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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


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graph

All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
chain/levels/classes, of god, theoi, θεοί‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 21, 92, 132, 133, 134, 151, 219, 225, 273
class Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 25, 32, 35, 44, 51, 60, 61, 64, 65, 81, 115, 120, 122, 128, 129, 131, 159, 174
class, acculturation in upper Feldman (2006) 15
class, and art Richlin (2018) 50
class, and public dinners Richlin (2018) 247
class, aristocrat/aristocracy, upper Piotrkowski (2019) 1, 66, 74, 214, 432
class, army, roman, and Richlin (2018) 37, 103
class, boundaries, persia, persian empire, strict nature of Kalmin (1998) 8, 73, 76, 77, 120
class, census Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 106, 115, 122, 128, 129, 131, 134, 135, 136, 153
class, conflict Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 56
Humphreys (2018) 779
class, curial Czajkowski et al (2020) 363, 374, 391, 392, 393
Humfress (2007) 14
class, definition, archaeology of Keddie (2019) 199
class, distinction between doctors van der EIjk (2005) 195
class, divisions between, slaves, onstage Richlin (2018) 121, 337
class, education, and Richlin (2018) 21, 61, 62, 63
class, education, goals of socioeconomic Hirshman (2009) 87, 117
class, elites, archaeology of Keddie (2019) 205, 210, 247
class, food, and Richlin (2018) 13, 57, 126, 468, 474
class, function of ludi Richlin (2018) 40, 41
class, higher Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 127
class, hoplite Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 69, 80, 81, 96, 97, 120
class, houses, of republican upper Huebner and Laes (2019) 130
class, hunger, and Richlin (2018) 36, 129
class, justice Riess (2012) 93, 390
class, labor, and Richlin (2018) 265, 337
class, labor, meaning of to upper Richlin (2018) 99, 105, 394
class, liturgical Gygax (2016) 150, 160, 201, 202, 203, 217, 219
class, lower Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 51, 55, 78, 106, 117, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 131, 135, 136, 137, 143, 144, 146, 148, 152, 158, 174
class, milieu, new testament Huebner (2018) 65
class, navy, roman, and Richlin (2018) 103, 456
class, non-elites, archaeology of Keddie (2019) 205, 210, 247
class, of actors Richlin (2018) 20, 146, 185
class, of deities, heroes, as deities, as Mikalson (2010) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 135
class, oral forms, and Richlin (2018) 139, 436, 439, 442
class, petronius, l., equestrian Mueller (2002) 134
class, priests, in judea, as an empowered Gordon (2020) 24, 77, 78, 197, 198
class, propertied Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 122
class, psychic adam/eve/body Rasimus (2009) 50, 131, 142, 143, 234, 251, 253, 292
class, rabbinic Hasan Rokem (2003) 90
class, rape, and Richlin (2018) 127
class, relations Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 82, 100, 111
class, ruling Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 124
class, size Hirshman (2009) 84, 89, 156
class, size, school Hirshman (2009) 84, 89, 156
class, slave-owners, historical, and Richlin (2018) 21, 69, 255
class, social Huebner (2013) 13
class, spiritual Rasimus (2009) 49, 50, 131, 132, 137, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 156, 157, 161
class, status Edmondson (2008) 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 39, 44, 48, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 141, 145, 147, 148, 151, 153, 155, 156, 166, 175, 185, 186, 187, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 216, 221, 222, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 271, 272, 273, 274, 280, 286
class, structures in iran Kalmin (1998) 8
class, struggle Gygax (2016) 82, 87, 93
Liddel (2020) 57, 236
class, system, babylonia, babylonians, accused of refusal to settle in palestine, strict Kalmin (1998) 8, 76, 77
class, system, palestine, fluidity of Kalmin (1998) 77, 78, 131, 132
class, tensions and, as failure to reciprocate Satlow (2013) 177
class, tensions and, in rabbinic literature Satlow (2013) 173
class, tensions and, loans to poor Satlow (2013) 179, 180
class, tensions and, rejection of Satlow (2013) 177, 178, 179, 180
class, tithe, ten percent of produce paid to priestly Udoh (2006) 44, 46
class, trierarch, trierarchic Papazarkadas (2011) 152, 204, 206, 306, 320
class, upper Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 50, 51, 55, 59
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 44, 184
class, women, christians/ity, and, upper Bremmer (2017) 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 177, 178, 179
class, ”, roman, “middle Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 239
class/status, elders, and Taylor and Hay (2020) 297, 298
class/status, mania, and social Johnston and Struck (2005) 172, 173, 174, 175, 177
classes, and, demos, damos, the ruling Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 42, 56, 59, 61, 62, 71, 75
classes, at sicca, le kef, city of roman north africa, working Simmons(1995) 100
classes, books and, social Satlow (2013) 111
classes, census Gygax (2016) 83, 215
classes, christianity Penniman (2017) 122, 123, 128, 129, 130, 131
classes, colors social appropriate, for Goldman (2013) 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83
classes, food Penniman (2017) 120, 131, 132
classes, of city-holding, gods Parker (2005) 396
classes, of epicureanism, students Malherbe et al (2014) 232
classes, of goods, three Graver (2007) 198, 200
classes, of humans, thomas of marga, book of governors, three Dilley (2019) 65
classes, of one, all in all as fourteen d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 90, 91
classes, of persons, three Williams (2009) 174, 191, 194, 195, 196, 197
classes, of s/soul ch. d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 137, 138
classes, of soul O, Brien (2015) 225
classes, of special, gods Parker (2005) 395, 396
classes, participation in government, by lower Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 144, 145
classes, proselytes to judaism, mostly not of upper Feldman (2006) 184
classes, ruling Wilson (2010) 342, 343, 344, 345, 346
status/class Ker and Wessels (2020) 203, 204
status/class, values Ker and Wessels (2020) 3

List of validated texts:
10 validated results for "class"
1. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athenian property-classes • class • class,, census • class,, hoplite • class,, lower • demos (damos),, the ruling classes and

 Found in books: Amendola (2022) 378; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 60, 61, 120, 128, 129, 131, 143


2. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, Emotions classified under distress, pleasure, and desire, not Stoics' fear • Aspasius, Aristotelian, Emotions classified under pleasure and distress, not Aristotle's desire • emotions, classified by species • eupatheiai, classified by genus • eupatheiai, classified by species

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 217, 232; Sorabji (2000) 135


3. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicureanism, students, classes of • eupatheiai, classified by species

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 245; Malherbe et al (2014) 232


4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.196, 14.199-14.200, 14.202-14.203, 14.205-14.206, 14.246, 18.82 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christian(s)/ity, and (upper class) women • aristocrat/aristocracy (upper class) • tithe, ten percent of produce paid to priestly class

 Found in books: Bremmer (2017) 35; Piotrkowski (2019) 432; Udoh (2006) 44, 46


14.196. Γαί̈ου Καίσαρος αὐτοκράτορος ὑπάτου δεδομένα συγκεχωρημένα προσκεκριμένα ἐστὶν οὕτως ἔχοντα. ὅπως τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ τοῦ ̓Ιουδαίων ἔθνους ἄρχῃ, καὶ τοὺς δεδομένους τόπους καρπίζωνται, καὶ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς αὐτὸς καὶ ἐθνάρχης τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων προϊστῆται τῶν ἀδικουμένων.
14.199. Γάιος Καῖσαρ αὐτοκράτωρ δικτάτωρ ὕπατος τιμῆς καὶ ἀρετῆς καὶ φιλανθρωπίας ἕνεκεν συνεχώρησεν ἐπὶ συμφέροντι καὶ τῇ συγκλήτῳ καὶ τῷ δήμῳ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων ̔Υρκανὸν ̓Αλεξάνδρου υἱὸν καὶ τέκνα αὐτοῦ ἀρχιερεῖς τε καὶ ἱερεῖς ̔Ιεροσολύμων καὶ τοῦ ἔθνους εἶναι ἐπὶ τοῖς δικαίοις, οἷς καὶ οἱ πρόγονοι αὐτῶν τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην διακατέσχον.' "
14.202. Γάιος Καῖσαρ αὐτοκράτωρ τὸ δεύτερον ἔστησεν κατ' ἐνιαυτὸν ὅπως τελῶσιν ὑπὲρ τῆς ̔Ιεροσολυμιτῶν πόλεως ̓Ιόππης ὑπεξαιρουμένης χωρὶς τοῦ ἑβδόμου ἔτους, ὃν σαββατικὸν ἐνιαυτὸν προσαγορεύουσιν, ἐπεὶ ἐν αὐτῷ μήτε τὸν ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων καρπὸν λαμβάνουσιν μήτε σπείρουσιν." '14.203. καὶ ἵνα ἐν Σιδῶνι τῷ δευτέρῳ ἔτει τὸν φόρον ἀποδιδῶσιν τὸ τέταρτον τῶν σπειρομένων, πρὸς τούτοις ἔτι καὶ ̔Υρκανῷ καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις αὐτοῦ τὰς δεκάτας τελῶσιν, ἃς ἐτέλουν καὶ τοῖς προγόνοις αὐτῶν.' "
14.205. ὅσα τε μετὰ ταῦτα ἔσχον ἢ ἐπρίαντο καὶ διακατέσχον καὶ ἐνεμήθησαν, ταῦτα πάντα αὐτοὺς ἔχειν. ̓Ιόππην τε πόλιν, ἣν ἀπ' ἀρχῆς ἔσχον οἱ ̓Ιουδαῖοι ποιούμενοι τὴν πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους φιλίαν αὐτῶν εἶναι, καθὼς καὶ τὸ πρῶτον, ἡμῖν ἀρέσκει," "14.206. φόρους τε ὑπὲρ ταύτης τῆς πόλεως ̔Υρκανὸν ̓Αλεξάνδρου υἱὸν καὶ παῖδας αὐτοῦ παρὰ τῶν τὴν γῆν νεμομένων χώρας λιμένος ἐξαγωγίου κατ' ἐνιαυτὸν Σιδῶνι μοδίους δισμυρίους χοε ὑπεξαιρουμένου τοῦ ἑβδόμου ἔτους, ὃν σαββατικὸν καλοῦσιν, καθ' ὃν οὔτε ἀροῦσιν οὔτε τὸν ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων καρπὸν λαμβάνουσιν." '
14.246. βούλομαι οὖν ὑμᾶς εἰδέναι, ὅτι διακούσας ἐγὼ λόγων ἐξ ἀντικαταστάσεως γενομένων ἐπέκρινα μὴ κωλύεσθαι ̓Ιουδαίους τοῖς αὐτῶν ἔθεσι χρῆσθαι.' "
18.82. προσποιησάμενος δὲ τρεῖς ἄνδρας εἰς τὰ πάντα ὁμοιοτρόπους τούτοις ἐπιφοιτήσασαν Φουλβίαν τῶν ἐν ἀξιώματι γυναικῶν καὶ νομίμοις προσεληλυθυῖαν τοῖς ̓Ιουδαϊκοῖς πείθουσι πορφύραν καὶ χρυσὸν εἰς τὸ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἱερὸν διαπέμψασθαι, καὶ λαβόντες ἐπὶ χρείας τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀναλώμασιν αὐτὰ ποιοῦνται, ἐφ' ὅπερ καὶ τὸ πρῶτον ἡ αἴτησις ἐπράσσετο." '. None
14.196. 3. “The decrees of Caius Caesar, consul, containing what hath been granted and determined, are as follows: That Hyrcanus and his children bear rule over the nation of the Jews, and have the profits of the places to them bequeathed; and that he, as himself the high priest and ethnarch of the Jews, defend those that are injured;
14.199. 4. “Caius Caesar, imperator, dictator, consul, hath granted, That out of regard to the honor, and virtue, and kindness of the man, and for the advantage of the senate, and of the people of Rome, Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, both he and his children, be high priests and priests of Jerusalem, and of the Jewish nation, by the same right, and according to the same laws, by which their progenitors have held the priesthood.”
14.202. 6. “Caius Caesar, imperator the second time, hath ordained, That all the country of the Jews, excepting Joppa, do pay a tribute yearly for the city Jerusalem, excepting the seventh, which they call the sabbatical year, because thereon they neither receive the fruits of their trees, nor do they sow their land; 14.203. and that they pay their tribute in Sidon on the second year of that sabbatical period, the fourth part of what was sown: and besides this, they are to pay the same tithes to Hyrcanus and his sons which they paid to their forefathers.
14.205. and that whatsoever they shall hereafter have, and are in possession of, or have bought, they shall retain them all. It is also our pleasure that the city Joppa, which the Jews had originally, when they made a league of friendship with the Romans, shall belong to them, as it formerly did; 14.206. and that Hyrcanus, the son of Alexander, and his sons, have as tribute of that city from those that occupy the land for the country, and for what they export every year to Sidon, twenty thousand six hundred and seventy-five modii every year, the seventh year, which they call the Sabbatic year, excepted, whereon they neither plough, nor receive the product of their trees.
14.246. I would therefore have you know, that upon hearing the pleadings on both sides, I gave sentence that the Jews should not be prohibited to make use of their own customs.”
18.82. He procured also three other men, entirely of the same character with himself, to be his partners. These men persuaded Fulvia, a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion, to send purple and gold to the temple at Jerusalem; and when they had gotten them, they employed them for their own uses, and spent the money themselves, on which account it was that they at first required it of her.' '. None
5. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, classes • Psychic Adam/Eve/body, class • Spiritual, class • soul, classifying

 Found in books: Penniman (2017) 130; Rasimus (2009) 131


5.14. τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή, τῶν διὰ τὴν ἕξιν τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα ἐχόντων πρὸς διάκρισιν καλοῦ τε καὶ κακοῦ.''. None
5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil. ''. None
6. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 11.1.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • class status • social classes, colors appropriate, for

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 66; Goldman (2013) 73


11.1.31. \xa0Again, different kinds of eloquence suit different speakers. For example, a full, haughty, bold and florid style would be less becoming to an old man than that restrained, mild and precise style to which Cicero refers, when he says that his style is beginning to grow gray-haired. It is the same with their style as their clothes; purple and scarlet raiment goes ill with grey hairs.''. None
7. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 11.1.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • class status • social classes, colors appropriate, for

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 66; Goldman (2013) 73


11.1.31. \xa0Again, different kinds of eloquence suit different speakers. For example, a full, haughty, bold and florid style would be less becoming to an old man than that restrained, mild and precise style to which Cicero refers, when he says that his style is beginning to grow gray-haired. It is the same with their style as their clothes; purple and scarlet raiment goes ill with grey hairs.''. None
8. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.53 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • class • class struggle

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 82; Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 64, 65


1.53. I am not the only man who has aimed at a tyranny in Greece, nor am I, a descendant of Codrus, unfitted for the part. That is, I resume the privileges which the Athenians swore to confer upon Codrus and his family, although later they took them away. In everything else I commit no offence against God or man; but I leave to the Athenians the management of their affairs according to the ordices established by you. And they are better governed than they would be under a democracy; for I allow no one to extend his rights, and though I am tyrant I arrogate to myself no undue share of reputation and honour, but merely such stated privileges as belonged to the kings in former times. Every citizen pays a tithe of his property, not to me but to a fund for defraying the cost of the public sacrifices or any other charges on the State or the expenditure on any war which may come upon us.''. None
9. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spiritual, class • three classes of persons

 Found in books: Rasimus (2009) 137, 145; Williams (2009) 194


10. Demosthenes, Orations, 18.102
 Tagged with subjects: • class struggle • liturgical class

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 201; Liddel (2020) 57


18.102. I will now return to my next ensuing public actions; consider them once again in relation to the best interests of the commonwealth. Observing that the navy was going to pieces, that the wealthy were let off with trifling contributions, while citizens of moderate or small means were losing all they had, and that as a result the government was missing its opportunities, I made a statute under which I compelled the wealthy to take their fair share of expense, stopped the oppression of the poor, and, by a measure of great public benefit, caused your naval preparations to be made in good time.''. None



Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.