|1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Adam-cycle • Historical epochs, cyclical • Seasons, cyclical change
Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 10; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 631
1.26 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27 וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
2.7 וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃'' None
1.26 And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27 And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
2.7 Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.'' None
|2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.1-24.2, 74.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Baal Cycle • Historical epochs, cyclical • Seasons, cyclical change • orientation cycle, ownership, motif of
Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632; Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 53, 57; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 192
24.1 לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְיֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ׃
24.1 מִי הוּא זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הוּא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד סֶלָה׃ 24.2 כִּי־הוּא עַל־יַמִּים יְסָדָהּ וְעַל־נְהָרוֹת יְכוֹנְנֶהָ׃
74.17 אַתָּה הִצַּבְתָּ כָּל־גְּבוּלוֹת אָרֶץ קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּם׃'' None
24.1 A Psalm of David. The earth is the LORD’S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. 24.2 For He hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.
74.17 Thou hast set all the borders of the earth; Thou hast made summer and winter.'' None
|3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.23, 55.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Historical epochs, cyclical • Lamentations, Tisha bAv lectionary cycle • Seasons, cyclical change • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, Lamentations in • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, planting imagery in • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, sin-punishment-restoration narrative in • orientation cycle, ownership, motif of
Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 40, 43, 63; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 120
1.23 שָׂרַיִךְ סוֹרְרִים וְחַבְרֵי גַּנָּבִים כֻּלּוֹ אֹהֵב שֹׁחַד וְרֹדֵף שַׁלְמֹנִים יָתוֹם לֹא יִשְׁפֹּטוּ וְרִיב אַלְמָנָה לֹא־יָבוֹא אֲלֵיהֶם׃
55.6 דִּרְשׁוּ יְהוָה בְּהִמָּצְאוֹ קְרָאֻהוּ בִּהְיוֹתוֹ קָרוֹב׃'' None
1.23 Thy princes are rebellious, And companions of thieves; Every one loveth bribes, And followeth after rewards; They judge not the fatherless, Neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.
55.6 Seek ye the LORD while He may be found, Call ye upon Him while He is near;'' None
|4. Hesiod, Works And Days, 110, 128, 159-178, 184, 289 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Epic Cycle • Hera, cycle • Lucretius, cycle of growth and decay in • cycle of growth and decay, in Lucretius • cyclical schemas of history • marriage on the choice of a spouse, first law of the cycle
Found in books: Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 83; Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 150, 155; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 40; Laks (2022), Plato's Second Republic: An Essay on the Laws. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2022 215; Maciver (2012), Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity, 79; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 148
110 ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες.128 ἀργύρεον ποίησαν Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες,
159 ἀνδρῶν ἡρώων θεῖον γένος, οἳ καλέονται 160 ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατʼ ἀπείρονα γαῖαν. 161 καὶ τοὺς μὲν πόλεμός τε κακὸς καὶ φύλοπις αἰνή, 162 τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ, 163 ὤλεσε μαρναμένους μήλων ἕνεκʼ Οἰδιπόδαο, 164 τοὺς δὲ καὶ ἐν νήεσσιν ὑπὲρ μέγα λαῖτμα θαλάσσης 165 ἐς Τροίην ἀγαγὼν Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠυκόμοιο. 166 ἔνθʼ ἤτοι τοὺς μὲν θανάτου τέλος ἀμφεκάλυψε, 167 τοῖς δὲ δίχʼ ἀνθρώπων βίοτον καὶ ἤθεʼ ὀπάσσας 168 Ζεὺς Κρονίδης κατένασσε πατὴρ ἐς πείρατα γαίης. 169 Πέμπτον δʼ αὖτις ἔτʼ ἄ λλο γένος θῆκʼ εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς 169 ἀνδρῶν, οἳ γεγάασιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ. 169 τοῖσι δʼ ὁμῶς ν εάτοις τιμὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ. 169 τοῦ γὰρ δεσμὸ ν ἔλυσε πα τὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε. 169 τηλοῦ ἀπʼ ἀθανάτων· τοῖσιν Κρόνος ἐμβασιλεύει. 170 καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες 171 ἐν μακάρων νήσοισι παρʼ Ὠκεανὸν βαθυδίνην, 172 ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν 173 τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα. 174 μηκέτʼ ἔπειτʼ ὤφελλον ἐγὼ πέμπτοισι μετεῖναι 175 ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλʼ ἢ πρόσθε θανεῖν ἢ ἔπειτα γενέσθαι. 176 νῦν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτʼ ἦμαρ 177 παύονται καμάτου καὶ ὀιζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ 178 φθειρόμενοι. χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας·
184 οὐδὲ κασίγνητος φίλος ἔσσεται, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ.
289 τῆς δʼ ἀρετῆς ἱδρῶτα θεοὶ προπάροιθεν ἔθηκαν ' None
110 Plagues haunt them, which, unwanted, come at night128 Was buried underneath the earth – yet these
159 Impetuous, and they the sun’s bright flame 160 Would see no more, nor would this race be seen 161 Themselves, screened by the earth. Cronus’ son then 162 Fashioned upon the lavish land one more, 163 The fourth, more just and brave – of righteous men, 164 Called demigods. It was the race before 165 Our own upon the boundless earth. Foul war 166 And dreadful battles vanquished some of these, 167 While some in Cadmus’ Thebes, while looking for 168 The flocks of Oedipus, found death. The sea 169 Took others as they crossed to Troy fight 170 For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well 171 In death. Lord Zeus arranged it that they might 172 Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell, 173 Carefree, among the blessed isles, content 174 And affluent, by the deep-swirling sea. 175 Sweet grain, blooming three times a year, was sent 176 To them by the earth, that gives vitality 177 To all mankind, and Cronus was their lord, 178 Far from the other gods, for Zeus, who reign
184 Among them, but instead that I’d been fated
289 of force. The son of Cronus made this act ' None
|5. Homer, Iliad, 1.3, 16.809, 16.856-16.857 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cyclic Epic • Epic Cycle • Trojan Cycle • cycle
Found in books: Edmunds (2021), Greek Myth, 37; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 271; Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 175; Ker and Wessels (2020), The Values of Nighttime in Classical Antiquity: Between Dusk and Dawn, 163; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 216
1.3 πολλὰς δʼ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
16.809 ἔγχεΐ θʼ ἱπποσύνῃ τε πόδεσσί τε καρπαλίμοισι·
16.856 ψυχὴ δʼ ἐκ ῥεθέων πταμένη Ἄϊδος δὲ βεβήκει 16.857 ὃν πότμον γοόωσα λιποῦσʼ ἀνδροτῆτα καὶ ἥβην.'' None
1.3 The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, " "
16.809 Then blindness seized his mind, and his glorious limbs were loosed beneath him, and he stood in a daze; and from behind him from close at hand a Dardanian smote him upon the back between the shoulders with a cast of his sharp spear, even Panthous' son, Euphorbus, that excelled all men of his years in casting the spear, and in horsemanship, and in speed of foot; and lo, twenty warriors had he already cast " 16.856 Even as he thus spake the end of death enfolded him; and his soul fleeting from his limbs was gone to Hades, bewailing her fate, leaving manliness and youth. And to him even in his death spake glorious Hector:Patroclus, wherefore dost thou prophesy for me sheer destruction? 16.857 Even as he thus spake the end of death enfolded him; and his soul fleeting from his limbs was gone to Hades, bewailing her fate, leaving manliness and youth. And to him even in his death spake glorious Hector:Patroclus, wherefore dost thou prophesy for me sheer destruction? '" None
|6. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Epic Cycle • Vergil, Aeneid, intertextual identity, Cyclic
Found in books: Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 129; Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 115
|7. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Trojan War cycle • Trojan War cycle, horse in • Trojan War cycle, women of • linear and cyclical time,
Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 302; Marincola et al. (2021), Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones and Calum Maciver, Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History Without Historians, 103
|8. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Epic Cycle • Trojan War cycle • Trojan War cycle, horse in • Trojan War cycle, women of
Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 302; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 119
|9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.25, 11.27, 11.29, 11.35, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Historical epochs, cyclical • Penitential Cycle, Prayer • Seasons, cyclical change • Time, Cyclical • cyclical schemas of history
Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 12; Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 95, 284; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 22; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 632
7.25 וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא עִלָּאָה יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃
11.27 וּשְׁנֵיהֶם הַמְּלָכִים לְבָבָם לְמֵרָע וְעַל־שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד כָּזָב יְדַבֵּרוּ וְלֹא תִצְלָח כִּי־עוֹד קֵץ לַמּוֹעֵד׃
11.29 לַמּוֹעֵד יָשׁוּב וּבָא בַנֶּגֶב וְלֹא־תִהְיֶה כָרִאשֹׁנָה וְכָאַחֲרֹנָה׃
11.35 וּמִן־הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים יִכָּשְׁלוּ לִצְרוֹף בָּהֶם וּלְבָרֵר וְלַלְבֵּן עַד־עֵת קֵץ כִּי־עוֹד לַמּוֹעֵד׃
12.7 וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃' ' None
7.25 And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time.
11.27 And as for both these kings, their hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper, for the end remaineth yet for the time appointed.
11.29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come into the south; but it shall not be in the latter time as it was in the former.
11.35 And some of them that are wise shall stumble, to refine among them, and to purify, and to make white, even to the time of the end; for it is yet for the time appointed.
12.7 And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.' ' None
|10. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Historical epochs, cyclical • Seasons, cyclical change • Time, Cyclical
Found in books: Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 74; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 631
7.23 Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.'"" None
|11. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.109-1.111 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Statius, and Greek epic cycle
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 201; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 201
1.109 Made Rome their victim. Oh! Ambition blind, That stirred the leaders so to join their strength In peace that ended ill, their prize the world! For while the Sea on Earth and Earth on Air Lean for support: while Titan runs his course, And night with day divides an equal sphere, No king shall brook his fellow, nor shall power Endure a rival. Search no foreign lands: These walls are proof that in their infant days A hamlet, not the world, was prize enough ' "1.110 To cause the shedding of a brother's blood. Concord, on discord based, brief time endured, Unwelcome to the rivals; and alone Crassus delayed the advent of the war. Like to the slender neck that separates The seas of Graecia: should it be engulfed Then would th' Ionian and Aegean mains Break each on other: thus when Crassus fell, Who held apart the chiefs, in piteous death, And stained Assyria's plains with Latian blood, " "1.111 To cause the shedding of a brother's blood. Concord, on discord based, brief time endured, Unwelcome to the rivals; and alone Crassus delayed the advent of the war. Like to the slender neck that separates The seas of Graecia: should it be engulfed Then would th' Ionian and Aegean mains Break each on other: thus when Crassus fell, Who held apart the chiefs, in piteous death, And stained Assyria's plains with Latian blood, "' None
|12. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Statius, and Greek epic cycle
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 201; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 201
|13. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Statius, and Greek epic cycle
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 199; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 199
|14. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Statius, and Greek epic cycle
Found in books: Augoustakis (2014), Flavian Poetry and its Greek Past, 200, 201; Verhagen (2022), Security and Credit in Roman Law: The Historical Evolution of Pignus and Hypotheca, 200, 201
|15. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.17.3, 2.20.6, 10.10.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Argos, Theban cycle at • Hera, cycle • Seven against Thebes (mythical cycle), at Argos, dedication at Delphi • Seven against Thebes (mythical cycle), at Argos, traditions and heroon • Seven against Thebes (mythical cycle), at Argos, vs. Trojan War Cycle • cycle, Trojan,
Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 651; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 165, 176, 177; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 112
2.17.3 ἀρχιτέκτονα μὲν δὴ γενέσθαι τοῦ ναοῦ λέγουσιν Εὐπόλεμον Ἀργεῖον· ὁπόσα δὲ ὑπὲρ τοὺς κίονάς ἐστιν εἰργασμένα, τὰ μὲν ἐς τὴν Διὸς γένεσιν καὶ θεῶν καὶ γιγάντων μάχην ἔχει, τὰ δὲ ἐς τὸν πρὸς Τροίαν πόλεμον καὶ Ἰλίου τὴν ἅλωσιν. ἀνδριάντες τε ἑστήκασι πρὸ τῆς ἐσόδου καὶ γυναικῶν, αἳ γεγόνασιν ἱέρειαι τῆς Ἥρας, καὶ ἡρώων ἄλλων τε καὶ Ὀρέστου· τὸν γὰρ ἐπίγραμμα ἔχοντα, ὡς εἴη βασιλεὺς Αὔγουστος, Ὀρέστην εἶναι λέγουσιν. ἐν δὲ τῷ προνάῳ τῇ μὲν Χάριτες ἀγάλματά ἐστιν ἀρχαῖα, ἐν δεξιᾷ δὲ κλίνη τῆς Ἥρας καὶ ἀνάθημα ἀσπὶς ἣν Μενέλαός ποτε ἀφείλετο Εὔφορβον ἐν Ἰλίῳ.
2.20.6 τῶν δὲ ἀνδριάντων οὐ πόρρω δείκνυται Δαναοῦ μνῆμα καὶ Ἀργείων τάφος κενὸς ὁπόσους ἔν τε Ἰλίῳ καὶ ὀπίσω κομιζομένους ἐπέλαβεν ἡ τελευτή. καὶ Διός ἐστιν ἐνταῦθα ἱερὸν Σωτῆρος καὶ παριοῦσίν ἐστιν οἴκημα· ἐνταῦθα τὸν Ἄδωνιν αἱ γυναῖκες Ἀργείων ὀδύρονται. ἐν δεξιᾷ δὲ τῆς ἐσόδου τῷ Κηφισῷ πεποίηται τὸ ἱερόν· τῷ δὲ ποταμῷ τούτῳ τὸ ὕδωρ φασὶν οὐ καθάπαξ ὑπὸ τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος ἀφανισθῆναι, ἀλλὰ ἐνταῦθα δὴ μάλιστα, ἔνθα καὶ τὸ ἱερόν ἐστι, συνιᾶσιν ὑπὸ γῆν ῥέοντος.
10.10.3 πλησίον δὲ τοῦ ἵππου καὶ ἄλλα ἀναθήματά ἐστιν Ἀργείων, οἱ ἡγεμόνες τῶν ἐς Θήβας ὁμοῦ Πολυνείκει στρατευσάντων, Ἄδραστός τε ὁ Ταλαοῦ καὶ Τυδεὺς Οἰνέως καὶ οἱ ἀπόγονοι Προίτου καὶ Καπανεὺς Ἱππόνου καὶ Ἐτέοκλος ὁ Ἴφιος, Πολυνείκης τε καὶ ὁ Ἱππομέδων ἀδελφῆς Ἀδράστου παῖς· Ἀμφιαράου δὲ καὶ ἅρμα ἐγγὺς πεποίηται καὶ ἐφεστηκὼς Βάτων ἐπὶ τῷ ἅρματι ἡνίοχός τε τῶν ἵππων καὶ τῷ Ἀμφιαράῳ καὶ ἄλλως προσήκων κατὰ οἰκειότητα· τελευταῖος δὲ Ἀλιθέρσης ἐστὶν αὐτῶν.'' None
2.17.3 It is said that the architect of the temple was Eupolemus, an Argive . The sculptures carved above the pillars refer either to the birth of Zeus and the battle between the gods and the giants, or to the Trojan war and the capture of Ilium . Before the entrance stand statues of women who have been priestesses to Hera and of various heroes, including Orestes. They say that Orestes is the one with the inscription, that it represents the Emperor Augustus. In the fore-temple are on the one side ancient statues of the Graces, and on the right a couch of Hera and a votive offering, the shield which Menelaus once took from Euphorbus at Troy .
2.20.6 Not far from the statues are shown the tomb of Danaus and a cenotaph of the Argives who met their death at Troy or on the journey home. Here there is also a sanctuary of Zeus the Saviour. Beyond it is a building where the Argive women bewail Adonis. On the right of the entrance is the sanctuary of Cephisus. It is said that the water of this river was not utterly destroyed by Poseidon, but that just in this place, where the sanctuary is, it can be heard flowing under the earth.
10.10.3 Near the horse are also other votive offerings of the Argives, likenesses of the captains of those who with Polyneices made war on Thebes : Adrastus, the son of Talaus, Tydeus, son of Oeneus, the descendants of Proetus, namely, Capaneus, son of Hipponous, and Eteoclus, son of Iphis, Polyneices, and Hippomedon, son of the sister of Adrastus. Near is represented the chariot of Amphiaraus, and in it stands Baton, a relative of Amphiaraus who served as his charioteer. The last of them is Alitherses.'' None
|16. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, anthology genre • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, origins of • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, redaction of • rabbinic Judaism, Tisha bAv lectionary cycle and • reading, reading cycle (triennial vs. annual)
Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 151, 536, 537, 567; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 23, 26
|29b ועל הכלאים,בשלמא על הכלאים דזמן זריעה היא אלא על השקלים מנלן,אמר ר\' טבי אמר רבי יאשיה דאמר קרא (במדבר כח, יד) זאת עולת חודש בחדשו אמרה תורה חדש והבא קרבן מתרומה חדשה,וכיון דבניסן בעי אקרובי מתרומה חדשה קדמינן וקרינן באחד באדר כי היכי דליתו שקלים למקדש,כמאן דלא כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל דאי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל האמר שתי שבתות דתניא שואלין בהלכות הפסח קודם לפסח שלשים יום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר שתי שבתות,אפילו תימא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כיון דאמר מר בחמשה עשר בו שולחנות יושבין במדינה ובכ"ה יושבין במקדש משום שולחנות קדמינן וקרינן,מאי פרשת שקלים רב אמר (במדבר כח, ב) צו את בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם את קרבני לחמי ושמואל אמר (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא,בשלמא למאן דאמר כי תשא היינו דקרי לה פרשת שקלים דכתיב בה שקלים אלא למאן דאמר את קרבני לחמי הכא מידי שקלים כתיבי התם אין טעמא מאי כדר\' טבי,בשלמא למ"ד צו את בני ישראל משום דכתיבי קרבנות התם כדר\' טבי אלא למ"ד כי תשא קרבנות מי כתיבי שקלים לאדנים כתיבי,כדתני רב יוסף שלש תרומות הן של מזבח למזבח ושל אדנים לאדנים ושל בדק הבית לבדק הבית,בשלמא למאן דאמר כי תשא היינו דשני האי ראש חדש משאר ראשי חדשים,אלא למ"ד צו את קרבני מאי שני שני דאילו ראשי חדשים קרו שיתא בעניינא דיומא וחד בדראש חודש ואילו האידנא כולהו בדראש חודש,הניחא למאן דאמר לסדר פרשיות הוא חוזר,אלא למאן דאמר לסדר הפטרות הוא חוזר ופרשתא דיומא קרינן מאי שני,שני דאילו ראשי חדשים קרו שיתא בעניינא דיומא וחד קרי בדראש חודש ואילו האידנא קרו תלתא בעניינא דיומא וארבעה קרו בדראש חודש,מיתיבי ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין בפרשת שקלים ומפטירין ביהוידע הכהן בשלמא למ"ד כי תשא היינו דמפטירין ביהוידע הכהן דדמי ליה דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, ה) כסף נפשות ערכו,אלא למ"ד את קרבני לחמי מי דמי דמי כדר\' טבי,מיתיבי חל להיות בפרשה הסמוכה לה בין מלפניה ובין מלאחריה קורין אותה וכופלין אותה,בשלמא למ"ד כי תשא היינו דמתרמי בההוא זימנא,אלא למ"ד צו את קרבני מי מתרמי בההוא זימנא אין לבני מערבא דמסקי לדאורייתא בתלת שנין,תניא כוותיה דשמואל ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת קורין כי תשא ומפטירין ביהוידע הכהן,א"ר יצחק נפחא ר"ח אדר שחל להיות בשבת מוציאין שלש תורות וקורין בהן אחד בעניינו של יום ואחד בשל ר"ח ואחד בכי תשא וא"ר יצחק נפחא ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביאין שלש תורות וקורין בהן אחד בעניינו של יום ואחד בדראש חודש ואחד בחנוכה,וצריכא דאי איתמר בהא בהא קאמר ר\' יצחק אבל בהך כרב ס"ל דאמר פרשת שקלים את קרבני לחמי ובשתי תורות סגי קמ"ל,ולימא הא ולא בעיא הך חדא מכלל חבירתה איתמר,איתמר ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בחול א"ר יצחק קרו תלתא בר"ח וחד בחנוכה ורב דימי דמן חיפא אמר קרו תלתא בחנוכה וחד בר"ח,אמר ר\' מני כוותיה דרבי יצחק נפחא מסתברא דתדיר ושאינו תדיר תדיר קודם,א"ר אבין כוותיה דרב דימי מסתברא מי גרם לרביעי שיבא ר"ח הלכך רביעי בר"ח בעי מיקרי,מאי הוי עלה רב יוסף אמר אין משגיחין בראש חודש ורבה אמר אין משגיחין בחנוכה והלכתא אין משגיחין בחנוכה ור"ח עיקר,איתמר חל להיות בואתה תצוה אמר רבי יצחק נפחא קרו שיתא מואתה תצוה עד כי תשא וחד מכי תשא עד ועשית אמר אביי'31a ברכות וקללות אין מפסיקין בקללות אלא אחד קורא את כולן,בשני ובחמישי בשבת במנחה קורין כסדרן ואין עולים להם מן החשבון,שנאמר (ויקרא כג, מד) וידבר משה את מועדי ה\' אל בני ישראל מצותן שיהו קורין כל אחד ואחד בזמנו:,31b ראש חדש אב שחל להיות בשבת מפטירין (ישעיהו א, יד) חדשיכם ומועדיכם שנאה נפשי היו עלי לטורח מאי היו עלי לטורח אמר הקב"ה לא דיין להם לישראל שחוטאין לפני אלא שמטריחין אותי לידע איזו גזירה קשה אביא עליהם,בתשעה באב גופיה מאי מפטרינן אמר רב (ישעיהו א, כא) איכה היתה לזונה מקרא מאי תניא אחרים אומרים (ויקרא כו, יד) ואם לא תשמעו לי ר\' נתן בר יוסף אומר (במדבר יד, יא) עד אנה ינאצוני העם הזה ויש אומרים (במדבר יד, כז) עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת אמר אביי האידנא נהוג עלמא למיקרי (דברים ד, כה) כי תוליד בנים ומפטירין (ירמיהו ח, יג) אסוף אסיפם:,במעמדות במעשה בראשית וכו\': מנהני מילי א"ר אמי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חוקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי,וכתיב (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה\' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה אמר אברהם לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע שמא ח"ו ישראל חוטאים לפניך ואתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה אמר לו לאו,אמר לפניו רבש"ע במה אדע אמר לו קחה לי עגלה משולשת וגו\' אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות כל זמן שקוראין בהן מעלה אני עליהן כאילו מקריבין לפני קרבן ומוחל אני על כל עונותיהם:,בתעניות ברכות וקללות ואין מפסיקין בקללות: מה"מ אמר ר\' חייא בר גמדא אמר רבי אסי דאמר קרא (משלי ג, יא) מוסר ה\' בני אל תמאס,ריש לקיש אמר לפי שאין אומרים ברכה על הפורענות אלא היכי עביד תנא כשהוא מתחיל מתחיל בפסוק שלפניהם וכשהוא מסיים מסיים בפסוק שלאחריהן,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בקללות שבתורת כהנים אבל קללות שבמשנה תורה פוסק מאי טעמא הללו בלשון רבים אמורות ומשה מפי הגבורה אמרן והללו בלשון יחיד אמורות ומשה מפי עצמו אמרן,לוי בר בוטי הוה קרי וקא מגמגם קמיה דרב הונא בארורי אמר לו אכנפשך לא שנו אלא קללות שבתורת כהנים אבל שבמשנה תורה פוסק,תניא ר\' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר עזרא תיקן להן לישראל שיהו קורין קללות שבתורת כהנים קודם עצרת ושבמשנה תורה קודם ר"ה מאי טעמא אמר אביי ואיתימא ריש לקיש כדי שתכלה השנה וקללותיה,בשלמא שבמשנה תורה איכא כדי שתכלה שנה וקללותיה אלא שבתורת כהנים אטו עצרת ראש השנה היא אין עצרת נמי ראש השנה היא דתנן ובעצרת על פירות האילן,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אם יאמרו לך זקנים סתור וילדים בנה סתור ואל תבנה מפני שסתירת זקנים בנין ובנין נערים סתירה וסימן לדבר (מלכים א יב, כא) רחבעם בן שלמה,ת"ר מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה במנחה שם קורין בשני בשני שם קורין בחמישי בחמישי שם קורין לשבת הבאה דברי ר\' מאיר ר\' יהודה אומר מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה ובשני ובחמישי ולשבת הבאה,אמר רבי זירא הלכה מקום שמפסיקין בשבת שחרית שם קורין במנחה ובשני ובחמישי ולשבת הבאה ולימא הלכה כרבי יהודה ' None||29b And a public announcement is made concerning the need to uproot any instances of diverse kinds that have grown in the fields.,The Gemara asks: Granted, an announcement is made concerning the need to uproot diverse kinds, as the beginning of the month of Adar is a time of sowing. Instances of diverse kinds are already noticeable, and therefore it is a fitting time to deal with the matter. But with regard to the announcement concerning the half-shekels, from where do we derive that it should be made at this point in the year?,Rabbi Tavi said that Rabbi Yoshiyya said: It is as the verse states: “This is the burnt-offering of each New Moon in its renewal throughout the months of the year” (Numbers 28:14). The Torah says: There is a month in which you must begin to renew and bring the daily and additional offering from animals purchased with the new collections of half-shekels collected that year. Each year a collection is made with which to fice the purchase of communal offerings for the following year. offerings during that year may be purchased only from collections made for that year.,Elsewhere it is derived through a verbal analogy that the yearly cycle begins with the month of Nisan. And since starting from and during the month of Nisan the offerings must be brought from the new collections of half-shekels, it is necessary to make the collection in the preceding month, i.e., in Adar. Therefore, they advance the reading of Shekalim, and they read it on the first of Adar, in order that the people will be reminded to bring the half-shekels to the Temple in good time.,The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is the mishna taught? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, for if someone would suggest that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, one could counter: Didn’t he say that two weeks is a sufficient period of preparation? As it is taught in a baraita: We begin to inquire into the halakhot of Passover thirty days before Passover. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: We begin to inquire only two weeks before Passover. As such, it should be sufficient to announce the collection of half-shekels from two weeks before Nisan, and there should be no need to advance the announcement to the beginning of Adar, as stated in the mishna.,Even if you say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, it is possible that even he agrees that the announcement concerning the collection of the half-shekels should be made on the first of Adar, since the Master said: On the fifteenth of Adar money-changing tables for collecting the half-shekels are set up throughout the country, and on the twenty-fifth of Adar they are set up in the Temple. Because of the possibility to donate the half-shekels at the tables already from the fifteenth, they advance the reading of Shekalim to inform people of that possibility and read it two weeks earlier, on the first of Adar.,§ The Gemara clarifies which passage is read: What is this portion of Shekalim? Rav said: It is the portion of “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: My offering, the provision of My offerings made by fire” (Numbers 28), which details the daily and additional offerings. And Shmuel said: It is the portion of “When you take the count” (Exodus 30:11–16).,Granted, according to the one who said that it is the portion of “When you take the count,” this is the reason that it is called the portion of Shekalim, for the obligation to give half-shekels is written in that portion. However, according to one who said that it is the portion of “My offering, the provision of My offerings,” why should that portion be read? Is there anything written about the half-shekels here? The Gemara answers: Yes. What is the reason that they are collected in Adar? As per the explanation of Rabbi Tavi, the half-shekels are collected to be used for the coming year’s daily and additional offerings. Therefore, reading the portion concerning those offerings will serve well as a reminder for people to donate.,Granted, according to the one who said that it is the portion of “Command the children of Israel: My offering, the provision of My offerings,” it is logical to read that portion, because the offerings that will be purchased with the half-shekels are written there, as per the explanation of Rabbi Tavi. However, according to one who said that it is the portion of “When you take the count,” why should that portion be read? Is anything about the offerings written in that portion? The collection of half-shekels for use in the construction of the sockets of the Tabernacle are the only thing written in that portion. What does that have to do with the collection of half-shekels for the purchase of offerings that is held in the month of Adar?,The Gemara answers: The selection of that portion is in accordance with the explanation of the portion that Rav Yosef taught: The three instances of the word: Contribution, in that portion teach that there were three contributions of half-shekels: The contribution of the altar is for the purchase of communal offerings to be sacrificed on the altar; and the contribution of the sockets is for constructing the sockets; and the contribution of the Temple maintece is for the Temple maintece. Therefore, according to Rav Yosef, it is understandable why the portion of “When you take the count” is read. It deals explicitly with the collection of half-shekels.,The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the one who said that it is the portion of “When you take the count,” this is what is different about this New Moon of Adar and other New Moons when they occur on Shabbat. On the New Moon of Adar, “When you take the count” is read because it describes the collection of half-shekels. On other New Moons, when they occur on Shabbat, the portion of “Command the children of Israel” is read because it mentions the additional offerings brought on Shabbat and the New Moon.,However, according to the one who said that “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: My offering,” what is different about the portion read on the New Moon of Adar and the portion read on other New Moons when they occur on Shabbat, for the same portion is read in all cases? The Gemara answers: They are different: For on other New Moons, when they occur on Shabbat, six people read from the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day and one reads from the portion for the New Moon, whereas now, on the New Moon of Adar, if it occurs on Shabbat, all seven read from the portion of the New Moon.,The Gemara asks: This answer works out well according to the one who said that when the mishna states that on the fifth Shabbat, we resume the regular order of readings. The intention is that one resumes the regular weekly order of Torah portions. This implies that on the previous four Shabbatot, the regular portion was not read at all. Rather, only the special portions delineated in the mishna were read. Therefore, it makes sense to say that all seven people read from the special portion.,However, according to the one who says that the mishna’s intention is that one resumes the regular order of concluding readings from the Prophets haftarot, and on the previous Shabbatot one also reads from the regular portion of the matter of the day, then the original question stands: What is different about the portion read on the New Moon of Adar and the portion read on other New Moons when they occur on Shabbat?,The Gemara answers: They are different: For whereas on other New Moons, when they occur on Shabbat, six people read from the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day and one reads from the portion for the New Moon, now, on the New Moon of Adar, if it occurs on Shabbat, three people read from the regular weekly portion of the matter of the day and four read from the portion for the New Moon.,The Gemara raises an objection from the Tosefta (Megilla 3:1): When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read the Torah portion of Shekalim, and they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest (II\xa0Kings 12:1–17). Granted, according to the one who said that Shekalim is the portion of “When you take the count,” this is the reason that they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest: Because it is comparable in content to the Torah reading, as it is written in the story of Jehoiada: “The money of his assessment of persons” (II\xa0Kings 12:5), which is referring to his collection of the half-shekels, and the haftara should always contain a theme similar to the Torah reading.,However, according to the one who said that “My offering, the provision of My offerings” is read as the portion of Shekalim, is the haftara comparable to that portion? It is comparable, as per the explanation of Rabbi Tavi: It is appropriate to read the portion about offerings because the collection of half-shekels is for that purpose.,The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If the New Moon of Adar occurs on the Shabbat on which the portion to be read for the regular weekly reading is adjacent to the portion read as Shekalim, whether on the Shabbat preceding the Shabbat on which Shekalim will be read as part of the weekly reading or following it, then they read and repeat Shekalim on both Shabbatot, one time as the special portion Shekalim and the other as part of the regular order.,Granted, according to the one who said that the portion of “When you take the count” is read as Shekalim, this is how it is possible: That portion could occur at that time in the yearlong cycle of the order of readings. In the regular order of reading, “When you take the count” is often read during the beginning of Adar.,However, according to the one who said that the portion of “Command the children of Israel, and say to them, My offering” is read as Shekalim, does that portion ever occur at that time of the year? That portion usually occurs much later in the year, in the summer. The Gemara answers: Yes, it sometimes occurs that this portion is read during the beginning of Adar, for the people of the West, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, who complete the cycle of reading the Torah not in one year but in three years.,It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, they read the portion of “When you take the count,” and they read as the haftara the story involving Jehoiada the priest.,§ Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: When the New Moon of Adar occurs on Shabbat, the congregation takes out three Torah scrolls from the ark and reads from them. From the first one, they read the portion of the regular weekly reading of the matter of the day; and from the second one they read the portion for the New Moon; and from the third one they read Shekalim, which begins with “When you take the count.” And Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa further said: When the New Moon of Tevet, which always falls during Hanukkah, occurs on Shabbat, they bring three Torah scrolls and read from them. From the first one, they read the portion of the regular cycle of reading of the matter of the day; and from the second one, they read the portion for the New Moon; and from the third one, they read the portion for Hanukkah.,The Gemara comments: And it is necessary for Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa to state the halakha in both cases, as, if it had been stated only with regard to the New Moon of Tevet, one could have mistakenly thought that only with regard to that case does Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa state that three Torah scrolls are used. But with regard to the New Moon of Adar, one might think that he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rav, who said that the portion of Shekalim is the portion of “My offering, the provision of My offerings,” and two Torah scrolls will therefore suffice, since the same portion is used both for the portion for the New Moon and for the portion of Shekalim. Therefore, he teaches us that three Torah scrolls are used even on the New Moon of Adar.,The Gemara asks: But, based on that logic, let Rabbi Yitzḥak just say the halakha with respect to this case of the New Moon of Adar, and there would be no need to state that case of the New Moon of Tevet. The Gemara answers: Indeed, one was stated from the other by inference, i.e., Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stated the halakha explicitly only with regard to the New Moon of Adar, and it was inferred that the same is true of the New Moon of Tevet.,§ An amoraic dispute was stated: When the New Moon of Tevet occurs on a weekday, what Torah portion is read? Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: Three people read from the portion for the New Moon, and one reads from the portion for Hanukkah. And Rav Dimi of Haifa said: Three read from the portion for Hanukkah, and one reads from the portion for the New Moon.,Rabbi Mani said: It stands to reason to rule in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, for it is already an established principle that when a frequent practice and an infrequent practice conflict, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. Since the portion for the New Moon is read more frequently than the portion for Hanukkah, it should be given greater prominence.,Rabbi Avin said: It stands to reason to rule in accordance with the opinion of Rav Dimi, for the following reason: What caused the fourth person to come and read from the Torah? The New Moon, as on the other days of Hanukkah only three people read from the Torah. Therefore, it is only logical that the fourth person should read from the portion for the New Moon.,The Gemara asks: What halakhic conclusion was reached about this matter? Rav Yosef said: We do not concern ourselves with making the portion for the New Moon the primary reading. Rather, three people read from the portion for Hanukkah, and only the fourth reads the portion for the New Moon. And Rabba said: We do not concern ourselves with making the portion for Hanukkah the primary reading. Rather, three people read from the portion for the New Moon, and only the fourth reads the portion for Hanukkah. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is that we do not concern ourselves with making the portion for Hanukkah the primary reading, and therefore the portion for the New Moon is primary.,§ An amoraic dispute was stated: If the Shabbat on which the portion of Shekalim is to be read occurs on the Shabbat in which the regular weekly portion is “And you shall command” (Exodus 27:20–30:10), what should be done? Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: Six people read from the portion “And you shall command,” until but not including the weekly portion of “When you take the count” (Exodus 27:20–30:10), and one person reads the portion of Shekalim from “When you take the count,” until but not including the verse: “And you shall make a copper laver” (Exodus 30:11–16). Abaye said:'31a they read the portion of blessings and curses (Leviticus, chapter 26). One should not interrupt the reading of the curses by having two different people read them. Rather, one person reads all of them.,On Mondays, and on Thursdays, and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, they read in accordance with the regular weekly order, i.e., they proceed to read the first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning. However, these readings are not counted as a progression in the reckoning of reading the Torah portions, i.e., they do not proceed on Monday to read the section that immediately follows the section read on Shabbat during the afternoon, and then the following section on Thursday. Rather, until the reading on the following Shabbat morning, they return to and read the same first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning.,On Festivals and holidays, they read a portion relating to the character of the day, as it is stated: “And Moses declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” (Leviticus 23:44), which indicates that part of the mitzva of the Festivals is that the people should read the portion relating to them, each one in its appointed time.,The Sages taught in a baraita: On the first day of Passover, the congregation reads from the portion of the Festivals (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and they read as the haftara the account of the Passover celebrated at Gilgal (Joshua 5:2–14). The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two Festival days of Passover, on the first day they read as the haftara the account of the Passover celebrated at Gilgal, and on the next day they read from the account of the Passover observed by Josiah (II\xa0Kings 23).,The baraita continues: And on the other days of Passover, one collects and reads from various Torah portions of matters relating to Passover. The Gemara asks: What are these portions? Rav Pappa said: A mnemonic for them is mem, alef, peh vav. Each letter stands for a different reading: Mem for the portion of: “Draw out mishkhu and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51); alef for the portion of “If im you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); peh for the portion of “Hew pesol for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26); and vav for the portion “And the Lord spoke vaydabber” (Numbers 9:1–14).,The baraita continues: On the last Festival day of Passover, they read the portion of “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26), because it includes the account of the splitting of the Red Sea, and they read as the haftara the portion “And David spoke” (II\xa0Samuel 22), which is the song of David. And in the Diaspora, on the next day, the eighth day of Passover, they read the portion “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17), and they read as the haftara the portion of “This very day” (Isaiah 10:32–12:6), because it discusses the downfall of Sennacherib, which occurred on the night of Passover.,Abaye said: And nowadays, on the eight days of Passover in the Diaspora, everyone is accustomed to read portions that are indicated by the mnemonic phrase: Draw the bull, sanctify with money, hew in the wilderness, send the firstborn. This alludes to the following portions: “Draw out and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51) and “A bull or a sheep” (Leviticus 22:26–23:44); “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:1–16) and “If you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); “Hew for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26) and “And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai” (Numbers 9:1–14); “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26) and “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17).,The baraita continues: On Shavuot they read the portion of “Seven weeks,” and they read as the haftara from Habakkuk, chapter 2, since it mentions the giving of the Torah at Sinai. Others say: They read the portion of “In the third month” (Exodus 19:1–20:23), which describes the giving of the Torah, and they read as the haftara from the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel\xa01). The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two days of Shavuot, we act in accordance with both opinions, but in the reverse order. On the first day they read the portion of “In the third month,” and on the second day they read the portion of “Seven weeks.”,The baraita continues: On Rosh HaShana they read the portion of “On the seventh month on the first of the month” (Numbers 29:1–6) and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?” (Jeremiah 31:1–20), as it contains the verse: “I earnestly remember him still,” which recalls God’s love for His people. And some say that they read “And the Lord visited Sarah” (Genesis 21), which describes how God blessed her that she should have a child, and, according to tradition, God blessed her on Rosh HaShana. And they read as the haftara from the account of Hannah (I\xa0Samuel 1:1–2:10), who, according to tradition, was also blessed on Rosh HaShana that she should have a child.,The Gemara comments: And nowadays, when there are two days of Rosh HaShana, on the first day they read Genesis 21 in accordance with the opinion cited as: Some say. And on the next day they read “And God tested Abraham” (Genesis 22), in order to mention the merit of the binding of Isaac on the day of God’s judgment, and they read as the haftara “Is Ephraim My dear son?”,The baraita continues: On Yom Kippur they read the portion of “After the death” (Leviticus 16), and they read as the haftara the portion of “For thus says the High and Lofty One” (Isaiah 57:14–58:14), which deals with fasting and repentance. And during the afternoon service they read from the portion detailing forbidden sexual relations (Leviticus 18) to convey the severity of these transgressions, so that if anyone transgressed any of these prohibitions he will repent on Yom Kippur. And they read as the haftara the book of Jonah, which mentions the repentance of the people of Nineveh.,Having mentioned the haftara read on Yom Kippur, the Gemara cites that which Rabbi Yoḥa said: Wherever you find a reference in the Bible to the might of the Holy One, Blessed be He, you also find a reference to His humility adjacent to it. Evidence of this fact is written in the Torah, repeated in the Prophets, and stated a third time in the Writings.,It is written in the Torah: “For the Lord your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords” (Deuteronomy 10:17), and it is written immediately afterward: “He executes the judgment of the fatherless and widow” (Deuteronomy 10:18), displaying his humility in caring for even the weakest parts of society. It is repeated in the Prophets: “For thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, Whose name is sacred” (Isaiah 57:15), and it is written immediately afterward: “In the high and holy place I dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones” (Isaiah 57:15). It is stated a third time in the Writings, as it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the clouds, Whose name is the Lord” (Psalms 68:5), and it is written immediately afterward: “A father of the fatherless, and a judge of widows” (Psalms 68:6).,The baraita continues: On the first Festival day of Sukkot, they read from the portion of the Festivals found in Leviticus (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), and they read as the haftara the portion of “Behold the day of the Lord comes” (Zechariah 14), which mentions the festival of Sukkot. The Gemara comments: And nowadays, in the Diaspora, when there are two Festival days of Sukkot, on the next day, they read the same Torah portion. But what do they read as the haftara? They read the portion of “And all the men of Israel assembled themselves to King Solomon” (I\xa0Kings 8:2–21), which describes events that took place on the festival of Sukkot.,The baraita continues: And on all the other days of Sukkot, they read selections from the portion of the offerings of Sukkot found in the book of Numbers, chapter 29. On the last Festival day of Sukkot, i.e., the Eighth Day of Assembly, they read the portion of “All the firstborns,” starting with the portion of “You shall tithe,” since it includes many mitzvot and statutes relating to gifts for the poor, who should be helped during this period of rejoicing, and it concludes with the halakhot governing firstborns (Deuteronomy 14:22–16:17). And they read as the haftara the portion of “And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying” (I\xa0Kings 8:54–9:1), which occurred on that day. On the next day, the second day of the Eighth Day of Assembly in the Diaspora, they read the portion of “And this is the blessing” (Deuteronomy, chapters 33–34) until the end of the Torah, and they read as the haftara “And Solomon stood” (I\xa0Kings 8:22–53).,Rav Huna said that Rav said: When Shabbat occurs on one of the intermediate days of a Festival, whether on Passover or on Sukkot, they read the Torah portion of “See, You say to me” (Exodus 33:12–34:26), as it includes the halakhot of the Festivals and the intermediate days. They read as the haftara, on Passover, from the portion of the dry bones (Ezekiel 37:1–14), which portrays redemption from servitude, and on Sukkot they read “And it shall come to pass on that day when Gog shall come” (Ezekiel 38:18–39:16), which speaks of the future redemption.,The baraita continues: On each day of Hanukkah they read a selection from the portion of the dedication of the altar by the tribal princes (Numbers 7), and they read as the haftara from the portion of the lamps of Zechariah (Zechariah 2:14–4:7). The Gemara comments: And if it occurs that there are two Shabbatot during Hanukkah, on the first Shabbat they read from the portion of the lamps of Zechariah, and on the latter one they read from the portion of the lamps of Solomon (I\xa0Kings 7:40–50), which discusses the lamps in the Temple.,The baraita continues: On Purim they read the portion of “And Amalek came” (Exodus 17:8–16). On the New Moon they read the portion of “And in the beginnings of your month” (Numbers 28:11–15). When the New Moon occurs on Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion that concludes with “And it shall come to pass that every New Moon, and every Shabbat, shall all flesh come to bow down on the ground before Me” (Isaiah 66), as it mentions both Shabbat and the New Moon. When the New Moon occurs on Sunday, on the previous day, i.e., Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion of “And Jonathan said to him: Tomorrow is the New Moon” (I\xa0Samuel 20:18–42), which describes events that took place on the eve of the New Moon.,Rav Huna said: 31b When the New Moon of Av occurs on Shabbat, they read as the haftara the portion that includes the verse “Your New Moons and your Festivals, My soul hated; they were a burden to Me” (Isaiah 1:14). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: “They were a burden to Me”? The Gemara explains: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: It is not enough for the Jewish people that they sin before Me, but in addition, they burden Me to reconsider what harsh decree I shall bring upon them, for they are petitioning Me to annul those decrees.,The Gemara asks: On the Ninth of Av itself, what do we read as the haftara? Rav said: The portion containing the verse “How did the faithful city become a harlot?” (Isaiah 1:21). The Gemara asks: What Torah portion do they read? It is taught in a baraita that others say: They read the portion containing the verse “But if you will not hearken to me” (Leviticus 26:14). Rabbi Natan bar Yosef said: They read the portion containing the verse: “How long will this people provoke me?” (Numbers 14:11). And some say: They read the portion containing the verse: “How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?” (Numbers 14:27). The Gemara comments that Abaye said: Nowadays, everyone is accustomed to read the portion of “When you shall beget children” (Deuteronomy 4:25–40), and they read as the haftara the portion of “I will utterly consume them” (Jeremiah 8:13–9:23).,§ The mishna states: In the non-priestly watches they read the act of Creation. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived, i.e., why do they read the account of Creation? Rabbi Ami said: To allude to the fact that were it not for the non-priestly watches, heaven and earth would not endure, as it is stated: “Were it not for My covet day and night, I would not have set the statutes of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). God’s covet is referring to the offerings sacrificed in the Temple, which sustain the world.,And with regard to Abraham it is written: “And he said, O Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?” (Genesis 15:8). Abraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, perhaps, Heaven forbid, the Jewish people will sin before You, and You will do to them as You did to the generation of the Flood and as You did to the generation of the Dispersion, i.e., You will completely destroy them? God said to him: No, I will not do that.,Abraham then said before Him: Master of the Universe: “By what shall I know this?” God said to him: “Take Me a heifer of three years old” (Genesis 15:9). With this, God intimated to Abraham that even if his descendants will sin, they will be able to achieve atonement through sacrificing offerings. Abraham said before Him: Master of the Universe, this works out well when the Temple is standing and offerings can be brought to achieve atonement, but when the Temple will no longer be standing, what will become of them? God said to him: I have already established for them the order of offerings, i.e., the verses of the Torah pertaining to the halakhot of the offerings. Whenever they read those portions, I will deem it as if they sacrificed an offering before Me, and I will pardon them for all of their iniquities.,§ The mishna states: On fast days the congregation reads the portion of blessings and curses (Leviticus, chapter 16), and one may not interrupt the reading of the curses by having two different people read them. Rather, one person reads all of them. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Why does one not interrupt the reading of the curses? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda said that Rabbi Asi said: For the verse states: “My son, do not despise the chastening of the Lord, nor be weary of His correction” (Proverbs 3:11). If one makes a break in the middle of the curses, it appears as if he loathes rebuke.,Reish Lakish said a different answer: It is because one does not say a blessing over a calamity. If a second person were to begin to read in the middle of the portion of the curses, the blessing upon his reading would be considered a blessing over a calamity. Rather, what does one do? It is taught in a baraita: When one begins the reading, one begins with the verse before the curses, and when one concludes the reading, one concludes with the verse after them. In this way, neither the blessing before the reading nor after it relates directly to verses of calamity.,Abaye said: They taught this only with regard to the curses that are recorded in Leviticus, but with regard to the curses that are recorded in Deuteronomy, one may interrupt them by having two different people read them. What is the reason for this distinction? These curses in Leviticus are stated in the plural, and Moses pronounced them from the mouth of the Almighty. As such, they are more severe. However, these curses in Deuteronomy are stated in the singular, and Moses said them on his own, like the rest of the book of Deuteronomy. They are therefore less harsh and may be interrupted.,It was related that Levi bar Buti was once reading the portion of the curses before Rav Huna, and he was stammering in his reading, as it was difficult for him to utter such harsh pronouncements. Rav Huna said to him: If you wish, you may stop where you are and a different reader will continue, for they taught one may not have two people read the curses only with regard to the curses that are recorded in Leviticus. But with regard to the curses that are recorded in Deuteronomy, one may interrupt them by having two different people read them.,It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Ezra enacted for the Jewish people that they should read the portion of the curses that are recorded in Leviticus before Shavuot and the portion of the curses that are recorded in Deuteronomy before Rosh HaShana. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? Abaye said, and some say that it was Reish Lakish who said: In order that the year may conclude together with its curses, and the new year may begin without the ominous reading of the curses.,The Gemara asks: Granted, with regard to the curses that are recorded in Deuteronomy, there is relevance to the reason: In order that the year may conclude together with its curses, for Rosh HaShana is clearly the beginning of a new year. However, with regard to the curses that are recorded in Leviticus, what relevance does that reason have? Is that to say Shavuot is a new year? The Gemara answers: Yes, indeed, Shavuot is also a new year, as we learned in a mishna (Rosh HaShana 16a): And on Shavuot, divine judgment is made concerning the fruit of the trees, which indicates that Shavuot also has the status of a new year.,It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: If old men say to you: Demolish, and children say to you: Build, then demolish and do not build, because the demolishing of old men is ultimately as constructive as building, despite the fact that it appears destructive, and the building of children is as destructive as demolishing. An indication of this matter is Rehoboam, son of Solomon. He ignored the advice of the Elders and did not lower himself before his people, which ultimately led to the people rebelling against him.,The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to the place in the Torah where the congregation concludes the reading on Shabbat morning, it is from there that they continue to read in the afternoon service on Shabbat. Where they conclude in the afternoon service on Shabbat, from there they continue to read on Monday morning. Where they conclude on Monday, from there they continue to read on Thursday morning. Where they conclude on Thursday, from there they continue to read on the coming Shabbat. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to the place in the Torah where they conclude the reading on Shabbat morning, it is from there that they continue to read in the afternoon service on Shabbat. And from that same place they continue to read on Monday morning, and on Thursday morning, and on the coming Shabbat.,The Gemara notes that Rabbi Zeira said: The halakha is that with regard to the place where they conclude the reading on Shabbat morning, it is from there that they continue to read in the afternoon service on Shabbat. And from that same place they continue to read on Monday morning, and on Thursday morning, and on the coming Shabbat. The Gemara asks: If so, let him simply say: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Why did he have to explicitly state the whole halakha? ' None|
|17. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • reading, reading cycle (triennial vs. annual) • stories, cycles of • sugyot (literary units), and story cycles
Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 536; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 118
|49b כשם שניסוכו בקדושה כך שריפתו בקדושה מאי משמע אמר רבינא אתיא קדש קדש כתיב הכא (במדבר כח, ז) בקדש הסך נסך וכתיב התם (שמות כט, לד) ושרפת את הנותר באש לא יאכל כי קדש הוא,כמאן אזלא הא (דתניא) נסכים בתחילה מועלין בהן ירדו לשיתין אין מועלין בהן לימא רבי אלעזר בר צדוק היא דאי רבנן הא נחתו להו לתהום,אפילו תימא רבנן בדאיקלט,ואיכא דאמרי לימא רבנן היא ולא ר\' אלעזר בר צדוק דאי רבי אלעזר אכתי בקדושתייהו קיימי אפילו תימא רבי אלעזר אין לך דבר שנעשה מצותו ומועלין בו אמר ריש לקיש בזמן שמנסכין יין על גבי מזבח פוקקין את השיתין לקיים מה שנאמר בקדש הסך נסך שכר לה\',מאי משמע אמר רב פפא שכר לשון שתיה לשון שביעה לשון שכרות אמר רב פפא שמע מינה כי שבע איניש חמרא מגרוניה שבע אמר רבא צורבא מרבנן דלא נפישא ליה חמרא ליגמע גמועי רבא אכסא דברכתא אגמע גמועי,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב מה יפו פעמותיהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנא\' (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך למה נמשלו דברי תורה כירך לומר לך מה ירך בסתר אף דברי תורה בסתר,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (מיכה ו, ח) הגיד לך אדם מה טוב ומה ה\' דורש ממך כי אם עשות משפט ואהבת חסד והצנע לכת עם אלהיך עשות משפט זה הדין ואהבת חסד זו גמילות חסדים והצנע לכת עם אלהיך זו הוצאת המת והכנסת כלה לחופה והלא דברים ק"ו ומה דברים שדרכן לעשותן בפרהסיא אמרה תורה הצנע לכת דברים שדרכן לעשותן בצנעא על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ר אלעזר גדול העושה צדקה יותר מכל הקרבנות שנאמר (משלי כא, ג) עשה צדקה ומשפט נבחר לה\' מזבח וא"ר אלעזר גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה שנאמר (הושע י, יב) זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד אם אדם זורע ספק אוכל ספק אינו אוכל אדם קוצר ודאי אוכל,וא"ר אלעזר אין צדקה משתלמת אלא לפי חסד שבה שנאמר זרעו לכם לצדקה וקצרו לפי חסד,ת"ר בשלשה דברים גדולה גמילות חסדים יותר מן הצדקה צדקה בממונו גמילות חסדים בין בגופו בין בממונו צדקה לעניים גמילות חסדים בין לעניים בין לעשירים צדקה לחיים גמילות חסדים בין לחיים בין למתים,וא"ר אלעזר כל העושה צדקה ומשפט כאילו מילא כל העולם כולו חסד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ה) אוהב צדקה ומשפט חסד ה\' מלאה הארץ שמא תאמר כל הבא לקפוץ קופץ ת"ל (תהלים לו, ח) מה יקר חסדך אלהים (חסד ה\' מלאה הארץ) וגו\' יכול אף ירא שמים כן ת"ל (תהלים קג, יז) וחסד ה\' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו,א"ר חמא בר פפא כל אדם שיש עליו חן בידוע שהוא ירא שמים שנא\' חסד ה\' מעולם ועד עולם על יראיו וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה וכי יש תורה של חסד יש תורה שאינה של חסד אלא תורה לשמה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא לשמה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד איכא דאמרי תורה ללמדה זו היא תורה של חסד שלא ללמדה זו היא תורה שאינה של חסד:,כמעשהו בחול כו\': ואמאי נייתי במקודשת אמר זעירי קסבר אין שיעור למים וכלי שרת מקדשין שלא מדעת'' None||49b just as its pouring is in sanctity, so too must its burning be in sanctity. From where may it be inferred that this is referring to burning? Ravina said: It is derived by means of a verbal analogy between the term sanctity written with regard to libations and sanctity written with regard to leftover offerings. It is written here, with regard to libations: “In sanctity shall you pour a libation” (Numbers 28:7), and it is written there, with regard to leftover offerings: “You shall burn the leftovers in fire; they are not to be eaten, for they are sanctity” (Exodus 29:34). Through the verbal analogy it is derived that leftover libations must also be burned.,The Gemara notes: In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in this mishna? With regard to libations, initially, prior to being poured, one can misuse consecrated property with them, as is the case with all consecrated items. However, once they descended to the drainpipes, one does not violate the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property with them, because the mitzva was already fulfilled. Let us say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok, who holds that the libations did not descend to the depths but would collect between the ramp and the altar and would be collected once every seventy years. As, if it were in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, how could the libations be misused? Didn’t they already descend to the depths through the drainpipes?,The Gemara rejects this: Even if you say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, it could be referring to a case where some of the wine landed outside the drainpipes and was collected in the space between the ramp and the altar.,And some say a different version of this exchange. Let us say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar bar Tzadok. As, if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, then the wine that collected between the ramp and the altar remains in its sanctity, as it must be burned, and the prohibition against misuse would still apply. The Gemara rejects this: Even if you say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, there is no item whose mitzva has been performed with which one can violate the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property. Reish Lakish said: When they pour wine onto the altar, they plug the top of the drainpipes so that the wine does not descend to the depths, in order to fulfill that which is stated: “In sanctity shall you pour a libation of strong drink shekhar unto the Lord” (Numbers 28:7).,The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this is referring to plugging the drainpipes? Rav Pappa said: Shekhar is an expression of drinking, of satiation, of intoxication. In order to underscore all three aspects of the libations, the space between the altar and the ramp would fill with wine. Rav Pappa said: Conclude from this that when a person is satiated from drinking wine, it is from his throat being filled with wine that he is satiated. Unlike food, wine does not satiate a person when it fills his stomach. Rava said: Therefore, let a young Torah scholar, who does not have much wine, swallow his wine in large swigs, filling his throat each time, as he will thereby maximize his enjoyment. And Rava himself, when drinking a cup of blessing, would swallow large swigs so as to drink the wine accompanying the mitzva in an optimal manner.,§ Apropos the homiletic interpretations of the verses from Song of Songs with regard to the drainpipes, the Gemara cites additional interpretations. Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “How beautiful are your steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter” (Song of Songs 7:2)? How beautiful are the feet of the Jewish people at the time when they ascend to Jerusalem for the Festival. “O prince’s daughter”; this is referring to the daughter of Abraham our Patriarch, who was called prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered, the people of the God of Abraham” (Psalms 47:10). The verse calls the Jewish people the people of the God of Abraham and not the God of Isaac and Jacob. Why are the Jewish people associated specifically with Abraham? Rather than referring to the three Patriarchs, the verse is referring to the God of Abraham, who was first of the converts, and therefore it is reasonable for the princes of other nations to gather around him.,In the school of Rav A it was taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The hidden of your thighs” (Song of Songs 7:2)? Why are matters of Torah likened to a thigh? It is to tell you that just as the thigh is always concealed, covered by clothes, so too, matters of Torah are optimal when recited in private and not in public.,And this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “It has been told you, O man, what is good, and what the Lord does require of you; only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God” (Micah 6:8)? “To do justly”; this is justice. “To love mercy”; this is acts of kindness. “To walk humbly with your God”; this is referring to taking the indigent dead out for burial and accompanying a poor bride to her wedding canopy, both of which must be performed without fanfare. The Gemara summarizes: And are these matters not inferred a fortiori? If, with regard to matters that tend to be conducted in public, as the multitudes participate in funerals and weddings, the Torah says: Walk humbly, then in matters that tend to be conducted in private, e.g., giving charity and studying Torah, all the more so should they be conducted privately.,§ Rabbi Elazar said: One who performs acts of charity is greater than one who sacrifices all types of offerings, as it is stated: “To perform charity and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than an offering” (Proverbs 21:3), including all types of offerings. And Rabbi Elazar said: Acts of kindness, assisting someone in need, are greater than charity, as it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness” (Hosea 10:12). This means: If a person sows, it is uncertain whether he will eat or whether he will not eat, since much can go wrong before the seed becomes food. However, if a person reaps, he certainly eats. In this verse, charity is likened to sowing, while acts of kindness are likened to reaping.,And Rabbi Elazar said: The reward for charity is paid from Heaven only in accordance with the kindness and generosity included therein and in accordance with the effort and the consideration that went into the giving. It is not merely in accordance with the sum of money, as it is stated: “Sow to yourselves according to charity, and reap according to kindness.”,The Sages taught that acts of kindness are superior to charity in three respects: Charity can be performed only with one’s money, while acts of kindness can be performed both with his person and with his money. Charity is given to the poor, while acts of kindness are performed both for the poor and for the rich. Charity is given to the living, while acts of kindness are performed both for the living and for the dead.,And Rabbi Elazar said: Anyone who performs charity and justice is considered as though he filled the whole world in its entirety with kindness, as it is stated: “He loves charity and justice; the earth is full of the kindness of the Lord” (Psalms 33:5). Lest you say that anyone who comes to leap and perform an act of kindness may simply leap and do so without scrutiny, the verse states: “How precious is your kindness, O God” (Psalms 36:8). It is a precious and rare occurrence to perform an act of kindness properly. One might have thought that even a God-fearing individual does not always encounter the opportunity to perform acts of kindness. Therefore, the verse states: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him” (Psalms 103:17).,Rabbi Ḥama bar Pappa said: With regard to any person who has grace about him, it is certain that he is God-fearing, as it is stated: “But the kindness of the Lord is from everlasting to everlasting upon them that fear Him.” When one sees that a certain individual is endowed with grace and kindness, one can be certain that he is a God-fearing person. And Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and a Torah of kindness is on her tongue” (Proverbs 31:26)? The Gemara asks: Is there, then, a Torah of kindness and a Torah that is not of kindness? Rather, it is Torah studied for its own sake that is a Torah of kindness, as one studies it wholeheartedly; and it is Torah studied not for its own sake but for some ulterior motive that is a Torah that is not of kindness. Some say that it is Torah studied in order to teach it to others that is a Torah of kindness; it is Torah studied with the intent of not teaching it to others that is a Torah that is not of kindness.,§ The mishna continues: As its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat, except that on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, on Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecrated and would place it in the Temple chamber, and water would be drawn from there on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: And why should one do so? Let him bring the water in a consecrated barrel. Ze’iri said: The tanna in the mishna holds that there is no requisite measure for the water to be poured for libation, and therefore more than three log could be consecrated; and that Temple vessels consecrate their content if it is fit to be consecrated, even without intent to consecrate it.'' None|
|18. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.745, 6.752-6.818, 6.820-6.892, 8.629, 8.635, 8.639, 8.642, 8.646, 8.652, 8.655, 8.663, 8.666, 8.675, 8.696, 8.700, 8.722
Tagged with subjects: • Cyclicity, cyclic, cyclical • Reincarnation / Cycle of rebirth • cyclical schemas of history • linear and cyclical conceptions of time and space
Found in books: Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 83, 84; DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 264; Faure (2022), Conceptions of Time in Greek and Roman Antiquity, 135, 225; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 149, 153, 160
6.745 donec longa dies, perfecto temporis orbe,
6.752 Dixerat Anchises, natumque unaque Sibyllam 6.753 conventus trahit in medios turbamque sotem, 6.754 et tumulum capit, unde omnes longo ordine possit 6.755 adversos legere, et venientum discere vultus. 6.756 Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 6.757 gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotes, 6.758 inlustris animas nostrumque in nomen ituras, 6.759 expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 6.760 Ille, vides, pura iuvenis qui nititur hasta, 6.761 proxuma sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad auras 6.762 aetherias Italo commixtus sanguine surget, 6.763 silvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles, 6.764 quem tibi longaevo serum Lavinia coniunx 6.765 educet silvis regem regumque parentem, 6.766 unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 6.767 Proxumus ille Procas, Troianae gloria gentis, 6.768 et Capys, et Numitor, et qui te nomine reddet 6.769 Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis 6.770 egregius, si umquam regdam acceperit Albam. 6.771 Qui iuvenes! Quantas ostentant, aspice, vires, 6.772 atque umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu! 6.773 Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam, 6.774 hi Collatinas imponent montibus arces, 6.775 Pometios Castrumque Inui Bolamque Coramque. 6.776 Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 6.777 Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet 6.778 Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater 6.779 educet. Viden, ut geminae stant vertice cristae, 6.780 et pater ipse suo superum iam signat honore? 6.781 En, huius, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma 6.782 imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo, 6.783 septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 6.784 felix prole virum: qualis Berecyntia mater 6.785 invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 6.786 laeta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 6.787 omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes. 6.788 Huc geminas nunc flecte acies, hanc aspice gentem 6.789 Romanosque tuos. Hic Caesar et omnis Iuli 6.790 progenies magnum caeli ventura sub axem. 6.791 Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 6.792 Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 6.793 saecula qui rursus Latio regnata per arva 6.794 Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 6.795 proferet imperium: iacet extra sidera tellus, 6.796 extra anni solisque vias, ubi caelifer Atlas 6.797 axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 6.798 Huius in adventum iam nunc et Caspia regna 6.799 responsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus, 6.800 et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 6.801 Nec vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 6.802 fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi 6.803 pacarit nemora, et Lernam tremefecerit arcu; 6.804 nec, qui pampineis victor iuga flectit habenis, 6.805 Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigres. 6.806 Et dubitamus adhuc virtute extendere vires, 6.807 aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra? 6.809 sacra ferens? Nosco crines incanaque menta 6.810 regis Romani, primus qui legibus urbem 6.811 fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 6.812 missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 6.813 otia qui rumpet patriae residesque movebit 6.814 Tullus in arma viros et iam desueta triumphis 6.815 agmina. Quem iuxta sequitur iactantior Ancus, 6.816 nunc quoque iam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 6.817 Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam 6.818 ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos?
6.820 accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventes 6.821 ad poenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit. 6.822 Infelix, utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 6.823 vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido. 6.824 Quin Decios Drusosque procul saevumque securi 6.825 aspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camillum. 6.826 Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis, 6.827 concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 6.828 heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 6.829 attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt! 6.830 Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci 6.831 descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois. 6.832 Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 6.833 neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires; 6.834 tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 6.835 proice tela manu, sanguis meus!— 6.836 Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho 6.837 victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis. 6.838 Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, 6.839 ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli, 6.840 ultus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae. 6.841 Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat? 6.842 Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 6.843 Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem 6.844 Fabricium vel te sulco Serrane, serentem? 6.845 quo fessum rapitis, Fabii? Tu Maxumus ille es, 6.846 unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 6.847 Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 6.848 credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, 6.849 orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus 6.850 describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 6.851 tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; 6.852 hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 6.853 parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos. 6.854 Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit: 6.855 Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis 6.856 ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes! 6.857 Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, 6.858 sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem, 6.859 tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino. 6.860 Atque hic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat 6.861 egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis, 6.862 sed frons laeta parum, et deiecto lumina voltu: 6.863 Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem? 6.864 Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum? 6.865 Quis strepitus circa comitum! Quantum instar in ipso! 6.866 Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra. 6.867 Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis: 6.868 O gnate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum; 6.869 ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque ultra 6.870 esse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago 6.871 visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent. 6.872 Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 6.873 campus aget gemitus, vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 6.874 funera, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem! 6.875 Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 6.876 in tantum spe tollet avos, nec Romula quondam 6.877 ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno. 6.878 Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 6.879 dextera! Non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 6.880 obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem, 6.881 seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 6.882 Heu, miserande puer, si qua fata aspera rumpas, 6.883 tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date lilia plenis, 6.884 purpureos spargam flores, animamque nepotis 6.885 his saltem adcumulem donis, et fungar ii 6.886 munere—Sic tota passim regione vagantur 6.887 aëris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant. 6.888 Quae postquam Anchises natum per singula duxit, 6.889 incenditque animum famae venientis amore, 6.890 exin bella viro memorat quae deinde gerenda, 6.891 Laurentisque docet populos urbemque Latini, 6.892 et quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem.
8.629 stirpis ab Ascanio. pugnataque in ordine bella.
8.635 Nec procul hinc Romam et raptas sine more Sabinas
8.639 Post idem inter se posito certamine reges
8.642 Haud procul inde citae Mettum in diversa quadrigae
8.646 Nec non Tarquinium eiectum Porsenna iubebat
8.652 In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis
8.655 Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser
8.663 Hic exsultantis Salios nudosque Lupercos
8.666 pilentis matres in mollibus. Hinc procul addit
8.675 In medio classis aeratas, Actia bella,
8.696 Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro
8.700 tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamine Mavors
8.722 postibus; incedunt victae longo ordine gentes,' ' None
6.745 With half a hundred mouths, gaping and black;
6.752 Came on my view; their hands made stroke at Heaven 6.753 And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754 I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure, 6.755 Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder ' "6.756 And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds, " '6.757 Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode ' "6.758 Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way, " '6.759 Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! ' "6.760 To mock the storm's inimitable flash— " '6.761 With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762 But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763 Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame, 6.764 And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765 Next unto these, on Tityos I looked, 6.766 Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: ' "6.767 Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge " '6.768 Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side, 6.769 Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770 Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771 In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772 To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773 Why name Ixion and Pirithous, 6.774 The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775 A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall, 6.776 As if just toppling down, while couches proud, 6.777 Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778 In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779 The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780 Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781 A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782 Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783 Are men who hated, long as life endured, 6.784 Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires, 6.785 Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786 At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787 Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788 Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789 To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790 With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791 What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape ' "6.792 of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. " '6.793 Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794 Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795 Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796 Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797 In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798 ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799 Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800 Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801 In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802 Another did incestuously take 6.803 His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804 All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805 And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell, 6.806 Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues, 6.807 Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin, ' "6.809 So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. " '6.810 “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811 We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812 Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! ' "6.813 'T is there we are commanded to lay down " "6.814 Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side, " '6.815 Swift through the intervening dark they strode, 6.816 And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817 Aeneas, taking station at the door, ' "6.818 Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw, " 6.820 Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821 Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine, 6.822 At last within a land delectable 6.823 Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824 of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825 An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826 On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827 of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828 On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb, 6.829 Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long ' "6.830 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; " '6.831 With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song, 6.832 Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833 The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad, 6.834 Discoursing seven-noted melody, 6.835 Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand, 6.836 Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837 Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race, 6.838 Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times, 6.839 Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus, 6.840 Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841 Their arms and shadowy chariots he views, 6.842 And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843 Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844 For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845 To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds, 6.846 The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847 Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848 Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849 Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850 of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851 Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852 Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853 Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854 Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855 And poets, of whom the true-inspired song ' "6.856 Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found " "6.857 New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; " '6.858 Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859 Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860 And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861 Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862 Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng, ' "6.863 Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: " '6.864 “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865 Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866 Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867 Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868 And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869 “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870 We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair, 6.871 With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872 But you, if thitherward your wishes turn, 6.873 Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874 So saying, he strode forth and led them on, 6.875 Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876 of a wide, shining land; thence wending down, 6.877 They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878 Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879 Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880 A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881 Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882 And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883 of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884 Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885 Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh ' "6.886 o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands " '6.887 In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888 Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889 “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890 of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891 Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892 That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear
8.629 Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way
8.635 because the Fates intend. Not far from ours
8.639 for many a year, then under the proud yoke
8.642 and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought?
8.646 and face on face,—torment incredible!
8.652 and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while,
8.655 in Turnus hospitality. To-day
8.663 of the gray omen-giver thus declares
8.666 the bloom and glory of an ancient race,
8.675 even to me, and prayed I should assume
8.696 to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. ' "
8.700 But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen " 8.722 what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain ' ' None
|19. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Epic Cycle • Epic Cycle, Aethiopis
Found in books: Greensmith (2021), The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation, 2; Maciver (2012), Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity, 29