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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
cilicia Amendola (2022) 163, 181, 325
Baumann and Liotsakis (2022) 208, 210
Bianchetti et al (2015) 12
Borg (2008) 55, 71, 78
Brooten (1982) 236, 249
Gera (2014) 29, 30, 123, 124, 127, 129, 137, 152, 153, 154
Johnston and Struck (2005) 29
Kaster(2005) 84, 134
Keddie (2019) 120, 205
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 221, 230
Klein and Wienand (2022) 121, 129
Konig (2022) 189, 290
Konrad (2022) 68, 69, 70, 71
Maier and Waldner (2022) 189
McGowan (1999) 161
Merz and Tieleman (2012) 18, 22, 59
Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 1, 18, 21, 25, 92, 120, 121, 122, 153, 158, 210
Naiden (2013) 339
Pinheiro et al (2018) 102, 113
Price Finkelberg and Shahar (2021) 33
Santangelo (2013) 70, 145, 255
Stavrianopoulou (2013) 358
Sweeney (2013) 105, 113
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 59, 70, 128
Trapp et al (2016) 57, 60
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 178, 319
cilicia, adana Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 653
cilicia, agones, contests, olympia epinikia in Marek (2019) 353
cilicia, aigai in Marek (2019) 289, 300, 493
cilicia, aigeai Borg (2008) 78
cilicia, also province Huttner (2013) 38, 39, 40, 194, 266, 277, 280, 288, 354
cilicia, antiocheia, on pyramos Stavrianopoulou (2013) 325
cilicia, aphrodisias in Marek (2019) 222
cilicia, archelaos ii, client-king in Marek (2019) 326, 328, 329, 330, 339, 388, 412
cilicia, armenia, and rough Marek (2019) 307, 308, 316, 317, 319, 320, 326, 339, 484
cilicia, arsinoe, city in rough Marek (2019) 211
cilicia, asclepius sanctuary, aigai in Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 48, 49, 125
cilicia, by, appius claudius, imposition of house tax on Udoh (2006) 179
cilicia, castabala-hierapolis Nuno et al (2021) 77, 78
cilicia, civil inattention Kaster(2005) 154
cilicia, claim of incubation at kasai asklepieion Renberg (2017) 149
cilicia, claudiopolis ninica in Marek (2019) 331
cilicia, conversion of polemo, king of Cohen (2010) 198, 199, 202
cilicia, cornelius lentulus spinther, governor of asia and Marek (2019) 301
cilicia, corycos Brooten (1982) 236, 249
cilicia, cult of theos keraunios helios sarapis at epiphaneia Renberg (2017) 383
cilicia, cults of sarpedon and thekla, seleukia Renberg (2017) 530, 531, 532, 533
cilicia, dedication to sarapis, epiphaneia Renberg (2017) 383
cilicia, elaioussa, sebaste Stavrianopoulou (2013) 301
cilicia, epiphaneia in Marek (2019) 289, 343
cilicia, germanikopolis in Marek (2019) 331
cilicia, kilikarches, president of the commonalty of Marek (2019) 417
cilicia, m. antonius, proconsul of Henderson (2020) 269, 273
cilicia, mopsuete Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 653
cilicia, octavian, in Udoh (2006) 16, 17, 55
cilicia, oracles, apollo sarpedonios in Marek (2019) 520
cilicia, paul Levine (2005) 56
cilicia, philadelpheia in Marek (2019) 332
cilicia, philagros of Borg (2008) 55, 56, 76, 77, 78, 81
cilicia, philagrus of Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 70
cilicia, polemo of Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 317
cilicia, polemon of Huttner (2013) 194
cilicia, ptolemais, military base in Marek (2019) 211
cilicia, pylades of Gorain (2019) 48
cilicia, reliefs, kozan Marek (2019) 191
cilicia, roman province Marek (2019) 361, 363, 365, 393
Stanton (2021) 44
cilicia, roman province, cities Marek (2019) 478, 479
cilicia, roman province, commonalty Marek (2019) 417, 418, 420, 422
cilicia, roman province, military occupation Marek (2019) 384, 385
cilicia, roman province, tres eparchiae Marek (2019) 339, 347, 352, 363, 417, 418
cilicia, sebaste in elaiussa Marek (2019) 316, 421
cilicia, seleuceia on the calycadnos, in Merz and Tieleman (2012) 22
cilicia, simplicius of Horkey (2019) 53, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 91, 92, 99, 272, 273
cilicia, soloi in pompeiopolis Marek (2019) 289
cilicia, sophist, philagros of Marek (2019) 495
cilicia, strategia in the kingdom of cappadocia Marek (2019) 268
cilicia, tarsus Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 418
cilicia, thebes, in Bednarek (2021) 3, 174, 184
cilicia, tracheia, archelaus ii, the younger, son of archelaus i of cappadocia, census of in Udoh (2006) 167, 168, 169, 209
cilicia, tracheia, census, of archelaus ii in Udoh (2006) 168
cilicia, tracheia, strabo, on Udoh (2006) 168
cilicia, varus of Borg (2008) 55, 78
cilicia/cilicians, age of diadochi Marek (2019) 184, 188, 189, 190, 191
cilicia/cilicians, age of persians Marek (2019) 155, 158
cilicia/cilicians, anabasis of alexander the great Marek (2019) 177, 178
cilicia/cilicians, antiochos the great Marek (2019) 217, 222, 226
cilicia/cilicians, campaign of pompey against pirates Marek (2019) 280
cilicia/cilicians, campaign of shapur Marek (2019) 358
cilicia/cilicians, campaign of tigranes ii Marek (2019) 279
cilicia/cilicians, cicero’s governorship Marek (2019) 294, 295, 296, 297
cilicia/cilicians, client-kings in the julio-claudian period Marek (2019) 326, 329, 330, 331, 338
cilicia/cilicians, early greeks Marek (2019) 125, 126, 133
cilicia/cilicians, early seleucid foundations Marek (2019) 197
cilicia/cilicians, first roman province Marek (2019) 271, 272
cilicia/cilicians, names Marek (2019) 399, 513
cilicia/cilicians, oracles Marek (2019) 520, 521
cilicia/cilicians, piracy Marek (2019) 280, 403
cilicia/cilicians, ptolemaic domination Marek (2019) 211, 212, 213
cilicia/cilicians, reconstitution out of three eparchies, tres eparchiae Marek (2019) 347, 417, 418
cilicia/cilicians, second roman province organized by pompey Marek (2019) 289
cilicia/cilicians, third mithridatic war Marek (2019) 281, 284
cilicia/cilicians, third roman province formed under vespasian Marek (2019) 339
cilicia/cilicians, under augustus Marek (2019) 315, 317, 319, 320
cilicia/cilicians, under caesar’s murderers and mark antony Marek (2019) 302, 303, 304, 307, 308
cilicia/ns Bremmer (2008) 82, 141, 143, 319
“cilicia, ”, pamphylia/pamphylians, greek settlement, praetorian province of Marek (2019) 260

List of validated texts:
11 validated results for "cilicia"
1. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 16.7, 16.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cilicia • Cilicia/ns

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 82; Gera (2014) 127

16.7. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ שִׁמְשׁוֹן אִם־יַאַסְרֻנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה יְתָרִים לַחִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חֹרָבוּ וְחָלִיתִי וְהָיִיתִי כְּאַחַד הָאָדָם׃
16.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אִם־אָסוֹר יַאַסְרוּנִי בַּעֲבֹתִים חֲדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נַעֲשָׂה בָהֶם מְלָאכָה וְחָלִיתִי וְהָיִיתִי כְּאַחַד הָאָדָם׃''. None
16.7. And Shimshon said to her, If they bind me with seven fresh bowstrings that were never dried, then shall I be weak, and be as another man.
16.11. And he said to her, If they bind me fast with new ropes that have never been used for work, then shall I be weak, and be as another man.''. None
2. Homer, Iliad, 2.858 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Cilicia/ns

 Found in books: Bremmer (2008) 141; Marek (2019) 484

2.858. Μυσῶν δὲ Χρόμις ἦρχε καὶ Ἔννομος οἰωνιστής·''. None
2.858. and Cromna and Aegialus and lofty Erythini.But of the Halizones Odius and Epistrophus were captains from afar, from Alybe, where is the birth-place of silver. ''. None
3. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cilicia • Cilicia (also province), • Cilicia/Cilicians, Cicero’s governorship • Octavian, in Cilicia

 Found in books: Huttner (2013) 38, 39; Konrad (2022) 68, 69; Marek (2019) 294, 295, 296; Udoh (2006) 16

4. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 18.22.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cilicia • Cilicia/Cilicians, age of diadochi

 Found in books: Amendola (2022) 325; Marek (2019) 184

18.22.1. \xa0Now when Perdiccas and King Philip had defeated Ariarathes and delivered his satrapy to Eumenes, they departed from Cappadocia. And having arrived in Pisidia, they determined to lay waste two cities, that of the Larandians and that of the Isaurians; for while Alexander was still alive these cities had put to death Balacrus the son of Nicanor, who had been appointed general and satrap.''. None
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.140, 20.145-20.146 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Archelaos II, client-king in Cilicia • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Cilicia (also province), • Cilicia, Roman province, tres eparchiae • Cilicia/Cilicians, client-kings in the Julio-Claudian period • Cilicia/Cilicians, third Roman province formed under Vespasian • Polemo, king of Cilicia, conversion of • Polemon of Cilicia,

 Found in books: Cohen (2010) 198, 199, 202; Huttner (2013) 194; Marek (2019) 330, 339

20.145. Βερενίκη δὲ μετὰ τὴν ̔Ηρώδου τελευτήν, ὃς αὐτῆς ἀνὴρ καὶ θεῖος ἐγεγόνει, πολὺν χρόνον ἐπιχηρεύσασα, φήμης ἐπισχούσης, ὅτι τἀδελφῷ συνείη, πείθει Πολέμωνα, Κιλικίας δὲ ἦν οὗτος βασιλεύς, περιτεμόμενον ἀγαγέσθαι πρὸς γάμον αὐτήν: οὕτως γὰρ ἐλέγξειν ᾤετο ψευδεῖς τὰς διαβολάς.' "20.146. καὶ ὁ Πολέμων ἐπείσθη μάλιστα διὰ τὸν πλοῦτον αὐτῆς: οὐ μὴν ἐπὶ πολὺ συνέμεινεν ὁ γάμος, ἀλλ' ἡ Βερενίκη δι' ἀκολασίαν, ὡς ἔφασαν, καταλείπει τὸν Πολέμωνα. ὁ δ' ἅμα τοῦ τε γάμου καὶ τοῦ τοῖς ἔθεσι τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἐμμένειν ἀπήλλακτο." '. None
20.145. 3. But as for Bernice, she lived a widow a long while after the death of Herod king of Chalcis, who was both her husband and her uncle; but when the report went that she had criminal conversation with her brother, Agrippa, junior, she persuaded Poleme, who was king of Cilicia, to be circumcised, and to marry her, as supposing that by this means she should prove those calumnies upon her to be false; 20.146. and Poleme was prevailed upon, and that chiefly on account of her riches. Yet did not this matrimony endure long; but Bernice left Poleme, and, as was said, with impure intentions. So he forsook at once this matrimony, and the Jewish religion;' '. None
6. Suetonius, Tiberius, 37.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Archelaos II, client-king in Cilicia • Archelaus II (the Younger), son of Archelaus I of Cappadocia, census of, in Cilicia Tracheia • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Cilicia/Cilicians, client-kings in the Julio-Claudian period

 Found in books: Marek (2019) 326; Udoh (2006) 209

37.4. \xa0He undertook no campaign after his accession, but quelled outbreaks of the enemy through his generals; and even this he did only reluctantly and of necessity. Such kings as were disaffected and objects of his suspicion he held in check rather by threats and remonstrances than by force; some he lured to Rome by flattering promises and detained there, such as Marobodus the German, Rhascuporis the Thracian, and Archelaus of Cappadocia, whose realm he also reduced to the form of a province.''. None
7. Tacitus, Annals, 2.42, 6.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Archelaos II, client-king in Cilicia • Archelaus II (the Younger), son of Archelaus I of Cappadocia, census of, in Cilicia Tracheia • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Cilicia • Cilicia/Cilicians, client-kings in the Julio-Claudian period • Seleuceia on the Calycadnos (in Cilicia)

 Found in books: Marek (2019) 326, 388; Merz and Tieleman (2012) 18, 22; Udoh (2006) 167, 209

2.42. Ceterum Tiberius nomine Germanici trecenos plebi sestertios viritim dedit seque collegam consulatui eius destinavit. nec ideo sincerae caritatis fidem adsecutus amoliri iuvenem specie honoris statuit struxitque causas aut forte oblatas arripuit. rex Archelaus quinquagesimum annum Cappadocia potiebatur, invisus Tiberio quod eum Rhodi agentem nullo officio coluisset. nec id Archelaus per superbiam omiserat, sed ab intimis Augusti monitus, quia florente Gaio Caesare missoque ad res Orientis intuta Tiberii amicitia credebatur. ut versa Caesarum subole imperium adeptus est, elicit Archelaum matris litteris, quae non dissimulatis filii offensionibus clementiam offerebat, si ad precandum veniret. ille ignarus doli vel, si intellegere crederetur, vim metuens in urbem properat; exceptusque immiti a principe et mox accusatus in senatu, non ob crimina quae fingebantur sed angore, simul fessus senio et quia regibus aequa, nedum infima insolita sunt, finem vitae sponte an fato implevit. regnum in provinciam redactum est, fructibusque eius levari posse centesimae vectigal professus Caesar ducentesimam in posterum statuit. per idem tempus Antiocho Commagenorum, Philopatore Cilicum regibus defunctis turbabantur nationes, plerisque Romanum, aliis regium imperium cupientibus; et provinciae Syria atque Iudaea, fessae oneribus, deminutionem tributi orabant.
6.41. Per idem tempus Clitarum natio Cappadoci Archelao subiecta, quia nostrum in modum deferre census, pati tributa adigebatur, in iuga Tauri montis abscessit locorumque ingenio sese contra imbellis regis copias tutabatur, donec M. Trebellius legatus, a Vitellio praeside Syriae cum quattuor milibus legionariorum et delectis auxiliis missus, duos collis quos barbari insederant (minori Cadra, alteri Davara nomen est) operibus circumdedit et erumpere ausos ferro, ceteros siti ad deditionem coegit. At Tiridates volentibus Parthis Nicephorium et Anthemusiada ceterasque urbes, quae Macedonibus sitae Graeca vocabula usurpant, Halumque et Artemitam Parthica oppida recepit, certantibus gaudio qui Artabanum Scythas inter eductum ob saevitiam execrati come Tiridatis ingenium Romanas per artes sperabant.''. None
2.42. \xa0For the rest, Tiberius, in the name of Germanicus, made a distribution to the populace of three hundred sesterces a man: as his colleague in the consulship he nominated himself. All this, however, won him no credit for genuine affection, and he decided to remove the youth under a show of honour; some of the pretexts he fabricated, others he accepted as chance offered. For fifty years King Archelaus had been in possession of Cappadocia; to Tiberius a hated man, since he had offered him none of the usual attentions during his stay in Rhodes. The omission was due not to insolence, but to advice from the intimates of Augustus; for, as Gaius Caesar was then in his heyday and had been despatched to settle affairs in the East, the friendship of Tiberius was believed unsafe. When, through the extinction of the Caesarian line, Tiberius attained the empire, he lured Archelaus from Cappadocia by a letter of his mother; who, without dissembling the resentment of her son, offered clemency, if he came to make his petition. Unsuspicious of treachery, or apprehending force, should he be supposed alive to it, he hurried to the capital, was received by an unrelenting sovereign, and shortly afterwards was impeached in the senate. Broken, not by the charges, which were fictitious, but by torturing anxiety, combined with the weariness of age and the fact that to princes even equality â\x80\x94 to say nothing of humiliation â\x80\x94 is an unfamiliar thing, he ended his days whether deliberately or in the course of nature. His kingdom was converted into a province; and the emperor, announcing that its revenues made feasible a reduction of the one per\xa0cent sale-tax, fixed it for the future at one half of this amount. â\x80\x94 About the same time, the death of the two kings, Antiochus of Commagene and Philopator of Cilicia, disturbed the peace of their countries, where the majority of men desired a Roman governor, and the minority a monarch. The provinces, too, of Syria and Judaea, exhausted by their burdens, were pressing for a diminution of the tribute. <
6.41. \xa0About this date, the Cietae, a tribe subject to Archelaus of Cappadocia, pressed to conform with Roman usage by making a return of their property and submitting to a tribute, migrated to the heights of the Tauric range, and, favoured by the nature of the country, held their own against the unwarlike forces of the king; until the legate Marcus Trebellius, despatched by Vitellius from his province of Syria with four thousand legionaries and a picked force of auxiliaries, drew his lines round the two hills which the barbarians had occupied (the smaller is known as Cadra, the other as Davara) and reduced them to surrender â\x80\x94 those who ventured to make a sally, by the sword, the others by thirst. Meanwhile, with the acquiescence of the Parthians, Tiridates took over Nicephorium, Anthemusias, and the other cities of Macedonian foundation, carrying Greek names, together with the Parthic towns of Halus and Artemita; enthusiasm running high, as Artabanus, with his Scythian training, had been execrated for his cruelty and it was hoped that Roman culture had mellowed the character of Tiridates. <''. None
8. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Cilicia • Cilicia/Cilicians, under Caesar’s murderers and Mark Antony

 Found in books: Keddie (2019) 120; Marek (2019) 307

9. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 54.9.2-54.9.3, 57.17.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Archelaos II, client-king in Cilicia • Archelaus II (the Younger), son of Archelaus I of Cappadocia, census of, in Cilicia Tracheia • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Cilicia • Cilicia/Cilicians, client-kings in the Julio-Claudian period • Cilicia/Cilicians, under Augustus • Strabo, on Cilicia Tracheia • census, of Archelaus II in Cilicia Tracheia • era, Cilician cities

 Found in books: Marek (2019) 317, 320, 326; Merz and Tieleman (2012) 18; Udoh (2006) 167, 168, 209

54.9.2. \xa0Therefore he undertook no war, at any rate for the time being, but actually gave away certain principalities â\x80\x94 to Iamblichus, the son of Iamblichus, his ancestral dominion over the Arabians, and to Tarcondimotus, the son of Tarcondimotus, the kingdom of Cilicia, which his father had held, except for a\xa0few places on the coast. These latter together with Lesser Armenia he granted to Archelaus, because the Mede, who previously had ruled them, was dead.' "54.9.3. \xa0To Herod he entrusted the tetrarchy of a certain Zenodorus, and to one Mithridates, though still a mere boy, he gave Commagene, inasmuch as its king had put the boy's father to death." '
57.17.7. \xa0So it was that the life of Archelaus was spared for the time being; but he died shortly afterward from some other cause. After this Cappadocia fell to the Romans and was put in charge of a knight as governor. The cities in Asia which had been damaged by the earthquake were assigned to an ex-praetor with five lictors; and large sums of money were remitted from taxes and large sums were also given them by Tiberius. <''. None
10. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cilicia • Cilicia, Roman province, tres eparchiae • Philagros of Cilicia, sophist • Philagrus of Cilicia

 Found in books: Marek (2019) 352, 495; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 70

11. Strabo, Geography, 12.2.7, 14.5.6, 14.5.19
 Tagged with subjects: • Archelaus II (the Younger), son of Archelaus I of Cappadocia, census of, in Cilicia Tracheia • Armenia, and Rough Cilicia • Castabala-Hierapolis, Cilicia • Cilicia • Cilicia/Cilicians, piracy • Cilicia/Cilicians, under Augustus • Sebaste in Cilicia (Elaiussa) • Seleukia (Cilicia), cults of Sarpedon and Thekla • Strabo, on Cilicia Tracheia • census, of Archelaus II in Cilicia Tracheia • era, Cilician cities

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 154; Konig (2022) 189; Marek (2019) 316, 317, 403; Nuno et al (2021) 77; Renberg (2017) 531; Udoh (2006) 168

12.2.7. Only two prefectures have cities, Tyanitis the city Tyana, which lies below the Taurus at the Cilician Gates, where for all is the easiest and most commonly used pass into Cilicia and Syria. It is called Eusebeia near the Taurus; and its territory is for the most part fertile and level. Tyana is situated upon a mound of Semiramis, which is beautifully fortified. Not far from this city are Castabala and Cybistra, towns still nearer to the mountain. At Castabala is the sanctuary of the Perasian Artemis, where the priestesses, it is said, walk with naked feet over hot embers without pain. And here, too, some tell us over and over the same story of Orestes and Tauropolus, asserting that she was called Perasian because she was brought from the other side. So then, in the prefecture Tyanitis, one of the ten above mentioned is Tyana (I am not enumerating along with these prefectures those that were acquired later, I mean Castabala and Cybistra and the places in Cilicia Tracheia, where is Elaeussa, a very fertile island, which was settled in a noteworthy manner by Archelaus, who spent the greater part of his time there), whereas Mazaca, the metropolis of the tribe, is in the Cilician prefecture, as it is called. This city, too, is called Eusebeia, with the additional words near the Argaeus, for it is situated below the Argaeus, the highest mountain of all, whose summit never fails to have snow upon it; and those who ascend it (those are few) say that in clear weather both seas, both the Pontus and the Issian Sea, are visible from it. Now in general Mazaca is not naturally a suitable place for the founding of a city, for it is without water and unfortified by nature; and, because of the neglect of the prefects, it is also without walls (perhaps intentionally so, in order that people inhabiting a plain, with hills above it that were advantageous and beyond range of missiles, might not, through too much reliance upon the wall as a fortification, engage in plundering). Further, the districts all round are utterly barren and untilled, although they are level; but they are sandy and are rocky underneath. And, proceeding a little farther on, one comes to plains extending over many stadia that are volcanic and full of fire-pits; and therefore the necessaries of life must be brought from a distance. And further, that which seems to be an advantage is attended with peril, for although almost the whole of Cappadocia is without timber, the Argaeus has forests all round it, and therefore the working of timber is close at hand; but the region which lies below the forests also contains fires in many places and at the same time has an underground supply of cold water, although neither the fire nor the water emerges to the surface; and therefore most of the country is covered with grass. In some places, also, the ground is marshy, and at night flames rise therefrom. Now those who are acquainted with the country can work the timber, since they are on their guard, but the country is perilous for most people, and especially for cattle, since they fall into the hidden fire-pits.
14.5.6. Then, after Corycus, one comes to Elaeussa, an island lying close to the mainland, which Archelaus settled, making it a royal residence, after he had received the whole of Cilicia Tracheia except Seleuceia — the same way in which it was obtained formerly by Amyntas and still earlier by Cleopatra; for since the region was naturally well adapted to the business of piracy both by land and by sea — by land, because of the height of the mountains and the large tribes that live beyond them, tribes which have plains and farm-lands that are large and easily overrun, and by sea, because of the good supply, not only of shipbuilding timber, but also of harbors and fortresses and secret recesses — with all this in view, I say, the Romans thought that it was better for the region to be ruled by kings than to be under the Roman prefects sent to administer justice, who were not likely always to be present or to have armed forces with them. Thus Archelaus received, in addition to Cappadocia, Cilicia Tracheia; and the boundary of the latter, the river Lamus and the village of the same name, lies between Soli and Elaeussa.
14.5.19. After Aegaeae, one comes to Issus, a small town with a mooring-place, and to the Pinarus River. It was here that the struggle between Alexander and Dareius occurred; and the gulf is called the Issian Gulf. On this gulf are situated the city Rhosus, the city Myriandrus, Alexandreia, Nicopolis, Mopsuestia, and Pylae as it is called, which is the boundary between the Cilicians and the Syrians. In Cilicia is also the sanctuary and oracle of the Sarpedonian Artemis; and the oracles are delivered by persons who are divinely inspired.''. None

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