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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
city, compared, to the body Jouanna (2012) 21
comparable, to fugue, sophocles Fabian Meinel (2015) 49
comparative Černušková (2016) 58
comparative, analysis Niehoff (2011) 49, 80, 86, 87, 92, 174
comparative, approach Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 2, 23, 78, 81, 235, 238, 239
Huebner (2013) 1, 16, 75, 150, 165, 171
comparative, double Griffiths (1975) 207
comparative, history of law Jassen (2014) 5, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
comparative, interpretation, methodology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 6, 60, 155, 227
comparative, linguistics Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 376
comparative, method Flynn (2018) 7, 14, 16, 49, 86, 92
comparative, mythology Niehoff (2011) 78, 93
Černušková (2016) 11, 58, 103
comparative, psychology King (2006) 159, 160
comparative, research method of folk narratives Hasan Rokem (2003) 110
comparative, socrates, paradoxical use of the Brouwer (2013) 125
comparative, with regard to, wisdom, sophia, paradoxical use of the Brouwer (2013) 125
compare, kath' hauton, up to us/in our power, eph' hēmin Sorabji (2000) 171
compared, academy, jewish and christian, monastery Kalmin (1998) 49
compared, by dinarchos, demosthenes Eidinow (2007) 321
compared, catullus epithalamia, orpheus invocation of hymenaeus Panoussi(2019) 237
compared, ciconian women, lemnian women Panoussi(2019) 249
compared, david, king, attitudes of palestinian rabbis to moses Kalmin (1998) 91, 92
compared, judaism, stoic thought Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 212, 213
compared, manicheeism, manichees, social policy of rabbis and Kalmin (1998) 29, 46
compared, monasteries, christian, and jewish academy Kalmin (1998) 49
compared, moses, approaches of babylonian rabbis, palestinian rabbis Kalmin (1998) 94
compared, philomela and procne, hypsipyle Panoussi(2019) 152, 251
compared, plank statuettes, brettidole, herms Simon (2021) 335
compared, ritual impurity, and moral impurity Klawans (2009) 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58
compared, statius, thebaid, ovids metamorphoses Panoussi(2019) 104, 105, 106, 112
compared, suppliant women antigone Pucci (2016) 105
compared, suppliant women bacchae Pucci (2016) 112, 144
compared, to a clock, cosmos Frede and Laks (2001) 105, 260
compared, to a computer, cosmos Frede and Laks (2001) 109
compared, to a gods, general, a king Frede and Laks (2001) 6, 11, 93, 94, 258
compared, to a house, cosmos Frede and Laks (2001) 99, 100, 102, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112
compared, to aeneas, ekphrasis/ecphrasis, encolpius, of Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 243
compared, to alcibiades’ mistreatment of hipparete, anytus Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 159, 160, 161, 162
compared, to alcibiades’ mistreatment of hipponicus, anytus Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 159
compared, to aristotle, neoplatonic philosophers Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 116
compared, to biblical foremothers, community Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 255
compared, to by philo, proteus, mythical god who changes shape, jethro Feldman (2006) 116
compared, to cash rewards, epinikia Gygax (2016) 90
compared, to cleanthes and chrysippus, zeno Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 27, 28, 29, 30
compared, to cleanthes and zeno Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 27, 28, 29, 30
compared, to cleanthes and zeno, on beginning of cosmos Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 12, 13, 23
compared, to cleanthes and zeno, on elements Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 13
compared, to cleanthes and zeno, on role of water in cosmogony Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 21, 22
compared, to dokana, herm Gaifman (2012) 272
compared, to fabius, marcellus Langlands (2018) 316
compared, to fabius, minucius Langlands (2018) 316
compared, to fabius, scipio africanus Langlands (2018) 316
compared, to foetus, plants Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 19, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185
compared, to hebrew psalms, scolia Cosgrove (2022) 314, 315
compared, to herod, agrippa i Udoh (2006) 201, 202, 203, 204
compared, to hispala in livys bacchanalian narrative, hypsipyle Panoussi(2019) 148, 158
compared, to homer, hesiod Greensmith (2021) 183
compared, to josephus, rabbinic literature Noam (2018) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 25
compared, to laws of cities, laws, jewish Schwartz (2008) 6, 7, 51, 174, 216, 275, 290
compared, to legislation pertaining to dissident christians Kraemer (2020) 86
compared, to mishna, tosefta, style Hayes (2022) 180
compared, to money, women Seaford (2018) 53
compared, to monuments, poems Cosgrove (2022) 120, 121
compared, to neoplatonists, aristotle Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 116
compared, to other members of the elite, tyrants Gygax (2016) 91, 96, 97, 98
compared, to ovid’s, ulysses, his sufferings Williams and Vol (2022) 39, 40, 41, 265, 272
compared, to platos turn to the divine Brouwer (2013) 91
compared, to platos turn to the divine, goes unnoticed Brouwer (2013) 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
compared, to poems monuments, and the sea Cosgrove (2022) 124
compared, to poems monuments, olympian Cosgrove (2022) 1
compared, to poems monuments, on hieron of syracuse Cosgrove (2022) 117, 119, 122, 350
compared, to poems monuments, on paeans Cosgrove (2022) 29
compared, to proedria, epinikia Gygax (2016) 72
compared, to rabbinic literature, josephus, nature of works Noam (2018) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 25
compared, to rabbinic sources, lives of the prophets Noam (2018) 53, 54, 55
compared, to roman citizenship, conversion, to judaism Hayes (2022) 364
compared, to royal decrees, laws, jewish Schwartz (2008) 137, 314, 347
compared, to sitêsis, epinikia Gygax (2016) 72
compared, to spartans, judaism, jews Moss (2012) 38
compared, to splitting of sea, tower of babel, dispersion at Lieber (2014) 279
compared, to statues, epinikia Gygax (2016) 70, 123, 133
compared, to suppliant women on, death, sophocles, antigone Pucci (2016) 105
compared, to that of other tyrants, antiochus iv epiphanes, death Schwartz (2008) 357
compared, to the city, body Jouanna (2012) 21
compared, to the decii, minucius Langlands (2018) 315
compared, to tyrants, cimon Gygax (2016) 95, 98
compared, to ulysses’s, ovid, his sufferings in exile Williams and Vol (2022) 39, 265, 272
compared, to zeno and chrysippus Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 27, 28, 29, 30
compared, to zeno and chrysippus, cosmogony of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
compared, to zeno and chrysippus, on conflagration Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 24
compared, to, achilles, chaereas Braund and Most (2004) 174
compared, to, achilles, clitophon Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 33
compared, to, animals, affected by disease, disease Jouanna (2012) 89
compared, to, art, life Pinheiro et al (2015) 118
compared, to, elijah, enoch Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 167, 172
compared, to, enoch, elijah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 167, 172
compared, to, enoch, moses Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 165, 167, 172
compared, to, gazelle, god Lieber (2014) 178
compared, to, hebrew, greek Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 82
compared, to, medicine, frankness Yona (2018) 102, 104, 106, 122, 124
compared, to, medicine, philosophy Yona (2018) 154
compared, to, moses, enoch Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 165, 167, 172
compared, to, moses, other lawgivers Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 10
compared, to, piyyutim, midrashim Stern (2004) 118
compared, to, torah and torah readings, prophetic books status Stern (2004) 18, 19
compared, to, yahweh, zeus Simon (2021) 12
compared, with alexandria, jerusalem Feldman (2006) 59
Honigman (2003) 18, 23, 24, 25, 29, 87, 88
compared, with ancient, ethics, modern Long (2006) 25, 29, 30, 36
compared, with animals, early man Isaac (2004) 203
compared, with animals, germans Isaac (2004) 205, 206
compared, with animals, human nature Graver (2007) 20, 26, 123
compared, with animals, mountain dwellers Isaac (2004) 204
compared, with animals, nomads Isaac (2004) 202
compared, with animals, scythians, distinct from all other peoples Isaac (2004) 205, 207
compared, with animals, teutones and cimbri Isaac (2004) 202
compared, with atreus in thyestes, hostius quadra Williams (2012) 91
compared, with catullus, aeneid, vergil Galinsky (2016) 65, 68, 69, 70, 71
compared, with christians, jews/judeans/ioudaioi, as Gruen (2020) 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213
compared, with cicero Keeline (2018) 114, 199, 200
compared, with cicero’s, translation, apuleius’s Hoenig (2018) 159
compared, with contradictories, contrary, contraries Trott (2019) 209, 210
compared, with epicurean gods, god, pauline Allison (2020) 183
compared, with greeks and barbarians, jews/judeans/ioudaioi, as Gruen (2020) 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 151, 209
compared, with hand, right, left, clasped before initiation Griffiths (1975) 284
compared, with hand, right, left, torch of initiate in Griffiths (1975) 314
compared, with horace, lucretius Yona (2018) 81
compared, with incubation at asklepieia, incubation, christian Renberg (2017) 747, 759, 773, 778, 790, 791, 792, 793, 795, 802
compared, with josephus, halakhah, jewish law Feldman (2006) 324, 325, 326
compared, with left, hand, right Griffiths (1975) 207
compared, with left, right hand Griffiths (1975) 207
compared, with lucilius, horace, as satirist Yona (2018) 38, 130, 131, 156, 202, 203, 204
compared, with nature, artifice, artefacts, τέχνη Trott (2019) 3, 4, 110, 111, 172, 173, 174, 176, 225
compared, with odyssey, aeneid, vergil Galinsky (2016) 84
compared, with ordinary expertises, wisdom, sophia Brouwer (2013) 84
compared, with ordinary, expertise, technē, wisdom Brouwer (2013) 84
compared, with orthodoxy Klawans (2019) 60, 61, 62, 72, 76
compared, with paul, epictetus Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138
compared, with pauline god, gods, epicurean Allison (2020) 183
compared, with permission to benjaminites to capture their brides, sabine women, rape of Feldman (2006) 667, 668, 669
compared, with pharsalia, cannae, battle of Joseph (2022) 114, 115, 157, 158
compared, with philosophical discourse by cleanthes, poetry Brouwer (2013) 13
compared, with philo’s hypothetica, halakhah, jewish law, josephus’ exposition of Feldman (2006) 324, 325
compared, with plato, non-rational parts of the soul horses, influencing freud Sorabji (2000) 95, 96
compared, with poetry by cleanthes, philosophical discourse Brouwer (2013) 13
compared, with priest, parents, restraining children Griffiths (1975) 278
compared, with proclus, korsgaard, christine Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 203
compared, with right hand, left, palm-branch of anubis in Griffiths (1975) 11, 219
compared, with right hand, left, sistrum carried in Griffiths (1975) 12
compared, with roman legal officials, bishops Humfress (2007) 232
compared, with scriptores historiae augustae, on method and value of as rabbinic, literature Feldman (2006) 767
compared, with semen, menses, menstrual blood, καταμενία Trott (2019) 110, 116, 144, 145, 159, 188, 190
compared, with song of songs targum, song of songs rabbah Lieber (2014) 37, 38
compared, with teutones and cimbri, animals, deteriorated in venetia Isaac (2004) 313, 314
compared, with teutones and cimbri, animals, of pure lineage but not autochthonous Isaac (2004) 139
compared, with that in the war, antiquities of josephus, different historiographical approach as Feldman (2006) 323
compared, with the change to wisdom, initiation, teletē Brouwer (2013) 86
compared, with thucydides, substantivized neuter phrases, in euripides Joho (2022) 153, 154
compared, with traditional incubation, incubation, christian Renberg (2017) 747, 749, 790, 791, 792
compared, with trust, faith, scope of Morgan (2022) 1, 2
compared, with vital heat heat hot Trott (2019) 53
compared, with ἔρως, in euripides thucydides Joho (2022) 129, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136
compared, with, macrobius, calcidius Hoenig (2018) 167, 168
compared, with, socrates, democritus Wolfsdorf (2020) 212, 228
compared, with, socrates, diogenes Wolfsdorf (2020) 671
compares, christ with apollonius, hierocles Simmons(1995) 245
compares, indian and egyptian wisdom, apollonius of tyana Manolaraki (2012) 259, 262, 268, 273, 274, 279, 281, 282, 283
compares, moses with lycurgus, julian, roman emperor Feldman (2006) 523
comparing, cato and cicero, seneca the younger Keeline (2018) 199, 200
comparing, father and cicero, asinius gallus Keeline (2018) 314, 315, 316
comparing, philosophical discourse with poetry, cleanthes Brouwer (2013) 13
“comparative, anthropology, and the method, ” Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 25

List of validated texts:
39 validated results for "compared"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.9-1.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Comparative Method • Ezekiel, Tragedian, Acts of Apostles comparison • Phoenicians, Acts of Apostles comparison

 Found in books: Flynn (2018) 92; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 200

1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־עַמּוֹ הִנֵּה עַם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל רַב וְעָצוּם מִמֶּנּוּ׃' '. None
1.9. And he said unto his people: ‘Behold, the people of the children of Israel are too many and too mighty for us; 1.10. come, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there befalleth us any war, they also join themselves unto our enemies, and fight against us, and get them up out of the land.’''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1-6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Demetrius, Chronographer, Ps.-Eupolemus comparison • Egypt, Ps.-Eupolemus comparison • Hebrew, Greek compared to • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Myth, Comparison of • Phoenicians, Acts of Apostles comparison • comparative analysis

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 82; Fishbane (2003) 76, 95; Niehoff (2011) 92; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 130

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃
6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃' '. None
6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose. 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’ 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 74.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Comparative Method • Hebrew Bible, compared to ANE texts • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Myth, Comparison of • gazelle, God compared to

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003) 19; Flynn (2018) 49; Lieber (2014) 178; Vargas (2021) 115, 118

74.20. Look upon the covet; For the dark places of the land are full of the habitations of violence.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 9.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristobulus, Luke comparison • Constitutionalism comparative, stronger version

 Found in books: Flatto (2021) 59; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 202

9.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אָקִים אֶת־סֻכַּת דָּוִיד הַנֹּפֶלֶת וְגָדַרְתִּי אֶת־פִּרְצֵיהֶן וַהֲרִסֹתָיו אָקִים וּבְנִיתִיהָ כִּימֵי עוֹלָם׃''. None
9.11. In that day will I raise up The tabernacle of David that is fallen, And close up the breaches thereof, And I will raise up his ruins, And I will build it as in the days of old;''. None
5. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Homer, comparison of Iliad with Odyssey, • Philomela,, Io compared to

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 144; Marincola et al (2021) 32

6. Euripides, Bacchae, 182 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Comparisons, with heroes and gods • Suppliant Women Bacchae compared

 Found in books: Meister (2019) 152; Pucci (2016) 144

182. Διόνυσον ὃς πέφηνεν ἀνθρώποις θεὸς''. None
182. I have come prepared with this equipment of the god. For we must extol him, the child of my daughter, Dionysus, who has appeared as a god to men as much as is in our power. Where must I dance, where set my feet''. None
7. Euripides, Trojan Women, 886 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Suppliant Women Antigone compared • death, Sophocles, Antigone compared to Suppliant Women on • ἔρως, in Euripides (compared with Thucydides)

 Found in books: Joho (2022) 136; Pucci (2016) 105

886. Ζεύς, εἴτ' ἀνάγκη φύσεος εἴτε νοῦς βροτῶν,"". None
886. whoever you are, a riddle past our knowledge! Zeus, owhether you are natural necessity, or man’s intellect, to you I pray; for, though you tread over a noiseless path, all your dealings with mankind are guided by justice. Menelau''. None
8. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arachne, Emathides compared to • Comparisons, in epithalamia • Comparisons, with celestial bodies • Comparisons, with heroes and gods • Comparisons, with plants • Emathides,, Arachne compared to

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 81; Meister (2019) 29, 31, 33

9. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.153 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Comparisons, with heroes and gods • cosmos, compared to a clock

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 105; Meister (2019) 9

2.153. "Then moreover hasn\'t man\'s reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man\'s nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance. ''. None
10. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.2, 15.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eupolemus, Acts of Apostles comparison • Laws, Jewish, Compared to Laws of Cities • Laws, Jewish, Compared to Royal Decrees • Lives of the Prophets, compared to rabbinic sources • Moses, Eupolemus comparison

 Found in books: Noam (2018) 54; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 120; Schwartz (2008) 7, 216, 314

2.2. and that the prophet after giving them the law instructed those who were being deported not to forget the commandments of the Lord, nor to be led astray in their thoughts upon seeing the gold and silver statues and their adornment.'" '
15.33. and he cut out the tongue of the ungodly Nicanor and said that he would give it piecemeal to the birds and hang up these rewards of his folly opposite the sanctuary."'". None
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pseudo-Aristeas, compared with Pseudo-Hecataeus • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, compared with Pseudo-Aristeas • Sibylline Oracles, Wisdom of Solomon comparison

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 179; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 45

14.15. For a father, consumed with grief at an untimely bereavement,made an image of his child, who had been suddenly taken from him;and he now honored as a god what was once a dead human being,and handed on to his dependents secret rites and initiations.' '. None
12. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Constitutionalism comparative, Qumran • Constitutionalism comparative, and community • Nag Hammadi Library, parallels and comparisons with • rhetoric, and comparison or competition

 Found in books: Flatto (2021) 74; Keener(2005) 124; Scopello (2008) 131

13. Catullus, Poems, 62.42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Catullus epithalamia, Orpheus invocation of Hymenaeus compared • Comparisons, in epithalamia • Comparisons, with heroes and gods • Comparisons, with plants

 Found in books: Meister (2019) 31; Panoussi(2019) 237

62.42. E'en as a flow'ret born secluded in garden enclosed,"". None
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 90-97 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jews/Judeans/Ioudaioi, as compared with Greeks and barbarians • sacrifice, animal, comparison between Greek and Jewish

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 36; Petropoulou (2012) 121

90. Since therefore it is naturally the case that things, which are changed, are changed in consequence of fatigue, and since God is subject to no variation and to no change, he must also by nature be free from fatigue, and that, which has no participation in weakness, even though it moves everything, cannot possibly cease to enjoy rest for ever. So that rest is the appropriate attribute of God alone. XXVII. And it has been shown that it is suitable to his character to keep festival; sabbaths therefore and festivals belong to the great Cause of all things alone, and absolutely to no man whatever. '91. For come, if you please, and contemplate with me the much celebrated festive assemblies of men. As for those which among the barbarian and Grecian nations have been established in compliance with fabulous fictions, all tending to no other object than to excite vain pride in various nations, they may be all passed over, for the entire life of a man would not be long enough to make an accurate and thorough investigation of all the absurdities which existed in each of those festivals. But with a due regard to our time, we will mention a few points in the most important of them, as a specimen of the whole. 92. In every festival then and assembly among men, the following are the most remarkable and celebrated points, security, relaxation, truce, drunkenness, deep drinking, revelling, luxury, amusement, music at the doors, banquets lasting through the night, unseemly pleasures, wedding feasts during the day, violent acts of insolence, practices of intemperance, indulgence of folly, pursuits of shameful things, an utter destruction and renunciation of what is good, wakefulness during the night for the indulgence of immoderate appetites, sleep by day when it is the proper time to be awake, a turning upside down of the laws of nature. 93. At such a time virtue is ridiculed as a mischievous thing, and vice is caught at as something advantageous. Then actions that ought to be done are held in no honour, and such as ought not be done are esteemed. Then music and philosophy and all education, the really divine images of the divine soul, are reduced to silence, and such practices as are panders and pimps of pleasure to the belly, and the parts adjacent to the belly, are alone allowed to raise their voice. XXVIII. 94. Such are the festivals of those who call themselves happy men, and even while they confine their unseemly conduct within their houses and unconsecrated places, they appear to me to be less guilty. But when, like the rush of a torrent carrying everything away with it, their indecency approaches and insults the most holy temples, it immediately overtaxes all that there is sacred in them, performing unhallowed sacrifices, offering victims which ought not to be sacrificed, and prayers such as should never be accomplished; celebrating impious mysteries, and profane rites, displaying a bastard piety, an adulterated holiness, an impure purity, a falsified truth, a debauched service of God. 95. And besides all this, they wash their bodies with baths and purifications, but they neither desire nor endeavour to wash off the passions of their souls, by which their whole life is polluted; and they are eager to flock to the temples in white garments, clothes in robes without spot or stain, but they feel no shame at bringing a polluted mind up to the very inmost shrine. 96. And if any one of the beasts, to be sacrificed, is found to be not perfect and entire, it is driven out of the sacred precincts, and is not allowed to be brought to the altar, even though all these corporeal imperfections are quite involuntary on its part; but though they may themselves be wounded in their souls by sensible diseases, which the invincible power of wickedness has inflicted on them, or though, I might rather say, they are mutilated and curtailed of their fairest proportions, of prudence, and courage, and justice, piety, and of all the other virtues which the human race is naturally formed to possess, and although too they have contracted all this pollution and mutilation of their own free will, they nevertheless dare to perform sacrifices, thinking that the eye of God sees external objects alone, when the sun co-operates and throws light upon them, and that it cannot discern what is invisible in preference to what is visible, using itself as its own light. 97. For the eye of the living God does not need any other light to enable him to perceive things, but being himself archetypal light he pours forth innumerable rays, not one of which is capable of being comprehended by the outward sense, but they are all only intelligible to the intellect; in consequence of which God alone uses them who is only comprehensible to the intellect, and nothing that has any portion in creation uses them at all; for that which has been created is perceptible to the outward senses, but that nature which is only perceptible to the intellect cannot be comprehended by the outward sense. XXIX. '. None
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.62, 1.211 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jews/Judeans/Ioudaioi, as compared with Greeks and barbarians • Philo, comparison with Paul • Pseudo-Aristeas, compared with Pseudo-Hecataeus • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, compared with Pseudo-Aristeas • sacrifice, animal, comparison between Greek and Jewish

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 152; Gruen (2020) 151; Petropoulou (2012) 207, 243

1.62. And all these things are but the furniture of impiety. How so? Because he who attends to them, and who allows himself to be influenced by them, disregards the cause of all things, looking upon those things alone as the causes of all things, whether good or evil; and he does not perceive that he is making all the cares of life to depend upon the most unstable supports, upon the motion of birds and feathers in the air, in this and that direction; and upon the paths of reptiles, crawling along the ground, which creep forth out of their holes in quest of food; and even upon entrails, and blood, and dead corpses, which, the moment that they are deprived of life, fall to pieces and become confused; and being deprived of their original nature which belonged to them, are changed, and subjected to a transformation for the worse.
1.211. And if ever you give thanks for men and their fortunes, do not do so only for the race taken generally, but you shall give thanks also for the species and most important parts of the race, such as men and women, Greeks and barbarians, men on the continent, and those who have their habitation in the islands; and if you are giving thanks for one individual, do not divide your thankfulness in expression into gratitude for minute trifles and inconsiderable matters, but take in your view the most comprehensive circumstances, first of all, his body and his soul, of which he consists, and then his speech, and his mind, and his outward senses; for such gratitude cannot of itself be unworthy of being listened to by God, when uttered, for each of these particulars.XXXIX. ''. None
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.12 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jews/Judeans/Ioudaioi, as compared with Greeks and barbarians • Moses, other lawgivers compared to

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 10; Gruen (2020) 36, 151

2.12. But that he himself is the most admirable of all the lawgivers who have ever lived in any country either among the Greeks or among the barbarians, and that his are the most admirable of all laws, and truly divine, omitting no one particular which they ought to comprehend, there is the clearest proof possible in this fact, the laws of other lawgivers, ''. None
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.5, 4.198, 18.12, 18.15, 18.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antiquities (Josephus), comparison to War • Artapanus, Acts of Apostles comparison • Constitutionalism comparative, Josephus and • Josephus, nature of works, compared to rabbinic literature • Philo Judaeus, compared with Pseudo-Hecataeus • Pseudo-Aristeas, compared with Pseudo-Hecataeus • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, compared with Pseudo-Aristeas • War (Josephus), comparison to Antiquities • compared with orthodoxy • rabbinic literature, compared to Josephus

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 149; Flatto (2021) 101; Klawans (2019) 61; Noam (2018) 5, 214; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 196

1.5. ἀφείλετο δὲ καὶ τὸν ὄφιν τὴν φωνὴν ὀργισθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κακοηθείᾳ τῇ πρὸς τὸν ̓́Αδαμον καὶ ἰὸν ἐντίθησιν ὑπὸ τὴν γλῶτταν αὐτῷ πολέμιον ἀποδείξας ἀνθρώποις καὶ ὑποθέμενος κατὰ τῆς κεφαλῆς φέρειν τὰς πληγάς, ὡς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τοῦ τε κακοῦ τοῦ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους κειμένου καὶ τῆς τελευτῆς ῥᾴστης τοῖς ἀμυνομένοις ἐσομένης, ποδῶν τε αὐτὸν ἀποστερήσας σύρεσθαι κατὰ τῆς γῆς ἰλυσπώμενον ἐποίησε.
1.5. ταύτην δὲ τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἐγκεχείρισμαι πραγματείαν νομίζων ἅπασι φανεῖσθαι τοῖς ̔́Ελλησιν ἀξίαν σπουδῆς: μέλλει γὰρ περιέξειν ἅπασαν τὴν παρ' ἡμῖν ἀρχαιολογίαν καὶ διάταξιν τοῦ πολιτεύματος ἐκ τῶν ̔Εβραϊκῶν μεθηρμηνευμένην γραμμάτων." '
4.198. ἔχει δὲ οὕτως ἡ διάταξις ἡμῶν τῶν νόμων τῶν ἀνηκόντων εἰς τὴν πολιτείαν. οὓς δὲ κοινοὺς ἡμῖν καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους κατέλιπε τούτους ὑπερεθέμην εἰς τὴν περὶ ἐθῶν καὶ αἰτιῶν ἀπόδοσιν, ἣν συλλαμβανομένου τοῦ θεοῦ μετὰ ταύτην ἡμῖν τὴν πραγματείαν συντάξασθαι πρόκειται.' "
18.12. Οἵ τε γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι τὴν δίαιταν ἐξευτελίζουσιν οὐδὲν ἐς τὸ μαλακώτερον ἐνδιδόντες, ὧν τε ὁ λόγος κρίνας παρέδωκεν ἀγαθῶν ἕπονται τῇ ἡγεμονίᾳ περιμάχητον ἡγούμενοι τὴν φυλακὴν ὧν ὑπαγορεύειν ἠθέλησεν. τιμῆς γε τοῖς ἡλικίᾳ προήκουσιν παραχωροῦσιν οὐδ' ἐπ' ἀντιλέξει τῶν εἰσηγηθέντων ταῦτα οἱ θράσει ἐπαιρόμενοι." '
18.12. Οὐιτέλλιος δὲ παρασκευασάμενος ὡς εἰς πόλεμον τὸν πρὸς ̓Αρέταν δυσὶ τάγμασιν ὁπλιτῶν ὅσοι τε περὶ αὐτὰ ψιλοὶ καὶ ἱππεῖς συμμαχοῦντες ἐκ τῶν ὑπὸ ̔Ρωμαίοις βασιλειῶν ἀγόμενος, ἐπὶ τῆς Πέτρας ἠπείγετο καὶ ἔσχε Πτολεμαί̈δα.' "
18.15. καὶ δι' αὐτὰ τοῖς τε δήμοις πιθανώτατοι τυγχάνουσιν καὶ ὁπόσα θεῖα εὐχῶν τε ἔχεται καὶ ἱερῶν ποιήσεως ἐξηγήσει τῇ ἐκείνων τυγχάνουσιν πρασσόμενα. εἰς τοσόνδε ἀρετῆς αὐτοῖς αἱ πόλεις ἐμαρτύρησαν ἐπιτηδεύσει τοῦ ἐπὶ πᾶσι κρείσσονος ἔν τε τῇ διαίτῃ τοῦ βίου καὶ λόγοις." "
18.15. οὐ μὴν ἐπὶ πλεῖόν γε ̔Ηρώδης ἐνέμεινε τοῖς δεδογμένοις, καίτοι γε οὐδ' ὣς ἀρκοῦντα ἦν: ἐν γὰρ Τύρῳ παρὰ συνουσίαν ὑπὸ οἴνου γενομένων αὐτοῖς λοιδοριῶν, ἀνεκτὸν οὐχ ἡγησάμενος ̓Αγρίππας τοῦ ̔Ηρώδου τε ἐπονειδίσαντος εἰς ἀπορίαν καὶ τροφῆς ἀναγκαίας μετάδοσιν, ὡς Φλάκκον τὸν ὑπατικὸν εἴσεισιν φίλον ἐπὶ ̔Ρώμης τὰ μάλιστα αὐτῷ γεγονότα πρότερον: Συρίαν δὲ ἐν τῷ τότε διεῖπεν." "
18.17. εἰς ὀλίγους δὲ ἄνδρας οὗτος ὁ λόγος ἀφίκετο, τοὺς μέντοι πρώτους τοῖς ἀξιώμασι, πράσσεταί τε ἀπ' αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ὡς εἰπεῖν: ὁπότε γὰρ ἐπ' ἀρχὰς παρέλθοιεν, ἀκουσίως μὲν καὶ κατ' ἀνάγκας, προσχωροῦσι δ' οὖν οἷς ὁ Φαρισαῖος λέγει διὰ τὸ μὴ ἄλλως ἀνεκτοὺς γενέσθαι τοῖς πλήθεσιν." "
18.17. οὔτε γὰρ πρεσβειῶν ὑποδοχὰς ἐκ τοῦ ὀξέος ἐποιεῖτο ἡγεμόσι τε ἢ ἐπιτρόποις ὑπ' αὐτοῦ σταλεῖσιν οὐδεμία ἦν διαδοχή, ὁπότε μὴ φθαῖεν τετελευτηκότες: ὅθεν καὶ δεσμωτῶν ἀκροάσεως ἀπερίοπτος ἦν." ". None
1.5. 2. Now I have undertaken the present work, as thinking it will appear to all the Greeks worthy of their study; for it will contain all our antiquities, and the constitution of our government, as interpreted out of the Hebrew Scriptures.
1.5. He also deprived the serpent of speech, out of indignation at his malicious disposition towards Adam. Besides this, he inserted poison under his tongue, and made him an enemy to men; and suggested to them, that they should direct their strokes against his head, that being the place wherein lay his mischievous designs towards men, and it being easiest to take vengeance on him, that way. And when he had deprived him of the use of his feet, he made him to go rolling all along, and dragging himself upon the ground.
4.198. Now part of our constitution will include the laws that belong to our political state. As for those laws which Moses left concerning our common conversation and intercourse one with another, I have reserved that for a discourse concerning our manner of life, and the occasions of those laws; which I propose to myself, with God’s assistance, to write, after I have finished the work I am now upon.
18.12. 3. Now, for the Pharisees, they live meanly, and despise delicacies in diet; and they follow the conduct of reason; and what that prescribes to them as good for them they do; and they think they ought earnestly to strive to observe reason’s dictates for practice. They also pay a respect to such as are in years; nor are they so bold as to contradict them in any thing which they have introduced;
18.12. 3. So Vitellius prepared to make war with Aretas, having with him two legions of armed men; he also took with him all those of light armature, and of the horsemen which belonged to them, and were drawn out of those kingdoms which were under the Romans, and made haste for Petra, and came to Ptolemais.
18.15. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria.
18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also.
18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them.
18.17. for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were despatched away to governors or procurators of the provinces that had been formerly sent, unless they were dead; whence it was that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners;' '. None
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.3, 2.162 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antiquities (Josephus), comparison to War • Jews/Judeans/Ioudaioi, as compared with Greeks and barbarians • Josephus, nature of works, compared to rabbinic literature • War (Josephus), comparison to Antiquities • compared with orthodoxy • rabbinic literature, compared to Josephus

 Found in books: Gruen (2020) 40; Klawans (2019) 61; Noam (2018) 8, 214

1.3. Ταῦτα πάντα περιλαβὼν ἐν ἑπτὰ βιβλίοις καὶ μηδεμίαν τοῖς ἐπισταμένοις τὰ πράγματα καὶ παρατυχοῦσι τῷ πολέμῳ καταλιπὼν ἢ μέμψεως ἀφορμὴν ἢ κατηγορίας, τοῖς γε τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἀγαπῶσιν, ἀλλὰ μὴ πρὸς ἡδονὴν ἀνέγραψα. ποιήσομαι δὲ ταύτην τῆς ἐξηγήσεως ἀρχήν, ἣν καὶ τῶν κεφαλαίων ἐποιησάμην.' "
1.3. προυθέμην ἐγὼ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν ̔Ρωμαίων ἡγεμονίαν ̔Ελλάδι γλώσσῃ μεταβαλὼν ἃ τοῖς ἄνω βαρβάροις τῇ πατρίῳ συντάξας ἀνέπεμψα πρότερον ἀφηγήσασθαι ̓Ιώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς ἐξ ̔Ιεροσολύμων ἱερεύς, αὐτός τε ̔Ρωμαίους πολεμήσας τὰ πρῶτα καὶ τοῖς ὕστερον παρατυχὼν ἐξ ἀνάγκης:
1.3. ταῦτ' ἀκούσας ̓Αντίγονος διέπεμψεν περὶ τὴν χώραν εἴργειν καὶ λοχᾶν τοὺς σιτηγοὺς κελεύων. οἱ δ' ὑπήκουον, καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος ὁπλιτῶν ὑπὲρ τὴν ̔Ιεριχοῦντα συνηθροίσθη: διεκαθέζοντο δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρῶν παραφυλάσσοντες τοὺς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἐκκομίζοντας." '
2.162. Δύο δὲ τῶν προτέρων Φαρισαῖοι μὲν οἱ μετὰ ἀκριβείας δοκοῦντες ἐξηγεῖσθαι τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὴν πρώτην ἀπάγοντες αἵρεσιν εἱμαρμένῃ τε καὶ θεῷ προσάπτουσι πάντα,''. None
1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves with fictitious relations. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter.
1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward am the author of this work.
1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions.
2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate or providence, and to God,''. None
19. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.42, 2.148, 2.180-2.183, 2.228 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Constitutionalism comparative, Josephus and • Jews/Judeans/Ioudaioi, as compared with Greeks and barbarians • Judaism, Jews compared to Spartans • Pseudo-Aristeas, compared with Pseudo-Hecataeus • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, compared with Pseudo-Aristeas • compared with orthodoxy • law, comparative history of

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 142; Flatto (2021) 102, 103; Gruen (2020) 41; Jassen (2014) 5; Klawans (2019) 61, 62; Moss (2012) 38

1.42. δῆλον δ' ἐστὶν ἔργῳ, πῶς ἡμεῖς πρόσιμεν τοῖς ἰδίοις γράμμασι: τοσούτου γὰρ αἰῶνος ἤδη παρῳχηκότος οὔτε προσθεῖναί τις οὐδὲν οὔτε ἀφελεῖν αὐτῶν οὔτε μεταθεῖναι τετόλμηκεν, πᾶσι δὲ σύμφυτόν ἐστιν εὐθὺς ἐκ πρώτης γενέσεως ̓Ιουδαίοις τὸ νομίζειν αὐτὰ θεοῦ δόγματα καὶ τούτοις ἐμμένειν καὶ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν, εἰ δέοι, θνήσκειν ἡδέως." "
2.148. ἀπὸ τῶν νόμων, καθ' οὓς ζῶντες διατελοῦμεν. ἄλλως τε καὶ τὴν κατηγορίαν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος οὐκ ἀθρόαν ὥσπερ ὁ ̓Απίων ἔταξεν, ἀλλὰ σποράδην, καὶ δὴ εἴπας ποτὲ μὲν ὡς ἀθέους καὶ μισανθρώπους λοιδορεῖ, ποτὲ δ' αὖ δειλίαν ἡμῖν ὀνειδίζει καὶ τοὔμπαλιν ἔστιν ὅπου τόλμαν κατηγορεῖ καὶ ἀπόνοιαν. λέγει δὲ καὶ ἀφυεστάτους εἶναι τῶν βαρβάρων καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μηδὲν εἰς τὸν βίον εὕρημα συμβεβλῆσθαι μόνους." "2.181. πρόνοιαν ἀφαιρουμένων: οὔτ' ἐν τοῖς ἐπιτηδεύμασι τῶν βίων ὄψεται διαφοράν, ἀλλὰ κοινὰ μὲν ἔργα πάντων παρ' ἡμῖν, εἷς δὲ λόγος ὁ τῷ νόμῳ συμφωνῶν περὶ θεοῦ πάντα λέγων ἐκεῖνον ἐφορᾶν. καὶ μὴν περὶ τῶν κατὰ τὸν βίον ἐπιτηδευμάτων, ὅτι δεῖ πάντα τἆλλα τέλος ἔχειν τὴν εὐσέβειαν, καὶ γυναικῶν ἀκούσειεν ἄν τις καὶ τῶν οἰκετῶν." '2.182. ̔́Οθεν δὴ καὶ τὸ προφερόμενον ἡμῖν ὑπό τινων ἔγκλημα, τὸ δὴ μὴ καινῶν εὑρετὰς ἔργων ἢ λόγων ἄνδρας παρασχεῖν, ἐντεῦθεν συμβέβηκεν: οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι τὸ μηδενὶ τῶν πατρίων ἐμμένειν καλὸν εἶναι νομίζουσι καὶ τοῖς τολμῶσι ταῦτα παραβαίνειν 2.183. μάλιστα σοφίας δεινότητα μαρτυροῦσιν, ἡμεῖς δὲ τοὐναντίον μίαν εἶναι καὶ φρόνησιν καὶ ἀρετὴν ὑπειλήφαμεν τὸ μηδὲν ὅλως ὑπεναντίον μήτε πρᾶξαι μήτε διανοηθῆναι τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς νομοθετηθεῖσιν. ὅπερ εἰκότως ἂν εἴη τεκμήριον τοῦ κάλλιστα τὸν νόμον τεθῆναι: τὰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτον ἔχοντα τὸν τρόπον αἱ πεῖραι δεόμενα διορθώσεως ἐλέγχουσιν.' "
2.228. ἡμεῖς δ' ἐν τύχαις γεγονότες μυρίαις διὰ τὰς τῶν βασιλευσάντων τῆς ̓Ασίας μεταβολὰς οὐδ' ἐν τοῖς ἐσχάτοις τῶν δεινῶν τοὺς νόμους προύδομεν οὐκ ἀργίας οὐδὲ τρυφῆς αὐτοὺς χάριν περιέποντες, ἀλλ' εἴ τις ἐθέλοι σκοπεῖν, πολλῷ τινι τῆς δοκούσης ἐπιτετάχθαι Λακεδαιμονίοις καρτερίας μείζονας ἄθλους καὶ πόνους ἡμῖν ἐπιτεθέντας" ". None
1.42. and how firmly we have given credit to those books of our own nation, is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it becomes natural to all Jews, immediately and from their very birth, to esteem those books to contain divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be, willingly to die for them.
2.148. Moreover, since this Apollonius does not do like Apion, and lay a continued accusation against us, but does it only by starts, and up and down his discourse, while he sometimes reproaches us as atheists, and man-haters, and sometimes hits us in the teeth with our want of courage, and yet sometimes, on the contrary, accuses us of too great boldness, and madness in our conduct; nay, he says that we are the weakest of all the barbarians, and that this is the reason why we are the only people who have made no improvements in human life; 2.181. Nor can any one perceive amongst us any difference in the conduct of our lives; but all our works are common to us all. We have one sort of discourse concerning God, which is conformable to our law, and affirms that he sees all things; as also, we have but one way of speaking concerning the conduct of our lives, that all other things ought to have piety for their end; and this any body may hear from our women, and servants themselves. 2.182. 21. And indeed, hence hath arisen that accusation which some make against us, that we have not produced men that have been the inventors of new operations, or of new ways of speaking; for others think it a fine thing to persevere in nothing that has been delivered down from their forefathers, and these testify it to be an instance of the sharpest wisdom when these men venture to transgress those traditions; 2.183. whereas we, on the contrary, suppose it to be our only wisdom and virtue to admit no actions nor supposals that are contrary to our original laws; which procedure of ours is a just and sure sign that our law is admirably constituted; for such laws as are not thus well made, are convicted upon trial to want amendment.

2.228. while we, having been under ten thousand changes in our fortune by the changes that happened among the kings of Asia, have never betrayed our laws under the most pressing distresses we have been in; nor have we neglected them either out of sloth or for a livelihood. Nay, if any one will consider it, the difficulties and labors laid upon us have been greater than what appears to have been borne by the Lacedemonian fortitude, ' '. None
20. Lucan, Pharsalia, 4.678-4.679 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cannae, Battle of, compared with Pharsalia • comparison

 Found in books: Fabre-Serris et al (2021) 260; Joseph (2022) 158

4.678. He touched his parent, fresh from her embrace Renewed in rigour he should rise again. In yonder cave he dwelt, 'neath yonder rock He made his feast on lions slain in chase: There slept he; not on skins of beasts, or leaves, But fed his strength upon the naked earth. Perished the Libyan hinds and those who came, Brought here in ships, until he scorned at length The earth that gave him strength, and on his feet Invincible and with unaided might " "4.679. He touched his parent, fresh from her embrace Renewed in rigour he should rise again. In yonder cave he dwelt, 'neath yonder rock He made his feast on lions slain in chase: There slept he; not on skins of beasts, or leaves, But fed his strength upon the naked earth. Perished the Libyan hinds and those who came, Brought here in ships, until he scorned at length The earth that gave him strength, and on his feet Invincible and with unaided might "". None
21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.18-1.25, 2.10-2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epictetus, compared with Paul • Epicureanism, comparison to Pauline Christianity • God (Pauline), compared with Epicurean gods • Ps.-Hecataeus, Aristobulus comparison • Sibylline Oracle, Third, Letter of Aristeas comparison • comparison • comparison, methodology of • comparison, of Paul and greco-roman philosophers • comparison, similarities and differences within • gods (Epicurean), compared with Pauline God

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 6, 7, 11, 24, 25, 183, 186, 187, 196, 198, 199, 200; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 133, 134, 136, 248; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46, 174

1.18. Ὁ λόγος γὰρ ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ τοῖς μὲν ἀπολλυμένοις μωρία ἐστίν, τοῖς δὲ σωζομένοις ἡμῖν δύναμις θεοῦ ἐστίν. 1.19. γέγραπται γάρ 1.20. ποῦ σοφός;ποῦ γραμματεύς;ποῦ συνζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου; οὐχὶ ἐμώρανεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ κόσμου; 1.21. ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἔγνω ὁ κόσμος διὰ τῆς σοφίας τὸν θεόν, εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς διὰ τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος σῶσαι τοὺς πιστεύοντας. 1.22. ἐπειδὴ καὶ Ἰουδαῖοι σημεῖα αἰτοῦσιν καὶ Ἕλληνες σοφίαν ζητοῦσιν· 1.23. ἡμεῖς δὲ κηρύσσομεν Χριστὸν ἐσταυρωμένον, Ἰουδαίοις μὲν σκάνδαλον ἔθνεσιν δὲ μωρίαν, 1.24. αὐτοῖς δὲ τοῖς κλητοῖς, Ἰουδαίοις τε καὶ Ἕλλησιν, Χριστὸν θεοῦ δύναμιν καὶ θεοῦ σοφίαν. 1.25. ὅτι τὸ μωρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ σοφώτερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ ἰσχυρότερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων.
2.10. ἡμῖν γὰρ ἀπεκάλυψεν ὁ θεὸς διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος, τὸ γὰρ πνεῦμα πάντα ἐραυνᾷ, καὶ τὰ βάθη τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.11. τίς γὰρ οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ; οὕτως καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐδεὶς ἔγνωκεν εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.12. ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου ἐλάβομεν ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν· 2.13. ἃ καὶ λαλοῦμεν οὐκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις, ἀλλʼ ἐν διδακτοῖς πνεύματος, πνευματικοῖς πνευματικὰ συνκρίνοντες. 2.14. ψυχικὸς δὲ ἄνθρωπος οὐ δέχεται τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ θεοῦ, μωρία γὰρ αὐτῷ ἐστίν, καὶ οὐ δύναται γνῶναι, ὅτι πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται· 2.15. ὁ δὲ πνευματικὸς ἀνακρίνει μὲν πάντα, αὐτὸς δὲ ὑπʼ οὐδενὸς ἀνακρίνεται. 2.16. τίςγὰρἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, ὃς συνβιβάσει αὐτόν;ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν.' '. None
1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God. 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing."' "1.20. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the lawyerof this world? Hasn't God made foolish the wisdom of this world?" "1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe." '1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom, 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks, 1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 1.25. Because the foolishness of God is wiser thanmen, and the weakness of God is stronger than men.
2.10. But to us, God revealed them through the Spirit. For theSpirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God.' "2.11. For whoamong men knows the things of a man, except the spirit of the man,which is in him? Even so, no one knows the things of God, except God'sSpirit." '2.12. But we received, not the spirit of the world, but theSpirit which is from God, that we might know the things that werefreely given to us by God.' "2.13. Which things also we speak, not inwords which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches,comparing spiritual things with spiritual things." "2.14. Now thenatural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they arefoolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they arespiritually discerned." '2.15. But he who is spiritual discerns allthings, and he himself is judged by no one. 2.16. "For who has knownthe mind of the Lord, that he should instruct him?" But we haveChrist\'s mind.' '. None
22. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.1, 2.13-2.14, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristobulus, Paul comparison • Elder), Paul comparison • Epicureanism, comparison to Pauline Christianity • Ezekiel, Tragedian, Paul comparison • God (Pauline), compared with Epicurean gods • Paul, Aristobulus comparison • Ps.-Hecataeus, Aristobulus comparison • Simeon, Paul comparison • comparison, similarities and differences within • gods (Epicurean), compared with Pauline God • rhetoric, and comparison or competition • thought, Hellenistic Jews comparison

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 13, 183; Keener(2005) 124, 203; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 174, 179, 180

1.1. ΠΑΥΛΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΙΛΟΥΑΝΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΣ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ Θεσσαλονικέων ἐν θεῷ πατρὶ καὶ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη.
2.13. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡμεῖς εὐχαριστοῦμεν τῷ θεῷ ἀδιαλείπτως, ὅτι παραλαβόντες λόγον ἀκοῆς παρʼ ἡμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐδέξασθε οὐ λόγον ἀνθρώπων ἀλλὰ καθὼς ἀληθῶς ἐστὶν λόγον θεοῦ, ὃς καὶ ἐνεργεῖται ἐν ὑμῖν τοῖς πιστεύουσιν. 2.14. ὑμεῖς γὰρ μιμηταὶ ἐγενήθητε, ἀδελφοί, τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ τῶν οὐσῶν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ὅτι τὰ αὐτὰ ἐπάθετε καὶ ὑμεῖς ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων συμφυλετῶν καθὼς καὶ αὐτοὶ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων,
2.16. κωλυόντων ἡμᾶς τοῖς ἔθνεσιν λαλῆσαι ἵνα σωθῶσιν, εἰς τὸἀναπληρῶσαιαὐτῶντὰς ἁμαρτίαςπάντοτε. ἔφθασεν δὲ ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἡ ὀργὴ εἰς τέλος.''. None
1.1. Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, to the assembly of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
2.13. For this cause we also thank God without ceasing, that, when you received from us the word of the message of God, you accepted it not as the word of men, but, as it is in truth, the word of God, which also works in you who believe. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews;
2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. ''. None
23. New Testament, Acts, 1.26, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Agrippa I, compared to Herod • Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Death Compared to that of Other Tyrants • Artapanus, Acts of Apostles comparison • Egypt, Luke comparison • Homer, Acts of Apostles comparison (MacDonald) • Plato, Acts of Apostles comparison (MacDonald) • rhetoric, and comparison or competition

 Found in books: Keener(2005) 124; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 115, 203; Schwartz (2008) 357; Udoh (2006) 201

1.26. καὶ ἔδωκαν κλήρους αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπεσεν ὁ κλῆρος ἐπὶ Μαθθίαν, καὶ συνκατεψηφίσθη μετὰ τῶν ἕνδεκα ἀποστόλων.
12.23. παραχρῆμα δὲ ἐπάταξεν αὐτὸν ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἀνθʼ ὧν οὐκ ἔδωκεν τὴν δόξαν τῷ θεῷ, καὶ γενόμενος σκωληκόβρωτος ἐξέψυξͅεν.''. None
1.26. They drew lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles. ' "
12.23. Immediately an angel of the Lord struck him, because he didn't give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms, and he died. "'. None
24. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13-1.14, 1.17-1.19, 1.22, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristobulus, Paul comparison • Elder), Paul comparison • Ezekiel, Tragedian, Paul comparison • Paul, Aristobulus comparison • Paul, Seer of Revelation compared • Ps.-Hecataeus, Aristobulus comparison • Seer of Revelation,, Paul compared • Simeon, Paul comparison • rhetoric, and comparison or competition • thought, Hellenistic Jews comparison

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 19; Keener(2005) 124; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 174, 179, 180, 181

1.13. Ἠκούσατε γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀναστροφήν ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὅτι καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ἐδίωκον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐπόρθουν αὐτήν, 1.14. καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων.
1.17. οὐδὲ ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα πρὸς τοὺς πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἀποστόλους, ἀλλὰ ἀπῆλθον εἰς Ἀραβίαν, καὶ πάλιν ὑπέστρεψα εἰς Δαμασκόν. 1.18. Ἔπειτα μετὰ τρία ἔτη ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα ἱστορῆσαι Κηφᾶν, καὶ ἐπέμεινα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡμέρας δεκαπέντε· 1.19. ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ Ἰάκωβον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ κυρίου.
1.22. ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ,
2.13. καὶ συνυπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ Ἰουδαῖοι, ὥστε καὶ Βαρνάβας συναπήχθη αὐτῶν τῇ ὑποκρίσει. 2.14. ἀλλʼ ὅτε εἶδον ὅτι οὐκ ὀρθοποδοῦσιν πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, εἶπον τῷ Κηφᾷ ἔμπροσθεν πάντων Εἰ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ὑπάρχων ἐθνικῶς καὶ οὐκ Ἰουδαϊκῶς ζῇς, πῶς τὰ ἔθνη ἀναγκάζεις Ἰουδαΐζειν;''. None
1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. " "1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. " '
1.17. nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those whowere apostles before me, but I went away into Arabia. Then I returnedto Damascus. 1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days. ' "1.19. But of the otherapostles I saw no one, except James, the Lord's brother. " '
1.22. Iwas still unknown by face to the assemblies of Judea which were inChrist,
2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn\'t walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? '". None
25. New Testament, Philippians, 3.20, 4.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristobulus, Paul comparison • Elder), Paul comparison • Epictetus, compared with Paul • Ezekiel, Tragedian, Paul comparison • Laws, Jewish, Compared to Laws of Cities • Paul, Aristobulus comparison • Simeon, Paul comparison • thought, Hellenistic Jews comparison

 Found in books: Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 132; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 179, 180; Schwartz (2008) 275

3.20. ἡμῶν γὰρ τὸ πολίτευμα ἐν οὐρανοῖς ὑπάρχει, ἐξ οὗ καὶ σωτῆρα ἀπεκδεχόμεθα κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν,
4.15. οἴδατε δὲ καὶ ὑμεῖς, Φιλιππήσιοι, ὅτι ἐν ἀρχῇ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, ὅτε ἐξῆλθον ἀπὸ Μακεδονίας, οὐδεμία μοι ἐκκλησία ἐκοινώνησεν εἰς λόγον δόσεως καὶ λήμψεως εἰ μὴ ὑμεῖς μόνοι,''. None
3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ;
4.15. You yourselves also know, you Philippians, that in the beginning of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no assembly had fellowship with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only. ''. None
26. New Testament, Romans, 11.33-11.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epictetus, compared with Paul • comparison, methodology of • comparison, of Paul and greco-roman philosophers • comparison, similarities and differences within

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 198; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 134

11.33. Ὢ βάθος πλούτου καὶ σοφίας καὶ γνώσεως θεοῦ· ὡς ἀνεξεραύνητα τὰ κρίματα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀνεξιχνίαστοι αἱ ὁδοὶ αὐτοῦ. 11.34. 11.35. 11.36. ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα· αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν.''. None
11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. "For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor?" 11.35. "Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again?" 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen. ''. None
27. New Testament, Mark, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • numen (divine power) comparisons with Holy Spirit • rhetoric, and comparison or competition

 Found in books: Keener(2005) 146; Peppard (2011) 114

13.11. καὶ ὅταν ἄγωσιν ὑμᾶς παραδιδόντες, μὴ προμεριμνᾶτε τί λαλήσητε, ἀλλʼ ὃ ἐὰν δοθῇ ὑμῖν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦτο λαλεῖτε, οὐ γάρ ἐστε ὑμεῖς οἱ λαλοῦντες ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον.''. None
13.11. When they lead you away and deliver you up, don't be anxious beforehand, or premeditate what you will say, but say whatever will be given you in that hour. For it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. "". None
28. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Comparisons, with heroes and gods • comparison with Plato, in physics • comparison with Plato, radical

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 73; Meister (2019) 7

29. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antiquities (Josephus), comparison to War • Laws, Jewish, Compared to Laws of Cities • War (Josephus), comparison to Antiquities • synkrisis (comparison), in Plutarch

 Found in books: Goldhill (2022) 186; Noam (2018) 213; Schwartz (2008) 275

30. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Paul, Seer of Revelation compared • Ps.-Hecataeus, Aristobulus comparison • Seer of Revelation,, Ignatius of Antioch compared • Seer of Revelation,, Paul compared

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 22; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 174

31. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 9.3, 14.1, 17.1 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jews/Judeans/Ioudaioi, as compared with Christians • Laws, Jewish, Compared to Royal Decrees • Polycarp, Comparison with Jesus

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021) 243; Gruen (2020) 210; Schwartz (2008) 314

9.3. 3 But when the Pro-Consul pressed him and said: "Take the oath and I let you go, revile Christ," Polycarp said: "For eighty and six years have I been his servant, and he has done me no wrong, and how can I blaspheme my King who saved me?"
14.1. 1 So they did not nail him, but bound him, and he put his hands behind him and was bound, as a noble ram out of a great flock, for an oblation, a whole burnt offering made ready and acceptable to God; and he looked up to heaven and said: "O Lord God Almighty, Father of thy beloved and blessed Child, Jesus Christ, through Whom we have received full knowledge of thee, the God of Angels and powers, and of all creation, and of the whole family of the righteous, who live before thee!
17.1. 1 But the jealous and envious evil one who resists the family of the righteous, when he saw the greatness of his martyrdom, and his blameless career from the beginning, and that he was crowned with the crown of immortality, and had carried off the unspeakable prize, took care that not even his poor body should be taken away by us, though many desired to do so, and to have fellowship with his holy flesh. ''. None
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Septuagint, Noah, the flood, and the raven, compared to Sulpicius Severus Chronicon • Sulpicius Severus, Noah, the flood, and the raven in Chronicon, compared to Septuagint • comparisons

 Found in books: Cohen (2010) 471; Goldhill (2022) 381

108b. א"כ לא נפנה דרך כרמים,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב יב, ה) לפיד בוז לעשתות שאנן נכון למועדי רגל מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח אותם ואמר להם דברים שהם קשים כלפידים והיו (בוזים) מבזין אותו אמרו לו זקן תיבה זו למה אמר להם הקב"ה מביא עליכם את המבול אמרו מבול של מה אם מבול של אש יש לנו דבר אחר ועליתה שמה ואם של מים הוא מביא אם מן הארץ הוא מביא יש לנו עששיות של ברזל שאנו מחפין בהם את הארץ ואם מן השמים הוא מביא יש לנו דבר ועקב שמו ואמרי לה עקש שמו,אמר להם הוא מביא מבין עקבי רגליכם שנאמר (איוב יב, ה) נכון למועדי רגל תניא מימי המבול קשים כשכבת זרע שנאמר נכון למועדי רגל אמר רב חסדא ברותחין קלקלו בעבירה וברותחין נידונו כתיב הכא (בראשית ח, א) וישכו המים וכתיב התם (אסתר ז, י) וחמת המלך שככה,(בראשית ז, י) ויהי לשבעת הימים ומי המבול היו על הארץ מה טיבם של שבעת הימים,אמר רב אלו ימי אבילות של מתושלח ללמדך שהספדן של צדיקים מעכבין את הפורענות לבא דבר אחר לשבעת ששינה עליהם הקב"ה סדר בראשית שהיתה חמה יוצאת ממערב ושוקעת במזרח דבר אחר שקבע להם הקב"ה זמן גדול ואח"כ זמן קטן ד"א לשבעת הימים שהטעימם מעין העולם הבא כדי שידעו מה טובה מנעו מהן,(בראשית ז, ב) מכל הבהמה הטהורה תקח לך שבעה שבעה איש ואשתו אישות לבהמה מי אית לה א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאותם שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה,מנא ידע אמר רב חסדא שהעבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתו בידוע שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה וכל שאין התיבה קולטתו בידוע שנעבדה בה עבירה רבי אבהו אמר מאותן הבאין מאיליהן,(בראשית ו, יד) עשה לך תיבת עצי גופר מאי גופר אמר רב אדא אמרי דבי ר\' שילא זו מבליגה ואמרי לה גולמיש,צוהר תעשה לתיבה א"ר יוחנן אמר לו הקב"ה לנח קבע בה אבנים טובות ומרגליות כדי שיהיו מאירות לכם כצהרים,(בראשית ו, טז) ואל אמה תכלנה מלמעלה דבהכי הוא דקיימא,(בראשית ו, טז) תחתיים שנים ושלישים תעשה תנא תחתיים לזבל אמצעיים לבהמה עליונים לאדם,(בראשית ח, ז) וישלח את העורב אמר ר"ל תשובה ניצחת השיבו עורב לנח אמר לו רבך שונאני ואתה שנאתני רבך שונאני מן הטהורין שבעה מן הטמאים שנים ואתה שנאתני שאתה מניח ממין שבעה ושולח ממין שנים אם פוגע בי שר חמה או שר צנה לא נמצא עולם חסר בריה אחת או שמא לאשתי אתה צריך,אמר לו רשע במותר לי נאסר לי בנאסר לי לא כ"ש,ומנלן דנאסרו דכתיב (בראשית ו, יח) ובאת אל התיבה אתה ובניך ואשתך ונשי בניך אתך וכתיב (בראשית ח, טז) צא מן התיבה אתה ואשתך ובניך ונשי בניך אתך וא"ר יוחנן מיכן אמרו שנאסרו בתשמיש המטה,ת"ר שלשה שמשו בתיבה וכולם לקו כלב ועורב וחם כלב נקשר עורב רק חם לקה בעורו,(בראשית ח, ח) וישלח את היונה מאתו לראות הקלו המים א"ר ירמיה מכאן שדירתן של עופות טהורים עם הצדיקים,(בראשית ח, יא) והנה עלה זית טרף בפיה א"ר אלעזר אמרה יונה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע יהיו מזונותי מרורים כזית ומסורים בידך ואל יהיו מתוקים כדבש ומסורים ביד בשר ודם מאי משמע דהאי טרף לישנא דמזוני הוא דכתיב (משלי ל, ח) הטריפני לחם חוקי,(בראשית ח, יט) למשפחותיהם יצאו מן התיבה א"ר יוחנן למשפחותם ולא הם,אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ליה אליעזר לשם רבא כתיב למשפחותיהם יצאו מן התיבה אתון היכן הויתון א"ל צער גדול היה לנו בתיבה בריה שדרכה להאכילה ביום האכלנוה ביום שדרכה להאכילה בלילה האכלנוה בלילה האי זקיתא לא הוה ידע אבא מה אכלה יומא חד הוה יתיב וקא פאלי רמונא נפל תולעתא מינה אכלה מיכן ואילך הוה גביל לה חיזרא כי מתלע אכלה,אריא אישתא זינתיה דאמר רב לא בציר משיתא ולא טפי מתריסר זינא אישתא אורשינה אשכחיניה אבא דגני בספנא דתיבותא א"ל לא בעית מזוני א"ל חזיתיך דהות טרידא אמינא לא אצערך א"ל יהא רעוא דלא תמות שנאמר (איוב כט, יח) ואומר עם קני אגוע וכחול ארבה ימים,אמר רב חנה בר לואי אמר שם רבא לאליעזר כי אתו עלייכו מלכי מזרח ומערב אתון היכי עבידיתו אמר ליה אייתי הקב"ה לאברהם ואותביה מימיניה והוה שדינן עפרא והוו חרבי גילי והוי גירי שנאמר (תהלים קי, א) מזמור לדוד נאם ה\' לאדוני שב לימיני עד אשית אויביך הדום לרגליך וכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) מי העיר ממזרח צדק יקראהו לרגלו יתן לפניו גוים ומלכים ירד יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו,נחום איש גם זו הוה רגיל דכל דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה יומא חד בעו ישראל לשדורי דורון לקיסר אמרי בהדי''. None
108b. They said to him: If so we will not clear a path through vineyards, i.e., we will continue to sin.,Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A contemptible torch lapid in the thought of him that is at ease, a thing ready for them whose foot slips” (Job 12:5)? This teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke the people of his generation, and he said to them statements that are harsh as torches kelapidim, and they would treat him with contempt. They said to him: Old man, why are you building this ark? Noah said to them: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is bringing a flood upon you. They said to him: A flood of what? If it is a flood of fire, we have another item and it is called alita, and it is fireproof. And if it is a flood of water that He brings, if He brings the water from the earth, we have iron plates with which we can plate the earth to prevent the water from rising. And if He brings the water from the heavens, we have an item and it is called ekev, and some say it is called ikkesh, which will absorb the water.,Noah said to them: If He wishes He will bring the water from between your feet and you can do nothing to prevent it, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips.” It is taught in a baraita: The waters of the flood were as hard and thick as semen, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips”; foot is a euphemism. Rav Ḥisda says: With hot semen they sinned, and with hot water they were punished. As it is written here, at the conclusion of the flood: “And the waters assuaged” (Genesis 8:1), and it is written there: “Then the king’s wrath was assuaged” (Esther 7:10). Just as the term “assuaged” there is referring to the heat of Ahasuerus’s wrath, so too, “assuaged” with regard to the flood is referring to the heat of the waters.,With regard to the verse: “And it came to pass that after seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth” (Genesis 7:10), the Gemara asks: What is the nature of these seven additional days?,Rav says: These were the days of mourning for the death of Methuselah; and this is to teach you that eulogies for the righteous prevent calamities from ensuing. Alternatively, “after seven days” means that the Holy One, Blessed be He, altered the order of Creation for that generation, i.e., in seven days He reversed the process of Creation, so that the sun would emerge in the west and set in the east. Alternatively, it means that the Holy One, Blessed be He, designated a substantial period for them, one hundred and twenty years, to repent, and thereafter designated a brief period for them, an additional seven days, as a final opportunity for them to repent. Alternatively, “after seven days” means that during those seven days, God gave them a foretaste of the delights of the World-to-Come, which will be actualized during the seventh millennium, so that they would know what munificence their sins prevented them from receiving.,§ With regard to the verse: “of every kosher animal you shall take to you by sevens, husband and wife” (Genesis 7:2), the Gemara asks: Is there marriage for animals? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: The reference is to those animals with which the transgression of relations with another species was not performed. Therefore, the Torah underscores that the animals that entered the ark were husband and wife.,The Gemara asks: From where did Noah know which animals were not involved in that transgression? Rav Ḥisda says: He passed them before the ark. All animals that the ark accepted, it was known that a transgression had not been performed with them. And any animal that the ark did not accept, it was known that a transgression had been performed with it. Rabbi Abbahu says: Noah took onto the ark only from those animals that came on their own, as it appeared that they were sent from Heaven, and they were certainly fit for this purpose.,With regard to the verse: “Make you an ark of gopher wood” (Genesis 6:14), the Gemara asks: What is gopher wood? Rav Adda says that they say in the school of Rabbi Sheila: This is wood from the mavliga tree; and some say that it is wood from the willow gulamish tree.,With regard to the verse: “A tzohar you shall make for the ark” (Genesis 6:16), Rabbi Yoḥa says that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Noah: Set precious stones and jewels in the ark so that they will shine for you as the afternoon tzohorayim sun.,With regard to the verse: “And to a cubit you shall finish it above” (Genesis 6:16), the Gemara explains that in that manner, having been built wide at its base and narrow at its top, the ark would stand upright and would not capsize.,With regard to the verse: “With lower, second and third stories shall you make it” (Genesis 6:16), it was taught in a baraita: The bottom story was for manure, the middle story was for animals, and the top story was for people.,With regard to the verse: “And he sent forth the raven, which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from the earth” (Genesis 8:7), Reish Lakish says: The raven provided a convincing response to Noah; when it did not wish to leave the ark the raven said to him: Your Master, God, hates me, and you hate me. Your Master hates me, as He commanded to take from the kosher species seven and from the non-kosher species two. And you hate me, as you disregard those from the species of seven, i.e., the kosher birds, and instead dispatch one from the species of two, i.e., the non-kosher birds. If the angel of heat or the angel of cold harms me and kills me, will the world not be lacking one species of creature, as there was only one pair of ravens? Or perhaps you are sending me because it is my wife that you need, in order to engage in intercourse with her.,Noah said to the raven: Wicked one! If with the woman who is generally permitted to me, my wife, intercourse is forbidden to me, then with regard to domesticated and undomesticated animals, which are generally forbidden to me, is it not all the more so the case that they are forbidden to me?,The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive that it was prohibited for them to engage in intercourse while in the ark? The Gemara answers: It is derived from that which is written: “And you shall come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you” (Genesis 6:18); and it is written: “Emerge from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you” (Genesis 8:16). And Rabbi Yoḥa says: From here, the Sages derived and said that it was prohibited to engage in intercourse while in the ark, as when Noah and his family entered, the husbands and wives were listed separately, and when they emerged, the husbands were listed with their wives.,The Sages taught: Three violated that directive and engaged in intercourse while in the ark, and all of them were punished for doing so. They are: The dog, and the raven, and Ham, son of Noah. The dog was punished in that it is bound; the raven was punished in that it spits, and Ham was afflicted in that his skin turned black.,With regard to the verse: “And he sent forth the dove from him, to see if the waters abated” (Genesis 8:8), Rabbi Yirmeya says: From here it is derived that the dwelling place of kosher birds in the ark was with the righteous people, as the verse emphasizes that Noah dispatched the dove from his place.,With regard to the verse: “And in her mouth was an olive branch plucked off taraf (Genesis 8:11), Rabbi Elazar says: The dove said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, may my sustece be bitter as the olive and dependent on Your hands, and not sweet as honey and dependent on the hands of flesh and blood. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that taraf is a term that indicates sustece? The Gemara answers: It is inferred from that which is written: “Feed me hatrifeni with my allotted portion” (Proverbs 30:8).,With regard to the verse: “After their kinds lemishpeḥoteihem, they emerged from the ark” (Genesis 8:19), Rabbi Yoḥa says: After their kinds lemishpeḥotam the animals emerged, but not them hem themselves, as some of the animals that entered the ark died during that year and it was their descendants who emerged.,Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says: Eliezer, servant of Abraham, said to Shem the Great, son of Noah: It is written: “After their kinds, they emerged from the ark,” indicating that the different types of animals were not intermingled while in the ark. Where were you and what did you do to care for them while they were in the ark? Shem said to him: We experienced great suffering in the ark caring for the animals. Where there was a creature that one typically feeds during the day, we fed it during the day, and where there was a creature that one typically feeds at night, we fed it at night. With regard to that chameleon, my father did not know what it eats. One day, my father was sitting and peeling a pomegranate. A worm fell from it and the chameleon ate it. From that point forward my father would knead bran with water, and when it became overrun with worms, the chameleon would eat it.,With regard to the lion, a fever sustained it, since when it suffered from a fever, it did not need to eat; as Rav said: For no fewer than six days and no more than twelve days, fever sustains a person; he need not eat and is sustained from his own fats. Shem continued: With regard to the phoenix avarshina, my father found it lying in its compartment on the side of the ark. He said to the bird: Do you not want food? The bird said to him: I saw that you were busy, and I said I would not trouble you by requesting food. Noah said to the bird: May it be God’s will that you shall not die, and through that bird the verse was fulfilled, as it is stated: “And I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix” (Job 29:18).,§ Rav Ḥana bar Leva’ei says that Shem the Great said to Eliezer, servant of Abraham: When the four great kings of the east and the west came upon you to wage war with Abraham, what did you do? Eliezer said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought Abraham and placed him to His right, and we would throw dust and it became swords, and we threw straw and it became arrows, as it is stated: “A Psalm of David. The Lord says to my master: Sit to My right, until I make your enemies your footstool” (Psalms 110:1), and it is written: “Who has raised up one from the east at whose steps victory attends? He gives nations before him, and makes him rule over kings; his sword makes them as the dust, his bow as driven straw” (Isaiah 41:2).,Apropos Abraham’s miraculous weapons, the Gemara relates: Naḥum of Gam Zo was accustomed that in response to any circumstance that arose in his regard, he would say: This too gam zo is for the best. One day the Jewish people sought to send a gift doron to the emperor. They said: With''. None
33. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.116 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Socrates, Democritus compared with • compared to Platos turn to the divine, goes unnoticed

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 81, 89; Wolfsdorf (2020) 212

7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness.''. None
34. Augustine, The City of God, 5.2-5.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Nonnus, Dionysiaca, Paraphrase compared • Nonnus, Paraphrase of the Gospel of John, Dionysiaca compared • cosmos, compared to a clock

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 260; Goldhill (2022) 297

5.2. Cicero says that the famous physician Hippocrates has left in writing that he had suspected that a certain pair of brothers were twins, from the fact that they both took ill at once, and their disease advanced to its crisis and subsided in the same time in each of them. Posidonius the Stoic, who was much given to astrology, used to explain the fact by supposing that they had been born and conceived under the same constellation. In this question the conjecture of the physician is by far more worthy to be accepted, and approaches much nearer to credibility, since, according as the parents were affected in body at the time of copulation, so might the first elements of the fœtuses have been affected, so that all that was necessary for their growth and development up till birth having been supplied from the body of the same mother, they might be born with like constitutions. Thereafter, nourished in the same house, on the same kinds of food, where they would have also the same kinds of air, the same locality, the same quality of water - which, according to the testimony of medical science, have a very great influence, good or bad, on the condition of bodily health - and where they would also be accustomed to the same kinds of exercise, they would have bodily constitutions so similar that they would be similarly affected with sickness at the same time and by the same causes. But, to wish to adduce that particular position of the stars which existed at the time when they were born or conceived as the cause of their being simultaneously affected with sickness, manifests the greatest arrogance, when so many beings of most diverse kinds, in the most diverse conditions, and subject to the most diverse events, may have been conceived and born at the same time, and in the same district, lying under the same sky. But we know that twins do not only act differently, and travel to very different places, but that they also suffer from different kinds of sickness; for which Hippocrates would give what is in my opinion the simplest reason, namely, that, through diversity of food and exercise, which arises not from the constitution of the body, but from the inclination of the mind, they may have come to be different from each other in respect of health. Moreover, Posidonius, or any other asserter of the fatal influence of the stars, will have enough to do to find anything to say to this, if he be unwilling to im pose upon the minds of the uninstructed in things of which they are ignorant. But, as to what they attempt to make out from that very small interval of time elapsing between the births of twins, on account of that point in the heavens where the mark of the natal hour is placed, and which they call the horoscope, it is either disproportionately small to the diversity which is found in the dispositions, actions, habits, and fortunes of twins, or it is disproportionately great when compared with the estate of twins, whether low or high, which is the same for both of them, the cause for whose greatest difference they place, in every case, in the hour on which one is born; and, for this reason, if the one is born so immediately after the other that there is no change in the horoscope, I demand an entire similarity in all that respects them both, which can never be found in the case of any twins. But if the slowness of the birth of the second give time for a change in the horoscope, I demand different parents, which twins can never have. ' "5.3. It is to no purpose, therefore, that that famous fiction about the potter's wheel is brought forward, which tells of the answer which Nigidius is said to have given when he was perplexed with this question, and on account of which he was called Figulus. For, having whirled round the potter's wheel with all his strength he marked it with ink, striking it twice with the utmost rapidity, so that the strokes seemed to fall on the very same part of it. Then, when the rotation had ceased, the marks which he had made were found upon the rim of the wheel at no small distance apart. Thus, said he, considering the great rapidity with which the celestial sphere revolves, even though twins were born with as short an interval between their births as there was between the strokes which I gave this wheel, that brief interval of time is equivalent to a very great distance in the celestial sphere. Hence, said he, come whatever dissimilitudes may be remarked in the habits and fortunes of twins. This argument is more fragile than the vessels which are fashioned by the rotation of that wheel. For if there is so much significance in the heavens which cannot be comprehended by observation of the constellations, that, in the case of twins, an inheritance may fall to the one and not to the other, why, in the case of others who are not twins, do they dare, having examined their constellations, to declare such things as pertain to that secret which no one can comprehend, and to attribute them to the precise moment of the birth of each individual? Now, if such predictions in connection with the natal hours of others who are not twins are to be vindicated on the ground that they are founded on the observation of more extended spaces in the heavens, while those very small moments of time which separated the births of twins, and correspond to minute portions of celestial space, are to be connected with trifling things about which the mathematicians are not wont to be consulted - for who would consult them as to when he is to sit, when to walk abroad, when and on what he is to dine? - how can we be justified in so speaking, when we can point out such manifold diversity both in the habits, doings, and destinies of twins? " "5.4. In the time of the ancient fathers, to speak concerning illustrious persons, there were born two twin brothers, the one so immediately after the other, that the first took hold of the heel of the second. So great a difference existed in their lives and manners, so great a dissimilarity in their actions, so great a difference in their parents' love for them respectively, that the very contrast between them produced even a mutual hostile antipathy. Do we mean, when we say that they were so unlike each other, that when the one was walking the other was sitting, when the one was sleeping the other was waking - which differences are such as are attributed to those minute portions of space which cannot be appreciated by those who note down the position of the stars which exists at the moment of one's birth, in order that the mathematicians may be consulted concerning it? One of these twins was for a long time a hired servant; the other never served. One of them was beloved by his mother; the other was not so. One of them lost that honor which was so much valued among their people; the other obtained it. And what shall we say of their wives, their children, and their possessions? How different they were in respect to all these! If, therefore, such things as these are connected with those minute intervals of time which elapse between the births of twins, and are not to be attributed to the constellations, wherefore are they predicted in the case of others from the examination of their constellations? And if, on the other hand, these things are said to be predicted, because they are connected, not with minute and inappreciable moments, but with intervals of time which can be observed and noted down, what purpose is that potter's wheel to serve in this matter, except it be to whirl round men who have hearts of clay, in order that they may be prevented from detecting the emptiness of the talk of the mathematicians? " '5.5. Do not those very persons whom the medical sagacity of Hippocrates led him to suspect to be twins, because their disease was observed by him to develop to its crisis and to subside again in the same time in each of them - do not these, I say, serve as a sufficient refutation of those who wish to attribute to the influence of the stars that which was owing to a similarity of bodily constitution? For wherefore were they both sick of the same disease, and at the same time, and not the one after the other in the order of their birth? (for certainly they could not both be born at the same time.) Or, if the fact of their having been born at different times by no means necessarily implies that they must be sick at different times, why do they contend that the difference in the time of their births was the cause of their difference in other things? Why could they travel in foreign parts at different times, marry at different times, beget children at different times, and do many other things at different times, by reason of their having been born at different times, and yet could not, for the same reason, also be sick at different times? For if a difference in the moment of birth changed the horoscope, and occasioned dissimilarity in all other things, why has that simultaneousness which belonged to their conception remained in their attacks of sickness? Or, if the destinies of health are involved in the time of conception, but those of other things be said to be attached to the time of birth, they ought not to predict anything concerning health from examination of the constellations of birth, when the hour of conception is not also given, that its constellations may be inspected. But if they say that they predict attacks of sickness without examining the horoscope of conception, because these are indicated by the moments of birth, how could they inform either of these twins when he would be sick, from the horoscope of his birth, when the other also, who had not the same horoscope of birth, must of necessity fall sick at the same time? Again, I ask, if the distance of time between the births of twins is so great as to occasion a difference of their constellations on account of the difference of their horoscopes, and therefore of all the cardinal points to which so much influence is attributed, that even from such change there comes a difference of destiny, how is it possible that this should be so, since they cannot have been conceived at different times? Or, if two conceived at the same moment of time could have different destinies with respect to their births, why may not also two born at the same moment of time have different destinies for life and for death? For if the one moment in which both were conceived did not hinder that the one should be born before the other, why, if two are born at the same moment, should anything hinder them from dying at the same moment? If a simultaneous conception allows of twins being differently affected in the womb, why should not simultaneousness of birth allow of any two individuals having different fortunes in the world? And thus would all the fictions of this art, or rather delusion, be swept away. What strange circumstance is this, that two children conceived at the same time, nay, at the same moment, under the same position of the stars, have different fates which bring them to different hours of birth, while two children, born of two different mothers, at the same moment of time, under one and the same position of the stars, cannot have different fates which shall conduct them by necessity to diverse manners of life and of death? Are they at conception as yet without destinies, because they can only have them if they be born? What, therefore, do they mean when they say that, if the hour of the conception be found, many things can be predicted by these astrologers? From which also arose that story which is reiterated by some, that a certain sage chose an hour in which to lie with his wife, in order to secure his begetting an illustrious son. From this opinion also came that answer of Posidonius, the great astrologer and also philosopher, concerning those twins who were attacked with sickness at the same time, namely, That this had happened to them because they were conceived at the same time, and born at the same time. For certainly he added conception, lest it should be said to him that they could not both be born at the same time, knowing that at any rate they must both have been conceived at the same time; wishing thus to show that he did not attribute the fact of their being similarly and simultaneously affected with sickness to the similarity of their bodily constitutions as its proximate cause, but that he held that even in respect of the similarity of their health, they were bound together by a sidereal connection. If, therefore, the time of conception has so much to do with the similarity of destinies, these same destinies ought not to be changed by the circumstances of birth; or, if the destinies of twins be said to be changed because they are born at different times, why should we not rather understand that they had been already changed in order that they might be born at different times? Does not, then, the will of men living in the world change the destinies of birth, when the order of birth can change the destinies they had at conception? ' "5.6. But even in the very conception of twins, which certainly occurs at the same moment in the case of both, it often happens that the one is conceived a male, and the other a female. I know two of different sexes who are twins. Both of them are alive, and in the flower of their age; and though they resemble each other in body, as far as difference of sex will permit, still they are very different in the whole scope and purpose of their lives (consideration being had of those differences which necessarily exist between the lives of males and females) - the one holding the office of a count, and being almost constantly away from home with the army in foreign service, the other never leaving her country's soil, or her native district. Still more - and this is more incredible, if the destinies of the stars are to be believed in, though it is not wonderful if we consider the wills of men, and the free gifts of God - he is married; she is a sacred virgin: he has begotten a numerous offspring; she has never even married. But is not the virtue of the horoscope very great? I think I have said enough to show the absurdity of that. But, say those astrologers, whatever be the virtue of the horoscope in other respects, it is certainly of significance with respect to birth. But why not also with respect to conception, which takes place undoubtedly with one act of copulation? And, indeed, so great is the force of nature, that after a woman has once conceived, she ceases to be liable to conception. Or were they, perhaps, changed at birth, either he into a male, or she into a female, because of the difference in their horoscopes? But, while it is not altogether absurd to say that certain sidereal influences have some power to cause differences in bodies alone - as, for instance, we see that the seasons of the year come round by the approaching and receding of the sun, and that certain kinds of things are increased in size or diminished by the waxings and wanings of the moon, such as sea-urchins, oysters, and the wonderful tides of the ocean - it does not follow that the wills of men are to be made subject to the position of the stars. The astrologers, however, when they wish to bind our actions also to the constellations, only set us on investigating whether, even in these bodies, the changes may not be attributable to some other than a sidereal cause. For what is there which more intimately concerns a body than its sex? And yet, under the same position of the stars, twins of different sexes may be conceived. Wherefore, what greater absurdity can be affirmed or believed than that the position of the stars, which was the same for both of them at the time of conception, could not cause that the one child should not have been of a different sex from her brother, with whom she had a common constellation, while the position of the stars which existed at the hour of their birth could cause that she should be separated from him by the great distance between marriage and holy virginity? "'. None
35. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 139, 207, 231, 248
 Tagged with subjects: • Pseudo-Aristeas, compared with Pseudo-Hecataeus • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, compared with Pseudo-Aristeas • Sibylline Oracle, Third, Letter of Aristeas comparison • comparative approach • methodology, comparative interpretation • rhetoric, and comparison or competition

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 181; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 227; Huebner (2013) 75; Keener(2005) 230; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46

139. 'Now our Lawgiver being a wise man and specially endowed by God to understand all things, took a comprehensive view of each particular detail, and fenced us round with impregnable ramparts and walls of iron, that we might not mingle at all with any of the other nations, but remain pure in body and soul, free from all vain imaginations, worshiping the one Almighty God above the whole"
207. The king received the answer with great delight and looking at another said, 'What is the teaching of wisdom?' And the other replied, 'As you wish that no evil should befall you, but to be a partaker of all good things, so you should act on the same principle towards your subjects and offenders, and you should mildly admonish the noble and good. For God draws all men to himself by his benignity.'" "
231. and this is mightier than the strongest weapons and guarantees the greatest security. But if any man does fail, he must never again do those things which caused his failure, but he must form friendships and act justly. For it is the gift of God to be able to do good actions and not the contrary.'" "
248. And on the next day, when the opportunity offered, the king asked the next man, What is the grossest form of neglect? And he replied, 'If a man does not care for his children and devote every effort to their education. For w always pray to God not so much for ourselves as for our children that every blessing may be theirs. Our desire that our children may possess self-control is only realized by the power of God.'" "". None
36. None, None, nan (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • comparison with Plato, in logic • comparison with Plato, in physics • comparison with Plato, radical • plants, compared to foetus

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 72; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 172

37. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Hesiod, Virgil compared • Teutones and Cimbri, compared with animals, deteriorated in Venetia

 Found in books: Goldhill (2022) 88; Isaac (2004) 314

38. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Korsgaard, Christine, compared with Proclus • comparison with Plato • comparison with Plato, in logic • comparison with Plato, in physics • comparison with Plato, radical • ethics, modern compared with ancient

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 72, 90; Long (2006) 29; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 203

39. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • ethics, modern compared with ancient • medicine, philosophy compared to

 Found in books: Long (2006) 30; Yona (2018) 154

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