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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
anthropomorphic/cosmic, nature of divinity in sophism dual Pucci (2016) 149
cosmic Despotis and Lohr (2022) 123, 167, 174, 180, 181, 195, 207, 208, 353, 354
Garcia (2021) 11, 17, 83, 100, 103, 106, 110, 144, 165, 237, 239, 243, 244, 269
cosmic, and gender, dualism Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 260, 261, 262
cosmic, and gods, soul Hoenig (2018) 32
cosmic, and human, intellect Inwood and Warren (2020) 127, 128, 129, 130, 131
cosmic, apuleius on, motion/ movement Hoenig (2018) 136, 137, 138, 146, 147
cosmic, apuleius on, timaean soul, influence Hoenig (2018) 120
cosmic, as ???? of all motion, soul Hoenig (2018) 25
cosmic, as third hypostasis, soul Hoenig (2018) 201, 202, 213
cosmic, battle Moss (2010) 89, 92, 95, 97, 98, 101, 102
cosmic, battle, martyrdom Moss (2010) 89, 92, 95, 97, 98, 101, 102
cosmic, beauty d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 161, 245
cosmic, being-life-intellect d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 28, 128
cosmic, breath, chrysippus, pneuma Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 212
cosmic, breath, judaism, pneuma as Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 212, 213
cosmic, causation Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 113
cosmic, chains Johnston (2008) 13, 127, 128, 167
cosmic, christology Novenson (2020) 74, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 294, 309, 314, 315
cosmic, city Jedan (2009) 46, 47, 111, 126, 184
Long (2006) 346
cosmic, community Graver (2007) 176, 179, 250
cosmic, conflagration Long (2006) 123, 124, 125, 129, 130, 237, 260, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274
cosmic, conflagration, contrasted with nile flood, distinguished from Williams (2012) 125
cosmic, conflict Morgan (2022) 118, 119, 120, 121, 166, 218, 219
cosmic, cosmos Faure (2022) 14, 50, 52, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 71, 74, 112
cosmic, createdness of soul Hoenig (2018) 24
cosmic, creates physical world, soul Hoenig (2018) 24
cosmic, creation of soul Hoenig (2018) 229
cosmic, dance Borg (2008) 390
Wilson (2010) 188
cosmic, deity Novenson (2020) 254, 255, 263, 270, 271, 277, 278, 286, 287, 288, 293, 298, 315
cosmic, demiurge and, soul Hoenig (2018) 16, 30, 31
cosmic, demiurge as creator of soul Hoenig (2018) 16, 23, 24
cosmic, design, plotinus, on O, Brien (2015) 53
cosmic, egg Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 64, 68, 382
cosmic, emblem in mithraism, sol, as Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 79, 81, 82, 86, 107
cosmic, eschatology in ovid Williams and Vol (2022) 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296
cosmic, eternity Hoenig (2018) 100, 101
cosmic, force Clay and Vergados (2022) 50, 51, 63, 75, 78, 79
cosmic, force, judaism, pneuma as unifying Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 212
cosmic, glue, water Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 212
cosmic, god Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 119
cosmic, harmony d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 271, 282, 283
cosmic, harmony, music and d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 282, 283, 285
cosmic, history, in plato Marincola et al (2021) 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233
cosmic, horizon of human vocation Dürr (2022) 224, 225, 226
cosmic, imagery, choruses, and Seaford (2018) 170, 171
cosmic, ingredients of soul Hoenig (2018) 16
cosmic, intellection/thinking, noêsis, νόησις‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 262
cosmic, justice, hermes, and Miller and Clay (2019) 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331
cosmic, kinship with human soul, soul Hoenig (2018) 16, 18
cosmic, law Malherbe et al (2014) 301
cosmic, love, empedoclean force Wolfsdorf (2020) 56, 57, 63, 64, 65, 70, 72, 571, 572, 573, 574
cosmic, nature Brouwer (2013) 25, 26, 27, 28, 37
Tsouni (2019) 81, 85, 87, 99, 190
cosmic, nature of aphrodite, dual anthropomorphic and Pucci (2016) 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 67, 148, 149, 150
cosmic, nature, cleanthes, level in the hierarchy of Brouwer (2013) 73
cosmic, nature, excellence, aretē, related to Brouwer (2013) 40
cosmic, nature, law, as the force pervading Brouwer (2013) 90, 174
cosmic, nature, nature, as level in the hierarchy of Brouwer (2013) 73
cosmic, nature, tenor, hexis, level in the hierarchy of Brouwer (2013) 72
cosmic, order Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 44, 57, 75, 467, 468, 469, 488
Legaspi (2018) 175, 193, 222, 223, 249
Nissinen and Uro (2008) 428
cosmic, order, cosmology, cosmos Ker and Wessels (2020) 3, 12, 24, 25, 33, 34, 38, 43, 56, 94, 95, 102, 138
cosmic, order, in hebrew bible Legaspi (2018) 48, 51, 56, 58, 59, 85, 94, 101, 102, 103, 105
cosmic, order, in plato Legaspi (2018) 137, 150, 151, 167
cosmic, order, διακόσμησις Schibli (2002) 287
cosmic, origin single progenitor Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631
cosmic, origin “first man” Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631
cosmic, plotinus and, soul Hoenig (2018) 24
cosmic, presentation in zeus combined anthropomorphic and Pucci (2016) 48
cosmic, principle of love King (2006) 54
cosmic, principle, anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with Pucci (2016) 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 28, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 67, 147, 148, 149, 150, 186
cosmic, principle, fire, as Long (2006) 239, 261, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272
cosmic, principle, peloponnesian war, as Joho (2022) 53, 54
cosmic, providential hierarchy, humans, as microcosms of Hoenig (2018) 14
cosmic, qualities, hathor, in solar barque Griffiths (1975) 140
cosmic, reason Brouwer (2013) 37, 161
cosmic, religion Malherbe et al (2014) 605, 616, 617
cosmic, religion, stoicism Malherbe et al (2014) 605, 617, 772, 839
cosmic, revolutions, demiurge, and Hoenig (2018) 138
cosmic, ruler, night/nighttime, as Ker and Wessels (2020) 57
cosmic, setting Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 381
cosmic, significance of rome, temple of apollo palatinus Rutledge (2012) 242
cosmic, significance of rome, temple of concordia Rutledge (2012) 267, 268
cosmic, significance of spoils in rome, forum of peace Rutledge (2012) 64, 122, 242, 272, 282, 283
cosmic, soul and, universe Hoenig (2018) 16
cosmic, soul, cosmic, soul/world soul, proofs of Inwood and Warren (2020) 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143
cosmic, soul, demiurge, of Hoenig (2018) 16
cosmic, soul, soul, human, kinship with Hoenig (2018) 16, 17, 18
cosmic, soul/world soul Inwood and Warren (2020) 154, 171, 172, 195, 209
cosmic, sounds Janowitz (2002b) 45, 50, 61, 81
cosmic, spectator Williams (2012) 113, 114, 116, 225
cosmic, spectator, licinius, crassus, m. Williams (2012) 172, 207, 208, 209, 210
cosmic, strife, empedoclean force Wolfsdorf (2020) 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 70, 72, 571, 572, 573, 574
cosmic, sympatheia, oracles Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 485
cosmic, sympathy Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 45, 46
Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 16, 25, 29, 30
Long (2006) 130, 133, 141, 146
Luck (2006) 5, 157, 286, 287, 372, 373, 395, 401, 402, 414, 416
Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 120, 169, 175
cosmic, sympathy, cosmos Maier and Waldner (2022) 74, 75, 76
cosmic, unity, spirit, effects of Levison (2009) 138, 139, 140, 144, 150, 248, 294
cosmic, view Blum and Biggs (2019) 268, 269, 270, 282, 288
cosmic, war, war Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 357
cosmic/anthropomorphic, divinity in bacchae, anthropomorphism, dual Pucci (2016) 147, 148, 149, 150
cosmic/primordial/archontic, spirit Rasimus (2009) 12, 17, 29, 67, 84, 85, 86, 98, 110, 119, 154, 205, 268
cosmos/cosmic Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 32, 74, 78, 91, 97, 98, 99, 111, 112, 143, 144, 152, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 182, 184, 185, 188, 190, 192, 194, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 205, 208, 243, 249
egg, cosmic, e. de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 3, 85, 95, 141, 250, 257
embryo, cosmic, e. de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 85
pre-cosmic, motion, soul, cosmic, and Hoenig (2018) 28

List of validated texts:
49 validated results for "cosmic"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic deity • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 112; Novenson (2020) 270

3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃''. None
3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.2, 1.26-1.28, 2.1, 2.7, 3.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic origin, Single progenitor • Cosmic origin, “First Man” • Egg, cosmic • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • Spirit, effects of, cosmic unity • angel, in cosmic order • cosmic • cosmic Christology • cosmic deity • cosmic order, in Hebrew Bible • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 382; Garcia (2021) 103, 106, 237; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 168, 243; Legaspi (2018) 51, 56, 101; Levison (2009) 150; Novenson (2020) 145, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 165, 170, 171, 286, 309; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631; Rasimus (2009) 12, 85, 86, 98, 119; Wiebe (2021) 33

1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃
1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃
2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃' '. None
1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them. 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’
2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’' '. None
3. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic order, in Hebrew Bible

 Found in books: Legaspi (2018) 101; Rasimus (2009) 17

4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 27.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic battle • martyrdom cosmic battle

 Found in books: Moss (2010) 92; Rasimus (2009) 17

27.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃'
27.1. כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃ '. None
27.1. In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea.''. None
5. Hesiod, Theogony, 206 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic (force) • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos)

 Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022) 75; Ker and Wessels (2020) 38

206. τέρψιν τε γλυκερὴν φιλότητά τε μειλιχίην τε.''. None
206. Then Cronus cast into the surging sea''. None
6. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle • oracles, cosmic sympatheia

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 485; Pucci (2016) 28

7. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 1345 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic origin, Single progenitor • Cosmic origin, “First Man” • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle

 Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631; Pucci (2016) 186

1345. For the deity, if he be really such, has no wants; these are miserable tales of the poets. But I, for all my piteous plight, reflected whether I should let myself be branded as a coward for giving up my life. For whoever does not withstand disaster''. None
8. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic origin, Single progenitor • Cosmic origin, “First Man” • Love (Empedoclean cosmic force) • Strife (Empedoclean cosmic force) • cosmic order, in Plato

 Found in books: Legaspi (2018) 137; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631; Wolfsdorf (2020) 571

508a. γῆν καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους τὴν κοινωνίαν συνέχειν καὶ φιλίαν καὶ κοσμιότητα καὶ σωφροσύνην καὶ δικαιότητα, καὶ τὸ ὅλον τοῦτο διὰ ταῦτα κόσμον καλοῦσιν, ὦ ἑταῖρε, οὐκ ἀκοσμίαν οὐδὲ ἀκολασίαν. σὺ δέ μοι δοκεῖς οὐ προσέχειν τὸν νοῦν τούτοις, καὶ ταῦτα σοφὸς ὤν, ἀλλὰ λέληθέν σε ὅτι ἡ ἰσότης ἡ γεωμετρικὴ καὶ ἐν θεοῖς καὶ ἐν ἀνθρώποις μέγα δύναται, σὺ δὲ πλεονεξίαν οἴει δεῖν ἀσκεῖν· γεωμετρίας γὰρ ἀμελεῖς. εἶεν· ἢ ἐξελεγκτέος δὴ οὗτος ὁ λόγος''. None
508a. and gods and men are held together by communion and friendship, by orderliness, temperance, and justice; and that is the reason, my friend, why they call the whole of this world by the name of order, not of disorder or dissoluteness. Now you, as it seems to me, do not give proper attention to this, for all your cleverness, but have failed to observe the great power of geometrical equality amongst both gods and men: you hold that self-advantage is what one ought to practice, because you neglect geometry. Very well: either we must refute this statement, that it is by the possession''. None
9. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic order, in Plato • soul, cosmic, as ???? of all motion

 Found in books: Hoenig (2018) 25; Legaspi (2018) 150

896a. ἄλλον πλὴν τὸν νυνδὴ ῥηθέντα, τὴν δυναμένην αὐτὴν αὑτὴν κινεῖν κίνησιν; ΚΛ. τὸ ἑαυτὸ κινεῖν φῂς λόγον ἔχειν τὴν αὐτὴν οὐσίαν, ἥνπερ τοὔνομα ὃ δὴ πάντες ψυχὴν προσαγορεύομεν; ΑΘ. φημί γε· εἰ δʼ ἔστι τοῦτο οὕτως ἔχον, ἆρα ἔτι ποθοῦμεν μὴ ἱκανῶς δεδεῖχθαι ψυχὴν ταὐτὸν ὂν καὶ τὴν πρώτην γένεσιν καὶ κίνησιν τῶν τε ὄντων καὶ γεγονότων καὶ ἐσομένων καὶ πάντων αὖ τῶν ἐναντίων τούτοις, ἐπειδή γε''. None
896a. Can we give it any other definition than that stated just now— the motion able to move itself ? Clin. Do you assert that self-movement is the definition of that very same substance which has soul as the name we universally apply to it? Ath. That is what I assert. And if this be really so, do we still complain that it has not been sufficiently proved that soul is identical with the prime origin and motion of what is, has been, and shall be, and of all''. None
10. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic history, in Plato, • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 184; Marincola et al (2021) 233

546a. How? Somewhat in this fashion. Hard in truth it is for a state thus constituted to be shaken and disturbed; but since for everything that has come into being destruction is appointed, not even such a fabric as this will abide for all time, but it shall surely be dissolved, and this is the manner of its dissolution. Not only for plants that grow from the earth but also for animals that live upon it there is a cycle of bearing and barrenness for soul and body as often as the revolutions of their orbs come full circle, in brief courses for the short-lived and oppositely for the opposite; but the laws of prosperous birth or infertility for your race,''. None
11. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic deity • egg,cosmic e. • gods, God, cosmic demiurge • motion/ movement, cosmic, Apuleius on

 Found in books: Broadie (2021) 200; Hoenig (2018) 136; Novenson (2020) 287; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 250

37d. καθάπερ οὖν αὐτὸ τυγχάνει ζῷον ἀίδιον ὄν, καὶ τόδε τὸ πᾶν οὕτως εἰς δύναμιν ἐπεχείρησε τοιοῦτον ἀποτελεῖν. ἡ μὲν οὖν τοῦ ζῴου φύσις ἐτύγχανεν οὖσα αἰώνιος, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τῷ γεννητῷ παντελῶς προσάπτειν οὐκ ἦν δυνατόν· εἰκὼ δʼ ἐπενόει κινητόν τινα αἰῶνος ποιῆσαι, καὶ διακοσμῶν ἅμα οὐρανὸν ποιεῖ μένοντος αἰῶνος ἐν ἑνὶ κατʼ ἀριθμὸν ἰοῦσαν αἰώνιον εἰκόνα, τοῦτον ὃν δὴ χρόνον ὠνομάκαμεν.' '. None
37d. till more closely. Accordingly, seeing that that Model is an eternal Living Creature, He set about making this Universe, so far as He could, of a like kind. But inasmuch as the nature of the Living Creature was eternal, this quality it was impossible to attach in its entirety to what is generated; wherefore He planned to make a movable image of Eternity, and, as He set in order the Heaven, of that Eternity which abides in unity He made an eternal image, moving according to number, even that which we have named Time.' '. None
12. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.4, 1.4.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Love (Empedoclean cosmic force) • intellect, cosmic and human

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 127, 130; Wolfsdorf (2020) 56, 57

1.4.8. σὺ δὲ σαυτῷ δοκεῖς τι φρόνιμον ἔχειν; ἐρώτα γοῦν καὶ ἀποκρινοῦμαι. ἄλλοθι δὲ οὐδαμοῦ οὐδὲν οἴει φρόνιμον εἶναι; καὶ ταῦτʼ εἰδὼς ὅτι γῆς τε μικρὸν μέρος ἐν τῷ σώματι πολλῆς οὔσης ἔχεις καὶ ὑγροῦ βραχὺ πολλοῦ ὄντος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων δήπου μεγάλων ὄντων ἑκάστου μικρὸν μέρος λαβόντι τὸ σῶμα συνήρμοσταί σοι· νοῦν δὲ μόνον ἄρα οὐδαμοῦ ὄντα σε εὐτυχῶς πως δοκεῖς συναρπάσαι, καὶ τάδε τὰ ὑπερμεγέθη καὶ πλῆθος ἄπειρα διʼ ἀφροσύνην τινά, ὡς οἴει, εὐτάκτως ἔχειν;' '. None
1.4.8. Do you think you have any wisdom yourself? Oh! Ask me a question and judge from my answer. And do you suppose that wisdom is nowhere else to be found, although you know that you have a mere speck of all the earth in your body and a mere drop of all the water, and that of all the other mighty elements you received, I suppose, just a scrap towards the fashioning of your body? But as for mind, which alone, it seems, is without mass, do you think that you snapped it up by a lucky accident, and that the orderly ranks of all these huge masses, infinite in number, are due, forsooth, to a sort of absurdity? ' '. None
13. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic order (cosmology, cosmos)

 Found in books: Ker and Wessels (2020) 3; Rasimus (2009) 84

14. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmos, cosmic • Love (Empedoclean cosmic force) • Strife (Empedoclean cosmic force)

 Found in books: Faure (2022) 50, 56, 59, 71; Wolfsdorf (2020) 63, 68, 70, 572

15. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic order • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 111, 152; Legaspi (2018) 249

16. Anon., Jubilees, 2.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic • cosmic Christology

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 237; Novenson (2020) 146

2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God.''. None
17. Cicero, On Divination, 1.13, 1.118, 1.131, 2.34-2.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chains, cosmic • cosmic sympathy • oracles, cosmic sympatheia

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 485; Johnston (2008) 13, 127, 128; Long (2006) 133

1.13. Mirari licet, quae sint animadversa a medicis herbarum genera, quae radicum ad morsus bestiarum, ad oculorum morbos, ad vulnera, quorum vim atque naturam ratio numquam explicavit, utilitate et ars est et inventor probatus. Age ea, quae quamquam ex alio genere sunt, tamen divinationi sunt similiora, videamus: Atque etiam ventos praemonstrat saepe futuros Inflatum mare, cum subito penitusque tumescit, Saxaque cana salis niveo spumata liquore Tristificas certant Neptuno reddere voces, Aut densus stridor cum celso e vertice montis Ortus adaugescit scopulorum saepe repulsus. Atque his rerum praesensionibus Prognostica tua referta sunt. Quis igitur elicere causas praesensionum potest? etsi video Boe+thum Stoicum esse conatum, qui hactenus aliquid egit, ut earum rationem rerum explicaret, quae in mari caelove fierent.
1.118. Sed distinguendum videtur, quonam modo. Nam non placet Stoicis singulis iecorum fissis aut avium cantibus interesse deum; neque enim decorum est nec dis dignum nec fieri ullo pacto potest; sed ita a principio inchoatum esse mundum, ut certis rebus certa signa praecurrerent, alia in extis, alia in avibus, alia in fulgoribus, alia in ostentis, alia in stellis, alia in somniantium visis, alia in furentium vocibus. Ea quibus bene percepta sunt, ii non saepe falluntur; male coniecta maleque interpretata falsa sunt non rerum vitio, sed interpretum inscientia. Hoc autem posito atque concesso, esse quandam vim divinam hominum vitam continentem, non difficile est, quae fieri certe videmus, ea qua ratione fiant, suspicari. Nam et ad hostiam deligendam potest dux esse vis quaedam sentiens, quae est toto confusa mundo, et tum ipsum, cum immolare velis, extorum fieri mutatio potest, ut aut absit aliquid aut supersit; parvis enim momentis multa natura aut adfingit aut mutat aut detrahit.

1.131. Democritus autem censet sapienter instituisse veteres, ut hostiarum immolatarum inspicerentur exta; quorum ex habitu atque ex colore tum salubritatis, tum pestilentiae signa percipi, non numquam etiam, quae sit vel sterilitas agrorum vel fertilitas futura. Quae si a natura profecta observatio atque usus agnovit, multa adferre potuit dies, quae animadvertendo notarentur, ut ille Pacuvianus, qui in Chryse physicus inducitur, minime naturam rerum cognosse videatur: nam isti quí linguam avium intéllegunt Plusque éx alieno iécore sapiunt quam éx suo, Magis aúdiendum quam aúscultandum cénseo. Cur? quaeso, cum ipse paucis interpositis versibus dicas satis luculente: Quídquid est hoc, ómnia animat, fórmat, alit, augét, creat, Sépelit recipitque ín sese omnia ómniumque idémst pater, Índidemque eadem aéque oriuntur de íntegro atque eodem óccidunt. Quid est igitur, cur, cum domus sit omnium una, eaque communis, cumque animi hominum semper fuerint futurique sint, cur ii, quid ex quoque eveniat, et quid quamque rem significet, perspicere non possint? Haec habui, inquit, de divinatione quae dicerem.
2.34. Quid de fretis aut de marinis aestibus plura dicam? quorum accessus et recessus lunae motu gubertur. Sescenta licet eiusdem modi proferri, ut distantium rerum cognatio naturalis appareat)—demus hoc; nihil enim huic disputationi adversatur; num etiam, si fissum cuiusdam modi fuerit in iecore, lucrum ostenditur? qua ex coniunctione naturae et quasi concentu atque consensu, quam sumpa/qeian Graeci appellant, convenire potest aut fissum iecoris cum lucello meo aut meus quaesticulus cum caelo, terra rerumque natura? Concedam hoc ipsum, si vis, etsi magnam iacturam causae fecero, si ullam esse convenientiam naturae cum extis concessero; 2.35. sed tamen eo concesso qui evenit, ut is, qui impetrire velit, convenientem hostiam rebus suis immolet? Hoc erat, quod ego non rebar posse dissolvi. At quam festive dissolvitur! pudet me non tui quidem, cuius etiam memoriam admiror, sed Chrysippi, Antipatri, Posidonii, qui idem istuc quidem dicunt, quod est dictum a te, ad hostiam deligendam ducem esse vim quandam sentientem atque divinam, quae toto confusa mundo sit. Illud vero multo etiam melius, quod et a te usurpatum est et dicitur ab illis: cum immolare quispiam velit, tum fieri extorum mutationem, ut aut absit aliquid aut supersit; 2.36. deorum enim numini parere omnia. Haec iam, mihi crede, ne aniculae quidem existimant. An censes, eundem vitulum si alius delegerit, sine capite iecur inventurum; si alius, cum capite? Haec decessio capitis aut accessio subitone fieri potest, ut se exta ad immolatoris fortunam accommodent? non perspicitis aleam quandam esse in hostiis deligendis, praesertim cum res ipsa doceat? Cum enim tristissuma exta sine capite fuerunt, quibus nihil videtur esse dirius, proxuma hostia litatur saepe pulcherrime. Ubi igitur illae minae superiorum extorum? aut quae tam subito facta est deorum tanta placatio? Sed adfers in tauri opimi extis immolante Caesare cor non fuisse; id quia non potuerit accidere, ut sine corde victuma illa viveret, iudicandum esse tum interisse cor, cum immolaretur. 2.37. Qui fit, ut alterum intellegas, sine corde non potuisse bovem vivere, alterum non videas, cor subito non potuisse nescio quo avolare? Ego enim possum vel nescire, quae vis sit cordis ad vivendum, vel suspicari contractum aliquo morbo bovis exile et exiguum et vietum cor et dissimile cordis fuisse; tu vero quid habes, quare putes, si paulo ante cor fuerit in tauro opimo, subito id in ipsa immolatione interisse? an quod aspexit vestitu purpureo excordem Caesarem, ipse corde privatus est? Urbem philosophiae, mihi crede, proditis, dum castella defenditis; nam, dum haruspicinam veram esse vultis, physiologiam totam pervertitis. Caput est in iecore, cor in extis; iam abscedet, simul ac molam et vinum insperseris; deus id eripiet, vis aliqua conficiet aut exedet. Non ergo omnium ortus atque obitus natura conficiet, et erit aliquid, quod aut ex nihilo oriatur aut in nihilum subito occidat. Quis hoc physicus dixit umquam? haruspices dicunt; his igitur quam physicis credendum potius existumas? 2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum. 2.39. An, cum in Aequimaelium misimus, qui adferat agnum, quem immolemus, is mihi agnus adfertur, qui habet exta rebus accommodata, et ad eum agnum non casu, sed duce deo servus deducitur? Nam si casum in eo quoque dicis esse quasi sortem quandam cum deorum voluntate coniunctam, doleo tantam Stoicos nostros Epicureis inridendi sui facultatem dedisse; non enim ignoras, quam ista derideant.''. None
1.13. And while it is difficult, perhaps, to apply this principle of nature to explain that kind of divination which we call artificial, yet Posidonius, who digs into the question as deep as one can, thinks that nature gives certain signs of future events. Thus Heraclides of Pontus records that it is the custom of the people of Ceos, once each year, to make a careful observation of the rising of the Dog-star and from such observation to conjecture whether the ensuing year will be healthy or pestilential. For if the star rises dim and, as it were enveloped in a fog, this indicates a thick and heavy atmosphere, which will give off very unwholesome vapours; but if the star appears clear and brilliant, this is a sign that the atmosphere is light and pure and, as a consequence, will be conducive to good health.
1.13. We may wonder at the variety of herbs that have been observed by physicians, of roots that are good for the bites of wild beasts, for eye affections, and for wounds, and though reason has never explained their force and nature, yet through their usefulness you have won approval for the medical art and for their discoverer.But come, let us consider instances, which although outside the category of divination, yet resemble it very closely:The heaving sea oft warns of coming storms,When suddenly its depths begin to swell;And hoary rocks, oerspread with snowy brine,To the sea, in boding tones, attempt reply;Or when from lofty mountain-peak upspringsA shrilly whistling wind, which stronger growsWith each repulse by hedge of circling cliffs.8 Your book, Prognostics, is full of such warning signs, but who can fathom their causes? And yet I see that the Stoic Boëthus has attempted to do so and has succeeded to the extent of explaining the phenomena of sea and sky.
1.118. But it seems necessary to settle the principle on which these signs depend. For, according to the Stoic doctrine, the gods are not directly responsible for every fissure in the liver or for every song of a bird; since, manifestly, that would not be seemly or proper in a god and furthermore is impossible. But, in the beginning, the universe was so created that certain results would be preceded by certain signs, which are given sometimes by entrails and by birds, sometimes by lightnings, by portents, and by stars, sometimes by dreams, and sometimes by utterances of persons in a frenzy. And these signs do not often deceive the persons who observe them properly. If prophecies, based on erroneous deductions and interpretations, turn out to be false, the fault is not chargeable to the signs but to the lack of skill in the interpreters.Assuming the proposition to be conceded that there is a divine power which pervades the lives of men, it is not hard to understand the principle directing those premonitory signs which we see come to pass. For it may be that the choice of a sacrificial victim is guided by an intelligent force, which is diffused throughout the universe; or, it may be that at the moment when the sacrifice is offered, a change in the vitals occurs and something is added or taken away; for many things are added to, changed, or diminished in an instant of time.

1.131. Again, Democritus expresses the opinion that the ancients acted wisely in providing for the inspection of the entrails of sacrifices; because, as he thinks, the colour and general condition of the entrails are prophetic sometimes of health and sometimes of sickness and sometimes also of whether the fields will be barren or productive. Now, if it is known by observation and experience that these means of divination have their source in nature, it must be that the observations made and records kept for a long period of time have added much to our knowledge of this subject. Hence, that natural philosopher introduced by Pacuvius into his play of Chryses, seems to show very scanty apprehension of the laws of nature when he speaks as follows:The men who know the speech of birds and moreDo learn from other livers than their own —Twere best to hear, I think, and not to heed.I do not know why this poet makes such a statement when only a few lines further on he says clearly enough:Whateer the power may be, it animates,Creates, gives form, increase, and nourishmentTo everything: of everything the sire,It takes all things unto itself and hidesWithin its breast; and as from it all thingsArise, likewise to it all things return.Since all things have one and the same and that a common home, and since the human soul has always been and will always be, why, then, should it not be able to understand what effect will follow any cause, and what sign will precede any event?This, said Quintus, is all that I had to say on divination. 58
2.34. There is no need to go on and mention the seas and straits with their tides, whose ebb and flow are governed by the motion of the moon. Innumerable instances of the same kind may be given to prove that some natural connexion does exist between objects apparently unrelated. Concede that it does exist; it does not contravene the point I make, that no sort of a cleft in a liver is prophetic of ficial gain. What natural tie, or what symphony, so to speak, or association, or what sympathy, as the Greeks term it, can there be between a cleft in a liver and a petty addition to my purse? Or what relationship between my miserable money-getting, on the one hand, and heaven, earth, and the laws of nature on the other?15 However, I will concede even this if you wish, though it will greatly weaken my case to admit that there is any connexion between nature and the condition of the entrails; 2.35. yet, suppose the concession is made, how is it brought about that the man in search of favourable signs will find a sacrifice suitable to his purpose? I thought the question insoluble. But what a fine solution is offered! I am not ashamed of you — I am actually astonished at your memory; but I am ashamed of Chrysippus, Antipater, and Posidonius who say exactly what you said: The choice of the sacrificial victim is directed by the sentient and divine power which pervades the entire universe.But even more absurd is that other pronouncement of theirs which you adopted: At the moment of sacrifice a change in the entrails takes place; something is added or something taken away; for all things are obedient to the Divine Will. 2.36. Upon my word, no old woman is credulous enough now to believe such stuff! Do you believe that the same bullock, if chosen by one man, will have a liver without a head, and if chosen by another will have a liver with a head? And is it possible that this sudden going or coming of the livers head occurs so that the entrails may adapt themselves to the situation of the person who offers the sacrifice? Do you Stoics fail to see in choosing the victim it is almost like a throw of the dice, especially as facts prove it? For when the entrails of the first victim have been without a head, which is the most fatal of all signs, it often happens that the sacrifice of the next victim is altogether favourable. Pray what became of the warnings of the first set of entrails? And how was the favour of the gods so completely and so suddenly gained?16 But, you say, Once, when Caesar was offering a sacrifice, there was no heart in the entrails of the sacrificial bull; and, and, since it would have been impossible for the victim to live without a heart, the heart must have disappeared at the moment of immolation. 2.37. How does it happen that you understand the one fact, that the bull could not have lived without a heart and do not realize the other, that the heart could not suddenly have vanished I know not where? As for me, possibly I do not know what vital function the heart performs; if I do I suspect that the bulls heart, as the result of a disease, became much wasted and shrunken and lost its resemblance to a heart. But, assuming that only a little while before the heart was in the sacrificial bull, why do you think it suddenly disappeared at the very moment of immolation? Dont you think, rather, that the bull lost his heart when he saw that Caesar in his purple robe had lost his head?Upon my word you Stoics surrender the very city of philosophy while defending its outworks! For, by your insistence on the truth of soothsaying, you utterly overthrow physiology. There is a head to the liver and a heart in the entrails, presto! they will vanish the very second you have sprinkled them with meal and wine! Aye, some god will snatch them away! Some invisible power will destroy them or eat them up! Then the creation and destruction of all things are not due to nature, and there are some things which spring from nothing or suddenly become nothing. Was any such statement ever made by any natural philosopher? It is made, you say, by soothsayers. Then do you think that soothsayers are worthier of belief than natural philosophers? 17 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices. 2.39. When I send a slave to Aequimelium to bring me a lamb for a sacrifice and he brings me the lamb which has entrails suited to the exigencies of my particular case, it was not chance, I suppose, but a god that led the slave to that particular lamb! If you say that in this case too chance is, as it were, a sort of lot in accordance with the divine will, then I am sorry that our Stoic friends have given the Epicureans so great an opportunity for laughter, for you know how much fun they make of statements like that.''. None
18. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.36, 2.21, 2.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cleanthes, level in the hierarchy of cosmic nature • Cosmic soul/world soul, proofs of cosmic soul • cosmic conflagration • cosmic sympathy • law, as the force pervading cosmic nature • nature, as level in the hierarchy of cosmic nature

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 73, 174; Inwood and Warren (2020) 133, 135; Long (2006) 123, 130

1.36. "Lastly, Balbus, I come to your Stoic school. Zeno\'s view is that the law of nature is divine, and that its function is to command what is right and to forbid the opposite. How he makes out this law to be alive passes our comprehension; yet we undoubtedly expect god to be a living being. In another passage however Zeno declares that the aether is god — if there is any meaning in a god without sensation, a form of deity that never presents itself to us when we offer up our prayers and supplications and make our vows. And in other books again he holds the view that a \'reason\' which pervades all nature is possessed of divine power. He likewise attributes the same powers to the stars, or at another time to the years, the months and the seasons. Again, in his interpretation of Hesiod\'s Theogony (or Origin of the Gods) he does away with the customary and received ideas of the gods altogether, for he does not reckon either Jupiter, Juno or Vesta as gods, or any being that bears a personal name, but teaches that these names have been assigned allegorically to dumb and lifeless things. ' "
2.21. 'That which has the faculty of reason is superior to that which has not the faculty of reason; but nothing is superior to the world; therefore the world has the faculty of reason.' A similar argument can be used to prove that the world is wise, and happy, and eternal; for things possessed of each of these attributes are superior to things devoid of them, and nothing is superior to the world. From this it will follow that the world is god. Zeno also argued thus: " '
2.36. Now this is the grade on which universal nature stands; and since she is of such a character as to be superior to all things and incapable of frustration by any, it follows of necessity that the world is an intelligent being, and indeed also a wise being. "Again, what can be more illogical than to deny that the being which embraces all things must be the best of all things, or, admitting this, to deny that it must be, first, possessed of life, secondly, rational and intelligent, and lastly, endowed with wisdom? How else can it be the best of all things? If it resembles plants or even animals, so far from being highest, it must be reckoned lowest in the scale of being. If again it be capable of reason yet has not been wise from the beginning, the world must be in a worse condition than mankind; for a man can become wise, but if in all the eternity of past time the world has been foolish, obviously it will never attain wisdom; and so it will be inferior to man, which is absurd. Therefore the world must be deemed to have been wise from the beginning, and divine. ''. None
19. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic origin, Single progenitor • Cosmic origin, “First Man” • cosmic Christology

 Found in books: Novenson (2020) 146; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631

7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.'"". None
20. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.26, 9.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic origin, Single progenitor • Cosmic origin, “First Man” • Spirit, effects of, cosmic unity • cosmic Christology

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 248; Novenson (2020) 158, 161; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631

7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness.
9.9. He that doeth righteousness layeth up life for himself with the Lord; And he that doeth wrongly forfeits his life to destruction;
9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments.''. None
21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic deity • intellect, cosmic and human

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 131; Novenson (2020) 271

22. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic soul/world soul, proofs of cosmic soul • cosmic city

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 137; Jedan (2009) 126

23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 16, 73 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic Christology • cosmic deity • cosmos/cosmic • tenor (hexis), level in the hierarchy of cosmic nature

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 72; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 243; Novenson (2020) 145, 254

16. for God, as apprehending beforehand, as a God must do, that there could not exist a good imitation without a good model, and that of the things perceptible to the external senses nothing could be faultless which wax not fashioned with reference to some archetypal idea conceived by the intellect, when he had determined to create this visible world, previously formed that one which is perceptible only by the intellect, in order that so using an incorporeal model formed as far as possible on the image of God, he might then make this corporeal world, a younger likeness of the elder creation, which should embrace as many different genera perceptible to the external senses, as the other world contains of those which are visible only to the intellect. '
73. of existing things, there are some which partake neither of virtue nor of vice; as for instance, plants and irrational animals; the one, because they are destitute of soul, and are regulated by a nature void of sense; and the other, because they are not endowed with mind of reason. But mind and reason may be looked upon as the abode of virtue and vice; as it is in them that they seem to dwell. Some things again partake of virtue alone, being without any participation in any kind of vice; as for instance, the stars, for they are said to be animals, and animals endowed with intelligence; or I might rather say, the mind of each of them is wholly and entirely virtuous, and unsusceptible of every kind of evil. Some things again are of a mixed nature, like man, who is capable of opposite qualities, of wisdom and folly, of temperance and dissoluteness, of courage and cowardice, of justice and injustice, in short of good and evil, of what is honourable and what is disgraceful, of virtue and vice. '. None
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.171 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judaism, Pneuma as cosmic breath • cosmic Christology

 Found in books: Novenson (2020) 157; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 213

1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. ''. None
25. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 55 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judaism, Pneuma as cosmic breath • Spirit, effects of, cosmic unity

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 150; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 213

55. For since the soul is spoken of in two ways, first of all as a whole, secondly, as to the domit part of it, which, to speak properly, is the soul of the soul, just as the eye is both the whole orb, and also the most important part of that orb, that namely by which we see; it seemed good to the law-giver that the essence of the soul should likewise be two-fold; blood being the essence of the entire soul, and the divine Spirit being the essence of the domit part of it; accordingly he says, in express words, "The soul of all flesh is the blood Thereof." ''. None
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rome, Forum of Peace, cosmic significance of spoils in • cosmic Christology

 Found in books: Novenson (2020) 146; Rutledge (2012) 282

5.218. τὸ θυμιατήριον δὲ διὰ τῶν τρισκαίδεκα θυμιαμάτων, οἷς ἐκ θαλάσσης ἀνεπίμπλατο καὶ τῆς τε ἀοικήτου καὶ οἰκουμένης, ἐσήμαινεν ὅτι τοῦ θεοῦ πάντα καὶ τῷ θεῷ.''. None
5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use.''. None
27. New Testament, 1 John, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic conflict

 Found in books: Morgan (2022) 121; Rasimus (2009) 268

4.1. Ἀγαπητοί, μὴ παντὶ πνεύματι πιστεύετε, ἀλλὰ δοκιμάζετε τὰ πνεύματα εἰ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐστίν, ὅτι πολλοὶ ψευδοπροφῆται ἐξεληλύθασιν εἰς τὸν κόσμον.''. None
4.1. Beloved, don't believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. "". None
28. New Testament, 1 Peter, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic battle • cosmic conflict • martyrdom cosmic battle

 Found in books: Morgan (2022) 120; Moss (2010) 89; Rasimus (2009) 110

5.8. Νήψατε, γρηγορήσατε. ὁ ἀντίδικος ὑμῶν διάβολος ὡς λέων ὠρυόμενος περιπατεῖ ζητῶν καταπιεῖν·''. None
5.8. Be sober and self-controlled. Be watchful. Your adversary the devil, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. ''. None
29. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.20, 15.24-15.28, 15.52, 15.55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Stoicism, cosmic religion • cosmic Christology • cosmic conflict • cosmic deity • religion, cosmic

 Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 617; Morgan (2022) 118, 119, 120, 121; Novenson (2020) 293, 298, 314, 315

10.20. ἀλλʼ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν τὰ ἔθνη,δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν,οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι.
15.24. εἶτα τὸ τέλος, ὅταν παραδιδῷ τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί, ὅταν καταργήσῃ πᾶσαν ἀρχὴν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐξουσίαν καὶ δύναμιν, 15.25. δεῖ γὰρ αὐτὸν βασιλεύεινἄχρι οὗθῇπάνταςτοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδαςαὐτοῦ. 15.26. ἔσχατος ἐχθρὸς καταργεῖται ὁ θάνατος, 15.27. πάνταγὰρὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ.ὅταν δὲ εἴπῃ ὅτι πάντα ὑποτέτακται, δῆλον ὅτι ἐκτὸς τοῦ ὑποτάξαντος αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα. 15.28. ὅταν δὲ ὑποταγῇ αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, τότε καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ υἱὸς ὑποταγήσεται τῷ ὑποτάξαντι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, ἵνα ᾖ ὁ θεὸς πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν.
15.52. ἐν ἀτόμῳ, ἐν ῥιπῇ ὀφθαλμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι· σαλπίσει γάρ, καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐγερθήσονται ἄφθαρτοι, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀλλαγησόμεθα.
15.55. ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον;''. None
10.20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons." '
15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all.
15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed.
15.55. "Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory?"'". None
30. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic conflict • cosmic deity

 Found in books: Morgan (2022) 118; Novenson (2020) 293

4.14. εἰ γὰρ πιστεύομεν ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἀνέστη, οὕτως καὶ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς κοιμηθέντας διὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἄξει σὺν αὐτῷ.''. None
4.14. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so those who have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him. ''. None
31. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic Christology • cosmic battle • cosmic conflict • martyrdom cosmic battle

 Found in books: Morgan (2022) 120; Moss (2010) 97, 98, 101; Novenson (2020) 160, 161, 162; Rasimus (2009) 86

1.5. καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός,ὁπρωτότοκοςτῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ὁἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς.Τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶλύσαντιἡμᾶςἐκ τῶν αμαρτιῶνἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ,' '. None
1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood;' '. None
32. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15-1.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic • cosmic Christology • cosmic pacification,

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 207; Novenson (2020) 139, 142, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169; Robbins et al (2017) 184

1.15. ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου, πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως, 1.16. ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα, εἴτε θρόνοι εἴτε κυριότητες εἴτε ἀρχαὶ εἴτε ἐξουσίαι· τὰ πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται· 1.17. καὶ αὐτὸς ἔστιν πρὸ πάντων καὶ τὰ πάντα ἐν αὐτῷ συνέστηκεν, 1.18. καὶ αὐτός ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλὴ τοῦ σώματος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας· ὅς ἐστιν ἡ ἀρχή, πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἵνα γένηται ἐν πᾶσιν αὐτὸς πρωτεύων, 1.19. ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ εὐδόκησεν πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα κατοικῆσαι 1.20. καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ ἀποκαταλλάξαι τὰ πάντα εἰς αὐτόν, εἰρηνοποιήσας διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ σταυροῦ αὐτοῦ, διʼ αὐτοῦ εἴτε τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἴτε τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·''. None
1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. ''. None
33. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic Christology • cosmic conflict

 Found in books: Morgan (2022) 120; Novenson (2020) 74, 166

1.21. ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως καὶ κυριότητος καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι·''. None
1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. ''. None
34. New Testament, Philippians, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic Christology • cosmic deity

 Found in books: Novenson (2020) 168, 293; Rasimus (2009) 29, 84, 85

2.7. ἀλλὰ ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσεν μορφὴν δούλου λαβών, ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος· καὶ σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος''. None
2.7. but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men. ''. None
35. New Testament, Romans, 8.18, 8.29, 8.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic Christology • cosmic conflict • cosmic deity • human vocation, cosmic horizon of

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 226; Morgan (2022) 120, 166; Novenson (2020) 161, 293, 298

8.18. Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς.
8.29. ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς·
8.38. πέπεισμαι γὰρ ὅτι οὔτε θάνατος οὔτε ζωὴ οὔτε ἄγγελοι οὔτε ἀρχαὶ οὔτε ἐνεστῶτα οὔτε μέλλοντα οὔτε δυνάμεις''. None
8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us.
8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.
8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, ''. None
36. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.4, 1.6-1.7, 1.10, 1.13-1.14, 2.1-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic • cosmic Christology • cosmic conflict • cosmic order • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 207; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 144, 182, 190, 202, 249; Legaspi (2018) 223; Morgan (2022) 218, 219; Novenson (2020) 145, 159, 164; Rasimus (2009) 154, 268

1.1. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. 1.2. Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. 1.3. πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. 1.4. ὃ γέγονεν ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων·
1.6. Ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ, ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἰωάνης· 1.7. οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν, ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός, ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν διʼ αὐτοῦ.

1.10. ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.

1.13. οἳ οὐκ ἐξ αἱμάτων οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρὸς ἀλλʼ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν.
1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔
2.1. Καὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ γάμος ἐγένετο ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ ἦν ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐκεῖ· 2.2. ἐκλήθη δὲ καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν γάμον. 2.3. καὶ ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου λέγει ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν Οἶνον οὐκ ἔχουσιν. 2.4. καὶ λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, γύναι; οὔπω ἥκει ἡ ὥρα μου. 2.5. λέγει ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ τοῖς διακόνοις Ὅτι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν ποιήσατε. 2.6. ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ λίθιναι ὑδρίαι ἓξ κατὰ τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων κείμεναι, χωροῦσαι ἀνὰ μετρητὰς δύο ἢ τρεῖς. 2.7. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Γεμίσατε τὰς ὑδρίας ὕδατος· καὶ ἐγέμισαν αὐτὰς ἕως ἄνω. 2.8. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἀντλήσατε νῦν καὶ φέρετε τῷ ἀρχιτρικλίνῳ· οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν. 2.9. ὡς δὲ ἐγεύσατο ὁ ἀρχιτρίκλινος τὸ ὕδωρ οἶνον γεγενημένον, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει πόθεν ἐστίν, οἱ δὲ διάκονοι ᾔδεισαν οἱ ἠντληκότες τὸ ὕδωρ, φωνεῖ τὸν νυμφίον ὁ ἀρχιτρίκλινος
2.10. καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Πᾶς ἄνθρωπος πρῶτον τὸν καλὸν οἶνον τίθησιν, καὶ ὅταν μεθυσθῶσιν τὸν ἐλάσσω· σὺ τετήρηκας τὸν καλὸν οἶνον ἕως ἄρτι.
2.11. Ταύτην ἐποίησεν ἀρχὴν τῶν σημείων ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐφανέρωσεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ.' '. None
1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men.
1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. ' "

1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. " '

1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. ' "
2.1. The third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Jesus' mother was there. " '2.2. Jesus also was invited, with his disciples, to the marriage. 2.3. When the wine ran out, Jesus\' mother said to him, "They have no wine." 2.4. Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does that have to do with you and me? My hour has not yet come." 2.5. His mother said to the servants, "Whatever he says to you, do it."' "2.6. Now there were six water pots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three metretes apiece. " '2.7. Jesus said to them, "Fill the water pots with water." They filled them up to the brim. 2.8. He said to them, "Now draw some out, and take it to the ruler of the feast." So they took it. ' "2.9. When the ruler of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and didn't know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the ruler of the feast called the bridegroom, " '
2.10. and said to him, "Everyone serves the good wine first, and when the guests have drunk freely, then that which is worse. You have kept the good wine until now!"
2.11. This beginning of his signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him. ' '. None
37. New Testament, Luke, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic Christology • cosmic conflict

 Found in books: Morgan (2022) 219; Novenson (2020) 309

7.6. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς. ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας ἔπεμψεν φίλους ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης λέγων αὐτῷ Κύριε, μὴ σκύλλου, οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς·''. None
7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don\'t trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof. ''. None
38. New Testament, Mark, 4.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic Christology • cosmic order

 Found in books: Legaspi (2018) 223; Novenson (2020) 163

4.41. καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν, καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ;''. None
4.41. They were greatly afraid, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?" ''. None
39. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Love (Empedoclean cosmic force) • Strife (Empedoclean cosmic force) • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 152; Wolfsdorf (2020) 572

370d. the one of whom is harsh and contentious, and the other mild and tutelary. Observe also that the philosophers are in agreement with these; for Heracleitus without reservation styles War "the Father and King and Lord of all," and he says that when Homer prays that Strife may vanish from the ranks of the gods and of mortals, he fails to note that he is invoking a curse on the origin of all things, since all things originate from strife and antagonism; also Heracleitus says that the Sun will not transgress his appropriate bounds, otherwise the stern-eyed maidens, ministers of Justice, will find him out.''. None
40. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 9.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic conflagration • law, as the force pervading cosmic nature

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 90; Long (2006) 270

9.16. People may say: "But what sort of existence will the wise man have, if he be left friendless when thrown into prison, or when stranded in some foreign nation, or when delayed on a long voyage, or when cast upon a lonely shore?" His life will be like that of Jupiter, who, amid the dissolution of the world, when the gods are confounded together and Nature rests for a space from her work, can retire into himself and give himself over to his own thoughts.10 In some such way as this the sage will act; he will retreat into himself, and live with himself. ''. None
41. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • cosmic • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 207; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 144

42. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmos, cosmic • Love (Empedoclean cosmic force) • Strife (Empedoclean cosmic force) • cosmic conflagration • cosmic sympathy • soul, cosmic

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 612; Faure (2022) 58; Long (2006) 130; Wolfsdorf (2020) 64

43. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.30.3, 1.30.5, 5.17-5.19, 5.19.14-5.19.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, cosmic/primordial/archontic • cosmic deity

 Found in books: Novenson (2020) 255, 278; Rasimus (2009) 12, 17, 29, 67, 84, 85, 98, 110

1.30.3. They teach, however, that the power which proceeded from the woman by ebullition, being besprinkled with light, fell downward from the place occupied by its progenitors, yet possessing by its own will that besprinkling of light; and it they call Sinistra, Prunicus, and Sophia, as well as masculo-feminine. This being, in its simplicity, descended into the waters while they were yet in a state of immobility, and imparted motion to them also, wantonly acting upon them even to their lowest depths, and assumed from them a body. For they affirm that all things rushed towards and clung to that sprinkling of light, and begin it all round. Unless it had possessed that, it would perhaps have been totally absorbed in, and overwhelmed by, material substance. Being therefore bound down by a body which was composed of matter, and greatly burdened by it, this power regretted the course it had followed, and made an attempt to escape from the waters and ascend to its mother: it could not effect this, however, on account of the weight of the body lying over and around it. But feeling very ill at ease, it endeavoured at least to conceal that light which came from above, fearing lest it too might be injured by the inferior elements, as had happened to itself. And when it had received power from that besprinkling of light which it possessed, it sprang back again, and was borne aloft; and being on high, it extended itself, covered a portion of space, and formed this visible heaven out of its body; yet remained under the heaven which it made, as still possessing the form of a watery body. But when it had conceived a desire for the light above, and had received power by all things, it laid down this body, and was freed from it. This body which they speak of that power as having thrown off, they call a female from a female.
1.30.5. They have also given names to the several persons in their system of falsehood, such as the following: he who was the first descendant of the mother is called Ialdabaoth; he, again, descended from him, is named Iao; he, from this one, is called Sabaoth; the fourth is named Adoneus; the fifth, Eloeus; the sixth, Oreus; and the seventh and last of all, Astanphaeus. Moreover, they represent these heavens, potentates, powers, angels, and creators, as sitting in their proper order in heaven, according to their generation, and as invisibly ruling over things celestial and terrestrial. The first of them, namely Ialdabaoth, holds his mother in contempt, inasmuch as he produced sons and grandsons without the permission of any one, yea, even angels, archangels, powers, potentates, and dominions. After these things had been done, his sons turned to strive and quarrel with him about the supreme power,--conduct which deeply grieved Ialdabaoth, and drove him to despair. In these circumstances, he cast his eyes upon the subjacent dregs of matter, and fixed his desire upon it, to which they declare his son owes his origin. This son is Nous himself, twisted into the form of a serpent; and hence were derived the spirit, the soul, and all mundane things: from this too were generated all oblivion, wickedness, emulation, envy, and death. They declare that the father imparted still greater crookedness to this serpent-like and contorted Nous of theirs, when he was with their father in heaven and Paradise.
5.17. The opinion of the Sethians appears to us to have been sufficiently elucidated. If, however, any one is desirous of learning the entire doctrine according to them, let him read a book inscribed Paraphrase of Seth; for all their secret tenets he will find deposited there. But since we have explained the opinions entertained by the Sethians, let us see also what are the doctrines advanced by Justinus. 5.18. Justinus was entirely opposed to the teaching of the holy Scriptures, and moreover to the written or oral teaching of the blessed evangelists, according as the Logos was accustomed to instruct His disciples, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles; and this signifies that they should not attend to the futile doctrine of the Gentiles. This (heretic) endeavours to lead on his hearers into an acknowledgment of prodigies detailed by the Gentiles, and of doctrines inculcated by them. And he narrates, word for word, legendary accounts prevalent among the Greeks, and does not previously teach or deliver his perfect mystery, unless he has bound his dupe by an oath. Then he brings forward (these) fables for the purpose of persuasion, in order that they who are conversant with the incalculable trifling of these books may have some consolation in the details of these legends. Thus it happens as when in like manner one making a long journey deems it expedient, on having fallen in with an inn, to take repose. And so it is that, when once more they are induced to turn towards studying the diffuse doctrine of these lectures, they may not abhor them while they, undergoing instruction unnecessarily prolix, rush stupified into the transgression devised by (Justinus); and previously he binds his followers with horrible oaths, neither to publish nor abjure these doctrines, and forces upon them an acknowledgment (of their truth). And in this manner he delivers the mysteries impiously discovered by himself, partly, according to the statements previously made, availing himself of the Hellenic legends, and partly of those pretended books which, to some extent, bear a resemblance to the foresaid heresies. For all, forced together by one spirit, are drawn into one profound abyss of pollution, inculcating the same tenets, and detailing the same legends, each after a different method. All those, however, style themselves Gnostics in this peculiar sense, that they alone themselves have imbibed the marvellous knowledge of the Perfect and Good (Being). 5.19.19. But swear, says Justinus, if you wish to know what eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and the things which have not entered into the heart; that is, if you wish to know Him who is good above all, Him who is more exalted, (swear) that you will preserve the secrets (of the Justinian) discipline, as intended to be kept silent. For also our Father, on beholding the Good One, and on being initiated with Him, preserved the mysteries respecting which silence is enjoined, and swore, as it has been written, The Lord swore, and will not repent. Having, then, in this way set the seal to these tenets, he seeks to inveigle (his followers) with more legends, (which are detailed) through a greater number of books; and so he conducts (his readers) to the Good One, consummating the initiated (by admitting them into) the unspeakable Mysteries. In order, however, that we may not wade through more of their volumes, we shall illustrate the ineffable Mysteries (of Justinus) from one book of his, inasmuch as, according to his supposition, it is (a work) of high repute. Now this volume is inscribed Baruch; and one fabulous account out of many which is explained by (Justinus) in this (volume), we shall point out, inasmuch as it is to be found in Herodotus. But after imparting a different shape to this (account), he explains it to his pupils as if it were something novel, being under the impression that the entire arrangement of his doctrine (springs) out of it. '5.19. But swear, says Justinus, if you wish to know what eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and the things which have not entered into the heart; that is, if you wish to know Him who is good above all, Him who is more exalted, (swear) that you will preserve the secrets (of the Justinian) discipline, as intended to be kept silent. For also our Father, on beholding the Good One, and on being initiated with Him, preserved the mysteries respecting which silence is enjoined, and swore, as it has been written, The Lord swore, and will not repent. Having, then, in this way set the seal to these tenets, he seeks to inveigle (his followers) with more legends, (which are detailed) through a greater number of books; and so he conducts (his readers) to the Good One, consummating the initiated (by admitting them into) the unspeakable Mysteries. In order, however, that we may not wade through more of their volumes, we shall illustrate the ineffable Mysteries (of Justinus) from one book of his, inasmuch as, according to his supposition, it is (a work) of high repute. Now this volume is inscribed Baruch; and one fabulous account out of many which is explained by (Justinus) in this (volume), we shall point out, inasmuch as it is to be found in Herodotus. But after imparting a different shape to this (account), he explains it to his pupils as if it were something novel, being under the impression that the entire arrangement of his doctrine (springs) out of it. '. None
44. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.85-7.88, 7.135-7.136, 7.139, 7.143 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cleanthes, level in the hierarchy of cosmic nature • Cosmic soul/world soul, proofs of cosmic soul • Spirit, effects of, cosmic unity • community, cosmic • cosmic • cosmic conflagration • excellence (aretē), related to cosmic nature • fire, as cosmic principle • law, as the force pervading cosmic nature • nature, as level in the hierarchy of cosmic nature • nature, cosmic • reason, cosmic

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 25, 27, 28, 37, 40, 73, 174; Despotis and Lohr (2022) 174, 195; Graver (2007) 250; Inwood and Warren (2020) 136, 137; Levison (2009) 139, 140; Long (2006) 239, 266, 268; Tsouni (2019) 81, 85, 87, 190

7.85. An animal's first impulse, say the Stoics, is to self-preservation, because nature from the outset endears it to itself, as Chrysippus affirms in the first book of his work On Ends: his words are, The dearest thing to every animal is its own constitution and its consciousness thereof; for it was not likely that nature should estrange the living thing from itself or that she should leave the creature she has made without either estrangement from or affection for its own constitution. We are forced then to conclude that nature in constituting the animal made it near and dear to itself; for so it comes to repel all that is injurious and give free access to all that is serviceable or akin to it." "7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically." '7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe. 7.88. And this is why the end may be defined as life in accordance with nature, or, in other words, in accordance with our own human nature as well as that of the universe, a life in which we refrain from every action forbidden by the law common to all things, that is to say, the right reason which pervades all things, and is identical with this Zeus, lord and ruler of all that is. And this very thing constitutes the virtue of the happy man and the smooth current of life, when all actions promote the harmony of the spirit dwelling in the individual man with the will of him who orders the universe. Diogenes then expressly declares the end to be to act with good reason in the selection of what is natural. Archedemus says the end is to live in the performance of all befitting actions.
7.135. Body is defined by Apollodorus in his Physics as that which is extended in three dimensions, length, breadth, and depth. This is also called solid body. But surface is the extremity of a solid body, or that which has length and breadth only without depth. That surface exists not only in our thought but also in reality is maintained by Posidonius in the third book of his Celestial Phenomena. A line is the extremity of a surface or length without breadth, or that which has length alone. A point is the extremity of a line, the smallest possible mark or dot.God is one and the same with Reason, Fate, and Zeus; he is also called by many other names. 7.136. In the beginning he was by himself; he transformed the whole of substance through air into water, and just as in animal generation the seed has a moist vehicle, so in cosmic moisture God, who is the seminal reason of the universe, remains behind in the moisture as such an agent, adapting matter to himself with a view to the next stage of creation. Thereupon he created first of all the four elements, fire, water, air, earth. They are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, and by Archedemus in a work On Elements. An element is defined as that from which particular things first come to be at their birth and into which they are finally resolved.
7.139. For through some parts it passes as a hold or containing force, as is the case with our bones and sinews; while through others it passes as intelligence, as in the ruling part of the soul. Thus, then, the whole world is a living being, endowed with soul and reason, and having aether for its ruling principle: so says Antipater of Tyre in the eighth book of his treatise On the Cosmos. Chrysippus in the first book of his work On Providence and Posidonius in his book On the Gods say that the heaven, but Cleanthes that the sun, is the ruling power of the world. Chrysippus, however, in the course of the same work gives a somewhat different account, namely, that it is the purer part of the aether; the same which they declare to be preeminently God and always to have, as it were in sensible fashion, pervaded all that is in the air, all animals and plants, and also the earth itself, as a principle of cohesion.
7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite.'". None
45. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.52, 8.21 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic origin, Single progenitor • Cosmic origin, “First Man” • cosmic deity

 Found in books: Novenson (2020) 286, 287; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 631

6.52. Celsus proceeds as follows: With regard to the origin of the world and its destruction, whether it is to be regarded as uncreated and indestructible, or as created indeed, but not destructible, or the reverse, I at present say nothing. For this reason we too say nothing on these points, as the work in hand does not require it. Nor do we allege that the Spirit of the universal God mingled itself in things here below as in things alien to itself, as might appear from the expression, The Spirit of God moved upon the water; nor do we assert that certain wicked devices directed against His Spirit, as if by a different creator from the great God, and which were tolerated by the Supreme Divinity, needed to be completely frustrated. And, accordingly, I have nothing further to say to those who utter such absurdities; nor to Celsus, who does not refute them with ability. For he ought either not to have mentioned such matters at all, or else, in keeping with that character for philanthropy which he assumes, have carefully set them forth, and then endeavoured to rebut these impious assertions. Nor have we ever heard that the great God, after giving his spirit to the creator, demands it back again. Proceeding next foolishly to assail these impious assertions, he asks: What god gives anything with the intention of demanding it back? For it is the mark of a needy person to demand back (what he has given), whereas God stands in need of nothing. To this he adds, as if saying something clever against certain parties: Why, when he lent (his spirit), was he ignorant that he was lending it to an evil being? He asks, further: Why does he pass without notice a wicked creator who was counter-working his purposes? ' "
8.21. Let us see what Celsus further says of God, and how he urges us to the use of those things which are properly called idol offerings, or, still better, offerings to demons, although, in his ignorance of what true sanctity is, and what sacrifices are well-pleasing to God, he call them holy sacrifices. His words are, God is the God of all alike; He is good, He stands in need of nothing, and He is without jealousy. What, then, is there to hinder those who are most devoted to His service from taking part in public feasts. I cannot see the connection which he fancies between God's being good, and independent, and free from jealousy, and His devoted servants taking part in public feasts. I confess, indeed, that from the fact that God is good, and without want of anything, and free from jealousy, it would follow as a consequence that we might take part in public feasts, if it were proved that the public feasts had nothing wrong in them, and were grounded upon true views of the character of God, so that they resulted naturally from a devout service of God. If, however, the so-called public festivals can in no way be shown to accord with the service of God, but may on the contrary be proved to have been devised by men when occasion offered to commemorate some human events, or to set forth certain qualities of water or earth, or the fruits of the earth - in that case, it is clear that those who wish to offer an enlightened worship to the Divine Being will act according to sound reason, and not take part in the public feasts. For to keep a feast, as one of the wise men of Greece has well said, is nothing else than to do one's duty; and that man truly celebrates a feast who does his duty and prays always, offering up continually bloodless sacrifices in prayer to God. That therefore seems to me a most noble saying of Paul, You observe days, and months, and times, and years. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain. "'. None
46. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cosmic soul/world soul, proofs of cosmic soul • cosmic conflagration • fire, as cosmic principle • intellect, cosmic and human • nature, cosmic • reason, cosmic

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 37; Inwood and Warren (2020) 131, 136; Long (2006) 272

47. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sol, ; as cosmic emblem in Mithraism • cosmos/cosmic

 Found in books: Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 86; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 185

48. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Rome, Temple of Concordia, cosmic significance of • cosmic conflagration • cosmic sympathy • cosmic sympathy,

 Found in books: Long (2006) 130; Luck (2006) 395, 401, 402; Rutledge (2012) 268

49. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Egg, cosmic • egg,cosmic e.

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 64; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 250

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