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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
column Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 311, 367, 434
Rutledge (2012) 102, 144
column, acanthus, delphi Gaifman (2012) 282
Gygax (2016) 198
column, and altar to caesar, cornelius dolabella, p., destroys Walters (2020) 110
column, capitals, paphos, theatre building Csapo (2022) 137, 138, 139, 147
column, dead sea and area, cave of the Taylor (2012) 322
column, dedicated to, augustus Rutledge (2012) 130, 131, 292
column, doric Radicke (2022) 306, 527
column, evidence, for apollos Gaifman (2012) 272, 273, 274, 276, 278, 282, 287, 288, 289
column, inscribed format Wilding (2022) 139, 184
column, ionic Radicke (2022) 527, 528
column, of antoninus pius Rutledge (2012) 47, 301
column, of apollo maleata Gaifman (2012) 272, 273, 274, 276, 278, 282, 287, 288, 289
column, of aurelius, marcus Sider (2001) 18
column, of glory Richter et al. (2015) 247, 366, 397
column, of hera argos, gold ring from tomb near heraeum with griffins and, ? Simon (2021) 65
column, of hera gold rings, argos, tomb near heraeum, ring with griffins and, ? Simon (2021) 65
column, of hera gold rings, mycenae, ring with lions and, ? Simon (2021) 65
column, of hera mycenae, clay seal with, ?, flanked by oxen and birds Simon (2021) 65
column, of hera mycenae, gold ring with lions and, ? Simon (2021) 65
column, of marcus aurelius in rome Sider (2001) 18
column, of marcus aurelius, rome Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 488
column, of marcus, rule Borg (2008) 117
column, of minucius Rutledge (2012) 120
column, of the dancers Bernabe et al (2013) 291
column, of trajan, rule Borg (2008) 162
column, pater patriae, caesar as, on Walters (2020) 110
column, porphyry Klein and Wienand (2022) 201
column, rome, trajan’s Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 358
column, taxes, roman, columnaria, tax Marek (2019) 298
column, theodosius, constantinople Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 21, 57
column, tibur Jenkyns (2013) 65
column, trajan, his Rutledge (2012) 102, 116, 123, 144
column, trajans Jenkyns (2013) 263, 345, 350
Pandey (2018) 249
column, trajan’s Konig (2022) 192
columns Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 98, 100, 138
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 419, 423, 424, 427, 428
Hachlili (2005) 353
Klein and Wienand (2022) 14, 147, 167, 168, 169, 175, 176, 201, 266, 268, 276
columns, alexandria, mosque of one thousand Rizzi (2010) 130
columns, honorific Bay (2022) 146
columns, inscribed Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 92
columns, jachum and baaz Klein and Wienand (2022) 175
columns, of heracles Konig and Wiater (2022) 56, 57, 60
König and Wiater (2022) 56, 57, 60
columns, parthenon, christian church, inscriptions on Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 371, 374
columns, pillars, sanctity of Levine (2005) 32, 55, 63, 72, 75, 76, 185, 195, 197, 323, 324, 326, 327, 337
columns, side Levine (2005) 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 343
columns, tibur Jenkyns (2013) 65
columns, trajans Jenkyns (2013) 263, 345, 350
pillar/column, worshipped in form of apollo Simon (2021) 65, 137
pillar/column, worshipped in form of artemis Simon (2021) 137, 187
pillars/columns, apollo worshipped in form of Simon (2021) 65, 137
pillars/columns, artemis worshipped in form of Simon (2021) 137, 187
pillars/columns, dionysus worshipped in form of Simon (2021) 65, 137, 286, 299, 300
pillars/columns, hera worshipped in form of Simon (2021) 65, 137
pillars/columns, herms Simon (2021) 331, 333, 334, 335, 337, 338
pillars/columns, mycenae, lion gate Simon (2021) 62, 65
pillars/columns, palladium of athena Simon (2021) 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 231

List of validated texts:
10 validated results for "column"
1. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pillars of Herakles • horticulturist, pillars of Herakles • pillars of Herakles

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 53, 70, 71, 82; Gagné (2020) 2

2. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pillar of the North • Pillars of Heracles • Pillars of Herakles • pillars of Herakles

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 148, 149, 150, 151; Gagné (2020) 2, 16, 20, 21, 23; Meister (2019) 109, 120

3. Euripides, Bacchae, 297 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Column of the dancers • Derveni Papyrus, first columns

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 291; Álvarez (2019) 85

297. Ἥρᾳ ποθʼ ὡμήρευσε, συνθέντες λόγον.''. None
297. mortals say that he was nourished in the thigh of Zeus, changing the word, because a god he had served as a hostage for the goddess Hera, and composing the story. The account given in lines 292f. of the development of this legend is based on the similarity between the Greek words for hostage ( ὅμηρος ) and thigh ( μηρός ). But this god is a prophet—for Bacchic revelry and madness have in them much prophetic skill.''. None
4. Anon., Jubilees, 8.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minor, Two pillars, Adam’s prediction of two world destructions • Pillars of Hercules

 Found in books: Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 119; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 94

8.1. In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Râsû’ĕjâ, the daughter of Sûsân, the daughter of Elam,''. None
5. Polybius, Histories, 3.35.7-3.35.8, 3.36.1-3.36.5, 3.37.6-3.37.7, 3.37.9, 3.37.11, 3.38.2, 3.39.2-3.39.5, 3.39.9-3.39.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Columns of Heracles

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 56, 57, 60; König and Wiater (2022) 56, 57, 60

3.35.7. τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν στρατιὰν ἀναλαβὼν εὔζωνον πεζοὺς μὲν πεντακισμυρίους ἱππεῖς δὲ πρὸς ἐννακισχιλίους ἦγεν διὰ τῶν Πυρηναίων λεγομένων ὀρῶν ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ Ῥοδανοῦ καλουμένου ποταμοῦ διάβασιν, 3.35.8. ἔχων οὐχ οὕτως πολλὴν δύναμιν ὡς χρησίμην καὶ γεγυμνασμένην διαφερόντως ἐκ τῆς συνεχείας τῶν κατὰ τὴν Ἰβηρίαν ἀγώνων.
3.36.1. ἵνα δὲ μὴ τῶν τόπων ἀγνοουμένων παντάπασιν ἀσαφῆ γίνεσθαι συμβαίνῃ τὴν διήγησιν, ῥητέον ἂν εἴη πόθεν ὁρμήσας Ἀννίβας καὶ τίνας καὶ πόσους διελθὼν τόπους εἰς ποῖα μέρη κατῆρε τῆς Ἰταλίας. 3.36.2. ῥητέον δʼ οὐκ αὐτὰς τὰς ὀνομασίας τῶν τόπων καὶ ποταμῶν καὶ πόλεων, ὅπερ ἔνιοι ποιοῦσι τῶν συγγραφέων, ὑπολαμβάνοντες ἐν παντὶ πρὸς γνῶσιν καὶ σαφήνειαν αὐτοτελὲς εἶναι τοῦτο τὸ μέρος. 3.36.3. οἶμαι δʼ, ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν γνωριζομένων τόπων οὐ μικρὰ μεγάλα δὲ συμβάλλεσθαι πεποίηκε πρὸς ἀνάμνησιν ἡ τῶν ὀνομάτων παράθεσις· ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν ἀγνοουμένων εἰς τέλος ὁμοίαν ἔχει τὴν δύναμιν ἡ τῶν ὀνομάτων ἐξήγησις ταῖς ἀδιανοήτοις καὶ κρουσματικαῖς λέξεσι. 3.36.4. τῆς γὰρ διανοίας ἐπʼ οὐδὲν ἀπερειδομένης οὐδὲ δυναμένης ἐφαρμόττειν τὸ λεγόμενον ἐπʼ οὐδὲν γνώριμον, ἀνυπότακτος καὶ κωφὴ γίνεθʼ ἡ διήγησις. 3.36.5. διόπερ ὑποδεικτέος ἂν εἴη τρόπος, διʼ οὗ δυνατὸν ἔσται περὶ τῶν ἀγνοουμένων λέγοντας κατὰ ποσὸν εἰς ἀληθινὰς καὶ γνωρίμους ἐννοίας ἄγειν τοὺς ἀκούοντας. πρώτη μὲν οὖν καὶ μεγίστη γνῶσις,
3.37.6. αὗται μὲν οὖν αἱ χῶραι καθολικώτερον θεωρούμεναι τὸν πρὸς τὴν μεσημβρίαν τόπον ἐπέχουσι τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς θαλάττης ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν ὡς πρὸς τὰς δύσεις. 3.37.7. ἡ δʼ Εὐρώπη ταύταις ἀμφοτέραις ὡς πρὸς τὰς ἄρκτους ἀντιπαράκειται, κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν παρήκουσα μὲν ἄχρι πρὸς τὰς δύσεις,
3.37.9. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Νάρβωνος καὶ τὰ περὶ τοῦτον Κελτοὶ νέμονται μέχρι τῶν προσαγορευομένων Πυρηναίων ὀρῶν, ἃ διατείνει κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀπὸ τῆς καθʼ ἡμᾶς θαλάττης ἕως εἰς τὴν ἐκτός.
3.37.11. τὸ δὲ παρὰ τὴν ἔξω καὶ μεγάλην προσαγορευομένην κοινὴν μὲν ὀνομασίαν οὐκ ἔχει διὰ τὸ προσφάτως κατωπτεῦσθαι, κατοικεῖται δὲ πᾶν ὑπὸ βαρβάρων ἐθνῶν καὶ πολυανθρώπων, ὑπὲρ ὧν ἡμεῖς μετὰ ταῦτα τὸν
3.38.2. τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον τὸ μεταξὺ Τανάιδος καὶ Νάρβωνος εἰς τὰς ἄρκτους ἀνῆκον ἄγνωστον ἡμῖν ἕως τοῦ νῦν ἐστιν, ἐὰν μή τι μετὰ ταῦτα πολυπραγμονοῦντες ἱστορήσωμεν.
3.39.2. Καρχηδόνιοι γὰρ ἐν τούτοις τοῖς καιροῖς τῆς μὲν Λιβύης ἐκυρίευον πάντων τῶν ἐπὶ τὴν ἔσω θάλατταν νευόντων μερῶν ἀπὸ τῶν Φιλαίνου βωμῶν, οἳ κεῖνται κατὰ τὴν μεγάλην Σύρτιν, ἕως ἐφʼ Ἡρακλέους στήλας. 3.39.3. τοῦτο δὲ τὸ μῆκός ἐστι τῆς παραλίας ὑπὲρ τοὺς ἑξακισχιλίους καὶ μυρίους σταδίους. 3.39.4. διαβάντες δὲ τὸν καθʼ Ἡρακλείους στήλας πόρον ὁμοίως ἐκεκρατήκεισαν καὶ τῆς Ἰβηρίας ἁπάσης ἕως τῆς ῥαχίας, ὃ πέρας ἐστὶ πρὸς τῇ καθʼ ἡμᾶς θαλάττῃ τῶν Πυρηναίων ὀρῶν, ἃ διορίζει τοὺς Ἴβηρας καὶ Κελτούς. 3.39.5. ἀπέχει δὲ τοῦ καθʼ Ἡρακλείους στήλας στόματος οὗτος ὁ τόπος περὶ ὀκτακισχιλίους σταδίους.
3.39.9. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Ῥοδανοῦ πορευομένοις παρʼ αὐτὸν τὸν ποταμὸν ὡς ἐπὶ τὰς πηγὰς ἕως πρὸς τὴν ἀναβολὴν τῶν Ἄλπεων τὴν εἰς Ἰταλίαν χίλιοι τετρακόσιοι. 3.39.10. λοιπαὶ δʼ αἱ τῶν Ἄλπεων ὑπερβολαί, περὶ χιλίους διακοσίους· ἃς ὑπερβαλὼν ἔμελλεν ἥξειν εἰς τὰ περὶ τὸν Πάδον πεδία τῆς Ἰταλίας. 3.39.11. ὥστʼ εἶναι τοὺς πάντας ἐκ Καινῆς πόλεως σταδίους περὶ ἐννακισχιλίους, οὓς ἔδει διελθεῖν αὐτόν.''. None
3.35.7. \xa0With the rest of his force, thus lightened of its impedimenta and consisting now of fifty thousand foot and about nine thousand horse, he advanced throughout the Pyrenees towards the crossing of the Rhone, < 3.35.8. \xa0having now an army not so strong in number as serviceable and highly trained owing to the unbroken series of wars in Spain. <
3.36.1. \xa0That my narrative may not be altogether obscure to readers owing to their ignorance of the topography I\xa0must explain whence Hannibal started, what countries he traversed, and into what part of Italy he descended. < 3.36.2. \xa0Nor must I\xa0simply give the names of countries, rivers, and cities, as some authors do under the idea that this is amply sufficient for a clear knowledge. < 3.36.3. \xa0I\xa0am of opinion that as regards known countries the mention of names is of no small assistance in recalling them to our memory, but in the case of unknown lands such citation of names is just of as much value as if they were unintelligible and inarticulate sounds. <' "3.36.4. \xa0For the mind here has nothing to lean upon for support and cannot connect the words with anything known to it, so that the narrative is associated with nothing in the readers' mind, and therefore meaningless to him. <" '3.36.5. \xa0We must therefore make it possible when speaking of unknown places to convey to the reader a more or less real and familiar notion of them. <
3.37.6. \xa0These two divisions of the earth, then, regarded from a general point of view, occupy the part of it which lies to the south of the Mediterranean, reaching from east to west. < 3.37.7. \xa0Europe lies opposite to them on the north shore of this sea, extending continuously from east to west, <
3.37.9. \xa0The Celts inhabit the country near the Narbo and beyond it as far as the chain of the Pyrenees which stretches in an unbroken line from the Mediterranean to the Outer Sea. <
3.37.11. \xa0while that part which lies along the Outer or Great Sea has no general name, as it has only recently come under notice, but is all densely inhabited by barbarous tribes of whom I\xa0shall speak more particularly on a subsequent occasion. <
3.38.2. \xa0so that part of Europe which extends to the north between the Don and Narbo is up to now unknown to us, and will remain so unless the curiosity of explorers lead to some discoveries in the future. <
3.39.2. \xa0At the time of which we are speaking the Carthaginians were masters of all that part of Africa which looks towards the Mediterranean from the Altars of Philaenus on the Greater Syrtis as far as the Pillars of Hercules. < 3.39.3. \xa0The length of this coast-line is more than sixteen thousand stades. < 3.39.4. \xa0Crossing the straits at the Pillars of Hercules they had similarly subdued all Iberia as far as the point on the coast of the Mediterranean where the Pyrenees, which separate the Celts from the Iberians, end. < 3.39.5. \xa0This spot is about eight thousand stades distant from the mouth of this sea at the Pillars of Hercules, <
3.39.9. \xa0From the passage of the Rhone, following the bank of the river in the direction of its source as far as the foot of the pass across the Alps to Italy, the distance is fourteen hundred stades, < 3.39.10. \xa0and the length of the actual pass which would bring Hannibal down into the plain of the\xa0Po, about twelve hundred. < 3.39.11. \xa0So that to arrive there he had, starting from New\xa0Carthage, to march about nine thousand stades. <''. None
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.129 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dead Sea and area, Cave of the Column • Sodom and Gomorra,pillar of salt (Lots wife) and • sanctity of, columns, pillars

 Found in books: Levine (2005) 63; Taylor (2012) 322

2.129. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.''. None
2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple,''. None
7. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, column dedicated to • columna rostrata • columnae rostratae

 Found in books: Roller (2018) 148; Rutledge (2012) 130, 292

8. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.9.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo Maleata, column of • Artemis, pillar/column, worshipped in form of • evidence, for Apollos column • pillars/columns, Artemis worshipped in form of

 Found in books: Gaifman (2012) 288; Simon (2021) 187

2.9.6. μετὰ δὲ τὸ Ἀράτου ἡρῷον ἔστι μὲν Ποσειδῶνι Ἰσθμίῳ βωμός, ἔστι δὲ Ζεὺς Μειλίχιος καὶ Ἄρτεμις ὀνομαζομένη Πατρῴα, σὺν τέχνῃ πεποιημένα οὐδεμιᾷ· πυραμίδι δὲ ὁ Μειλίχιος, ἡ δὲ κίονί ἐστιν εἰκασμένη. ἐνταῦθα καὶ βουλευτήριόν σφισι πεποίηται καὶ στοὰ καλουμένη Κλεισθένειος ἀπὸ τοῦ οἰκοδομήσαντος· ᾠκοδόμησε δὲ ἀπὸ λαφύρων ὁ Κλεισθένης αὐτὴν τὸν πρὸς Κίρρᾳ πόλεμον συμπολεμήσας Ἀμφικτύοσι. τῆς δὲ ἀγορᾶς ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ὑπαίθρῳ Ζεὺς χαλκοῦς, τέχνη Λυσίππου, παρὰ δὲ αὐτὸν Ἄρτεμις ἐπίχρυσος.''. None
2.9.6. After the hero-shrine of Aratus is an altar to Isthmian Poseidon, and also a Zeus Meilichius (Gracious) and an Artemis named Patroa (Paternal), both of them very inartistic works. The Meilichius is like a pyramid, the Artemis like a pillar. Here too stand their council-chamber and a portico called Cleisthenean from the name of him who built it. It was built from spoils by Cleisthenes, who helped the Amphictyons in the war at Cirrha . c. 590 B.C. In the market-place under the open sky is a bronze Zeus, a work of Lysippus, Contemporary of Alexander the Great. and by the side of it a gilded Artemis.''. None
9. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Daniel (pillar-saint) • pillar

 Found in books: Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 192; Van der Horst (2014) 224

10. Strabo, Geography, 2.4.7
 Tagged with subjects: • Columns of Heracles

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 56; König and Wiater (2022) 56

2.4.7. Further, the length of the inhabited earth is measured on a line parallel with the equator, as it is in this direction that its greatest length lies: in the same way with respect to each of the continents, we must take their length as it lies between two meridians. The measure of these lengths consists of a certain number of stadia, which we obtain either by going over the places themselves, or roads or ways parallel thereto. Polybius abandons this method, and adopts the new way of taking the segment of the northern semicircle comprised between the summer rising and the equinoctial rising. But no one ought to calculate by variable rules or measures in determining the length of fixed distances: nor yet should he make use of the phenomena of the heavens, which appear different when observed from different points, for distances which have their length determined by themselves and remain unchanged. The length of a country never varies, but depends upon itself; whereas, the equinoctial rising and setting, and the summer and winter rising and setting, depend not on themselves, but on our position with respect to them. As we shift from place to place, the equinoctial rising and setting, and the winter and summer rising and setting, shift with us; but the length of a continent always remains the same. To make the Tanais and the Nile the bounds of these continents, is nothing out of the way, but it is something strange to employ for this purpose the equinoctial rising and the summer rising.''. None

Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.