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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
competed, for with sparta, apollo pythaieus, at asine Kowalzig (2007) 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160
competed, for, shares, sacrificial, delphi Kowalzig (2007) 189, 190, 192
competed, over, panhellenism Kowalzig (2007) 207, 208, 209, 210, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
competence Gagné (2020) 277
competence, in greek, augustinus hipponensis Hellholm et al. (2010) 934
competence, in language Czajkowski et al (2020) 56, 57
competence, infinity of linguistic James (2021) 192, 193, 194, 195, 196
competence, linguistic James (2021) 28, 76, 87, 164, 165, 201, 252, 293
competence, of audience Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 11, 93, 98, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 174
competence, of jewish authorities, luke Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 756, 757, 763
competence, of origen, philosophical Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 92, 93
competence, ritual Stavrianopoulou (2006) 137, 267
competence, sextus empiricus, on the infinity of linguistic James (2021) 193, 194, 195, 196
competencies, reading reading culture Johnson and Parker (2009) 321
competes, with ajax for achilles’ arms, odysseus Greensmith (2021) 89, 90, 91
competing, aeschylus, multiple Kowalzig (2007) 275, 308, 309, 310
competing, claims to, apollo pythios, delphi Kowalzig (2007) 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 275, 276
competing, claims, authority, against Hayes (2022) 511
competing, claims, master narrative Simon-Shushan (2012) 88
competing, definitions of resurrection Mcglothlin (2018) 52, 99, 100, 101, 102, 150, 158, 245, 246
competing, ethnic identities, akhaia, akhaians, s. italy Kowalzig (2007) 268, 269, 270, 271, 298, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324
competing, ethnicities network, of myths and rituals, also myth-ritual web, grid, framework, and, aegean Kowalzig (2007) 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325
competing, for adhesion, ethnicity, ethnic identity, multiple Kowalzig (2007) 298, 310, 319, 320, 321
competing, for, athena, at athens, rhodes Kowalzig (2007) 228, 229, 230, 265
competing, images of julio-claudians Fertik (2019) 40
competing, interests with emperors of bishops, nicene Kraemer (2020) 175, 190
competing, with other religious figures, rabbis Janowitz (2002b) 105

List of validated texts:
12 validated results for "competed"
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 11-12, 20-24, 26 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • authority, competition for authority • competition • competition,

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 68; Lloyd (1989) 58; Álvarez (2019) 80

11. οὐκ ἄρα μοῦνον ἔην Ἐρίδων γένος, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ γαῖαν'12. εἰσὶ δύω· τὴν μέν κεν ἐπαινέσσειε νοήσας,
20. ἥτε καὶ ἀπάλαμόν περ ὁμῶς ἐπὶ ἔργον ἔγειρεν. 21. εἰς ἕτερον γάρ τίς τε ἰδὼν ἔργοιο χατίζει 22. πλούσιον, ὃς σπεύδει μὲν ἀρώμεναι ἠδὲ φυτεύειν 23. οἶκόν τʼ εὖ θέσθαι· ζηλοῖ δέ τε γείτονα γείτων 24. εἰς ἄφενος σπεύδοντʼ· ἀγαθὴ δʼ Ἔρις ἥδε βροτοῖσιν.
26. καὶ πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει καὶ ἀοιδὸς ἀοιδῷ. '. None
11. Not one, but two Strifes live on earth: when these'12. Are known, one’s praised, one blamed, because these two
20. Even the slack to work. One craves to toil 21. When others prosper, hankering to seed 22. And plough and set his house in harmony. 23. So neighbour vies with neighbour in great need 24. of wealth: this Strife well serves humanity.
26. A beggar bears his fellow-beggar spite, '. None
2. Homer, Iliad, 14.201, 14.246, 18.550 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • beauty, competition • competition • elite, and competition

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 27; Gygax (2016) 74; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 195

14.201. Ὠκεανόν τε θεῶν γένεσιν καὶ μητέρα Τηθύν,
14.246. Ὠκεανοῦ, ὅς περ γένεσις πάντεσσι τέτυκται·
18.550. ἐν δʼ ἐτίθει τέμενος βασιλήϊον· ἔνθα δʼ ἔριθοι''. None
14.201. For I am faring to visit the limits of the all-nurturing earth, and Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, and mother Tethys, even them that lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls, when they had taken me from Rhea, what time Zeus, whose voice is borne afar, thrust Cronos down to dwell beneath earth and the unresting sea.
14.246. Oceanus, from whom they all are sprung; but to Zeus, son of Cronos, will I not draw nigh, neither lull him to slumber, unless of himself he bid me. For ere now in another matter did a behest of thine teach me a lesson, ' "
18.550. Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them "'. None
3. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • beauty, competition • competition,

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 242; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 195, 197

4. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • competition, • epinikion, elite competition and interaction in • festivals,, elite competition in

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 601; Kowalzig (2007) 386

5. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • competition • shares, sacrificial (Delphi), competed for

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007) 189; Lloyd (1989) 58

6. Herodotus, Histories, 4.15, 5.97, 8.47 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, multiple competing • Akhaia, Akhaians (s. Italy), competing ethnic identities • aristocracy, aristocrats, aristocratic,, competition among • competition • competition, • ethnicity, ethnic identity, multiple competing for adhesion • identity, general, competitive renegotiation of • network, of myths and rituals (also myth-ritual web, grid, framework), and competing ethnicities (Aegean)

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 678; Gagné (2020) 293; Kowalzig (2007) 105, 308, 320; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 159

4.15. ταῦτα μὲν αἱ πόλιες αὗται λέγουσι, τάδε δὲ οἶδα Μεταποντίνοισι τοῖσι ἐν Ἰταλίῃ συγκυρήσαντα μετὰ τὴν ἀφάνισιν τὴν δευτέρην Ἀριστέω ἔτεσι τεσσεράκοντα καὶ διηκοσίοισι, ὡς ἐγὼ συμβαλλόμενος ἐν Προκοννήσῳ τε καὶ Μεταποντίῳ εὕρισκον. Μεταποντῖνοι φασὶ αὐτὸν Ἀριστέην φανέντα σφι ἐς τὴν χώρην κελεῦσαι βωμὸν Ἀπόλλωνος ἱδρύσασθαι καὶ Ἀριστέω τοῦ Προκοννησίου ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντα ἀνδριάντα πὰρʼ αὐτὸν ἱστάναι· φάναι γὰρ σφι τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα Ἰταλιωτέων μούνοισι δὴ ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν χώρην, καὶ αὐτὸς οἱ ἕπεσθαι ὁ νῦν ἐὼν Ἀριστέης· τότε δὲ, ὅτε εἵπετο τῷ θεῷ, εἶναι κόραξ. καὶ τὸν μὲν εἰπόντα ταῦτα ἀφανισθῆναι, σφέας δὲ Μεταποντῖνοι λέγουσι ἐς Δελφοὺς πέμψαντας τὸν θεὸν ἐπειρωτᾶν ὃ τι τὸ φάσμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἴη. τὴν δὲ Πυθίην σφέας κελεύειν πείθεσθαι τῷ φάσματι, πειθομένοισι δὲ ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. καὶ σφέας δεξαμένους ταῦτα ποιῆσαι ἐπιτελέα. καὶ νῦν ἔστηκε ἀνδριὰς ἐπωνυμίην ἔχων Ἀριστέω παρʼ αὐτῷ τῷ ἀγάλματι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος, πέριξ δὲ αὐτὸν δάφναι ἑστᾶσι· τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐν τῇ ἀγορῇ ἵδρυται. Ἀριστέω μέν νυν πέρι τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω.
5.97. νομίζουσι δὲ ταῦτα καὶ διαβεβλημένοισι ἐς τοὺς Πέρσας, ἐν τούτῳ δὴ τῷ καιρῷ ὁ Μιλήσιος Ἀρισταγόρης, ὑπὸ Κλεομένεος τοῦ Λακεδαιμονίου ἐξελασθεὶς ἐκ τῆς Σπάρτης, ἀπίκετο ἐς Ἀθήνας· αὕτη γὰρ ἡ πόλις τῶν λοιπέων ἐδυνάστευε μέγιστον. ἐπελθὼν δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν δῆμον ὁ Ἀρισταγόρης ταὐτὰ ἔλεγε τὰ καὶ ἐν τῇ Σπάρτῃ περὶ τῶν ἀγαθῶν τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ καὶ τοῦ πολέμου τοῦ Περσικοῦ, ὡς οὔτε ἀσπίδα οὔτε δόρυ νομίζουσι εὐπετέες τε χειρωθῆναι εἴησαν. ταῦτά τε δὴ ἔλεγε καὶ πρὸς τοῖσι τάδε, ὡς οἱ Μιλήσιοι τῶν Ἀθηναίων εἰσὶ ἄποικοι, καὶ οἰκός σφεας εἴη ῥύεσθαι δυναμένους μέγα· καὶ οὐδὲν ὅ τι οὐκ ὑπίσχετο οἷα κάρτα δεόμενος, ἐς ὃ ἀνέπεισε σφέας. πολλοὺς γὰρ οἶκε εἶναι εὐπετέστερον διαβάλλειν ἢ ἕνα, εἰ Κλεομένεα μὲν τὸν Λακεδαιμόνιον μοῦνον οὐκ οἷός τε ἐγένετο διαβάλλειν, τρεῖς δὲ μυριάδας Ἀθηναίων ἐποίησε τοῦτο. Ἀθηναῖοι μὲν δὴ ἀναπεισθέντες ἐψηφίσαντο εἴκοσι νέας ἀποστεῖλαι βοηθοὺς Ἴωσι, στρατηγὸν ἀποδέξαντες αὐτῶν εἶναι Μελάνθιον ἄνδρα τῶν ἀστῶν ἐόντα τὰ πάντα δόκιμον· αὗται δὲ αἱ νέες ἀρχὴ κακῶν ἐγένοντο Ἕλλησί τε καὶ βαρβάροισι.
8.47. οὗτοι μὲν ἅπαντες ἐντὸς οἰκημένοι Θεσπρωτῶν καὶ Ἀχέροντος ποταμοῦ ἐστρατεύοντο· Θεσπρωτοὶ γὰρ εἰσὶ ὁμουρέοντες Ἀμπρακιώτῃσι καὶ Λευκαδίοισι, οἳ ἐξ ἐσχατέων χωρέων ἐστρατεύοντο. τῶν δὲ ἐκτὸς τούτων οἰκημένων Κροτωνιῆται μοῦνοι ἦσαν οἳ ἐβοήθησαν τῇ Ἑλλάδι κινδυνευούσῃ μιῇ νηί, τῆς ἦρχε ἀνὴρ τρὶς πυθιονίκης Φάυλλος· Κροτωνιῆται δὲ γένος εἰσὶ Ἀχαιοί.''. None
4.15. Such is the tale told in these two towns. But this, I know, happened to the Metapontines in Italy, two hundred and forty years after the second disappearance of Aristeas, as reckoning made at Proconnesus and Metapontum shows me: ,Aristeas, so the Metapontines say, appeared in their country and told them to set up an altar to Apollo, and set beside it a statue bearing the name of Aristeas the Proconnesian; for, he said, Apollo had come to their country alone of all Italian lands, and he—the man who was now Aristeas, but then when he followed the god had been a crow—had come with him. ,After saying this, he vanished. The Metapontines, so they say, sent to Delphi and asked the god what the vision of the man could mean; and the Pythian priestess told them to obey the vision, saying that their fortune would be better. ,They did as instructed. And now there stands beside the image of Apollo a statue bearing the name of Aristeas; a grove of bay-trees surrounds it; the image is set in the marketplace. Let it suffice that I have said this much about Aristeas.
5.97. It was when the Athenians had made their decision and were already on bad terms with Persia, that Aristagoras the Milesian, driven from Sparta by Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian, came to Athens, since that city was more powerful than any of the rest. Coming before the people, Aristagoras spoke to the same effect as at Sparta, of the good things of Asia, and how the Persians carried neither shield nor spear in war and could easily be overcome. ,This he said adding that the Milesians were settlers from Athens, whom it was only right to save seeing that they themselves were a very powerful people. There was nothing which he did not promise in the earnestness of his entreaty, till at last he prevailed upon them. It seems, then, that it is easier to deceive many than one, for he could not deceive Cleomenes of Lacedaemon, one single man, but thirty thousand Athenians he could. ,The Athenians, now persuaded, voted to send twenty ships to aid the Ionians, appointing for their admiral Melanthius, a citizen of Athens who had an unblemished reputation. These ships were the beginning of troubles for both Greeks and foreigners.
8.47. All these people who live this side of Thesprotia and the Acheron river took part in the war. The Thesprotians border on the Ampraciots and Leucadians, who were the ones who came from the most distant countries to take part in the war. The only ones living beyond these to help Hellas in its danger were the Crotonians, with one ship. Its captain was Phayllus, three times victor in the Pythian games. The Crotonians are Achaeans by birth. ''. None
7. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.126.6-1.126.7, 3.37 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athena, at Athens, Rhodes competing for • aristocracy, aristocrats, aristocratic,, competition among • competition

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 1; Kowalzig (2007) 229; Lloyd (1989) 97; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 146

1.126.6. εἰ δὲ ἐν τῇ Ἀττικῇ ἢ ἄλλοθί που ἡ μεγίστη ἑορτὴ εἴρητο, οὔτε ἐκεῖνος ἔτι κατενόησε τό τε μαντεῖον οὐκ ἐδήλου ʽἔστι γὰρ καὶ Ἀθηναίοις Διάσια ἃ καλεῖται Διὸς ἑορτὴ Μειλιχίου μεγίστη ἔξω τῆς πόλεως, ἐν ᾗ πανδημεὶ θύουσι πολλὰ οὐχ ἱερεῖα, ἀλλ’ <ἁγνὰ> θύματα ἐπιχώριἀ, δοκῶν δὲ ὀρθῶς γιγνώσκειν ἐπεχείρησε τῷ ἔργῳ. 1.126.7. οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι αἰσθόμενοι ἐβοήθησάν τε πανδημεὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ προσκαθεζόμενοι ἐπολιόρκουν.' '. None
1.126.6. Whether the grand festival that was meant was in Attica or elsewhere was a question which he never thought of, and which the oracle did not offer to solve. For the Athenians also have a festival which is called the grand festival of Zeus Meilichios or Gracious, viz. the Diasia. It is celebrated outside the city, and the whole people sacrifice not real victims but a number of bloodless offerings peculiar to the country. However, fancying he had chosen the right time, he made the attempt. 1.126.7. As soon as the Athenians perceived it, they flocked in, one and all, from the country, and sat down, and laid siege to the citadel. ' '. None
8. New Testament, Mark, 8.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Luke, competence of Jewish authorities • rhetoric, and comparison or competition

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 756; Keener(2005) 227

8.31. Καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς ὅτι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἀναστῆναι·''. None
8.31. He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. ''. None
9. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • archaeophilia, competitive spirit • objects, and political competition

 Found in books: Rojas(2019) 26; Rutledge (2012) 42

10. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Panathenaea, athletic competitions • competition,

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 36; Bowie (2021) 680

11. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8.2.1, 10.7.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Panathenaea, athletic competitions • competition, • competitive, • performance culture, Argolid, competitive

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 36; Bowie (2021) 649, 652, 680, 684; Kowalzig (2007) 129

8.2.1. Λυκάων δὲ ὁ Πελασγοῦ τοσάδε εὗρεν ἢ ὁ πατήρ οἱ σοφώτερα· Λυκόσουράν τε γὰρ πόλιν ᾤκισεν ἐν τῷ ὄρει τῷ Λυκαίῳ καὶ Δία ὠνόμασε Λυκαῖον καὶ ἀγῶνα ἔθηκε Λύκαια. οὐκέτι δὲ τὰ παρʼ Ἀθηναίοις Παναθήναια τεθῆναι πρότερα ἀποφαίνομαι· τούτῳ γὰρ τῷ ἀγῶνι Ἀθήναια ὄνομα ἦν, Παναθήναια δὲ κληθῆναί φασιν ἐπὶ Θησέως, ὅτι ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων ἐτέθη συνειλεγμένων ἐς μίαν ἁπάντων πόλιν.
10.7.4. τῆς δὲ τεσσαρακοστῆς Ὀλυμπιάδος καὶ ὀγδόης, ἣν Γλαυκίας ὁ Κροτωνιάτης ἐνίκησε, ταύτης ἔτει τρίτῳ ἆθλα ἔθεσαν οἱ Ἀμφικτύονες κιθαρῳδίας μὲν καθὰ καὶ ἐξ ἀρχῆς, προσέθεσαν δὲ καὶ αὐλῳδίας ἀγώνισμα καὶ αὐλῶν· ἀνηγορεύθησαν δὲ νικῶντες Κεφαλήν τε Μελάμπους κιθαρῳδίᾳ καὶ αὐλῳδὸς Ἀρκὰς Ἐχέμβροτος, Σακάδας δὲ Ἀργεῖος ἐπὶ τοῖς αὐλοῖς· ἀνείλετο δὲ ὁ Σακάδας οὗτος καὶ ἄλλας δύο τὰς ἐφεξῆς ταύτης πυθιάδας.''. None
8.2.1. Lycaon the son of Pelasgus devised the following plans, which were more clever than those of his father. He founded the city Lycosura on Mount Lycaeus, gave to Zeus the surname Lycaeus and founded the Lycaean games. I hold that the Panathenian festival was not founded before the Lycaean. The early name for the former festival was the Athenian, which was changed to the Panathenian in the time of Theseus, because it was then established by the whole Athenian people gathered together in a single city.
10.7.4. In the third year of the forty-eighth Olympiad, 586 B.C at which Glaucias of Crotona was victorious, the Amphictyons held contests for harping as from the beginning, but added competitions for flute-playing and for singing to the flute. The conquerors proclaimed were Melampus, a Cephallenian, for harping, and Echembrotus, an Arcadian, for singing to the flute, with Sacadas of Argos for flute-playing. This same Sacadas won victories at the next two Pythian festivals.''. None
12. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.53 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • aristocracy, aristocrats, aristocratic,, competition among • elite, and competition

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 82, 98; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 65

1.53. I am not the only man who has aimed at a tyranny in Greece, nor am I, a descendant of Codrus, unfitted for the part. That is, I resume the privileges which the Athenians swore to confer upon Codrus and his family, although later they took them away. In everything else I commit no offence against God or man; but I leave to the Athenians the management of their affairs according to the ordices established by you. And they are better governed than they would be under a democracy; for I allow no one to extend his rights, and though I am tyrant I arrogate to myself no undue share of reputation and honour, but merely such stated privileges as belonged to the kings in former times. Every citizen pays a tithe of his property, not to me but to a fund for defraying the cost of the public sacrifices or any other charges on the State or the expenditure on any war which may come upon us.''. None

Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.