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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
crown Gagné (2020) 10, 11, 105, 112, 204, 217, 328
Graf and Johnston (2007) 127, 128
Rasimus (2009) 237
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 25, 55, 134, 213, 214, 215, 217, 330
crown, and death Martin (2009) 170
crown, at celebrations Martin (2009) 24, 26, 58
crown, at dionysia Martin (2009) 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 208
crown, atef Griffiths (1975) 334
crown, city Humphreys (2018) 530, 947, 986, 1031, 1039, 1137
crown, civic Mueller (2002) 122, 123
crown, civica, civic, of corona oak-leaves Edmondson (2008) 77, 89
crown, constellation Rasimus (2009) 80
crown, corona Edmondson (2008) 77, 143, 152, 170, 289
crown, crowned, Bernabe et al (2013) 40, 89, 114, 134, 135, 172, 236, 246, 282, 285, 335, 336, 397, 404, 406, 408, 458, 460, 470, 471, 536
crown, crowning, thallos Lalone (2019) 52, 53, 230
crown, decrees, demosthenes use in on the Liddel (2020) 88, 90, 234
crown, dedicated Martin (2009) 128, 129, 130
crown, deme Humphreys (2018) 813, 815, 826, 859, 876, 881, 888, 908, 1011, 1056, 1057, 1075, 1077, 1078, 1079, 1080, 1093, 1102, 1119, 1120, 1173, 1191
crown, double Griffiths (1975) 334
crown, eucharist, tertullian, on the military Cosgrove (2022) 321
crown, for, boule Martin (2009) 122, 128
crown, games arsinoeia and philadelpheia games, periodos Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 274, 275, 276, 277
crown, genos Humphreys (2018) 695, 703
crown, graminea, grass, crown, corona i.e., the siege Edmondson (2008) 77
crown, honorary Martin (2009) 86, 88, 119
crown, in christian art Brodd and Reed (2011) 163, 164, 165, 166
crown, in mystery cults Martin (2009) 110, 111
crown, in rome, temple of jupiter capitolinus, caesar’s Rutledge (2012) 232
crown, julius caesar, c., refuses Rutledge (2012) 232, 233
crown, martyrs Matthews (2010) 19, 147
Moss (2010) 72, 92, 95, 97, 107, 125, 128, 137, 139, 151, 160
crown, martyrs martyrs, chain of Matthews (2010) 18, 57
crown, multiple Humphreys (2018) 376, 389, 606, 607, 937, 938, 984, 1012, 1051, 1162, 1163, 1169, 1177, 1196
crown, obsidionalis, siege, made of corona grass Edmondson (2008) 77
crown, of berenice Griffiths (1975) 126
crown, of carried by roses, priest, held out by him Griffiths (1975) 13
crown, of carried by roses, priest, munched by lucius Griffiths (1975) 13, 234
crown, of cinnamon in rome, temple of peace Rutledge (2012) 214, 215, 280
crown, of flowers, in isis, bouquets Griffiths (1975) 132, 310
crown, of initiate, palm, leaves of in sandals of isis, implying victory, like rays on Griffiths (1975) 314, 357
crown, of initiate, rays, palm leaves like, on Griffiths (1975) 314
crown, of isis, ceres, mother of crops, ears of her corn in Griffiths (1975) 3, 125
crown, of isis, corn, ears of in Griffiths (1975) 3, 31, 125
crown, of isis, disc in Griffiths (1975) 3, 124
crown, of isis, flowers, in Griffiths (1975) 3, 124
crown, of isis, horus, and seth, and Griffiths (1975) 219
crown, of isis, mirror, likeness of in Griffiths (1975) 3, 124
crown, of isis, moon, suggested in Griffiths (1975) 3, 124
crown, of isis, snakes, in Griffiths (1975) 3, 125
crown, of justification or triumph Griffiths (1975) 159, 357
crown, of magistrates Martin (2009) 24, 25, 167
crown, of martyr Moss (2010) 72, 92, 95, 97, 107, 125, 128, 137, 139, 151, 160
crown, of mirror, likeness of in isis, mirrors carried by women in procession behind their backs Griffiths (1975) 9, 182
crown, of moon, suggested in isis, and anubis Griffiths (1975) 217
crown, of moon, suggested in isis, half-moon on cloak of isis Griffiths (1975) 4, 130
crown, of moon, suggested in isis, isis shines as moon Griffiths (1975) 165
crown, of moon, suggested in isis, moon and ibis Griffiths (1975) 217
crown, of palm, with leaves like rays, worn by initiate Griffiths (1975) 314, 357
crown, of roses attached, sistrum = bronze rattle, carried by isis, with Griffiths (1975) 6, 159
crown, of roses, carried by priest Griffiths (1975) 6, 12, 159, 233
crown, of roses, carried by priest, held out by priest Griffiths (1975) 13
crown, of roses, priests, of isis, offer new barque, holds out Griffiths (1975) 13
crown, of roses, priests, of isis, offer new barque, priest in procession with Griffiths (1975) 6, 159
crown, of thorns Griffiths (1975) 357
crown, of thorns, relics Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 165, 167, 171, 177
crown, of victory Tite (2009) 198, 294
crown, of with isis, disc, snakes, ears of corn Griffiths (1975) 124
crown, of with leaves like palm, rays, worn by initiate Griffiths (1975) 314
crown, oflsis Griffiths (1975) 3, 124
crown, on tombstone Humphreys (2018) 924
crown, orgeones Humphreys (2018) 397, 401, 402, 610, 1106
crown, painted Humphreys (2018) 1215, 1216
crown, polos or pylaeon Simon (2021) 56, 57, 268, 289
crown, priests, of isis, offer new barque, carries sistrum and Griffiths (1975) 12, 233
crown, prince, dreams, in ancient near eastern literature, underworld vision of an assyrian Renberg (2017) 55, 56
crown, prince, literary and sub-literary works, ancient near east, underworld vision of an assyrian Renberg (2017) 55, 56, 73
crown, prince, son of artaxerxes darius, i Marincola et al (2021) 323
crown, pylaeon or polos Simon (2021) 56, 57, 268, 289
crown, re, ship of and radiate Griffiths (1975) 314, 316, 357
crown, relief Humphreys (2018) 376, 606, 607, 933, 1076, 1138, 1139, 1196
crown, roses, of carried by priest Griffiths (1975) 6, 159
crown, tax, taxation Keddie (2019) 126
crown, taxes, roman, aurum coronarium gold Marek (2019) 388
crown, thiasos Humphreys (2018) 404
crown, tribe Humphreys (2018) 736, 753, 754, 755, 765
crowned Sider (2001) 125
crowned, apollo Sider (2001) 125
crowned, oaths Martin (2009) 19
crowned, with, laurel priest Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 145
crowning, ceremony Steiner (2001) 19, 229, 245
crowning, imagery and, redemption Stern (2004) 125, 127
crowning, of amphiaraos, athenian Wilding (2022) 35, 91, 92, 107, 108, 265
crowning, of children at anthesteria Parker (2005) 298, 315
crowning, of god by israel Lieber (2014) 365, 377
crowning, of israel by god Lieber (2014) 225
crowning, of the messiah Lieber (2014) 166
crowning, of victor, olympia Eisenfeld (2022) 245
crowning, wedding customs and Lieber (2014) 72, 328, 342, 347
crowns Gygax (2016) 25, 37, 47, 49, 53, 89, 97, 135, 154, 171, 172, 174, 175, 179, 181, 182, 185, 187, 211, 212, 213, 219, 222, 224, 225, 227, 228, 229, 232, 242, 243, 244
Liddel (2020) 88, 100, 124
Putthoff (2016) 42, 60, 61, 173, 188, 190, 201
Rutledge (2012) 148, 149
Seaford (2018) 206, 207, 215, 232, 233
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 5, 241, 254, 315, 316, 319
Stuckenbruck (2007) 623, 736
crowns, acts of paul and thecla Bremmer (2017) 159
crowns, archons, wearing Fabian Meinel (2015) 175
crowns, at panathenaia, great Papazarkadas (2011) 274
crowns, deposited in rome, temple of jupiter capitolinus Rutledge (2012) 148, 149
crowns, gold, crowns, Gygax (2016) 19, 36, 39, 43, 44, 50, 174, 182, 183, 188, 192, 197, 208, 224, 231, 232, 244
crowns, honorific Amendola (2022) 177, 178, 184, 185, 186, 187, 199, 277, 344, 399
Csapo (2022) 27
crowns, idolatry, inescapable in Sider (2001) 130, 131, 133, 134
crowns, idols, originated Sider (2001) 128
crowns, in mystic initiation Seaford (2018) 207
crowns, laurel Brodd and Reed (2011) 164
crowns, motif of Noam (2018) 98, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 114
crowns, of flowers Bremmer (2008) 22, 26
crowns, of olive, olive-tree Ekroth (2013) 221
crowns, olive, crowns, Gygax (2016) 67, 171, 178, 184, 189, 231, 238
crowns, oracles, ordering Martin (2009) 22, 23, 26
crowns, prepared for great god Griffiths (1975) 27
crowns, prepared osiris, for, as great god Griffiths (1975) 27
crowns, priests, wear Sider (2001) 128
crowns, reason, does not permit Sider (2001) 128
crowns, renounced in baptism Sider (2001) 133
crowns, saturninus, claudius, author of on Sider (2001) 125, 130
crowns, scuola catalana, three Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 465, 466, 473, 484
crowns, victory Eisenfeld (2022) 69, 124
crowns, victory, wreaths and Gera (2014) 41, 64, 161, 162, 444, 445, 446, 447
crowns/, headdresses of priests adolescent Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 32, 94, 145

List of validated texts:
21 validated results for "crown"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 3.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Crown of Thorns (relics) • crowning, of Israel by God

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 225; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 165

3.11. צְאֶינָה וּרְאֶינָה בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן בַּמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בָּעֲטָרָה שֶׁעִטְּרָה־לּוֹ אִמּוֹ בְּיוֹם חֲתֻנָּתוֹ וּבְיוֹם שִׂמְחַת לִבּוֹ׃''. None
3.11. Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, And gaze upon king Solomon, Even upon the crown wherewith his mother hath crowned him in the day of his espousals, And in the day of the gladness of his heart.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Three-crown (kingship, priesthood and prophecy) motif • crowning, of the Messiah

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 166; Ruzer (2020) 38

3.23. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃''. None
3.23. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crowning, of God by Israel • crowning, of Israel by God • redemption, crowning imagery and

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 225, 377; Stern (2004) 125, 127

61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels.''. None
4. Hesiod, Works And Days, 77-82 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo; crowned • Saturninus, Claudius; author of On Crowns • crowned • crowns of flowers

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 26; Sider (2001) 125

77. ἐν δʼ ἄρα οἱ στήθεσσι διάκτορος Ἀργεϊφόντης'78. ψεύδεά θʼ αἱμυλίους τε λόγους καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 79. τεῦξε Διὸς βουλῇσι βαρυκτύπου· ἐν δʼ ἄρα φωνὴν 80. θῆκε θεῶν κῆρυξ, ὀνόμηνε δὲ τήνδε γυναῖκα 81. Πανδώρην, ὅτι πάντες Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες 82. δῶρον ἐδώρησαν, πῆμʼ ἀνδράσιν ἀλφηστῇσιν. '. None
77. They did. The famed lame god immediately'78. Formed out of clay, at Cronus’ son’s behest, 79. The likeness of a maid of modesty. 80. By grey-eyed Queen Athene was she dressed 81. And cinctured, while the Graces and Seduction 82. Placed necklaces about her; then the Hours, '. None
5. Hesiod, Theogony, 577 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crown • crowns of flowers

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 22; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 213

577. ἱμερτοὺς περίθηκε καρήατι Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη.''. None
577. His lurid bolt because his vanity''. None
6. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arsinoeia and Philadelpheia games, crown games (periodos) • Olympia, crowning of victor

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 275; Eisenfeld (2022) 245

7. Herodotus, Histories, 2.81, 8.124 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, crowned • crown, in mystery cults • crowns • wreaths and crowns, victory

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 134; Gera (2014) 447; Gygax (2016) 172; Martin (2009) 110

2.81. ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.
8.124. οὐ βουλομένων δὲ ταῦτα κρίνειν τῶν Ἑλλήνων φθόνῳ, ἀλλʼ ἀποπλεόντων ἑκάστων ἐς τὴν ἑωυτῶν ἀκρίτων, ὅμως Θεμιστοκλέης ἐβώσθη τε καὶ ἐδοξώθη εἶναι ἀνὴρ πολλὸν Ἑλλήνων σοφώτατος ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα. ὅτι δὲ νικῶν οὐκ ἐτιμήθη πρὸς τῶν ἐν Σαλαμῖνι ναυμαχησάντων, αὐτίκα μετὰ ταῦτα ἐς Λακεδαίμονα ἀπίκετο θέλων τιμηθῆναι· καὶ μιν Λακεδαιμόνιοι καλῶς μὲν ὑπεδέξαντο, μεγάλως δὲ ἐτίμησαν. ἀριστήια μέν νυν ἔδοσαν 1 Εὐρυβιάδῃ ἐλαίης στέφανον, σοφίης δὲ καὶ δεξιότητος Θεμιστοκλέι καὶ τούτῳ στέφανον ἐλαίης· ἐδωρήσαντό τέ μιν ὄχῳ τῷ ἐν Σπάρτῃ καλλιστεύσαντι. αἰνέσαντες δὲ πολλά, προέπεμψαν ἀπιόντα τριηκόσιοι Σπαρτιητέων λογάδες, οὗτοι οἵ περ ἱππέες καλέονται, μέχρι οὔρων τῶν Τεγεητικῶν. μοῦνον δὴ τοῦτον πάντων ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν Σπαρτιῆται προέπεμψαν.''. None
2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
8.124. The Greeks were too jealous to assign the prize and sailed away each to his own place, leaving the matter undecided; nevertheless, Themistocles was lauded, and throughout all of Hellas was deemed the wisest man by far of the Greeks. ,However, because he had not received from those that fought at Salamis the honor due to his preeminence, he immediately afterwards went to Lacedaemon in order that he might receive honor there. The Lacedaemonians welcomed him and paid him high honor. They bestowed on Eurybiades a crown of olive as the reward of excellence and another such crown on Themistocles for his wisdom and cleverness. They also gave him the finest chariot in Sparta, ,and with many words of praise, they sent him home with the three hundred picked men of Sparta who are called Knights to escort him as far as the borders of Tegea. Themistocles was the only man of whom we know to whom the Spartans gave this escort. ''. None
8. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, at Dionysia • crown, of magistrates • crowns

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 25; Martin (2009) 25

9. Aeschines, Letters, 3.83, 3.243 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crowns • crowns, gold crowns • crowns, olive crowns • decrees, Demosthenes use in On the Crown

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 197, 238, 244; Liddel (2020) 88, 90

3.83. and if Philip was willing to refer our differences to some state as an equal and impartial arbiter, he said that between Philip and us there was no impartial arbiter. Philip offered to give us Halonnesus; Demosthenes forbade us to accept it if he “gave it,” instead of “giving it back,” quarrelling over syllables. And finally, by bestowing crowns of honor on the embassy which Aristodemus led to Thessaly and Magnesia contrary to the provisions of the peace, he violated the peace and prepared the final disaster and the war.
3.243. Or is the man whom you have moved to crown so obscure a man as not to be known by those whom he has served, unless some one shall help you to describe him? Pray ask the jury whether they knew Chabrias and Iphicrates and Timotheus, and inquire why they gave them those rewards and set up their statues. All will answer with one voice, that they honored Chabrias for the battle of Naxos , and Iphicrates because he destroyed a regiment of the Lacedaemonians, and Timotheus because of his voyage to Corcyra , and other men, each because of many a glorious deed in war.''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Crowns • crown(s)

 Found in books: Putthoff (2016) 61; Stuckenbruck (2007) 623

7.9. חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃''. None
7.9. I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire.''. None
11. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, in Christian art • crown, martyrs • martyr crown of

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 165; Moss (2010) 139

2.1. Τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῷ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον Τάδε λέγει ὁ κρατῶν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ, ὁ περιπατῶν ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν τῶν χρυσῶν,''. None
2.1. To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands says these things:''. None
12. New Testament, John, 19.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Crown of Thorns (relics) • Crown, of justification or triumph • Crown, of palm, with leaves like rays, worn by initiate • Crown, of thorns • Palm, leaves of, in sandals of Isis, implying victory, like rays on crown of initiate • Re, ship of, and radiate crown

 Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 357; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 167

19.2. καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται πλέξαντες στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῦ τῇ κεφαλῇ, καὶ ἱμάτιον πορφυροῦν περιέβαλον αὐτόν,''. None
19.2. The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. ''. None
13. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • corona (crown), civica (civic, of oak-leaves) • crown, in Christian art • laurel crowns

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 164; Edmondson (2008) 89

14. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.31.4, 2.17.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, crowned • crown, deme • crown, multiple • crown, relief • crowns, asterion • polos or pylaeon crown • pylaeon or polos crown

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 404; Humphreys (2018) 607, 908, 1056; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 111; Simon (2021) 56

1.31.4. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ οὕτω λέγεται, Φλυεῦσι δέ εἰσι καὶ Μυρρινουσίοις τοῖς μὲν Ἀπόλλωνος Διονυσοδότου καὶ Ἀρτέμιδος Σελασφόρου βωμοὶ Διονύσου τε Ἀνθίου καὶ νυμφῶν Ἰσμηνίδων καὶ Γῆς, ἣν Μεγάλην θεὸν ὀνομάζουσι· ναὸς δὲ ἕτερος ἔχει βωμοὺς Δήμητρος Ἀνησιδώρας καὶ Διὸς Κτησίου καὶ Τιθρωνῆς Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ Κόρης Πρωτογόνης καὶ Σεμνῶν ὀνομαζομένων θεῶν· τὸ δὲ ἐν Μυρρινοῦντι ξόανόν ἐστι Κολαινίδος. Ἀθμονεῖς δὲ τιμῶσιν Ἀμαρυσίαν Ἄρτεμιν·
2.17.2. καὶ ἀπὸ μὲν Ἀκραίας τὸ ὄρος καλοῦσι τὸ ἀπαντικρὺ τοῦ Ἡραίου, ἀπὸ δὲ Εὐβοίας ὅσον περὶ τὸ ἱερόν, Πρόσυμναν δὲ τὴν ὑπὸ τὸ Ἡραῖον χώραν. ὁ δὲ Ἀστερίων οὗτος ῥέων ὑπὲρ τὸ Ἡραῖον ἐς φάραγγα ἐσπίπτων ἀφανίζεται. φύεται δὲ αὐτοῦ πόα πρὸς ταῖς ὄχθαις· ἀστερίωνα ὀνομάζουσι καὶ τὴν πόαν· ταύτην τῇ Ἥρᾳ καὶ αὐτὴν φέρουσι καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν φύλλων αὐτῆς στεφάνους πλέκουσιν.''. None
1.31.4. Such is the legend. Phlya and Myrrhinus have altars of Apollo Dionysodotus, Artemis Light-bearer, Dionysus Flower-god, the Ismenian nymphs and Earth, whom they name the Great goddess; a second temple contains altars of Demeter Anesidora (Sender-up of Gifts), Zeus Ctesius (God of Gain), Tithrone Athena, the Maid First-born and the goddesses styled August. The wooden image at Myrrhinus is of Colaenis.
2.17.2. The hill opposite the Heraeum they name after Acraea, the environs of the sanctuary they name after Euboea, and the land beneath the Heraeum after Prosymna . This Asterion flows above the Heraeum, and falling into a cleft disappears. On its banks grows a plant, which also is called asterion. They offer the plant itself to Hera, and from its leaves weave her garlands.''. None
15. Aeschines, Or., 3.31, 3.77
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, and death • crown, honorary • crowns • crowns, gold crowns

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 39, 222; Martin (2009) 86, 170

3.31. Recall now what has been said: the lawgiver directs that after approval in court those appointed by the tribes shall “hold office”; but the tribe Pandionis appointed Demosthenes an “officer,” a Builder of Walls; and he has received for this work from the general treasury nearly ten talents. Another law forbids crowning an official before he has rendered his accounts, and you have sworn to vote according to the laws; but yonder politician has moved to crown the man who has not yet rendered his accounts, and he has not added “when he shall have rendered account and submitted to audit” and I convict him of the unlawful act, bringing as my witnesses the laws, the decrees, and the defendants. How could one more clearly prove that a man has made an unlawful motion?
3.77. Now this man it was, fellow citizens, this past master of flattery, who, when informed through scouts of Charidemus that Philip was dead, before any one else had received the news, made up a vision for himself and lied about the gods, pretending that he had received the news, not from Charidemus, but from Zeus and Athena, the gods by whose name he perjures himself by day, and who then converse with him in the night, as he says, and tell him of things to come. And though it was but the seventh day after the death of his daughter, and though the ceremonies of mourning were not yet completed, he put a garland on his head and white raiment on his body, and there he stood making thank-offerings, violating all decency—miserable man, who had lost the first and only one who ever called him “father”!''. None
16. Demosthenes, Orations, 8.70, 18.83, 18.113-18.114, 18.119, 18.257, 18.278, 19.198, 20.127, 21.52, 21.55, 21.153, 22.5, 22.8, 22.36-22.37, 22.72, 23.130, 23.136, 24.180
 Tagged with subjects: • Anthesteria, crowning of children at • Boule, crown for • Demosthenes, works, On the Crown • crown, at Dionysia • crown, at celebrations • crown, city • crown, dedicated • crown, honorary • crown, in mystery cults • crown, of magistrates • crowns • crowns, gold crowns • decrees, Demosthenes use in On the Crown • oaths, crowned • oracles, ordering crowns

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 39, 172, 192, 197, 208, 211, 212, 219, 224, 225, 242, 244; Hesk (2000) 211, 213; Humphreys (2018) 947; Liddel (2020) 88; Martin (2009) 19, 22, 25, 26, 27, 30, 86, 88, 110, 111, 122, 128, 129, 130, 167, 208; Parker (2005) 315

8.70. Yes, and it is he who is the useful citizen, not those who for a moment’s popularity have made havoc of the chief resources of the State. These men I am so far from envying or deeming them worthy citizens of our city, that if a man should say to me, Speak for yourself, and tell us what good you have ever done the State, though I might speak, men of Athens, of the equipment of war-galleys and of choruses, of money contributions and of the ransom of captives, and of other instances of liberality,
18.83. Although at that time you decorated me for my services, although Aristonicus drafted the decree in the very same terms that Ctesiphon has now used, although the decoration was proclaimed in the theatre, so that this is the second proclamation of my name there, Aeschines, who was present, never opposed the decree, nor did he indict the proposer. Take and read the decree in question.
18.113. But no, the law does not exist, men of Athens ; only this man, with his pettifogging spite, because, when I was in charge of the theatric fund, I added gifts of my own to that fund, says, Ctesiphon gave him a vote of thanks before he had rendered his accounts. Yes, but the vote of thanks did not concern the accounts which I had to render; it was for my own donations, you pettifogger! But you were also a Commissioner of Fortifications. Why, that is how I earned my vote of thanks: I made a present of the money I had spent, and did not charge it to the public account. The account requires an audit and checkers; the benefaction deserves gratitude and formal thanks, and that is the very reason for Ctesiphon ’s proposition. 18.114. That this distinction is recognized both in the statutes and in your moral feelings I can prove by many instances. Nausicles, for example, has been repeatedly decorated by you for the money he spent out of his own pocket when serving as military commander. When Diotimus, and on another occasion Charidemus, had made a present of shields, they were crowned. Then there is our friend Neoptolemus, who has received distinctions for donations given by him as Commissioner for sundry public works. It would be quite intolerable that it should either be illegal for a man holding any office to make presents to the government, or that, when he has made them, instead of receiving thanks, he should be subjected to an audit.
18.119. Here, then, are my donations, in the decree—but not in your indictment. Your prosecution is directed to the rewards which the Council says that I ought to receive for them. Acceptance of gifts you admit to be legal; gratitude for gifts you indict for illegality. In Heaven’s name, what do we mean by dishonesty and malignity, if you are not dishonest and maligt?
18.257. In my boyhood, Aeschines, I had the advantage of attending respectable schools: and my means were sufficient for one who was not to be driven by poverty into disreputable occupations. When I had come of age, my circumstances were in accordance with my upbringing. I was in a position to provide a chorus, to pay for a war-galley, and to be assessed to property-tax. I renounced no honor able ambition either in public or in private life: and rendered good service both to the commonwealth and to my own friends. When I decided to take part in public affairs, the political services I chose were such that I was repeatedly decorated both by my own country and by many other Grecian cities and even my enemies, such as you, never ventured to say that my choice was other than honor able.
18.278. No upright and honor able citizen must ever expect a jury impanelled in the public service to bolster up his own resentment or enmity or other passions, nor will he go to law to gratify them. If possible he will exclude them from his heart: if he cannot escape them, he will at least cherish them calmly and soberly. In what circumstances, then, ought a politician or an orator to be vehement? When all our national interests are imperilled; when the issue lies between the people and their adversaries. Then such is the part of a chivalrous and patriotic citizen.
19.198. Maddened by these indignities, she jumped to her feet, upset the table, and fell at the knees of Iatrocles. If he had not rescued her, she would have perished, the victim of a drunken orgy, for the drunkenness of this blackguard is something terrible. The story of this girl was told even in Arcadia, at a meeting of the Ten Thousand The Assembly of the Arcadian Confederacy, meeting at Megalopolis . ; it was related by Diophantus at Athens in a report which I will compel him to repeat in evidence; and it was common talk in Thessaly and everywhere.
20.127. For the first clause of the law says Leptines proposed that, to the end that the wealthiest citizens may perform the public services, none shall be immune save and except the descendants of Harmodius and Aristogiton. But if immunity from religious duties were the same as immunity from public services, what was the object of that clause? For immunity from religious duties has never been granted even to the persons here named. To prove that this is so, please take and read the copy of the inscription and then the beginning of the law of Leptines. The copy of the inscription is read
21.52. Please take and read the actual oracles. The Oracles You I address, Pandion’s townsmen and sons of Erechtheus, who appoint your feasts by the ancient rites of your fathers. See you forget not Bacchus, and joining all in the dances Down your broad-spaced streets, in thanks ἱστάναι χάριν, if the Greek is sound, seems to be a portmanteau phrase to set up a dance in gratitude. The oracle quoted may perfectly well be genuine. for the gifts of the season, Crown each head with a wreath, while incense reeks on the altars. For health sacrifice and pray to Zeus Most High, to Heracles, and to Apollo the Protector; for good fortune to Apollo, god of the streets, to Leto, and to Artemis; and along the streets set wine-bowls and dances, and wear garlands after the manner of your fathers in honor of all gods and all goddesses of Olympus, raising right hands and left in supplication, Translating λιτάς, Weil ’s suggestion. and remember your gifts.
21.55. Therefore in the case of all the choruses that are constituted, together with their chorus-masters, during the days on which we meet in competition, these oracles make it clear that we wear our crowns as your representatives, the winner as well as the one destined to be last of all; it is not until the day of the prize-giving that the victor receives his own special crown. If, then, a man commits a malicious assault on any member or master of these choruses, especially during the actual contest in the sacred precinct of the god, can we deny that he is guilty of impiety?
21.153. If, men of Athens, public service consists in saying to you at all the meetings of the Assembly and on every possible occasion, We are the men who perform the public services; we are those who advance your tax-money; we are the capitalists —if that is all it means, then I confess that Meidias has shown himself the most distinguished citizen of Athens ; for he bores us at every Assembly by these tasteless and tactless boasts.
22.5. There is one plea which he thinks a clever defence of the omission of the preliminary decree. There is a law, he says, that if the Council by its performance of its duties seems to deserve a reward, that reward shall be presented by the people. That question, he says, the chairman of the Assembly put, the people voted, and it was carried. In this case, he says, there is no need of a preliminary decree, because what was done was in accordance with law. But I take the exactly contrary view-and I think you will agree with me—that the preliminary decrees should only be proposed concerning matters prescribed by the laws, because, where no laws are laid down, surely no proposal whatever is admissible.
22.8. Coming now to the law which explicitly denies to the Council the right to ask a reward, if they have not built the warships, it is worth while to hear the defence that he will set up, and to get a clear view of the shamelessness of his behavior from the arguments that he attempts to use. The law, he says, forbids the Council to ask for the reward, if they have not built the ships. But, he adds, the law nowhere prohibits the Assembly from giving it. If I gave it at their request, my motion was illegal, but if I have never mentioned the ships in the whole of my decree, but give other grounds for granting a crown to the Council, where is the illegality of my motion?
22.36. But I am in a position to assert that the question does not concern the whole Council, but only Androtion and some others, who are the cause of the mischief. For should the Council receive no crown, who suffers disgrace, if he makes no speech and moves no resolution himself, and perhaps even does not attend most of the meetings? No one surely. The disgrace attaches to him who moves resolutions and meddles with politics and tries to impose his wishes on the Council; because it is through such men that the deliberations of the Council have proved undeserving of the crown. 22.37. And yet, even if we grant freely that the whole Council is on its trial, reflect how much more advantage you will gain if you condemn Androtion, than if you do not. If you acquit him, the talkers will rule in the Council chamber, but if you convict him, the ordinary members. For when the majority see that they have lost the crown through the misconduct of the orators, they will not leave the transaction of business in their hands, but will depend on themselves for the best advice. If this comes to pass, and if you are once rid of the old gang of orators, then, men of Athens, you will see everything done as it ought to be. For this, if for no other, reason you ought to convict.
22.72. Again, men of Athens, consider those glorious and enviable inscriptions that he has obliterated for all time, and the strange and blasphemous inscriptions that he has written in their stead. You all, I suppose, used to see the words written under the circlets of the crowns: The Allies to the Athenian People for valor and righteousness, or The Allies to the Goddess of Athens, a prize of victory ; or, from the several states of the alliance, Such-and-such a City to the People by whom they were delivered, or, The liberated Euboeans, for example, crown the People ; or again, Conon from the sea-fight with the Lacedaemonians. Such, I say, were the inscriptions of the crowns.
23.130. No doubt you remember, men of Athens, that Iphicrates was a very fortunate man, with his bronze effigy, his free board at the Town Hall, and other grants and distinctions. Nevertheless he had the courage to fight a battle at sea against our commanders in defence of Cotys, setting a higher value on the salvation of that king than upon all the honors he enjoyed in your city. If your resentment had not been more restrained than his impetuosity, nothing could have saved him from being the most miserable of mankind.
23.136. Cotys expected to rob Iphicrates of honors, of maintece, of statues, of the country that made him a man to be envied, I may almost say of everything that made life worth living; yet he had no scruple. But, really, what is there of which this man should be anxious not to deprive Charidemus? He has no possessions whatsoever in your city,—neither children, nor a statue, nor kindred, nor anything else.
24.180. Again, men of Athens, consider those glorious and much-admired inscriptions that he has obliterated for all time, and the strange and blasphemous inscriptions that he has written in their stead. You all, I suppose, used to see the words written under the circlets of the crowns: The Allies crowned the People for valor and righteousness, or The Allies dedicated to the Goddess of Athens a prize of victory ; or, from the several states of the Alliance, Such-and-such a city crowned the People by whom they were delivered, or The liberated Euboeans, for example, crowned the People, or again Conon from the sea-fight with the Lacedaemonians, Chabrias from the sea-fight off Naxos . ' '. None
17. Epigraphy, Ig I , 102, 258
 Tagged with subjects: • Crowns • Stephanosis (public crowning) • crown, tribe • crowns • crowns, gold crowns • crowns, olive crowns

 Found in books: Connelly (2007) 204; Gygax (2016) 184, 188, 232; Humphreys (2018) 754

102. Decree 1 In the archonship of Glaukippos (410/9); Lobon from Kedoi was secretary. The Council and People decided. HippothontisVIII was the prytany; Lobon was the secretary; Philistides (5) was chairman; Glaukippos was archon (410/9). Erasinides proposed: to praise Thrasyboulos, who is a good man concerning the Athenian People and keen to do all the good he can; and in return for the good he has done for the Athenian city or Council and People, (10) to crown him with a gold crown; and to make the crown from a thousand drachmas; and let the Greek treasurers (hellenotamiai) give the money; and to announce at the Dionysia in the competition for tragedies the reason why (14) the People crowned him. Decree 2 (14) Diokles proposed: In other respects in accordance with the Council, but Thrasyboulos shall be an Athenian and be enrolled in whichever tribe and phratry he wishes; and the other things that have been voted by the People are to be valid for Thrasyboulos; and it shall be possible for him also to obtain from the Athenians (20) whatever else may be deemed good concerning his benefaction to the Athenian People; and the secretary shall write up what has been voted; and to choose five? men from the Council immediately, to adjudge the portion? accruing to Thrasyboulos; (25) and the others who did good then to the Athenian People, -is and Agoratos and Komon and . . . and Simon and Philinos and -es, the secretary of the Council shall inscribe them as benefactors on the acropolis (30) on a stone stele; and they shall have the right to own property (egktesin) as for Athenians, both a plot of land and houses, and to dwell at Athens, and the Council in office and the prytany shall take care that they suffer no harm; and the official sellers (poletai) shall let the contract (35) for the stele in the Council; and the Greek treasurers (hellenotamias) shall give the money; and if it decides that they should obtain something else in addition?, the Council shall formulate a proposal (proboleusasan) (38) and bring it to the People. Decree 3 (38) Eudikos proposed: in other respects in accordance with Diokles, but concerning those who have given bribes (40) for the decree which was voted for Apollodoros, the Council is to deliberate at the next session in the Council chamber, and to punish them, voting to condemn those who have given bribes and to bring them? to a court as seems best to it; and (45) the Councillors present are to reveal what they know, and if there is anyone who knows anything else about these men; and a private individual may also (give information) if he wishes to do so. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
102 - Honours for Thrasyboulos of Kalydon and associates, 410/9 BC
258. Capital totals (kephalaia): for the demarch, 1,000 dr. for the two treasurers for the sacred rites through the year, 5,000 dr. to the Herakleion, 7,000 dr. (5) to the Aphrodisia, 1,200 dr. to the Anakia, 1,200 dr. to exemption from contributions (ateleian), 5,000 dr. to the Apollonia, 1,100 dr. to the Pandia, 600 dr. (10) from rents, 134 dr. 2½ ob.. The Plotheians decided. Aristotimos proposed: to allot (kuameuen) the officials worthily of the money that each office controls; and these are to provide the money securely (15) for the Plotheians. Concerning whatever loan there is a decree or setting of interest, they are to lend and exact interest according to the decree, lending as much as is lent annually to whoever (20) offers the greatest interest, whoever persuades the lending officials by their wealth (timēmati) or guarantor; and from the interest, and the rents on whatever rent-bearing purchases may have been made from capital (kephalaiōn), (25) they shall sacrifice the rites (hiera), both the common rites for the Plotheians, and for the Athenians on behalf of the community (koino) of the Plotheians, and for the quadrennial festivals; and for the other rites, for which all the Plotheians have to contribute money for (30) rites, whether to the Plotheians or to the Epakrians or to the Athenians, the officials from the community who are in charge of the money for the exemption from contributions (ateleian) shall pay on behalf of the demesmen; and for all the common rites in which (35) the Plotheians feast, they shall provide sweet wine at the community’s expense, for other rites up to half a chous for each Plotheian present, but for the trainer (didaskalōi) at or of the - a jar (kadon) . . . burning . . . (40) . . . practitioner (?) (dēmiourg-) . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I3
258 - Decree of the deme Plotheia
'. None
18. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 47, 212, 1138, 1140-1141, 1150, 1173, 1182
 Tagged with subjects: • Panathenaia (Great), crowns at • crown, deme • crown, multiple • crown, relief • crown, tribe • crowns • crowns, gold crowns • crowns, honorific

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 27; Gygax (2016) 232; Humphreys (2018) 607, 753, 754, 908, 933, 1011, 1120; Liddel (2020) 100, 124; Papazarkadas (2011) 274

47. . . . upon the table the following: . . . 1 mast-head cup; mast-head cup(s?) . . . a mast-head cup(?) into which the olive oil . . . another mast-head cup; a drinking cup (5) . . . made of metal(?); a statuette . . . a canteen-flask; a box; an incense-censer . . . a small tripod; small shield(s?) . . . 2 large shields; a large cupping-glass with a chain attached; 1 strigil (10) with a chain attached; a large strigil; another one with a chain attached; 2 cupping-glasses; a drinking cup; a canteen- flask or small cup; a cooling vessel; a brooch; 4 crowns Uninscribed line The following objects made of iron: (15) a large ring with a chain attached; a large strigil; medical forceps; 5 surgeon’s knives and forceps; 2 tablets/platters . . . tongs; 3 medical forceps; 4 strigils; (20) a ring with a chain; a statuette and . . . throughout the sanctuary worked in low relief . . . Decree The People decided. Athenodoros proposed. Concerning what the priest of Asklepios, Euthydemos, says, the People (25) shall resolve: in order that the preliminary sacrifices (prothumata) may be offered which Euthydemos the priest of Asklepios recommends (exegetai), and the other sacrifices take place on behalf of the People of the Athenians, the People shall resolve: that the overseers (epistatas) of the Asklepieion shall make the preliminary sacrifices (prothumata) that Euthydemos recommends (exegetai), (30) with money from the quarry set aside for the god, and pay the other money towards the building of the sanctuary; and in order that the Athenians may distribute as much meat as possible, the religious officials (hieropoios) in office shall take care of the (35) festival with respect to what comes from the People (dēmo); and distribute the meat of the leading ox to the prytany members and to the nine archons and the religious officials and those participating in the procession, and distribute the other meat to the Athenians . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
47 - Assembly decree concerning sacrifices in cult of Asklepios in Piraeus
212. Relief For Spartokos, Pairisades, Apollonios, children of Leukon. Painting Decree 1 In the archonship of Themistokles (3
47/6), in the eighth prytany, of AigeisII, (5) for which Lysimachos son of Sosidemos of Acharnai was secretary. Theophilos of Halimous was chairman. Androtion son of Andron of Gargettos proposed: concerning what Spartokos and Pairisades have written in their letter (10) and what the envoys who have come from them report, to reply to them that the Athenian People praises Spartokos and Pairisades because they are good men and undertake for the Athenian People to look after (15) the export of grain, as their father did, and to perform enthusiastically whatever service the People may require; and the envoys shall report to them that if they do these things there is nothing that they will fail to obtain from (20) the Athenian People; and since they make the same grants to the Athenians as Satyros and Leukon made, the grants which the People made to Satyros and Leukon shall apply to Spartokos and Pairisades; and to crown each of them with a gold crown (25) at every Great Panathenaia, of a thousand drachmas; and the Games-masters (athlothetas) shall have the crowns made in the year before the Great Panathenaia, in accordance with the decree of the People voted previously for Leukon; and to announce (30) that the Athenian People crowns Spartokos and Pairisades, the children of Leukon, for their excellence and good will towards the Athenian People; and since they are dedicating the crowns to Athena Polias, (35) the Games-masters (athlothetas) shall dedicate the crowns in the temple, having inscribed on them: “Spartokos and Pairisades, children of Leukon, dedicated to Athena having been crowned by the Athenian People”; and the treasurer of the People (40) shall give to the Games-masters (athlothetais) the money for the crowns from the fund allocated to the People for expenditure on decrees; but for now it shall be for the receivers (apodektas) to hand over the money for the crowns from the military fund; and (45) the secretary of the Council shall inscribe this decree on a stone stele and stand it near the one for Satyros and Leukon; and the treasurer of the People shall give thirty drachmas for inscribing it; and to praise the envoys, (50) Sosis and Theodosios, because they take care of those who visit the Bosporos from Athens; and invite them to hospitality in the city hall (prutaneion) tomorrow; and concerning the money which is owed to the children of Leukon, in order that (55) they may recover it, the presiding committee (proedros) allotted to preside in the People on the eighteenth shall put the matter on the agenda first after the religious business or after the sacrifices (meta ta hiera), so that they may recover the money and not have grounds for complaint against the Athenian People; and to give the ships\' officers (hupēresias) (60) that Spartokos and Pairisades ask for; and the envoys shall give a list of the names of the officers whom they are going to take to the secretary of the Council; and it shall be the duty of those listed to do all in their power (65) for the children of Leukon. Decree 2 Polyeuktos (66) son of Timokrates of Krioa10 proposed: in other respects as Androtion proposed, but crown11 Apollonios the son of Leukon from the same fund. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
212 - Honours for Spartokos and Pairisades, rulers of the Cimmerian Bosporos, and their brother, Apollonios

1173. Crown flanked by a plant Gods. Leonteus proposed: since -kles the demarch? managed the festival and the administration? of the common funds of the deme well, praise? (5)-kles son of Kallikles? for his justice and? crown him with a gold crown of a thousand or five hundred drachmas and praise also the? -, Lykomedes . . . and? . . . and the or To- . . . and crown (10) each of them with a foliage crown because they jointly managed the - well and with love of honour (philotimōs) . . . the festival . . . the demarch . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1173 - Honorific decree (of a deme? Acharnai? Kydantidai?)
'. None
19. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, city • crown, deme • crown, multiple • crowns • crowns, gold crowns • crowns, olive crowns • honorific crowns

 Found in books: Amendola (2022) 185, 186; Gygax (2016) 211, 231; Humphreys (2018) 530, 815, 881, 937, 938, 947, 1119, 1162, 1169

20. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Crowns • Stephanosis (public crowning) • crown, tribe • crowns • crowns, gold crowns • crowns, olive crowns

 Found in books: Connelly (2007) 204; Gygax (2016) 184, 188, 232; Humphreys (2018) 754

21. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • crown, at Dionysia • crown, of magistrates • crowns • crowns, gold crowns

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 43, 175, 183; Martin (2009) 25

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