Πρωτεσίλαος ἐν Ἐλαιοῦντι οὐδὲν ἥρως Ἄργου φανερώτερος ἄνδρα Πέρσην ἐτιμωρήσατο Ἀρταΰκτην καὶ Μεγαρεῦσιν οὔ ποτε θεῶν τῶν ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι ὄντων ἐξεγένετο ἱλάσασθαι τὸ μήνιμα γῆν ἐπεργασαμένοις τὴν ἱεράν. τὰ δὲ ἐς τοῦ μαντείου τὴν διάπειραν οὐδὲ τὸ παράπαν ἄλλον γε οὐδένα ὅτι μὴ μόνον Κλεομένην τολμήσαντα ἴσμεν. 3.4.3. While Cleomenes was occupied in Aegina , Demaratus, the king of the other house, was slandering him to the Lacedaemonian populace. On his return from Aegina , Cleomenes began to intrigue for the deposition of king Demaratus. He bribed the Pythian prophetess to frame responses about Demaratus according to his instructions, and instigated Leotychides, a man of royal birth and of the same family as Demaratus, to put in a claim to the throne. 3.4.4. Leotychides seized upon the remark that Ariston in his ignorance blurted out when Demaratus was born, denying that he was his child. On the present occasion the Lacedaemonians, according to their wont, referred to the oracle at Delphi the claim against Demaratus, and the prophetess gave them a response which favoured the designs of Cleomenes. 3.4.5. So Demaratus was deposed, not rightfully, but because Cleomenes hated him. Subsequently Cleomenes met his end in a fit of madness for seizing a sword he began to wound himself, and hacked and maimed his body all over. The Argives assert that the manner of his end was a punishment for his treatment of the suppliants of Argus; the Athenians say that it was because he had devastated Orgas; the Delphians put it down to the bribes he gave the Pythian prophetess, persuading her to give lying responses about Demaratus. 3.4.6. It may well be too that the wrath of heroes and the wrath of gods united together to punish Cleomenes since it is a fact that for a personal wrong Protesilaus, a hero not a whit more illustrious than Argus, punished at Elaeus Artayctes, a Persian; while the Megarians never succeeded in propitiating the deities at Eleusis for having encroached upon the sacred land. As to the tampering with the oracle, we know of nobody, with the exception of Cleomenes, who has had the audacity even to attempt it.
22. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus, king of persia, role of in rebuilding of the temple heightened by josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006) 754
12a. תניא נמי הכי ועוד שנה אחרת לבבל ועמד דריוש והשלימה,אמר רבא אף דניאל טעה בהאי חושבנא דכתיב (דניאל ט, ב) בשנת אחת למלכו אני דניאל בינותי בספרים מדקאמר בינותי מכלל דטעה,מ"מ קשו קראי אהדדי כתיב (ירמיהו כט, י) מלאות לבבל וכתיב (דניאל ט, ב) לחרבות ירושלם,אמר רבא לפקידה בעלמא והיינו דכתיב (עזרא א, ב) כה אמר כורש מלך פרס כל ממלכות הארץ נתן לי ה' אלהי השמים והוא פקד עלי לבנות לו בית בירושלם,דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו מה, א) כה אמר ה' למשיחו לכורש אשר החזקתי בימינו וכי כורש משיח היה אלא א"ל הקב"ה למשיח קובל אני לך על כורש אני אמרתי הוא יבנה ביתי ויקבץ גליותי והוא אמר (עזרא א, ג) מי בכם מכל עמו ויעל:,(אסתר א, ג) חיל פרס ומדי הפרתמים וכתיב למלכי מדי ופרס אמר רבא אתנויי אתנו בהדדי אי מינן מלכי מינייכו איפרכי ואי מינייכו מלכי מינן איפרכי,(שם, ד) בהראותו את עושר כבוד מלכותו א"ר יוסי בר חנינא מלמד שלבש בגדי כהונה כתיב הכא יקר תפארת גדולתו וכתיב התם (שמות כח, ב) לכבוד ולתפארת,(שם, ה) ובמלאות הימים האלה וגו' רב ושמואל חד אמר מלך פיקח היה וחד אמר מלך טיפש היה מאן דאמר מלך פיקח היה שפיר עבד דקריב רחיקא ברישא דבני מאתיה כל אימת דבעי מפייס להו ומאן דאמר טיפש היה דאיבעי ליה לקרובי בני מאתיה ברישא דאי מרדו ביה הנך הני הוו קיימי בהדיה,שאלו תלמידיו את רשב"י מפני מה נתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שבאותו הדור כליה אמר להם אמרו אתם אמרו לו מפני שנהנו מסעודתו של אותו רשע אם כן שבשושן יהרגו שבכל העולם כולו אל יהרגו אמרו לו אמור אתה אמר להם מפני שהשתחוו לצלם,אמרו לו וכי משוא פנים יש בדבר אמר להם הם לא עשו אלא לפנים אף הקב"ה לא עשה עמהן אלא לפנים והיינו דכתיב (איכה ג, לג) כי לא ענה מלבו:,(שם) בחצר גנת ביתן המלך רב ושמואל חד אמר הראוי לחצר לחצר הראוי לגינה לגינה הראוי לביתן לביתן וחד אמר הושיבן בחצר ולא החזיקתן בגינה ולא החזיקתן עד שהכניסן לביתן והחזיקתן במתניתא תנא הושיבן בחצר ופתח להם שני פתחים אחד לגינה ואחד לביתן,(שם, ו) חור כרפס ותכלת מאי חור רב אמר חרי חרי ושמואל אמר מילת לבנה הציע להם כרפס אמר ר' יוסי בר חנינא כרים של פסים,על גלילי כסף ועמודי שש מטות זהב וכסף תניא ר' יהודה אומר הראוי לכסף לכסף הראוי לזהב לזהב אמר לו ר' נחמיה א"כ אתה מטיל קנאה בסעודה אלא הם של כסף ורגליהן של זהב,בהט ושש א"ר אסי אבנים שמתחוטטות על בעליהן וכן הוא אומר (זכריה ט, טז) אבני נזר מתנוססות על אדמתו,ודר וסוחרת רב אמר דרי דרי ושמואל אמר אבן טובה יש בכרכי הים ודרה שמה הושיבה באמצע סעודה ומאירה להם כצהרים דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא שקרא דרור לכל בעלי סחורה,(שם, ז) והשקות בכלי זהב וכלים מכלים שונים משונים מיבעי ליה אמר רבא יצתה בת קול ואמרה להם ראשונים כלו מפני כלים ואתם שונים בהם ויין מלכות רב אמר רב מלמד שכל אחד ואחד השקהו יין שגדול הימנו בשנים,(שם, ח) והשתיה כדת (אין אונס) מאי כדת א"ר חנן משום ר"מ כדת של תורה מה דת של תורה אכילה מרובה משתיה אף סעודתו של אותו רשע אכילה מרובה משתיה,אין אונס אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שכל אחד ואחד השקהו מיין מדינתו לעשות כרצון איש ואיש אמר רבא לעשות כרצון מרדכי והמן, מרדכי דכתיב איש יהודי המן איש צר ואויב,(שם, ט) גם ושתי המלכה עשתה משתה נשים בית המלכות בית הנשים מיבעי ליה אמר רבא שניהן לדבר עבירה נתכוונו היינו דאמרי אינשי איהו בקרי ואתתיה 12a. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i , as an indication that the years counted were only partial years: b And /b when Belshazzar was killed, b there was still another year /b left b for Babylonia /b before the reckoning of the seventy years was completed. b And /b then b Darius arose and completed it. /b Although seventy years were previously counted according to Belshazzar’s count, from the exile of Jehoiakim, because the years were only partial, there was still one year left in order to complete those seventy years., b Rava said: Daniel also erred in this calculation, as it is written: “In the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, meditated in the books /b over the number of the years, whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years” (Daniel 9:2). b From /b the fact b that he said “I meditated,” /b a term indicating recounting and calculating, b it can be inferred that he had /b previously b erred. /b ,The Gemara comments: b In any case, the verses contradict each other /b with regard to how the seventy years should be calculated. In one verse b it is written: /b “After seventy years b are accomplished for Babylonia /b I will remember [ i efkod /i ] you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place” (Jeremiah 29:10), which indicates that the seventy years should be counted from the Babylonian exile. b And /b in another verse b it is written: /b “That he would accomplish b for the desolations of Jerusalem /b seventy years” (Daniel 9:2), indicating that the seventy years are calculated from the destruction of Jerusalem., b Rava said /b in response: The seventy years that “are accomplished for Babylonia” were b only for being remembered [ i lifekida /i ], /b as mentioned in the verse, allowing the Jews to return to Eretz Yisrael but not to build the Temple. b And this is as it is written /b with regard to Cyrus’s proclamation permitting the Jewish people’s return to Eretz Yisrael, in the seventieth year of the Babylonian exile: b “Thus says Cyrus king of Persia: The Lord, God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and He has charged [ i pakad /i ] me to build Him a house in Jerusalem” /b (Ezra 1:2). The verse makes use of the same root, i peh-kuf-dalet /i , heralding the return to Jerusalem to build the Temple, but not its actual completion.,Apropos its mention of Cyrus, the Gemara states that b Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda interpreted homiletically /b a verse concerning Cyrus: b What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “Thus says the Lord to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have held” /b (Isaiah 45:1), which seemingly is referring to Cyrus as God’s anointed? b Now was Cyrus /b God’s anointed one, i.e., the b Messiah, /b that the verse should refer to him in this manner? b Rather, /b the verse should be understood as God speaking to the Messiah with regard to Cyrus: b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Messiah: I am complaining to you about Cyrus, /b who is not acting in accordance with what he is intended to do. b I had said: “He shall build My House and gather My exiles” /b (see Isaiah 45:13), but he did not carry this out. b Rather, he said: “Whoever is among you of all His people…let him go up /b to Jerusalem” (Ezra 1:3). He gave permission to return to Israel, but he did no more than that.,§ The Gemara returns to its interpretations of verses in the Megilla. The Megilla mentions that among those invited to the king’s feast were: b “The army of Persia and Media, the nobles /b and princes of the provinces” (Esther 1:3), b and it is written /b near the conclusion of the Megilla: “In the book of chronicles b of the kings of Media and Persia” /b (Esther 10:2). Why is Persia mentioned first at the beginning of the Megilla, while later in the Megilla, Media is mentioned first? b Rava said /b in response: These two peoples, the Persians and the Medes, b stipulated with each other, /b saying: b If the kings /b will come b from us, the ministers /b will come b from you; and if the kings /b will come b from you, the ministers /b will come b from us. /b Therefore, in reference to kings, Media is mentioned first, whereas in connection with nobles and princes, Persia is given priority.,The verse states: b “When he showed the riches of his glorious [ i kevod /i ] kingdom /b and the honor of his majestic [ i tiferet /i ] greatness” (Esther 1:4). b Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: This teaches that /b Ahasuerus b wore the priestly vestments. /b Proof for this assertion may be adduced from the fact that the same terms are written with regard to the priestly vestments, as b it is written here: /b “The riches of his glorious [ i kevod /i ] kingdom and b the honor of his majestic [ i tiferet /i ] greatness.” And it is written there, /b with regard to the priestly garments: b “For glory [ i kavod /i ] and for majesty [ i tiferet /i ]” /b (Exodus 28:2).,The verse states: b “And when these days were fulfilled, /b the king made a feast for all the people that were present in Shushan the capital” (Esther 1:5). b Rav and Shmuel /b disagreed as to whether this was a wise decision. b One said: /b Ahasuerus arranged a feast for the residents of Shushan, the capital, after the feast for foreign dignitaries that preceded it, as mentioned in the earlier verses, indicating that b he was a clever king. And /b the other b one said: /b It is precisely this that indicates that b he was a foolish king. The one who said /b that this proves that b he was a clever king /b maintains b that he acted well when he first brought close those /b more b distant /b subjects by inviting them to the earlier celebration, b as he could appease the residents of his /b own b city whenever he wished. And the one who said /b that b he was foolish /b maintains b that he should have invited the residents of his city first, so that if those /b faraway subjects b rebelled against him, these /b who lived close by b would have stood with him. /b , b The students of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai asked him: For what /b reason b were the enemies of Jewish people, /b a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves when exhibiting behavior that is not in their best interests, b in that generation deserving of annihilation? He, /b Rabbi Shimon, b said to them: Say /b the answer to your question b yourselves. They said to him: It is because they partook of the feast of that wicked one, /b Ahasuerus, and they partook there of forbidden foods. Rabbi Shimon responded: b If so, those in Shushan should have been killed /b as punishment, but b those in the rest of the world, /b who did not participate in the feast, b should not have been killed. They said to him: /b Then b you say /b your response to our question. b He said to them: It is because they prostrated before the idol /b that Nebuchadnezzar had made, as is recorded that the entire world bowed down before it, except for Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah., b They said to him: /b But if it is true that they worshipped idols and therefore deserved to be destroyed, why was a miracle performed on their behalf? b Is there favoritism /b expressed by God b here? He said to them: They did not /b really worship the idol, but pretended to b do /b so b only for appearance, /b acting as if they were carrying out the king’s command to bow before the idol. b So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, did not /b destroy them but b did /b act angry b with them only for appearance. /b He too merely pretended to desire to destroy them, as all He did was issue a threat, but in the end the decree was annulled. b And this is as it is written: “For He does not afflict from His heart /b willingly” (Lamentations 3:33), but only for appearances’ sake.,The verse states: b “In the court of the garden of the king’s palace” /b (Esther 1:5). b Rav and Shmuel /b disagreed with regard to how to understand the relationship between these three places: Court, garden, and palace: b One said: /b The guests were received in different places. b One /b who, according to his stature, was b fit for the courtyard /b was brought b to the courtyard; one /b who was b fit for the garden /b was brought b to the garden; /b and b one /b who was b fit for the palace /b was brought b to the palace. And /b the other b one said: He /b first b sat them in the courtyard, but it did not hold them, /b as they were too numerous. He then sat them b in the garden, but it did not hold them /b either, b until he brought them into the palace and it held them. /b A third understanding b was taught in a i baraita /i : He sat them in the courtyard and opened two entranceways for them, one to the garden and one to the palace. /b ,The verse states: “There were hangings of b i ḥur /i , i karpas /i , and sky blue” /b (Esther 1:6). The Gemara asks: b What is i ḥur /i ? Rav said: /b A fabric fashioned with b many holes [ i ḥarei ḥarei /i ], /b similar to lace. b And Shmuel said: He spread out for them /b carpets of b white wool, /b as the word i ḥavar /i means white. And what is b i karpas /i ? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: Cushions [ i karim /i ] of velvet [ i pasim /i ]. /b ,The verse states: b “On silver rods and pillars of marble; the couches were of gold and silver” /b (Esther 1:6). b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b Some couches were of gold and others of silver. b One /b who, according to his stature, was b fit for silver /b sat on a couch of b silver, /b and b one /b who was b fit for gold /b sat on one of b gold. Rabbi Neḥemya said to him: /b This was not done. b If so, you /b would b cast jealousy into the feast, /b for the guests would be envious of each other. b Rather, /b the couches b themselves /b were made b of silver, and their feet /b were made b of gold. /b ,The verse continues: “Upon a pavement of b i bahat /i and marble” /b (Esther 1:6). b Rabbi Asi said /b with regard to the definition of i bahat /i : These are b stones that ingratiate themselves with their owners, /b as they are precious stones that people are willing to spend large amounts of money to acquire. b And similarly, it states /b elsewhere that the Jewish people will be likened to precious stones: “And the Lord their God shall save them in that day as the flock of His people; for they shall be as b “the stones of a crown, glittering over His land” /b (Zechariah 9:16).,The verse concludes: b “And i dar /i and i soḥaret /i ” /b (Esther 1:6). b Rav said: /b i Dar /i means b many rows [ i darei darei /i ] /b around. Similarly, i soḥaret /i is derived from i seḥor seḥor /i , around and around, meaning that the floor was surrounded with numerous rows of i bahat /i and marble stones. b And Shmuel said: /b There is b a precious stone in the seaports, and its name is i dara /i , /b and Ahasuerus b placed it in the center of /b the b feast, and it illuminated /b the festivities b for them as /b the sun illuminates the world b at midday. /b He explains that the word i soḥaret /i is derived from i tzohar /i , a light. A scholar from b the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught /b a i baraita /i : This means b that he proclaimed a remission for all the merchants, /b absolving them from paying their taxes, understanding that the word i dar /i derives from i deror /i , freedom, and i soḥaret /i from i soḥer /i , merchant.,The verse states: b “And they gave them drink in vessels of gold, the vessels being diverse [ i shonim /i ] from one another” /b (Esther 1:7). The Gemara asks: Why does the verse use the term i shonim /i to express that they are different? b It should have said /b the more proper term b i meshunim /i . Rava said: A Divine Voice issued forth and said to them: The early ones, /b referring to Belshazzar and his people, b were destroyed because /b they used b these vessels, /b the vessels of the Temple, b and /b yet b you use them again [ i shonim /i ]? /b The verse continues: b “And royal wine in abundance [ i rav /i ]” /b (Esther 1:7). b Rav said: This teaches that each and every /b guest at the feast b was poured /b well-aged b wine that was older [ i rav /i ] than himself in years. /b ,The verse states: b “And the drinking was according to the law; none did compel” /b (Esther 1:8). The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of b “according to the law”? Rabbi Ḥa said in the name of Rabbi Meir: /b The drinking was b according to the law of the Torah. Just as, /b according to b the law of the Torah, /b with regard to offerings, b the food /b sacrificed on the altar b is greater /b in quantity b than the drink, /b for the wine libation is quantitatively much smaller than the sacrificial offerings it accompanies, b so too, /b at the b feast of that wicked man, the food was greater /b in quantity b than the drink. /b ,The verse states: b “None did compel” /b (Esther 1:8). b Rabbi Elazar said: This teaches that each and every /b guest at the feast b was poured /b a drink b from wine of his /b own b country, /b so that he would feel entirely free, as if he were in his home country. The verse continues: b “That they should do according to every man’s pleasure” /b (Esther 1:8). b Rava /b commented on the literal meaning of the verse, which is referring to two men, a man and a man [ i ish va’ish /i ], and b said: /b The man and man whom they should follow indicates b that they should do according to the wishes of Mordecai and Haman. /b The two of them served as butlers at the feast, and they were in charge of distributing the wine. Why is the verse interpreted in this way? b Mordecai /b is called “man,” b as it is written: /b “There was a certain b Jewish man [ i ish /i ] /b in Shushan the castle, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair” (Esther 2:5). b And Haman /b is also called man, as it states: b “A man [ i ish /i ] who is an adversary and an enemy, /b this evil Haman” (Esther 7:6).,The verse states: b “Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women, in the royal house, /b which belonged to King Ahasuerus” (Esther 1:9). The Gemara questions why she held the feast in the royal house, a place of men, rather than in b the women’s house, /b where it b should have been. Rava said /b in response: b The two of them had sinful intentions. /b Ahasuerus wished to fornicate with the women, and Vashti wished to fornicate with the men. b This /b explains the folk saying b that people say: He with pumpkins and his wife /b
23. Ancient Near Eastern Sources, Annals of Assurbanipal, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Marek (2019) 112
24. Mimnermos Fr., Fgrh 578, 5  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus ii of anšan, “the great,” persian king, tomb of Found in books: Marek (2019) 112
25. Demosthenes, Orations, 21.144  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia, dreams of Found in books: Mikalson (2003) 200
26. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 15-16  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006) 754; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 233
16. Dis. This name was very appropriately bestowed upon him by our first ancestors, in order to signify that He through whom all things are endowed with life and come into being, is necessarily the ruler and lord of the Universe. Set all mankind an example of magimity by releasing those who are held in bondage.'
27. Anon., Leges Publicae, 2.5  Tagged with subjects: •cyrus of persia Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 283