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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
chorus Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 5, 78, 88, 93, 97, 124, 134, 189
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 177, 187, 188, 193, 194, 196, 197, 199
Borg (2008) 288, 393
Edmonds (2019) 60, 159, 381
Gagné (2020) 105, 108, 112, 126, 129, 140, 142, 146, 164, 169, 217, 221, 277, 343, 344, 345, 346, 349, 354, 360, 380, 381, 396
Schibli (2002) 330, 332
Čulík-Baird (2022) 26, 178
chorus, / choral lyric de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 187, 192, 242, 245, 293, 357, 396
chorus, aeschylus, and the Jouanna (2018) 194, 303
chorus, aeschylus, rapport of cassandra with Pillinger (2019) 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 71, 73
chorus, and cassandras silence Pillinger (2019) 32, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43
chorus, and cassandras too much greek Pillinger (2019) 65, 66
chorus, and song Pillinger (2019) 50, 51, 54, 55
chorus, arrival, of the Jouanna (2018) 714, 715
chorus, as interpreters, aeschylus Pillinger (2019) 42, 43
chorus, by, sotades, vase in form of astragal with hephaestus directing female Simon (2021) 244
chorus, cf. choregia, choregos Riess (2012) 1, 25, 33, 55, 56, 57, 62, 212, 238, 249, 255, 256, 257, 258, 261, 262, 268, 271, 275, 276, 277, 278, 280, 282, 286, 287, 288, 289, 298, 303, 306, 312, 361, 362
chorus, choregia, choregos, cf. Riess (2012) 1, 25, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63, 82, 100, 118, 119, 133, 149, 171
chorus, dance, and the Jouanna (2018) 713
chorus, defending greeks and democracies, democracy, in 5th cent. greece, and the Kowalzig (2007) 8, 101, 102, 169, 170, 260
chorus, dialogue, with the Jouanna (2018) 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 445, 448, 698, 718
chorus, divine Schibli (2002) 194, 198, 301
chorus, elders, of in aeschylus persae Gruen (2011) 14
chorus, entrance, of the Jouanna (2018) 194, 697
chorus, euripides, and the Liapis and Petrides (2019) 245, 246, 257, 258
chorus, greek Hasan Rokem (2003) 72
chorus, heavenly Janowitz (2002b) 63, 67, 71, 78
chorus, in ajax, sophocles, the Jouanna (2018) 253, 390
chorus, in antigone, sophocles Jouanna (2018) 254, 255, 256
chorus, in euripides’ heracles Bexley (2022) 155
chorus, in euripides’ hippolytus Bexley (2022) 205, 206
chorus, in medea, metalepsis, of Pucci (2016) 27
chorus, in oedipus the king, sophocles, the Jouanna (2018) 194, 253
chorus, in oedipus tyrannus, prayer Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 180, 181, 182
chorus, in phaedra Bexley (2022) 213, 214, 224, 225, 227
chorus, in philoctetes, sophocles, the Jouanna (2018) 390
chorus, in seneca Fertik (2019) 92, 93, 95, 100
chorus, in the fourth century, aristotle, and the tragic Liapis and Petrides (2019) 186, 200, 201, 202, 210, 213, 237, 244, 245, 246, 273
chorus, in theater of dionysus, basel krater, tragic Simon (2021) 301
chorus, in thracian women, the, aeschylus, the Jouanna (2018) 303
chorus, in thyestes Bexley (2022) 93, 269
chorus, khoros, and civic identity Kowalzig (2007) 4, 5, 6, 101, 102, 168, 169, 170
chorus, khoros, and social integration Kowalzig (2007) 4, 5, 6, 170
chorus, khoros, and socialization Kowalzig (2007) 4, 5, 6, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 290
chorus, khoros, animals in myth turned into dancers in ritual Kowalzig (2007) 281, 282, 283, 291, 309, 310, 311
chorus, khoros, as religious offering Kowalzig (2007) 136, 137, 153, 281, 282, 283
chorus, khoros, athenian empire as Kowalzig (2007) 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118
chorus, khoros, flexible metaphor Kowalzig (2007) 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118
chorus, khoros, gender in Kowalzig (2007) 67, 102
chorus, khoros, image of community Kowalzig (2007) 5, 6, 284, 385, 395
chorus, khoros, integral to sacrificial rituals Kowalzig (2007) 5, 70, 71
chorus, khoros, kathartic Kowalzig (2007) 282, 327
chorus, khoros, kyklios Kowalzig (2007) 57, 129
chorus, khoros, mocking Kowalzig (2007) 39, 71
chorus, khoros, mystery cult and Kowalzig (2007) 168, 169, 170
chorus, khoros, of islands Kowalzig (2007) 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124
chorus, leader Bierl (2017) 110, 116, 123, 126, 127, 131, 132
chorus, oaths, sworn by Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 25, 31, 32, 89, 178, 181, 186, 241, 247, 290, 297, 327, 387, 388, 18310
chorus, of elders Shilo (2022) 32, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 70, 77, 86, 87, 122, 165, 170, 182, 183, 211
chorus, of slave women Shilo (2022) 2, 3, 61, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 123, 171, 183, 184, 185
chorus, of stars Borg (2008) 389
chorus, polis, civic integration in the Kowalzig (2007) 168, 169, 170, 395
chorus, response to prophecy Pillinger (2019) 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 56, 57, 58
chorus, space, and the Jouanna (2018) 253, 254
chorus, suicide, and the Jouanna (2018) 253
chorus, the, and actors Jouanna (2018) 210
chorus, the, and ajax Jouanna (2018) 443
chorus, the, and antigone Jouanna (2018) 698
chorus, the, and creon Jouanna (2018) 437, 438, 439, 440, 441
chorus, the, and electra Jouanna (2018) 445, 743
chorus, the, and oedipus Jouanna (2018) 440, 441, 442, 451
chorus, the, and philoctetes Jouanna (2018) 448
chorus, the, and social hierarchy Jouanna (2018) 316
chorus, the, and stasima Jouanna (2018) 713
chorus, the, and the aulete Jouanna (2018) 697
chorus, the, and the hero, ine Jouanna (2018) 713
chorus, the, and the plot Jouanna (2018) 253, 254
chorus, the, and the stage Jouanna (2018) 216, 217, 218
chorus, the, and tragic discovery Jouanna (2018) 432, 433
chorus, the, and versification Jouanna (2018) 249, 250, 251, 252
chorus, the, and women Jouanna (2018) 183, 354, 355
chorus, the, arrival of Jouanna (2018) 697, 714, 715
chorus, the, as a character Jouanna (2018) 298
chorus, the, as minor characters Jouanna (2018) 299, 300, 301, 302, 303
chorus, the, competition of Jouanna (2018) 181, 185, 186
chorus, the, cost of Jouanna (2018) 189
chorus, the, dialogue with Jouanna (2018) 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 448, 698, 718
chorus, the, formation of Jouanna (2018) 687
chorus, the, function of Jouanna (2018) 712
chorus, the, in agōn scenes Jouanna (2018) 284
chorus, the, in the commoi Jouanna (2018) 272, 273
chorus, the, in the exodos Jouanna (2018) 268, 269
chorus, the, movements of Jouanna (2018) 194, 195, 196
chorus, the, notation of Jouanna (2018) 709
chorus, the, numbers of Jouanna (2018) 695
chorus, the, prayer of Jouanna (2018) 400, 401, 402, 403, 404
chorus, the, requests for Jouanna (2018) 83, 84
chorus, the, sophocles’ use of Jouanna (2018) 390, 458
chorus, to, troades destruction of city, response of hecuba and Pucci (2016) 197, 198, 199
chorus, tripods, with a Kowalzig (2007) 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 351
chorus, witness and validation role Pillinger (2019) 61, 62, 63, 64, 236, 237
chorus, χορός, choral Bernabe et al (2013) 17, 41, 42, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 103, 109, 113, 120, 146, 147, 148, 160, 162, 170, 175, 189, 192, 194, 196, 197, 240, 241, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 285, 289, 290, 292, 293, 295, 302, 311, 314, 315, 316, 333, 334, 335, 339, 340, 342, 343, 351, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 369, 373, 374, 375, 379, 381, 431, 555
chorus/choral, song, aeschylus, and the tragic Liapis and Petrides (2019) 209
chorus/choral, song, sophocles, and the Liapis and Petrides (2019) 245, 246, 258

List of validated texts:
47 validated results for "chorus"
1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Martyrdom of Agape, Irene and Chione, and Companions heavenly choir • Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas heavenly choir • choir, heavenly • heavenly choir • heavenly chorus • martyr heavenly choir

 Found in books: Janowitz (2002b) 67; Moss (2010) 136

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃''. None
6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.''. None
2. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus • chorus, khoros, animals in myth turned into dancers in ritual

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 105; Kowalzig (2007) 311

3. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, khoros, gender in • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 88; Kowalzig (2007) 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 103

4. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus • chorus χορός, choral

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 88; Borg (2008) 393

5. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1099, 1105-1106, 1109, 1112, 1114, 1119-1120, 1156-1161, 1300, 1362-1365 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, rapport of Cassandra with chorus • Chorus of Elders • Seneca, chorus in • chorus, response to prophecy • chorus, witness and validation role

 Found in books: Fertik (2019) 100; Pillinger (2019) 46, 47, 48, 49, 56, 57, 61, 71; Shilo (2022) 54, 55, 56, 70, 77, 86, 87

1099. ἦμεν· προφήτας δʼ οὔτινας ματεύομεν. Κασάνδρα'
1105. τούτων ἄιδρίς εἰμι τῶν μαντευμάτων. 1106. ἐκεῖνα δʼ ἔγνων· πᾶσα γὰρ πόλις βοᾷ. Κασάνδρα
1109. λουτροῖσι φαιδρύνασα—πῶς φράσω τέλος;
1112. οὔπω ξυνῆκα· νῦν γὰρ ἐξ αἰνιγμάτων
1114. ἒ ἔ, παπαῖ παπαῖ, τί τόδε φαίνεται;
1119. ποίαν Ἐρινὺν τήνδε δώμασιν κέλῃ 1120. ἐπορθιάζειν; οὔ με φαιδρύνει λόγος.
1156. ἰὼ γάμοι γάμοι Πάριδος ὀλέθριοι φίλων. 1157. ἰὼ Σκαμάνδρου πάτριον ποτόν. 1158. τότε μὲν ἀμφὶ σὰς ἀϊόνας τάλαινʼ 1159. ἠνυτόμαν τροφαῖς· 1160. νῦν δʼ ἀμφὶ Κωκυτόν τε κἀχερουσίους 1161. ὄχθας ἔοικα θεσπιῳδήσειν τάχα. Χορός
1300. ὁ δʼ ὕστατός γε τοῦ χρόνου πρεσβεύεται, Κασάνδρα
1362. —ἦ καὶ βίον τείνοντες ὧδʼ ὑπείξομεν 1363. δόμων καταισχυντῆρσι τοῖσδʼ ἡγουμένοις;— 1364. —ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἀνεκτόν,ἀλλὰ κατθανεῖν κρατεῖ· 1365. πεπαιτέρα γὰρ μοῖρα τῆς τυραννίδος.— '. None
1099. Doubtless: but prophets none are we in scent of! KASSANDRA. '
1105. of these I witless am — these prophesyings. 1106. But those I knew: for the whole city bruits them. KASSANDRA.
1109. Consummation? It soon will be there:
1112. Nor yet I’ve gone with thee! for — after riddles —
1114. Eh, eh, papai, papai,
1114. What this, I espy?
1119. What this Erinus which i’ the house thou callest 1120. To raise her cry? Not me thy word enlightens!
1156. Ah me, the nuptials, the nuptials of Paris, the deadly to friends! 1157. Ah me, of Skamandros the draught 1158. Paternal! There once, to these ends, 1159. On thy banks was I brought, 1160. The unhappy! And now, by Kokutos and Acheron’s shore 1161. I shall soon be, it seems, these my oracles singing once more! CHOROS.
1300. He last is, anyhow, by time advantaged. KASSANDRA.
1362. What, and, protracting life, shall we give way thus 1363. To the disgracers of our home, these rulers? CHOROS 9. 1364. Why, ’t is unbearable: but to die is better: 1365. For death than tyranny is the riper finish! CHOROS 10. '. None
6. Aeschylus, Libation-Bearers, 22-23, 32-41, 59-65, 75-81, 540, 973-974, 1047 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax (Sophocles), the chorus in • Chorus of Elders • Chorus of Slave Women • Electra, chorus • Philoctetes (Sophocles), the chorus in • chorus, Antigone, Electra • chorus, Antigone, in danger and safe • chorus, Antigone, part of 'the large group' • chorus, in drama • chorus, the, Sophocles’ use of • chorus, the, and Electra

 Found in books: Budelmann (1999) 265, 266; Jouanna (2018) 390, 743; Lipka (2021) 129; Shilo (2022) 61, 96, 108, 123, 183, 184, 185

22. ἰαλτὸς ἐκ δόμων ἔβαν 23. χοὰς προπομπὸς ὀξύχειρι σὺν κτύπῳ.
32. τορὸς δὲ Φοῖβος ὀρθόθριξ 33. δόμων ὀνειρόμαντις, ἐξ ὕπνου κότον 34. πνέων, ἀωρόνυκτον ἀμβόαμα 35. μυχόθεν ἔλακε περὶ φόβῳ, 36. γυναικείοισιν ἐν δώμασιν βαρὺς πίτνων. 37. κριταί τε τῶνδʼ ὀνειράτων 38. θεόθεν ἔλακον ὑπέγγυοι 39. μέμφεσθαι τοὺς γᾶς 40. νέρθεν περιθύμως 41. τοῖς κτανοῦσί τʼ ἐγκοτεῖν. Χορός
59. ται δέ τις. τὸ δʼ εὐτυχεῖν, 60. τόδʼ ἐν βροτοῖς θεός τε καὶ θεοῦ πλέον. 61. ῥοπὴ δʼ ἐπισκοπεῖ δίκας 62. ταχεῖα τοὺς μὲν ἐν φάει, 63. τὰ δʼ ἐν μεταιχμίῳ σκότου 64. μένει χρονίζοντας ἄχη βρύει, 65. τοὺς δʼ ἄκραντος ἔχει νύξ. Χορός
75. ἐμοὶ δʼ —ἀνάγκαν γὰρ ἀμφίπτολιν 76. θεοὶ προσήνεγκαν· ʽἐκ γὰρ οἴκων 77. πατρῴων δούλιόν μʼ ἐσᾶγον αἶσαν̓— 78. δίκαια καὶ μὴ δίκαια ἀρχὰς πρέπον' '80. βίᾳ φρενῶν αἰνέσαι 81. πικρὸν στύγος κρατούσῃ.
540. ἀλλʼ εὔχομαι γῇ τῇδε καὶ πατρὸς τάφῳ
973. ἴδεσθε χώρας τὴν διπλῆν τυραννίδα 974. πατροκτόνους τε δωμάτων πορθήτορας.
1047. δυοῖν δρακόντοιν εὐπετῶς τεμὼν κάρα. Ὀρέστης''. None
22. Sent forth from the palace I have come to convey libations to the sound of sharp blows of my hands. My cheek is marked with bloody gashes
32. For with a hair-raising shriek, Terror, the diviner of dreams for our house, breathing wrath out of sleep, uttered a cry of terror in the dead of night from the heart of the palace, 35. a cry that fell heavily on the women’s quarter. And the readers of these dreams, bound under pledge, cried out from the god that those 40. beneath the earth cast furious reproaches and rage against their murderers. Chorus
59. The awe of majesty once unconquered, unvanquished, irresistible in war, that penetrated the ears and heart of the people, is now cast off. But there is still fear. And prosperity—this, 60. among mortals, is a god and more than a god. But the balance of Justice keeps watch: swiftly it descends on those in the light; sometimes pain waits for those who linger on the frontier of twilight; 65. and others are claimed by strengthless night. Chorus
75. For since the gods laid constraining doom about my city and led me from my father’s house to a slave’s lot, it is fitting for me to govern my bitter hate, even against my will, and submit to the wishes of my masters, whether just or unjust.
540. Well then, I pray to this earth and to my father’s grave that this dream may come to its fulfilment in me. As I understand it, it fits at every point. For if the snake left the same place as I; if it was furnished with my swaddling clothes;
973. Behold this pair, oppressors of the land, who murdered my father and ransacked my house! They were majestic then, when they sat on their thrones,
1047. ince you have freed the whole realm of Orestes ''. None
7. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chorus of Elders • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos

 Found in books: Riess (2012) 212; Shilo (2022) 170

8. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, khoros, kyklios • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 87; Kowalzig (2007) 57, 61, 62

9. Euripides, Bacchae, 6, 58-59, 64-166, 439, 443, 445-446, 576-637, 642, 652, 667, 690, 697-698, 724-727, 735, 743, 757-759, 767-768, 772, 777, 918-938, 940, 942, 946, 976, 978, 987, 995-996, 998, 1015-1023, 1029-1031, 1037, 1047, 1059, 1061, 1063, 1068, 1077, 1079-1136, 1139-1143, 1145-1146, 1345 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Basel krater, tragic chorus in Theater of Dionysus • Euripides, and the chorus • chorus leader • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, in drama • choruses • choruses, and cosmic imagery • choruses, in mystery cult • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests • leader, chorus-leader

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 41, 47, 49, 50, 53, 88, 90, 146, 160, 162, 175, 192, 273, 279, 280, 289, 302, 311, 314, 315, 316, 333, 334, 335, 339, 340, 342, 343, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359; Bierl (2017) 110, 131; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 27, 257; Lipka (2021) 98, 109, 112; Papadodima (2022) 65, 104; Seaford (2018) 171, 336; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 254; Simon (2021) 301

6. ὁρῶ δὲ μητρὸς μνῆμα τῆς κεραυνίας
58. αἴρεσθε τἀπιχώριʼ ἐν πόλει Φρυγῶν 59. τύμπανα, Ῥέας τε μητρὸς ἐμά θʼ εὑρήματα,

64. Ἀσίας ἀπὸ γᾶς
65. ἱερὸν Τμῶλον ἀμείψασα θοάζω
6. Βρομίῳ πόνον ἡδὺν κάματόν τʼ εὐκάματον, 67. Βάκχιον εὐαζομένα.
68. τίς ὁδῷ τίς ὁδῷ; τίς;
69. μελάθροις ἔκτοπος ἔστω, στόμα τʼ εὔφημον 70. ἅπας ἐξοσιούσθω· 71. τὰ νομισθέντα γὰρ αἰεὶ 72. Διόνυσον ὑμνήσω. Χορός 73. μάκαρ, ὅστις εὐδαίμων 73. ὦ 74. βιοτὰν ἁγιστεύει καὶ 74. τελετὰς θεῶν εἰδὼς 75. θιασεύεται ψυχὰν 7
6. ἐν ὄρεσσι βακχεύων 77. ὁσίοις καθαρμοῖσιν, 78. τά τε ματρὸς μεγάλας ὄργια 6. Φρυγίων ἐξ ὀρέων Ἑλλάδος εἰς 87. εὐρυχόρους ἀγυιάς, τὸν Βρόμιον· Χορός 88. ὅν 88. ποτʼ ἔχουσʼ ἐν ὠδίνων 89. λοχίαις ἀνάγκαισι 90. πταμένας Διὸς βροντᾶς νηδύος 6. κατὰ μηρῷ δὲ καλύψας 97. χρυσέαισιν συνερείδει 98. περόναις κρυπτὸν ἀφʼ Ἥρας. 99. ἔτεκεν δʼ, ἁνίκα Μοῖραι 100. τέλεσαν, ταυρόκερων θεὸν'101. στεφάνωσέν τε δρακόντων 102. στεφάνοις, ἔνθεν ἄγραν θηροτρόφον 6. στεφανοῦσθε κισσῷ· 107. βρύετε βρύετε χλοήρει 108. μίλακι καλλικάρπῳ 109. καὶ καταβακχιοῦσθε δρυὸς 110. ἢ ἐλάτας κλάδοισι, 111. στικτῶν τʼ ἐνδυτὰ νεβρίδων 112. στέφετε λευκοτρίχων πλοκάμων 113. μαλλοῖς· ἀμφὶ δὲ νάρθηκας ὑβριστὰς 114. ὁσιοῦσθʼ· αὐτίκα γᾶ πᾶσα χορεύσει— 115. Βρόμιος ὅστις ἄγῃ θιάσουσ— 11
6. εἰς ὄρος εἰς ὄρος, ἔνθα μένει 117. θηλυγενὴς ὄχλος 118. ἀφʼ ἱστῶν παρὰ κερκίδων τʼ 119. οἰστρηθεὶς Διονύσῳ. Χορός 120. ὦ θαλάμευμα Κουρήτων word split in text 6. βακχείᾳ δʼ ἀνὰ συντόνῳ 127. κέρασαν ἁδυβόᾳ Φρυγίων 128. αὐλῶν πνεύματι ματρός τε Ῥέας ἐς 129. χέρα θῆκαν, κτύπον εὐάσμασι Βακχᾶν· 130. παρὰ δὲ μαινόμενοι Σάτυροι 131. ματέρος ἐξανύσαντο θεᾶς, 132. ἐς δὲ χορεύματα 133. συνῆψαν τριετηρίδων, 134. αἷς χαίρει Διόνυσος. Χορός 135. ἡδὺς ἐν ὄρεσιν, ὅταν ἐκ θιάσων δρομαίων 6. πέσῃ πεδόσε, νεβρίδος 6. ἐκ νάρθηκος ἀίσσει 147. δρόμῳ καὶ χοροῖσιν 148. πλανάτας ἐρεθίζων 149. ἰαχαῖς τʼ ἀναπάλλων, 150. τρυφερόν τε πλόκαμον εἰς αἰθέρα ῥίπτων. 151. ἅμα δʼ εὐάσμασι τοιάδʼ ἐπιβρέμει· 152. Ὦ ἴτε βάκχαι, 153. ὦ ἴτε βάκχαι, 154. Τμώλου χρυσορόου χλιδᾷ 155. μέλπετε τὸν Διόνυσον 157. βαρυβρόμων ὑπὸ τυμπάνων, 1
58. εὔια τὸν εὔιον ἀγαλλόμεναι θεὸν 159. ἐν Φρυγίαισι βοαῖς ἐνοπαῖσί τε, 1
60. λωτὸς ὅταν εὐκέλαδος 1

64. ἱερὸς ἱερὰ παίγματα βρέμῃ, σύνοχα 1
65. φοιτάσιν εἰς ὄρος εἰς ὄρος· ἡδομένα 6
6. δʼ ἄρα, πῶλος ὅπως ἅμα ματέρι
439. γελῶν δὲ καὶ δεῖν κἀπάγειν ἐφίετο
445. φροῦδαί γʼ ἐκεῖναι λελυμέναι πρὸς ὀργάδας 44
6. σκιρτῶσι Βρόμιον ἀνακαλούμεναι θεόν· 57
6. ἰώ, 57
6. κλύετʼ ἐμᾶς κλύετʼ αὐδᾶς, 577. ἰὼ βάκχαι, ἰὼ βάκχαι. Χορός 578. τίς ὅδε, τίς ὅδε πόθεν ὁ κέλαδος 579. ἀνά μʼ ἐκάλεσεν Εὐίου; Διόνυσος
580. ἰὼ ἰώ, πάλιν αὐδῶ,
581. ὁ Σεμέλας, ὁ Διὸς παῖς. Χορός
582. ἰὼ ἰὼ δέσποτα δέσποτα,
583. μόλε νυν ἡμέτερον ἐς
584. θίασον, ὦ Βρόμιε Βρόμιε. Διόνυσος
585. σεῖε πέδον χθονὸς Ἔννοσι πότνια. Χορός
6. ἆ ἆ,
587. τάχα τὰ Πενθέως μέλαθρα διατινάξεται word split in text 588. πεσήμασιν.
589. — ὁ Διόνυσος ἀνὰ μέλαθρα· 590. σέβετέ νιν. — σέβομεν ὤ. 591. — εἴδετε λάινα κίοσιν ἔμβολα 592. διάδρομα τάδε; Βρόμιος ὅδʼ ἀλαλάζεται word split in text 6. πῦρ οὐ λεύσσεις, οὐδʼ αὐγάζῃ, 597. Σεμέλας ἱερὸν ἀμφὶ τάφον, ἅν 598. ποτε κεραυνόβολος ἔλιπε φλόγα 599. Δίου βροντᾶς;
600. δίκετε πεδόσε τρομερὰ σώματα
601. δίκετε, Μαινάδες· ὁ γὰρ ἄναξ
602. ἄνω κάτω τιθεὶς ἔπεισι
603. μέλαθρα τάδε Διὸς γόνος. Διόνυσος
604. βάρβαροι γυναῖκες, οὕτως ἐκπεπληγμέναι φόβῳ
605. πρὸς πέδῳ πεπτώκατʼ; ᾔσθησθʼ, ὡς ἔοικε, Βακχίου
6. διατινάξαντος δῶμα Πενθέως· ἀλλʼ ἐξανίστατε
607. σῶμα καὶ θαρσεῖτε σαρκὸς ἐξαμείψασαι τρόμον. Χορός
608. ὦ φάος μέγιστον ἡμῖν εὐίου βακχεύματος,
609. ὡς ἐσεῖδον ἀσμένη σε, μονάδʼ ἔχουσʼ ἐρημίαν. Διόνυσος
610. εἰς ἀθυμίαν ἀφίκεσθʼ, ἡνίκʼ εἰσεπεμπόμην,
611. Πενθέως ὡς ἐς σκοτεινὰς ὁρκάνας πεσούμενος; Χορός
612. πῶς γὰρ οὔ; τίς μοι φύλαξ ἦν, εἰ σὺ συμφορᾶς τύχοις;
613. ἀλλὰ πῶς ἠλευθερώθης ἀνδρὸς ἀνοσίου τυχών; Διόνυσος
614. αὐτὸς ἐξέσῳσʼ ἐμαυτὸν ῥᾳδίως ἄνευ πόνου. Χορός
615. οὐδέ σου συνῆψε χεῖρε δεσμίοισιν ἐν βρόχοις; Διόνυσος
6. ταῦτα καὶ καθύβρισʼ αὐτόν, ὅτι με δεσμεύειν δοκῶν
617. οὔτʼ ἔθιγεν οὔθʼ ἥψαθʼ ἡμῶν, ἐλπίσιν δʼ ἐβόσκετο.
618. πρὸς φάτναις δὲ ταῦρον εὑρών, οὗ καθεῖρξʼ ἡμᾶς ἄγων,
619. τῷδε περὶ βρόχους ἔβαλλε γόνασι καὶ χηλαῖς ποδῶν,
620. θυμὸν ἐκπνέων, ἱδρῶτα σώματος στάζων ἄπο,
621. χείλεσιν διδοὺς ὀδόντας· πλησίον δʼ ἐγὼ παρὼν
622. ἥσυχος θάσσων ἔλευσσον. ἐν δὲ τῷδε τῷ χρόνῳ
623. ἀνετίναξʼ ἐλθὼν ὁ Βάκχος δῶμα καὶ μητρὸς τάφῳ
624. πῦρ ἀνῆψʼ· ὃ δʼ ὡς ἐσεῖδε, δώματʼ αἴθεσθαι δοκῶν,
625. ᾖσσʼ ἐκεῖσε κᾆτʼ ἐκεῖσε, δμωσὶν Ἀχελῷον φέρειν
6. ἐννέπων, ἅπας δʼ ἐν ἔργῳ δοῦλος ἦν, μάτην πονῶν.
627. διαμεθεὶς δὲ τόνδε μόχθον, ὡς ἐμοῦ πεφευγότος,
628. ἵεται ξίφος κελαινὸν ἁρπάσας δόμων ἔσω.
629. κᾆθʼ ὁ Βρόμιος, ὡς ἔμοιγε φαίνεται, δόξαν λέγω,
630. φάσμʼ ἐποίησεν κατʼ αὐλήν· ὃ δʼ ἐπὶ τοῦθʼ ὡρμημένος
631. ᾖσσε κἀκέντει φαεννὸν αἰθέρʼ, ὡς σφάζων ἐμέ.
632. πρὸς δὲ τοῖσδʼ αὐτῷ τάδʼ ἄλλα Βάκχιος λυμαίνεται·
633. δώματʼ ἔρρηξεν χαμᾶζε· συντεθράνωται δʼ ἅπαν
634. πικροτάτους ἰδόντι δεσμοὺς τοὺς ἐμούς· κόπου δʼ ὕπο
635. διαμεθεὶς ξίφος παρεῖται· πρὸς θεὸν γὰρ ὢν ἀνὴρ
6. ἐς μάχην ἐλθεῖν ἐτόλμησε. ἥσυχος δʼ ἐκβὰς ἐγὼ
637. δωμάτων ἥκω πρὸς ὑμᾶς, Πενθέως οὐ φροντίσας.

642. πέπονθα δεινά· διαπέφευγέ μʼ ὁ ξένος,

652. ὠνείδισας δὴ τοῦτο Διονύσῳ καλόν. Πενθεύς
67. ὡς δεινὰ δρῶσι θαυμάτων τε κρείσσονα.

690. σταθεῖσα βάκχαις, ἐξ ὕπνου κινεῖν δέμας,

697. σύνδεσμʼ ἐλέλυτο, καὶ καταστίκτους δορὰς
698. ὄφεσι κατεζώσαντο λιχμῶσιν γένυν.
724. ὥραν ἐκίνουν θύρσον ἐς βακχεύματα, 725. Ἴακχον ἀθρόῳ στόματι τὸν Διὸς γόνον 72
6. Βρόμιον καλοῦσαι· πᾶν δὲ συνεβάκχευʼ ὄρος 727. καὶ θῆρες, οὐδὲν δʼ ἦν ἀκίνητον δρόμῳ.
735. βακχῶν σπαραγμόν, αἳ δὲ νεμομέναις χλόην
743. ταῦροι δʼ ὑβρισταὶ κἀς κέρας θυμούμενοι
757. οὐ χαλκός, οὐ σίδηρος· ἐπὶ δὲ βοστρύχοις 7
58. πῦρ ἔφερον, οὐδʼ ἔκαιεν. οἳ δʼ ὀργῆς ὕπο 759. ἐς ὅπλʼ ἐχώρουν φερόμενοι βακχῶν ὕπο· 7
67. νίψαντο δʼ αἷμα, σταγόνα δʼ ἐκ παρηίδων 7
68. γλώσσῃ δράκοντες ἐξεφαίδρυνον χροός.
772. τὴν παυσίλυπον ἄμπελον δοῦναι βροτοῖς.
777. Διόνυσος ἥσσων οὐδενὸς θεῶν ἔφυ. Πενθεύς
918. καὶ μὴν ὁρᾶν μοι δύο μὲν ἡλίους δοκῶ, 919. δισσὰς δὲ Θήβας καὶ πόλισμʼ ἑπτάστομον· 920. καὶ ταῦρος ἡμῖν πρόσθεν ἡγεῖσθαι δοκεῖς 921. καὶ σῷ κέρατα κρατὶ προσπεφυκέναι. 922. ἀλλʼ ἦ ποτʼ ἦσθα θήρ; τεταύρωσαι γὰρ οὖν. Διόνυσος 923. ὁ θεὸς ὁμαρτεῖ, πρόσθεν ὢν οὐκ εὐμενής, 924. ἔνσπονδος ἡμῖν· νῦν δʼ ὁρᾷς ἃ χρή σʼ ὁρᾶν. Πενθεύς 925. τί φαίνομαι δῆτʼ; οὐχὶ τὴν Ἰνοῦς στάσιν 92
6. ἢ τὴν Ἀγαύης ἑστάναι, μητρός γʼ ἐμῆς; Διόνυσος 927. αὐτὰς ἐκείνας εἰσορᾶν δοκῶ σʼ ὁρῶν. 928. ἀλλʼ ἐξ ἕδρας σοι πλόκαμος ἐξέστηχʼ ὅδε, 929. οὐχ ὡς ἐγώ νιν ὑπὸ μίτρᾳ καθήρμοσα. Πενθεύς 930. ἔνδον προσείων αὐτὸν ἀνασείων τʼ ἐγὼ 931. καὶ βακχιάζων ἐξ ἕδρας μεθώρμισα. Διόνυσος 932. ἀλλʼ αὐτὸν ἡμεῖς, οἷς σε θεραπεύειν μέλει, 933. πάλιν καταστελοῦμεν· ἀλλʼ ὄρθου κάρα. Πενθεύς 934. ἰδού, σὺ κόσμει· σοὶ γὰρ ἀνακείμεσθα δή. Διόνυσος 935. ζῶναί τέ σοι χαλῶσι κοὐχ ἑξῆς πέπλων 93
6. στολίδες ὑπὸ σφυροῖσι τείνουσιν σέθεν. Πενθεύς 937. κἀμοὶ δοκοῦσι παρά γε δεξιὸν πόδα· 938. τἀνθένδε δʼ ὀρθῶς παρὰ τένοντʼ ἔχει πέπλος. Διόνυσος
940. ὅταν παρὰ λόγον σώφρονας βάκχας ἴδῃς. Πενθεύς
942. ἢ τῇδε, βάκχῃ μᾶλλον εἰκασθήσομαι; Διόνυσος 94
6. αὐταῖσι βάκχαις τοῖς ἐμοῖς ὤμοις φέρειν; Διόνυσος 97
6. καὶ Βρόμιος ἔσται. τἄλλα δʼ αὐτὸ σημανεῖ. Χορός
978. θίασον ἔνθʼ ἔχουσι Κάδμου κόραι,
987. ἔμολεν, ὦ βάκχαι; τίς ἄρα νιν ἔτεκεν; 99
6. γόνον γηγενῆ. Χορός
998. περὶ σὰ Βάκχιʼ, ὄργια ματρός τε σᾶς
1015. τὸν ἄθεον ἄνομον ἄδικον Ἐχίονος 101
6. τόκον γηγενῆ. Χορός' '1018. φάνηθι ταῦρος ἢ πολύκρανος ἰδεῖν 1019. δράκων ἢ πυριφλέγων ὁρᾶσθαι λέων. 1020. ἴθʼ, ὦ Βάκχε, θηραγρευτᾷ βακχᾶν 1021. γελῶντι προσώπῳ περίβαλε βρόχον 1022. θανάσιμον ὑπʼ ἀγέλαν πεσόντι word split in text 1029. τί δʼ ἔστιν; ἐκ βακχῶν τι μηνύεις νέον; Ἄγγελος 1030. Πενθεὺς ὄλωλεν, παῖς Ἐχίονος πατρός. Χορός 1031. ὦναξ Βρόμιε, θεὸς φαίνῃ μέγας. Ἄγγελος
1037. ὁ Διόνυσος ὁ Διόνυσος, οὐ Θῆβαι
1047. ξένος θʼ ὃς ἡμῖν πομπὸς ἦν θεωρίας.
1059. ἔλεξε τοιάδʼ· Ὦ ξένʼ, οὗ μὲν ἕσταμεν, 10
61. ὄχθων δʼ ἔπʼ, ἀμβὰς ἐς ἐλάτην ὑψαύχενα, 10
63. 10
68. ὣς κλῶνʼ ὄρειον ὁ ξένος χεροῖν ἄγων
1077. καὶ τὸν ξένον μὲν οὐκέτʼ εἰσορᾶν παρῆν,
1079. Διόνυσος, ἀνεβόησεν· Ὦ νεάνιδες, 1080. ἄγω τὸν ὑμᾶς κἀμὲ τἀμά τʼ ὄργια 1081. γέλων τιθέμενον· ἀλλὰ τιμωρεῖσθέ νιν. 1082. καὶ ταῦθʼ ἅμʼ ἠγόρευε καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν 1083. καὶ γαῖαν ἐστήριξε φῶς σεμνοῦ πυρός. 1085. φύλλʼ εἶχε, θηρῶν δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἤκουσας βοήν. 108
6. αἳ δʼ ὠσὶν ἠχὴν οὐ σαφῶς δεδεγμέναι 1087. ἔστησαν ὀρθαὶ καὶ διήνεγκαν κόρας. 1088. ὃ δʼ αὖθις ἐπεκέλευσεν· ὡς δʼ ἐγνώρισαν 1089. σαφῆ κελευσμὸν Βακχίου Κάδμου κόραι, 1090. ᾖξαν πελείας ὠκύτητʼ οὐχ ἥσσονες 1091. ποδῶν τρέχουσαι συντόνοις δραμήμασι, 1092. μήτηρ Ἀγαύη σύγγονοί θʼ ὁμόσποροι 1093. πᾶσαί τε βάκχαι· διὰ δὲ χειμάρρου νάπης 1094. ἀγμῶν τʼ ἐπήδων θεοῦ πνοαῖσιν ἐμμανεῖς. 1095. ὡς δʼ εἶδον ἐλάτῃ δεσπότην ἐφήμενον, 109
6. πρῶτον μὲν αὐτοῦ χερμάδας κραταιβόλους 1097. ἔρριπτον, ἀντίπυργον ἐπιβᾶσαι πέτραν, 1098. ὄζοισί τʼ ἐλατίνοισιν ἠκοντίζετο. 1099. ἄλλαι δὲ θύρσους ἵεσαν διʼ αἰθέρος 1100. Πενθέως, στόχον δύστηνον· ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἤνυτον. 1101. κρεῖσσον γὰρ ὕψος τῆς προθυμίας ἔχων 1102. καθῆσθʼ ὁ τλήμων, ἀπορίᾳ λελημμένος. 1103. τέλος δὲ δρυΐνους συγκεραυνοῦσαι κλάδους 1104. ῥίζας ἀνεσπάρασσον ἀσιδήροις μοχλοῖς. 1105. ἐπεὶ δὲ μόχθων τέρματʼ οὐκ ἐξήνυτον, 110
6. ἔλεξʼ Ἀγαύη· Φέρε, περιστᾶσαι κύκλῳ 1107. πτόρθου λάβεσθε, μαινάδες, τὸν ἀμβάτην 1108. θῆρʼ ὡς ἕλωμεν, μηδʼ ἀπαγγείλῃ θεοῦ 1109. χοροὺς κρυφαίους. αἳ δὲ μυρίαν χέρα 1110. προσέθεσαν ἐλάτῃ κἀξανέσπασαν χθονός· 1111. ὑψοῦ δὲ θάσσων ὑψόθεν χαμαιριφὴς 1112. πίπτει πρὸς οὖδας μυρίοις οἰμώγμασιν 1113. Πενθεύς· κακοῦ γὰρ ἐγγὺς ὢν ἐμάνθανεν. 1115. καὶ προσπίτνει νιν· ὃ δὲ μίτραν κόμης ἄπο 111
6. ἔρριψεν, ὥς νιν γνωρίσασα μὴ κτάνοι 1117. τλήμων Ἀγαύη, καὶ λέγει, παρηίδος 1118. ψαύων· Ἐγώ τοι, μῆτερ, εἰμί, παῖς σέθεν 1119. Πενθεύς, ὃν ἔτεκες ἐν δόμοις Ἐχίονος· 1120. οἴκτιρε δʼ ὦ μῆτέρ με, μηδὲ ταῖς ἐμαῖς 1121. ἁμαρτίαισι παῖδα σὸν κατακτάνῃς. 1123. κόρας ἑλίσσουσʼ, οὐ φρονοῦσʼ ἃ χρὴ φρονεῖν, 1124. ἐκ Βακχίου κατείχετʼ, οὐδʼ ἔπειθέ νιν. 1125. λαβοῦσα δʼ ὠλένης ἀριστερὰν χέρα, 112
6. πλευραῖσιν ἀντιβᾶσα τοῦ δυσδαίμονος 1127. ἀπεσπάραξεν ὦμον, οὐχ ὑπὸ σθένους, 1128. ἀλλʼ ὁ θεὸς εὐμάρειαν ἐπεδίδου χεροῖν· 1129. Ἰνὼ δὲ τἀπὶ θάτερʼ ἐξειργάζετο, 1130. ῥηγνῦσα σάρκας, Αὐτονόη τʼ ὄχλος τε πᾶς 1131. ἐπεῖχε βακχῶν· ἦν δὲ πᾶσʼ ὁμοῦ βοή, 1132. ὃ μὲν στενάζων ὅσον ἐτύγχανʼ ἐμπνέων, 1133. αἳ δʼ ἠλάλαζον. ἔφερε δʼ ἣ μὲν ὠλένην, 1134. ἣ δʼ ἴχνος αὐταῖς ἀρβύλαις· γυμνοῦντο δὲ 1135. πλευραὶ σπαραγμοῖς· πᾶσα δʼ ᾑματωμένη 113
6. χεῖρας διεσφαίριζε σάρκα Πενθέως.
1139. οὐ ῥᾴδιον ζήτημα· κρᾶτα δʼ ἄθλιον, 1140. ὅπερ λαβοῦσα τυγχάνει μήτηρ χεροῖν, 1141. πήξασʼ ἐπʼ ἄκρον θύρσον ὡς ὀρεστέρου 1142. φέρει λέοντος διὰ Κιθαιρῶνος μέσου, 1143. λιποῦσʼ ἀδελφὰς ἐν χοροῖσι μαινάδων.
1145. τειχέων ἔσω τῶνδʼ, ἀνακαλοῦσα Βάκχιον 114
6. τὸν ξυγκύναγον, τὸν ξυνεργάτην ἄγρας,
1345. ὄψʼ ἐμάθεθʼ ἡμᾶς, ὅτε δὲ χρῆν, οὐκ ᾔδετε. Κάδμος '. None
6. I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remts of her house, smouldering with the still living flame of Zeus’ fire, the everlasting insult of Hera against my mother.
58. But, you women who have left Tmolus, the bulwark of Lydia , my sacred band, whom I have brought from among the barbarians as assistants and companions to me, take your drums, native instruments of the city of the Phrygians, the invention of mother Rhea and myself,

64. From the land of Asia ,
65. having left sacred Tmolus, I am swift to perform for Bromius my sweet labor and toil easily borne, celebrating the god Bacchus Lit. shouting the ritual cry εὐοῖ . . Who is in the way? Who is in the way? Who? Let him get out of the way indoors, and let everyone keep his mouth pure E. R. Dodds takes this passage Let everyone come outside being sure to keep his mouth pure . He does not believe that there should be a full stop after the third τίς . , 70. peaking propitious things. For I will celebrate Dionysus with hymns according to eternal custom. Choru 73. Blessed is he who, being fortunate and knowing the rites of the gods, keeps his life pure and 75. has his soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications, and who, revering the mysteries of great mother Kybele, 80. brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus.Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, escorting the god Bromius, child of a god, 85. from the Phrygian mountains to the broad streets of Hellas—Bromius, Choru 88. Whom once, in the compulsion of birth pains, 90. the thunder of Zeus flying upon her, his mother cast from her womb, leaving life by the stroke of a thunderbolt. Immediately Zeus, Kronos’ son, 95. received him in a chamber fit for birth, and having covered him in his thigh shut him up with golden clasps, hidden from Hera.And he brought forth, when the Fate 100. had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru'101. had perfected him, the bull-horned god, and he crowned him with crowns of snakes, for which reason Maenads cloak their wild prey over their locks. Choru 105. O Thebes , nurse of Semele, crown yourself with ivy, flourish, flourish with the verdant yew bearing sweet fruit, and crown yourself in honor of Bacchus with branches of oak 110. or pine. Adorn your garments of spotted fawn-skin with fleeces of white sheep, and sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi The thyrsos is a staff that is crowned with ivy and that is sacred to Dionysus and an emblem of his worship. . At once all the earth will dance— 115. whoever leads the sacred band is Bromius—to the mountain, to the mountain, where the crowd of women waits, goaded away from their weaving by Dionysus. Choru 120. O secret chamber of the Kouretes and you holy Cretan caves, parents to Zeus, where the Korybantes with triple helmet invented for me in their caves this circle, 125. covered with stretched hide; and in their excited revelry they mingled it with the sweet-voiced breath of Phrygian pipes and handed it over to mother Rhea, resounding with the sweet songs of the Bacchae; 130. nearby, raving Satyrs were fulfilling the rites of the mother goddess, and they joined it to the dances of the biennial festivals, in which Dionysus rejoices. Choru 135. He is sweet in the mountains cf. Dodds, ad loc. , whenever after the running dance he falls on the ground, wearing the sacred garment of fawn skin, hunting the blood of the slain goat, a raw-eaten delight, rushing to the 140. Phrygian, the Lydian mountains, and the leader of the dance is Bromius, evoe! A ritual cry of delight. The plain flows with milk, it flows with wine, it flows with the nectar of bees. 145. The Bacchic one, raising the flaming torch of pine on his thyrsos, like the smoke of Syrian incense, darts about, arousing the wanderers with his racing and dancing, agitating them with his shouts, 150. casting his rich locks into the air. And among the Maenad cries his voice rings deep: This last phrase taken verbatim from Dodds, ad loc. Go, Bacchae, go, Bacchae, with the luxury of Tmolus that flows with gold, 155. ing of Dionysus, beneath the heavy beat of drums, celebrating in delight the god of delight with Phrygian shouts and cries, 1
60. when the sweet-sounding sacred pipe sounds a sacred playful tune suited 1
65. to the wanderers, to the mountain, to the mountain! And the Bacchante, rejoicing like a foal with its grazing mother, rouses her swift foot in a gamboling dance. Teiresia
439. for which you sent us, nor have we set out in vain. This beast was docile in our hands and did not withdraw in flight, but yielded not unwillingly. He did not turn pale or change the wine-dark complexion of his cheek, but laughed and allowed us to bind him and lead him away.
443. He remained still, making my work easy, and I in shame said: Stranger, I do not lead you away willingly, but by order of Pentheus, who sent me. And the Bacchae whom you shut up, whom you carried off and bound in the chains of the public prison,
445. are set loose and gone, and are gamboling in the meadows, invoking Bromius as their god. of their own accord, the chains were loosed from their feet and keys opened the doors without human hand. This man has come to Thebe 57
6. within Io! Hear my voice, hear it, Io Bacchae, Io Bacchae! Choru 578. Who is here, who? From what quarter did the voice of the Joyful one summon me? Dionysu
580. Io! Io! I say again; it is I, the child of Zeus and Semele. Choru
582. Io! Io! Master, master! Come now to our company, Bromius. Dionysu
585. Shake the world’s plain, lady Earthquake! Choru
6. Oh! Oh! Soon the palace of Pentheus will be shaken in ruin. The following lines are probably delivered by individual chorus members. —Dionysus is in the halls. 590. Revere him.—We revere him!—Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries out in victory indoors. Dionysu 594. Light the fiery lamp of lightning! 595. Burn, burn Pentheus’ home! Choru 59
6. Oh! Oh! Do you not see the the fire, do you not perceive, about the sacred tomb of Semele, the flame that Zeus’ thunderbolt left?
600. Cast on the ground your trembling bodies, Maenads, cast them down, for our lord, Zeus’ son, is coming against this palace, turning everything upside down. Enter Dionysus Dionysu
604. Barbarian women, have you fallen on the ground
605. o stricken with fear? You have, so it seems, felt Bacchus shaking the house of Pentheus. But get up and take courage, putting a stop to your trembling. Chorus Leader
608. Oh greatest light for us in our joyful revelry, how happy I am to see you—I who was alone and desolate before. Dionysu
610. Did you despair when I was sent to fall into Pentheus’ dark dungeon? Chorus Leader
612. How not? Who was my guardian, if you met with misfortune? But how were you freed, having met with an impious man? Dionysu
614. By myself I saved myself easily, without trouble. Chorus Leader
615. Did he not tie your hands in binding knots? Dionysu
6. In this too I mocked him, for, thinking to bind me, he neither touched nor handled me, but fed on hope. He found a bull by the stable where he took and shut me up, and threw shackles around its knees and hooves,
620. breathing out fury, dripping sweat from his body, gnashing his teeth in his lips. But I, being near, sitting quietly, looked on. Meanwhile, Bacchus came and shook the house and kindled a flame on his mother’s tomb. When Pentheus saw this, thinking that the house was burning,
625. he ran here and there, calling to the slaves to bring water, and every servant was at work, toiling in vain.Then he let this labor drop, as I had escaped, and snatching a dark sword rushed into the house. Then Bromius, so it seems to me—I speak my opinion—
630. created a phantom in the courtyard. Pentheus rushed at it headlong, stabbing at the shining air, as though slaughtering me. Besides this, Bacchus inflicted other damage on him: he knocked his house to the ground, and everything was shattered into pieces, while he saw my bitter chains. From fatigue,
635. dropping his sword, he is exhausted. For he, a man, dared to join battle with a god. Now I have quietly left the house and come to you, with no thought of Pentheus.But I think—at any rate I hear the tramping of feet inside—he will soon come to the front of the house. What will he say after this?

642. I have suffered terrible things; the stranger, who was recently constrained in bonds, has escaped me. Ah!

652. You reproach Dionysus for what is his glory. Pentheu
67. goaded to madness have darted from this land with their fair feet, I have come to tell you and the city, lord, that they are doing terrible things, beyond marvel. I wish to hear whether I should tell you in free speech the situation there or whether I should repress my report,

690. tanding up in the midst of the Bacchae, to wake their bodies from sleep, when she heard the lowing of the horned cattle. And they, casting off refreshing sleep from their eyes, sprang upright, a marvel of orderliness to behold, old, young, and still unmarried virgins.

697. First they let their hair loose over their shoulders, and secured their fawn-skins, as many of them as had released the fastenings of their knots, girding the dappled hides with serpents licking their jaws. And some, holding in their arms a gazelle or wild
724. Pentheus’ mother Agave out from the Bacchic revelry and do the king a favor? We thought he spoke well, and lay down in ambush, hiding ourselves in the foliage of bushes. They, at the appointed hour, began to wave the thyrsos in their revelries, 725. calling on Iacchus, the son of Zeus, Bromius, with united voice. The whole mountain revelled along with them and the beasts, and nothing was unmoved by their running. Agave happened to be leaping near me, and I sprang forth, wanting to snatch her,
735. from being torn apart by the Bacchae, but they, with unarmed hands, sprang on the heifers browsing the grass. and you might see one rending asunder a fatted lowing calf, while others tore apart cows.
743. You might see ribs or cloven hooves tossed here and there; caught in the trees they dripped, dabbled in gore. Bulls who before were fierce, and showed their fury with their horns, stumbled to the ground,
757. and whatever they put on their shoulders, whether bronze or iron, was not held on by bonds, nor did it fall to the ground. They carried fire on their locks, but it did not burn them. Some people in rage took up arms, being plundered by the Bacchae, 7
67. And they returned where they had come from, to the very fountains which the god had sent forth for them, and washed off the blood, and snakes cleaned the drops from the women’s cheeks with their tongues.Receive this god then, whoever he is,
772. into this city, master. For he is great in other respects, and they say this too of him, as I hear, that he gives to mortals the vine that puts an end to grief. Without wine there is no longer Aphrodite or any other pleasant thing for men. Chorus Leader
777. I fear to speak freely to the king, but I will speak nevertheless: Dionysus is inferior to none of the gods. Pentheu
918. Oh look! I think I see two suns, and twin Thebes , the seven-gated city. 920. And you seem to lead me, being like a bull and horns seem to grow on your head. But were you ever before a beast? For you have certainly now become a bull. Dionysu 923. The god accompanies us, now at truce with us, though formerly not propitious. Now you see what you should see. Pentheu 925. How do I look? Don’t I have the posture of Ino, or of my mother Agave? Dionysu 927. Looking at you I think I see them. But this lock of your hair has come out of place, not the way I arranged it under your headband. Pentheu 930. I displaced it indoors, shaking my head forwards and backwards and practising my Bacchic revelry. Dionysu 932. But I who ought to wait on you will re-arrange it. Hold up your head. Pentheu 933. Here, you arrange it; for I depend on you, indeed. Dionysu 935. Your girdle has come loose, and the pleats of your gown do not extend regularly down around your ankles. Pentheu 937. At least on my right leg, I believe they don’t. But on this side the robe sits well around the back of my leg. Dionysu
940. when contrary to your expectation you see the Bacchae acting modestly. Pentheu
942. But shall I be more like a maenad holding the thyrsos in my right hand, or in my left? Dionysu 94
6. Could I carry on my shoulders the glens of Kithairon, Bacchae and all? Dionysu 97
6. to a great contest, and Bromius and I will be the victors. The rest the matter itself will show. Choru
978. Go to the mountain, go, fleet hounds of Madness, where the daughters of Kadmos hold their company, and drive them raving
987. Who is this seeker of the mountain-going Kadmeans who has come to the mountain, to the mountain, Bacchae? Who bore him? For he was not born from a woman’s blood, but is the offspring of some lione
998. Whoever with wicked mind and unjust rage regarding your rites, Bacchus, and those of your mother, comes with raving heart
1015. this godless, lawless, unjust, earth-born offspring of Echion. Choru 1017. Appear as a bull or many-headed serpent or raging lion to see. 1020. Go, Bacchus, with smiling face throw a deadly noose around the hunter of the Bacchae as he falls beneath the flock of Maenads. Second Messenger
1029. What is it? Do you bring some news from the Bacchae? Messenger 1030. Pentheus, the child of Echion, is dead. sung Chorus Leader 1031. Lord Bacchus, truly you appear to be a great god. Messenger
1037. Dionysus, Dionysus, not Thebes , holds my allegiance. Messenger
1047. we began to ascend the heights of Kithairon, Pentheus and I—for I was following my master—and the stranger who was our guide to the sight. First we sat in a grassy vale,
1059. the worn thyrsos, making it leafy with ivy, while some, like colts freed from the painted yoke, were singing a Bacchic melody to one another. And the unhappy Pentheus said, not seeing the crowd of women: Stranger, 10
61. from where we are standing I cannot see these false Maenads. But on the hill, ascending a lofty pine, I might view properly the shameful acts of the Maenads. And then I saw the stranger perform a marvelous deed. For seizing hold of the lofty top-most branch of the pine tree, 10
68. he pulled it down, pulled it, pulled it to the dark earth. It was bent just as a bow or a curved wheel, when it is marked out by a compass, describes a circular course The sense of the text here is not clear. The translation (which follows Dodds) assumes that the curved wheel is not a hollow circle connected to the hub by spokes, but a single piece of wood which has been cut into the shape of a circle. In the action described, a peg ( τόρνος ) is fixed into the center of the word-section. A string with a piece of chalk on one end is then attached to the peg, and the chalk, held tight against the string, is able to mark out an even circle. The bending of the tree thus resembles the circular path taken by the chalk. : in this way the stranger drew the mountain bough with his hands and bent it to the earth, doing no mortal’s deed.
1077. He was seen by the Maenads more than he saw them, for sitting on high he was all but apparent, and the stranger was no longer anywhere to be seen, when a voice, Dionysus as I guess, cried out from the air: Young women, 1080. I bring the one who has made you and me and my rites a laughing-stock. Now punish him! And as he said this a light of holy fire was placed between heaven and earth. The air became quiet and the woody glen 1085. kept its leaves silent, nor would you have heard the sounds of animals. But they, not having heard the sound clearly, stood upright and looked all around. He repeated his order, and when the daughters of Kadmos recognized the clear command of Bacchus, 1090. they rushed forth, swift as a dove, running with eager speed of feet, his mother Agave, and her sisters, and all the Bacchae. They leapt through the torrent-streaming valley and mountain cliffs, frantic with the inspiration of the god. 1095. When they saw my master sitting in the pine, first they climbed a rock towering opposite the tree and began to hurl at him boulders violently thrown. Some aimed with pine branches and other women hurled their thyrsoi through the air 1100. at Pentheus, a sad target indeed. But they did not reach him, for the wretched man, caught with no way out, sat at a height too great for their eagerness. Finally like lightning they smashed oak branches and began to tear up the roots of the tree with ironless levers. 1105. When they did not succeed in their toils, Agave said: Come, standing round in a circle, each seize a branch, Maenads, so that we may catch the beast who has climbed aloft, and so that he does not make public the secret dances of the god. They applied countless hand 1110. to the pine and dragged it up from the earth. Pentheus fell crashing to the ground from his lofty seat, wailing greatly: for he knew he was in terrible trouble. His mother, as priestess, began the slaughter, 1115. and fell upon him. He threw the headband from his head so that the wretched Agave might recognize and not kill him. Touching her cheek, he said: It is I, mother, your son, Pentheus, whom you bore in the house of Echion. 1120. Pity me, mother, and do not kill me, your child, for my sins. But she, foaming at the mouth and twisting her eyes all about, not thinking as she ought, was possessed by Bacchus, and he did not persuade her. 1125. Seizing his left arm at the elbow and propping her foot against the unfortunate man’s side, she tore out his shoulder, not by her own strength, but the god gave facility to her hands. Ino began to work on the other side, 1130. tearing his flesh, while Autonoe and the whole crowd of the Bacchae pressed on. All were making noise together, he groaning as much as he had life left in him, while they shouted in victory. One of them bore his arm, another a foot, boot and all. His ribs were stripped bare 1135. from their tearings. The whole band, hands bloodied, were playing a game of catch with Pentheus’ flesh.His body lies in different places, part under the rugged rocks, part in the deep foliage of the woods, not easy to be sought. His miserable head, 1140. which his mother happened to take in her hands, she fixed on the end of a thyrsos and carries through the midst of Kithairon like that of a savage lion, leaving her sisters among the Maenads’ dances. She is coming inside these walls, preening herself
1145. on the ill-fated prey, calling Bacchus her fellow hunter, her accomplice in the chase, the glorious victor—in whose service she wins a triumph of tears.And as for me, I will depart out of the way of this calamity before Agave reaches the house.
1345. You have learned it too late; you did not know it when you should have. Kadmo '. None
10. Euripides, Electra, 455-465, 467 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, as emotional commentator • chorus, khoros, of islands • chorus, of stars

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 389; Chaniotis (2021) 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356; Kowalzig (2007) 120

455. κλεινᾶς ἀσπίδος ἐν κύκλῳ'456. τοιάδε σήματα, δείματα 457. Φρύγια, τετύχθαι: 458. περιδρόμῳ μὲν ἴτυος ἕδρᾳ 459. Περσέα λαιμοτόμαν ὑπὲρ 460. ἁλὸς ποτανοῖσι πεδί- 461. λοισι φυὰν Γοργόνος ἴ- 462. σχειν, Διὸς ἀγγέλῳ σὺν ̔Ερ- 463. μᾷ, τῷ Μαί- 464. ἐν δὲ μέσῳ κατέλαμπε σάκει φαέθων 465. κύκλος ἀελίοιο' "
467. ἄστρων τ' αἰθέριοι χοροί," ''. None
455. on the circle of your famous shield, O son of Thetis, were wrought these signs, a terror to the Phrygians: on the surrounding base of the shield’s rim, Perseus the throat-cutter, over'456. on the circle of your famous shield, O son of Thetis, were wrought these signs, a terror to the Phrygians: on the surrounding base of the shield’s rim, Perseus the throat-cutter, over 460. the sea with winged sandals, was holding the Gorgon’s body, with Hermes, Zeus’ messenger, the rustic son of Maia . Choru 464. In the center of the shield the sun’s bright circle 465. was shining on winged horses, and the heavenly chorus of stars, Pleiades, Hyades, bringing defeat to the eyes of Hector; '. None
11. Euripides, Hercules Furens, 687-695 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 393; Kowalzig (2007) 66

687. The maids of Delos raise their song of joy, circling round the temple gates in honor of Leto’s fair son,'688. The maids of Delos raise their song of joy, circling round the temple gates in honor of Leto’s fair son, 690. the graceful dancer; so I with my old lips will cry aloud songs of joy at your palace-doors, like the swan, aged singer; for there is a good 695. theme for minstrelsy; he is the son of Zeus; yet high above his noble birth tower his deeds of prowess, for his toil secured this life of calm for man, '. None
12. Euripides, Ion, 216, 218, 1080-1081 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, as emotional commentator • chorus, of stars

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47, 273, 281; Borg (2008) 389; Chaniotis (2021) 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362

216. Μίμαντα πυρὶ καταιθαλοῖ.
218. ἐναίρει Γᾶς τέκνων ὁ Βακχεύς.
1080. χορεύει δὲ σελάνα'1081. καὶ πεντήκοντα κόραι '. None
216. I do; ’tis blasting with its flame Mimas, that deadly foe. (Ninth) Choru
218. Bromius too, the god of revelry, is slaying another of the sons of Earth with his thyrsus of ivy, never meant for battle. (First) Choru
1080. the moon, and Nereus’ fifty daughters, that trip it lightly o’er the sea and the eternal rivers’ tides, join the dance in honour'1081. the moon, and Nereus’ fifty daughters, that trip it lightly o’er the sea and the eternal rivers’ tides, join the dance in honour '. None
13. Euripides, Orestes, 907-913, 1366-1368, 1381-1394, 1474-1476, 1514, 1516-1517 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, and the tragic chorus in the fourth century • Chorus,oaths sworn by • choruses/choreuts • choruses/choreuts, tragic • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests • leader, chorus-leader • tragedy, choruses of

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 206; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 229, 244; Papadodima (2022) 100, 104; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 186

907. ὅταν γὰρ ἡδύς τις λόγοις φρονῶν κακῶς 908. πείθῃ τὸ πλῆθος, τῇ πόλει κακὸν μέγα:' "909. ὅσοι δὲ σὺν νῷ χρηστὰ βουλεύους' ἀεί," "910. κἂν μὴ παραυτίκ', αὖθίς εἰσι χρήσιμοι" "911. πόλει. θεᾶσθαι δ' ὧδε χρὴ τὸν προστάτην" "912. ἰδόνθ': ὅμοιον γὰρ τὸ χρῆμα γίγνεται" '913. τῷ τοὺς λόγους λέγοντι καὶ τιμωμένῳ.
1366. ἀλλὰ κτυπεῖ γὰρ κλῇθρα βασιλείων δόμων,'1367. σιγήσατ': ἔξω γάρ τις ἐκβαίνει Φρυγῶν," '1368. οὗ πευσόμεσθα τἀν δόμοις ὅπως ἔχει.
1381. ̓́Ιλιον ̓́Ιλιον, ὤμοι μοι, 1382. Φρύγιον ἄστυ καὶ καλλίβωλον ̓́Ι-' "1383. δας ὄρος ἱερόν, ὥς ς' ὀλόμενον στένω" '1384. ἁρμάτειον ἁρμάτειον μέλος' "1385. βαρβάρῳ βοᾷ δι' ὀρνιθόγονον" '1386. ὄμμα κυκνοπτέρου καλλοσύνας, Λήδας 1387. σκύμνου, δυσελένας 1388. δυσελένας, 1389. ξεστῶν περγάμων ̓Απολλωνίων 1390. ἐρινύν: ὀττοτοῖ: 1390. ἰαλέμων ἰαλέμων 1391. Δαρδανία τλᾶμον Γανυμήδεος 1392. ἱπποσύνᾳ, Διὸς εὐνέτα.' "1393. σαφῶς λέγ' ἡμῖν αὔθ' ἕκαστα τἀν δόμοις." "1394. τὰ γὰρ πρὶν οὐκ εὔγνωστα συμβαλοῦς' ἔχω." '
1474. ἰαχᾷ 1475. βοηδρομοῦμεν ἄλλος ἄλλοθεν στέγης,' "1475. δόμων θύρετρα καὶ σταθμοὺς 1476. μοχλοῖσιν ἐκβαλόντες, ἔνθ' ἐμίμνομεν," "1476. ὃ μὲν πέτρους, ὃ δ' ἀγκύλας," '
1514. δειλίᾳ γλώσσῃ χαρίζῃ, τἄνδον οὐχ οὕτω φρονῶν.
1516. ὄμοσον — εἰ δὲ μή, κτενῶ σε — μὴ λέγειν ἐμὴν χάριν.' "1517. τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχὴν κατώμος', ἣν ἂν εὐορκοῖμ' ἐγώ." '". None
907. confident in bluster and ignorant free speech, and plausible enough to involve them in some mischief sooner or later; for whenever a man with a pleasing trick of speech, but of unsound principles, persuades the mob, it is a serious evil to the state; but those who give sound and sensible advice on all occasions, 910. if not immediately useful to the state, yet prove so afterwards. And this is the way in which to regard a party leader; for the position is much the same in the case of an orator and a man in office. He was for stoning you and Orestes to death,
1366. But the bolts of the palace-doors rattle; be silent; for one of the Phrygians is coming out, from whom we will inquire of the state of matters within. Phrygian'1367. But the bolts of the palace-doors rattle; be silent; for one of the Phrygians is coming out, from whom we will inquire of the state of matters within. Phrygian
1381. Ilium , Ilium , oh me! city of Phrygia , and Ida’s holy hill with fruitful soil, how I mourn for your destruction a shrill song 1385. with barbarian cry; destroyed through her beauty, born from a bird, swan-feathered, Leda’s cub, hellish Helen! to be a curse to Apollo’s tower of polished stone. Ah! Alas! 1390. woe to Dardania, its wailing, wailing, for the horsemanship of Ganymede, bedfellow of Zeus. Chorus Leader 1393. Tell us clearly each event within the house. for till now I have been guessing at what I do not clearly understand. Phrygian
1474. With a loud cry from the house we battered down with bars the doors and doorposts where we had been, 1475. and ran to her assistance from every direction, one with stones, another with javelins, a third with a drawn sword; but Pylades came to meet us, undaunted, like
1514. Your cowardice makes you glib; this is not what you really think. Phrygian
1516. Swear you are not saying this to humor me, or I will kill you. Phrygian 1517. I swear by my life, an oath I would keep! Oreste '. None
14. Euripides, Phoenician Women, 1489, 1579-1581 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, and the tragic chorus in the fourth century • chorus / choral lyric • chorus χορός, choral • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 41; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 229, 237; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 192

1489. αἰδομένα φέρομαι βάκχα νεκύ-'
1579. πάντα δ' ἐν ἄματι τῷδε συνάγαγεν," '1580. ὦ πάτερ, ἁμετέροισι δόμοισιν ἄχη θεὸς ὃς 1581. τάδε τελευτᾷ. ". None
1489. I do not veil my tender cheek shaded with curls, nor do I feel shame, from maiden modesty, at the dark red beneath my eyes, the blush upon my face, as I hurry on, in bacchic revelry for the dead,'
1579. a murderous libation of blood already cold, owed to Hades, poured out by Ares. Then, taking from the dead a sword of hammered bronze, she plunged it in her flesh, and in sorrow for her sons fell with her arms around them. So the god who fulfills these sorrows has brought them all together on this day, 1580. father, for our house. Chorus Leader '. None
15. Euripides, Trojan Women, 1245 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Troades destruction of city, response of Hecuba and Chorus to • chorus, witness and validation role

 Found in books: Pillinger (2019) 236; Pucci (2016) 198

1245. μούσαις ἀοιδὰς δόντες ὑστέρων βροτῶν.''. None
1245. furnishing to bards of after-days a subject for their minstrelsy. Go, bury now in his poor tomb the dead, wreathed all duly as befits a corpse. And yet I think it makes little difference to the dead, if they get a gorgeous funeral;''. None
16. Herodotus, Histories, 8.65 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • choruses, aristocratic/egalitarian

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 113; Seaford (2018) 177

8.65. ἔφη δὲ Δίκαιος ὁ Θεοκύδεος, ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος φυγάς τε καὶ παρὰ Μήδοισι λόγιμος γενόμενος τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον, ἐπείτε ἐκείρετο ἡ Ἀττικὴ χώρη ὑπὸ τοῦ πεζοῦ στρατοῦ τοῦ Ξέρξεω ἐοῦσα ἔρημος Ἀθηναίων, τυχεῖν τότε ἐὼν ἅμα Δημαρήτῳ τῷ Λακεδαιμονίῳ ἐν τῷ Θριασίῳ πεδίῳ, ἰδεῖν δὲ κονιορτὸν χωρέοντα ἀπʼ Ἐλευσῖνος ὡς ἀνδρῶν μάλιστά κῃ τρισμυρίων, ἀποθωμάζειν τε σφέας τὸν κονιορτὸν ὅτεων κοτὲ εἴη ἀνθρώπων, καὶ πρόκατε φωνῆς ἀκούειν, καί οἱ φαίνεσθαι τὴν φωνὴν εἶναι τὸν μυστικὸν ἴακχον. εἶναι δʼ ἀδαήμονα τῶν ἱρῶν τῶν ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι γινομένων τὸν Δημάρητον, εἰρέσθαί τε αὐτὸν ὅ τι τὸ φθεγγόμενον εἴη τοῦτο. αὐτὸς δὲ εἰπεῖν “Δημάρητε, οὐκ ἔστι ὅκως οὐ μέγα τι σίνος ἔσται τῇ βασιλέος στρατιῇ· τάδε γὰρ ἀρίδηλα, ἐρήμου ἐούσης τῆς Ἀττικῆς, ὅτι θεῖον τὸ φθεγγόμενον, ἀπʼ Ἐλευσῖνος ἰὸν ἐς τιμωρίην Ἀθηναίοισί τε καὶ τοῖσι συμμάχοισι. καὶ ἢν μέν γε κατασκήψῃ ἐς τὴν Πελοπόννησον, κίνδυνος αὐτῷ τε βασιλέι καὶ τῇ στρατιῇ τῇ ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ ἔσται, ἢν δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς νέας τράπηται τὰς ἐν Σαλαμῖνι, τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸν κινδυνεύσει βασιλεὺς ἀποβαλεῖν. τὴν δὲ ὁρτὴν ταύτην ἄγουσι Ἀθηναῖοι ἀνὰ πάντα ἔτεα τῇ Μητρὶ καὶ τῇ Κούρῃ, καὶ αὐτῶν τε ὁ βουλόμενος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων μυεῖται· καὶ τὴν φωνὴν τῆς ἀκούεις ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ὁρτῇ ἰακχάζουσι.” πρὸς ταῦτα εἰπεῖν Δημάρητον “σίγα τε καὶ μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ τὸν λόγον τοῦτον εἴπῃς· ἢν γάρ τοι ἐς βασιλέα ἀνενειχθῇ τὰ ἔπεα ταῦτα, ἀποβαλέεις τὴν κεφαλήν, καὶ σε οὔτε ἐγὼ δυνήσομαι ῥύσασθαι οὔτʼ ἄλλος ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ εἶς. ἀλλʼ ἔχʼ ἥσυχος, περὶ δὲ στρατιῆς τῆσδε θεοῖσι μελήσει.” τὸν μὲν δὴ ταῦτα παραινέειν, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ κονιορτοῦ καὶ τῆς φωνῆς γενέσθαι νέφος καὶ μεταρσιωθὲν φέρεσθαι ἐπὶ Σαλαμῖνος ἐπὶ τὸ στρατόπεδον τὸ τῶν Ἑλλήνων. οὕτω δὴ αὐτοὺς μαθεῖν ὅτι τὸ ναυτικὸν τὸ Ξέρξεω ἀπολέεσθαι μέλλοι. ταῦτα μὲν Δίκαιος ὁ Θεοκύδεος ἔλεγε, Δημαρήτου τε καὶ ἄλλων μαρτύρων καταπτόμενος.''. None
8.65. Dicaeus son of Theocydes, an Athenian exile who had become important among the Medes, said that at the time when the land of Attica was being laid waste by Xerxes' army and there were no Athenians in the country, he was with Demaratus the Lacedaemonian on the Thriasian plain and saw advancing from Eleusis a cloud of dust as if raised by the feet of about thirty thousand men. They marvelled at what men might be raising such a cloud of dust and immediately heard a cry. The cry seemed to be the “Iacchus” of the mysteries, ,and when Demaratus, ignorant of the rites of Eleusis, asked him what was making this sound, Dicaeus said, “Demaratus, there is no way that some great disaster will not befall the king's army. Since Attica is deserted, it is obvious that this voice is divine and comes from Eleusis to help the Athenians and their allies. ,If it descends upon the Peloponnese, the king himself and his army on the mainland will be endangered. If, however, it turns towards the ships at Salamis, the king will be in danger of losing his fleet. ,Every year the Athenians observe this festival for the Mother and the Maiden, and any Athenian or other Hellene who wishes is initiated. The voice which you hear is the ‘Iacchus’ they cry at this festival.” To this Demaratus replied, “Keep silent and tell this to no one else. ,If these words of yours are reported to the king, you will lose your head, and neither I nor any other man will be able to save you, so be silent. The gods will see to the army.” ,Thus he advised, and after the dust and the cry came a cloud, which rose aloft and floated away towards Salamis to the camp of the Hellenes. In this way they understood that Xerxes' fleet was going to be destroyed. Dicaeus son of Theocydes used to say this, appealing to Demaratus and others as witnesses. "". None
17. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, khoros, and civic identity • chorus, khoros, and social integration • chorus, khoros, and socialization • chorus, khoros, image of community • chorus, khoros, integral to sacrificial rituals • chorus, of Dionysus • dramatic festivals, choruses

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 79; Bartels (2017) 125; Kowalzig (2007) 5

803d. ΚΛ. πῶς; ΑΘ. νῦν μέν που τὰς σπουδὰς οἴονται δεῖν ἕνεκα τῶν παιδιῶν γίγνεσθαι· τὰ γὰρ περὶ τὸν πόλεμον ἡγοῦνται σπουδαῖα ὄντα τῆς εἰρήνης ἕνεκα δεῖν εὖ τίθεσθαι. τὸ δʼ ἦν ἐν πολέμῳ μὲν ἄρα οὔτʼ οὖν παιδιὰ πεφυκυῖα οὔτʼ αὖ παιδεία ποτὲ ἡμῖν ἀξιόλογος, οὔτε οὖσα οὔτʼ ἐσομένη, ὃ δή φαμεν ἡμῖν γε εἶναι σπουδαιότατον· δεῖ δὴ τὸν κατʼ εἰρήνην βίον ἕκαστον πλεῖστόν τε καὶ ἄριστον διεξελθεῖν. τίς οὖν'840c. ἡμεῖς καλλίστην ἐκ παίδων πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες ἐν μύθοις τε καὶ ἐν ῥήμασιν καὶ ἐν μέλεσιν ᾄδοντες, ὡς εἰκός, κηλήσομεν; ΚΛ. ποίας; ΑΘ. τῆς τῶν ἡδονῶν νίκης ἐγκρατεῖς ὄντας ἂν ζῆν εὐδαιμόνως, ἡττωμένους δὲ τοὐναντίον ἅπαν. πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἔτι φόβος ὁ τοῦ μηδαμῇ μηδαμῶς ὅσιον αὐτὸ εἶναι δύναμιν ἡμῖν οὐκ ἄρα ἕξει κρατεῖν ὧν ἄλλοι κεκρατήκασι τούτων ὄντες χείρονες; ΚΛ. εἰκὸς γοῦν. ΑΘ. ἐπειδὴ τοίνυν ἐνταῦθά ἐσμεν τούτου τοῦ νομίμου 876b. πόλει ἐν ᾗ δικαστήρια φαῦλα καὶ ἄφωνα, κλέπτοντα τὰς αὑτῶν δόξας, κρύβδην τὰς κρίσεις διαδικάζει καί, ὃ τούτου δεινότερον, ὅταν μηδὲ σιγῶντα ἀλλὰ θορύβου μεστὰ καθάπερ θέατρα ἐπαινοῦντά τε βοῇ καὶ ψέγοντα τῶν ῥητόρων ἑκάτερον ἐν μέρει κρίνῃ, χαλεπὸν τότε πάθος ὅλῃ τῇ πόλει γίγνεσθαι φιλεῖ. τοῖς οὖν δὴ τοιούτοις δικαστηρίοις νομοθετεῖν ὑπό τινος ἀνάγκης ληφθέντα οὐκ εὐτυχὲς μέν, ὅμως δὲ ἐξ ἀνάγκης '. None
803d. Clin. How so? Ath. Now they imagine that serious work should be done for the sake of play; for they think that it is for the sake of peace that the serious work of war needs to be well conducted. But as a matter of fact we, it would seem, do not find in war, either as existing or likely to exist, either real play or education worthy of the name, which is what we assert to be in our eyes the most serious thing. It is the life of peace that everyone should live as much and as well as he can. What then is the right way? We should live out our lives playing'840c. and sentences and songs. Clin. What victory? Ath. Victory over pleasures,—which if they win, they will live a life of bliss, but if they lose, the very opposite. Furthermore, will not the dread that this is a thing utterly unholy give them power to master those impulses which men inferior to themselves have mastered? Clin. It is certainly reasonable to suppose so. Ath. Now that we have reached this point in regard to our regulation, 876b. that in a State where the courts are poor and dumb and decide their cases privily, secreting their own opinions, or (and this is a still more dangerous practice) when they make their decisions not silently but filled with tumult, like theaters, roaring out praise or blame of each speaker in turn,—then the whole State, as a rule, is faced with a difficult situation. To be compelled by some necessity to legislate for law courts of this kind is no happy task; but when one is so compelled, one must commit to them the right of fixing penaltie '. None
18. Sophocles, Ajax, 137-140, 151, 158-166, 185-186, 196, 201, 245-256, 349-350, 364-367, 443, 458, 460-461, 464, 479-480, 565-573, 600-606, 693-705, 712, 1055, 1091-1092, 1100-1106, 1113, 1118-1119, 1159-1160, 1182-1184, 1216-1222 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, and the chorus • Ajax and the chorus • Ajax, chorus • Ajax, chorus and army • Chorus,oaths sworn by • Euripides, and the chorus • Oedipus Rex, chorus • Oedipus the King (Sophocles), the chorus in • Sophocles, and the chorus/choral song • Thracian Women, The (Aeschylus), the chorus in • arrival, of the chorus • chorus • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, Antigone, flexible • chorus, Antigone, in danger and safe • chorus, Antigone, oedipus tyrannus • chorus, Antigone, opening out to Greeks and humans in general • chorus, Antigone, part of 'the large group' • chorus, the, and Ajax • chorus, the, and stasima • chorus, the, and the hero(ine) • chorus, the, and versification • chorus, the, arrival of • chorus, the, as minor characters • chorus, the, dialogue with • chorus, the, in agōn scenes • chorus, the, in the commoi • chorus, the, movements of • chorus, the, notation of • choruses/choreuts • choruses/choreuts, tragic • dance, and the chorus • dialogue, with the chorus • entrance, of the chorus • tragedy, choruses of

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 289; Budelmann (1999) 231, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241; Csapo (2022) 206; Jouanna (2018) 194, 250, 272, 284, 299, 300, 302, 303, 443, 709, 713, 715; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 258; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 89

137. your throne on wave-washed Salamis near the open sea, when your fortune is fair, I rejoice with you. But whenever the stroke of Zeus, or the raging rumor of the Danaans with the clamor of their evil tongues attacks you, then I shrink with great fear and shudder in terror, 140. like the fluttering eye of the winged dove. Just so with the passing of the night loud tumults oppressed us to our dishonor, telling how you visited the meadow wild with horses and destroyed
151. and he wins much belief. For now he tells tales concerning you that easily win belief, and each hearer rejoices with spiteful scorn at your burdens more than he who told. Point your shaft at a noble spirit,
158. and you could not miss; but if a man were to speak such things against me, he would win no belief. It is on the powerful that envy creeps. Yet the small without the great are a teetering tower of defence. 160. For the lowly stand most upright and prosperous when allied with the great, and the great when served by less. But foolish men cannot learn good precepts in these matters beforehand. It is men of this sort that subject you to tumult, and 165. we lack the power to repel these charges without you, O King. For when they have escaped your eye, they chatter like flocking birds. But, terrified by a mighty vulture,
185. as to fall upon the flocks. When the gods send madness, it cannot but reach its target, but may Zeus and Phoebus avert the evil rumor of the Greeks! And if it is the great kings who slander you with their furtive stories,
196. and are making the flame of disaster blaze up to the sky! The violent insolence of your enemies rushes fearlessly about in the breezy glens, while the tongues of all the army cackle out a load of grief.
201. Mates of the ship of Ajax, offspring of the race that springs from the Erechtheids, the soil’s sons, cries of grief are the portion of us who care from afar for the house of Telamon.
245. The time has come for each of us to veil his head and steal away on foot, or to sit and take on the swift yoke of rowing, 250. giving her way to the sea-faring ship. So angry are the threats which the brother-kings, the sons of Atreus, speed against us! I fear to share in bitter death beneath an onslaught of stones, 255. crushed at this man’s side, whom an untouchable fate holds in its grasp. Tecmessa
349. Ah, good sailors, you alone of my friend 350. who alone still abide by the true bond of friendship, see how great a wave has just now crested over and broken around me, set on by a murderous storm! Choru
364. Do you see the bold, the strong of heart, 365. the dauntless in battles with the enemy—do you see me now, terrible in the force of my hands against beasts unformidable? Oh, the mockery! How I have been violated! Tecmessa
443. I am ruined as you see by dishonor from the Greeks. And yet of this much I feel sure: if Achilles lived, and had been called to award the first place in valor to any claimant of his arms, no one would have grasped them before me.
458. not that I wanted their escape. But if a god sends harm, it is true that even the base man can elude the worthier. And now what shall I do, when I am plainly hated by the gods, abhorred by the Greek forces and detested by all Troy and all these plains?
460. Shall I leave my station at the ships and the Atreidae to their own devices in order to go home across the Aegean ? And how shall I face my father Telamon, when I arrive? How will he bear to look on me, when I stand before him stripped, without that supreme prize of valor
479. What joy is there in day following day, now advancing us towards, now drawing us back from the verge of death? I would not buy at any price the man who feels the glow of empty hopes. 480. The options for a noble man are only two: either live with honor, or make a quick and honorable death. You have heard all. Choru
565. O my warriors, my seafaring comrades! On you as on him, I lay this shared task of love: give my command to Teucer! Let him take this child to my home and set him before the face of Telamon, and of my mother, Eriboea, 570. o that he may become the comfort of their age into eternity until they come to the deep hollows of the god below . And order him that no commissioners of games, nor he who is my destroyer, should make my arms a prize for the Greeks. No, you take this for my sake, Son, my broad shield from which you have your name.
600. But I, miserable, have long been delayed here, still making my bed through countless months in the camp on the fields of Ida. 605. I am worn by time and with anxious expectation still of a journey to Hades the abhorred, the unseen. Choru
693. I shiver with rapture; I soar on the wings of sudden joy! 695. O Pan, O Pan, appear to us, sea-rover, from the stony ridge of snow-beaten Cyllene. King, dancemaker for the gods, come, so that joining with us you may set on the Nysian and the Cnosian steps, 700. your self-taught dances. Now I want to dance. And may Apollo, lord of Delos , step over the Icarian sea 705. and join me in his divine form, in eternal benevolence! Choru
712. our swift, sea-speeding ships, since Ajax forgets his pain anew, and has instead fully performed all prescribed sacrifices to the gods with worship and strict observance. The strong years make all things fade.
1055. ince he plotted the murder of the entire army and marched by night against us in order to take us with his spear. And if some god had not smothered this attempt, we would have been allotted the fate which he now has, and we would be dead and lie prostrate by an ignoble doom,'
1091. Menelaus, after laying down wise precepts, do not then violate the dead. Teucer
1100. On what grounds are you his commander? On what grounds have you a right to kingship over the men whom he brought from home? It was as Sparta ’s king that you came, not as master over us. Nowhere was it established among your lawful powers that you should order him any more than he you. 1105. You sailed here under the command of others, not as a supreme commander who might at any time exercise authority over Ajax. No, rule the troops you rule, and use your reverend words to punish them! But this man, whether you or the other general forbid it, I will lay
1113. in the grave as justice demands, and I will not fear your tongue. It was not at all for your wife’s sake that Ajax made this expedition, as did those toil-worn drudges. No, it was for the sake of the oath by which he had sworn, and not at all for you, since it was not his habit to value nobodies.
1118. Again, I say, in these troubles I cannot approve of such a tone. Harsh words sting, however just they are. Menelau
1159. I will go—it would be a disgrace to have it known 1160. that I argue when I have the power to use force. Teucer
1182. Take it, Nephew, and keep it safe. Let no one move you, but kneel there and cling to the dead. And you there, do not stand idly by like women, not men. Help defend us until I return, when I have seen to a grave for him, though all the world forbids it. Exit Teucer. Choru
1216. to a maligt divinity. What joy, then, what delight awaits me anymore? O to be where the wooded wave-washed cape fences off the deep sea, 1220. to be beneath Sunium’s jutting plateau, so that we might salute sacred Athens ! Enter Teucer. Teucer '. None
19. Sophocles, Antigone, 74-77, 152-154, 159-160, 332-341, 356, 367, 369, 810-862, 876, 883-886, 940, 1015, 1115-1154, 1339 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax, chorus • Ajax, chorus and army • Antigone (Sophocles), chorus in • Antigone, chorus • Chorus,oaths sworn by • Electra, chorus • Euripides, and the chorus • Sophocles, and the chorus/choral song • Trachiniae, chorus • arrival, of the chorus • chorus • chorus leader • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, Antigone • chorus, Antigone, Electra • chorus, Antigone, flexible • chorus, Antigone, in danger and safe • chorus, Antigone, opening out to Greeks and humans in general • chorus, Antigone, part of 'the large group' • chorus, in drama • chorus, of stars • chorus, the, Sophocles’ use of • chorus, the, and Creon • chorus, the, and Oedipus • chorus, the, and women • chorus, the, arrival of • chorus, the, dialogue with • chorus, the, in the commoi • chorus, the, notation of • chorus, the, prayer of • choruses, and cosmic imagery • choruses, aristocratic/egalitarian • choruses/choreuts • choruses/choreuts, tragic • dialogue, with the chorus • leader, chorus-leader • tragedy, choruses of

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 41, 48, 273, 274, 277, 280, 289, 290, 315, 316; Bierl (2017) 116, 123, 126, 127, 132; Borg (2008) 389; Budelmann (1999) 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 245, 246; Csapo (2022) 206; Jouanna (2018) 255, 273, 355, 400, 401, 402, 403, 441, 458, 709, 714; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 258; Lipka (2021) 112; Papadodima (2022) 65, 66; Seaford (2018) 170, 171, 177; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 89

74. would I welcome you as my partner in this action. No, be the sort that pleases you. I will bury him—it would honor me to die while doing that. I shall rest with him, loved one with loved one, a pious criminal. For the time is greater 75. that I must serve the dead than the living, since in that world I will rest forever. But if you so choose, continue to dishonor what the gods in honor have established.
152. let us make for ourselves forgetfulness after the recent wars, and visit all the temples of the gods with night-long dance and song. And may Bacchus, who shakes the earth of Thebes , rule our dancing!
159. But look, the king of the land is coming here, Creon, the son of Menoeceus, our new ruler in accordance with the new circumstances fated by the gods. What policy is he setting in motion, 160. that he has proposed this special conference of elders, and summoned it by a general mandate?
332. Wonders are many, and none is more wonderful than man. 335. This power spans the sea, even when it surges white before the gales of the south-wind, and makes a path under swells that threaten to engulf him. Earth, too, the eldest of the gods, the immortal, the unwearied, 340. he wears away to his own ends, turning the soil with the offspring of horses as the plows weave to and fro year after year.
356. wind and the moods that give order to a city he has taught himself, and how to flee the arrows of the inhospitable frost under clear skies and the arrows of the storming rain.
367. Possessing resourceful skill, a subtlety beyond expectation he moves now to evil, now to good. When he honors the laws of the land and the justice of the gods to which he is bound by oath,
810. and never again. No, Hades who lays all to rest leads me living to Acheron ’s shore, though I have not had my due portion of the chant that brings the bride, nor has any hymn been mine 815. for the crowning of marriage. Instead the lord of Acheron will be my groom. 817. Then in glory and with praise you depart to that deep place of the dead, neither struck by wasting sickness, 820. nor having won the wages of the sword. No, guided by your own laws and still alive, unlike any mortal before, you will descend to Hades. 823. I have heard with my own ears how our Phrygian guest, the daughter of Tantalus, perished 825. in so much suffering on steep Sipylus—how, like clinging ivy, the sprouting stone subdued her. And the rains, as men tell, do not leave her melting form, nor does the snow, 830. but beneath her weeping lids she dampens her collar. Most like hers is the god-sent fate that leads me to my rest. 834. Yet she was a goddess, as you know, and the offspring of gods, 835. while we are mortals and mortal-born. Still it is a great thing for a woman who has died to have it said of her that she shared the lot of the godlike in her life, and afterwards, in death. 839. Ah, you mock me! In the name of our fathers’ gods, 840. why do you not wait to abuse me until after I have gone, and not to my face, O my city, and you, her wealthy citizens? Ah, spring of Dirce, and you holy ground of Thebes whose chariots are many, 845. you, at least, will bear me witness how unwept by loved ones, and by what laws I go to the rock-closed prison of my unheard-of tomb! Ah, misery! 850. I have no home among men or with the shades, no home with the living or with the dead. 853. You have rushed headlong to the far limits of daring, and against the high throne of Justice 855. you have fallen, my daughter, fallen heavily. But in this ordeal you are paying for some paternal crime. 858. You have touched on my most bitter thought 860. and moved my ever-renewed pity for my father and for the entire doom ordained for us, the famed house of Labdacus. Oh, the horrors of our mother’s bed! Oh, the slumbers of the wretched mother at the side
876. Unwept, unfriended, without marriage-song, I am led in misery on this journey that cannot be put off. No longer is it permitted me, unhappy girl,
883. Do you not know that dirges and wailing before death would never be given up, if it were allowed to make them freely? 885. Take her away—now! And when you have enshrouded her, as I proclaimed, in her covered tomb, leave her alone, deserted—let her decide whether she wishes to die or to live entombed in such a home. It makes no difference, since our hands are clean so far as regards this girl.
940. Look at me, you who are Thebes ’ lords—look at the only remaining daughter of the house of your kings. See what I suffer, and at whose hands, because I revered reverence! Antigone is led away by the guards.
1015. And it is your will that is the source of the sickness now afflicting the city. For the altars of our city and our hearths have one and all been tainted by the birds and dogs with the carrion taken from the sadly fallen son of Oedipus. And so the gods no more accept prayer and sacrifice at our hands,'
1115. God of many names, glory of the Cadmeian bride and offspring of loud-thundering Zeus, you who watch over far-famed Italy and reign 1120. in the valleys of Eleusinian Deo where all find welcome! O Bacchus, denizen of Thebes , the mother-city of your Bacchants, dweller by the wet stream of Ismenus on the soil 1125. of the sowing of the savage dragon’s teeth! 1126. The smoky glare of torches sees you above the cliffs of the twin peaks, where the Corycian nymphs move inspired by your godhead, 1130. and Castalia’s stream sees you, too. The ivy-mantled slopes of Nysa ’s hills and the shore green with many-clustered vines send you, when accompanied by the cries of your divine words, 1135. you visit the avenues of Thebes . 1137. Thebes of all cities you hold foremost in honor, together with your lightning-struck mother. 1140. And now when the whole city is held subject to a violent plague, come, we ask, with purifying feet over steep Parnassus , 1145. or over the groaning straits! 1146. O Leader of the chorus of the stars whose breath is fire, overseer of the chants in the night, son begotten of Zeus, 1150. appear, my king, with your attendant Thyiads, who in night-long frenzy dance and sing you as Iacchus the Giver!
1339. Lead me away, I beg you, a rash, useless man. '. None
20. Sophocles, Electra, 121, 124-127, 129, 153-163, 193-200, 226, 234, 477, 491, 597-598, 856, 947-989, 1354, 1509 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ajax (Sophocles), the chorus in • Electra, chorus • Philoctetes (Sophocles), the chorus in • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, Antigone, Electra • chorus, Antigone, flexible • chorus, Antigone, in danger and safe • chorus, Antigone, opening out to Greeks and humans in general • chorus, Antigone, part of 'the large group' • chorus, the, Sophocles’ use of • chorus, the, and Electra • chorus, the, and stasima • chorus, the, and the hero(ine) • chorus, the, and versification • chorus, the, and women • dance, and the chorus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 343; Budelmann (1999) 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 257, 262, 263; Jouanna (2018) 251, 354, 355, 390, 713, 743

121. Ah, Electra, child of a most wretched mother, why are you always wasting away in this unsated mourning for Agamemnon, who long ago was godlessly'
124. Ah, Electra, child of a most wretched mother, why are you always wasting away in this unsated mourning for Agamemnon, who long ago was godlessly 125. ensnared in your false mother’s wiles and betrayed by her corrupt hand? May the one who did that perish, if I may speak such a curse without breaking the gods’ laws. Electra
129. Ah, noble-hearted girls,
153. Ah, all-suffering Niobe, you I count divine, since you weep forever in your rocky tomb! Choru 154. Not to you alone of mortals, my daughter, has sorrow come, 155. though you face it with less restraint than those girls inside, Chrysothemis and Iphianassa, whose parents and blood you share. They still live, as he, too, lives, sorrowing in his secluded youth, 160. yet happy in that this famous realm of the Mycenaeans shall one day receive him as a noble lord, if with the blessing of Zeus’s escort he, Orestes, returns to this land. Electra
193. Mournful was the voice heard at his return, and mournful the voice amidst your father’s reclining banquet 195. when the straight, swift blow of the bronze-jawed axe was sped against him. Deceit was the plotter, Lust the slayer, two dread parents of a dreadful 200. phantom, whether it was god or mortal that did this deed. Electra
226. o long as life is in me. Who indeed, my noble friends, who that keeps what is appropriate in mind, would think any word of comfort right for my ears? Let me be, let me be, my comforters!
234. It is nevertheless with goodwill, like a true-hearted mother,
477. Justice, the sender of the omen, will come, winning the just victory of her hands’ might. She will come in pursuit before long, my child. Courage is mine,
491. the bronze-shod Erinys. For an unwed, unbetrothed passion for a marriage polluted by murder seized the pair, though divine law forbade it to them.
597. But no, I can hardly even admonish you, when your every cry is that I slander my mother. I think, rather, that you are no less a mistress to me than a mother; so lowly is the life that I live,
856. Cease, then, to divert me from it, since no longer— Choru
947. Hear, then, in what way I have decided to take action. As for the support of friends, you yourself doubtless know that we have none. Hades has taken our friends away, 950. and we two are left alone. I, so long as I heard that my brother still lived and prospered, had hopes that he would yet come to avenge the murder of our father. But now that he is no more, I look next to you 955. and ask that you not flinch from aiding me, your sister, to slay our father’s murderer, Aegisthus. There—I can have no secrets from you anymore. How long will you wait in indifference? What hope is left standing, to which your eyes can turn? Now you are right to complain 960. that you are robbed of possession of your father’s estate; now you may mourn that you have advanced this far in years without wedded love or bridal song. And do not cling to hopes that you will ever meet with such joys. The man, Aegisthus, is not so unthinking 965. as ever to permit that offspring should shoot up from you or from me either to be a certain bane for himself. But if you will follow my plans, first you will win praise for piety from our dead father below, and from our brother, too; 970. next, you shall be called hereafter free, just as you were born, and shall find a worthy marriage. For noble natures draw the gaze of all. Then do you not see what fair fame you will procure for yourself and for me, by obeying me? 975. What citizen or stranger when he sees us will not greet us with praises such as these: Behold these two sisters, my friends! They saved their father’s house, and at a time when their foes were firmly established, they took their lives in their hands and administered bloodshed! Worthy of love is this pair, worthy of reverence from all. At festivals, and wherever the citizenry is assembled, let these two be honored by all men for their manly courage. Thus will every one speak of us, 985. o that in life and in death our glory shall not fail. Come, dear sister, be persuaded! Toil with our father, share the burden of your brother, put an end to my troubles and an end to yours, keeping in mind that a shameful life brings shame upon the noble-born. Choru
1354. O joyous day! O sole preserver of Agamemnon’s house, '. None
21. Sophocles, Oedipus At Colonus, 111-112, 122-125, 145, 171, 814-886, 911-923, 1338 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Oedipus Rex, chorus • Oedipus at Colonus, chorus and large group • arrival, of the chorus • chorus, Antigone, cultural context • chorus, Antigone, flexible • chorus, Antigone, in danger and safe • chorus, Antigone, oedipus tyrannus • chorus, Antigone, part of 'the large group' • chorus, the, and the stage • chorus, the, and versification • chorus, the, arrival of • chorus, the, function of • spectators, and choruses

 Found in books: Budelmann (1999) 201, 202, 203, 212, 218; Jouanna (2018) 217, 252, 712, 715

111. Hush! Here come some aged men to spy out your resting-place. Oedipu'112. Hush! Here come some aged men to spy out your resting-place. Oedipu
122. man most insatiate of all who live? Scan the ground, look well, press the search everywhere. A wanderer that old man must have been, 125. a wanderer, not a dweller in the land; otherwise he never would have advanced into this untrodden grove of the maidens with whom none may strive.
145. that you would call him fortunate, guardians of this land! It is plain; otherwise I would not be creeping, as you see, by the eyes of others, and buoying my strength upon weakness. Choru
171. My father, we must behave just as the townspeople do, listening and giving way where it is necessary. Oedipu
814. I call these men, and not you, to witness the tenor of your words to your friends. And if I ever catch you— Oedipu 815. And who could catch me against the will of these allies? Creon 816. I promise you, soon you will be pained even without that. Oedipu 817. Where is the deed which backs that threatening word? Creon 818. One of your two daughters I have myself just seized and sent away. The other I will drag off immediately. Oedipu 822. Oh! Strangers, what will you do? Will you betray me? Will you not drive the godless man from this land? Choru 824. Depart, stranger! Quick! 825. Your present deed is not just, nor the deed which you have done. Creon To his attendants. 826. It is time for you to drag this girl off against her will, if she will not go freely. Antigone 828. Wretched that I am! Where can I flee? Where find help from gods or men? Choru 830. I will not touch this man, but her who is mine. Oedipu 833. Oh, city ! Choru 834. What are you doing, stranger? Release her! 835. Your strength and ours will soon come to the test. Creon 837. There will be war with Thebes for you, if you harm me. Oedipu 839. Do not make commands where you are not the master. Choru 841. Help, men of Colonus , bring help! The city, our city, is attacked by force! Come to our aid! Antigone 844. I am being dragged away in misery. Strangers, strangers! Oedipu 848. So those two staffs will never again support your path. 850. But since you wish to overcome your country and your friends, whose will I, though tyrant as well, am here discharging, then I wish you victory. For in time, I am sure, you will come to recognize all this, that now too as in time past, it is you who have done yourself no good, by indulging your anger despite your friends. 855. This has always been your ruin. Choru 857. I will not let go, unless you give back the maidens. Creon 858. Then you will soon give the city a more valuable prize, for I will lay hands on more than those two girls. Choru 862. Indeed, unless the ruler of this realm prevents you. Oedipu 863. Voice of shamelessness! Will you really lay hands on me? Creon 870. grant in time an old age such as mine! Creon 871. Do you see this, people of the land? Oedipu 872. They see both you and me. They know that I have suffered in deeds, and my defense is mere words. Creon 874. I will not check my anger. Though I am alone 875. and slow with age, I will take this man by force. Oedipu 876. Ah, my wretchedness! Choru 877. What arrogance you have come with, stranger, if you think you will achieve this! Creon 878. I will. Choru 879. Then I think this city no longer exists. Creon 880. For men who are just, you see, the weak vanquishes the strong. Oedipu 884. Hear people, hear rulers of the land! Come quickly, come! 885. These men are on their way to cross our borders! Enter Theseus. Theseu
911. until you bring those maidens and produce them in my sight. For your action is a disgrace to me, and to your own ancestors, and to your country. You have come to a city that practices justice and sanctions nothing without law, 915. yet you have spurned her lawful authorities and made this violent assault. You are taking captives at will and subjugating them by force, as if you believed that my city was void of men, or manned by slaves, and that I counted for nothing. Yet it was not Thebes that trained you to be evil. Thebes is not accustomed to rearing unjust men;— 920. nor would she praise you, if she learned that you are despoiling me, and despoiling the gods, when by force you drive off their unfortunate suppliants. If my foot were upon your land, never would I drag off or lead away someone
1338. I am a beggar and a stranger, as you are yourself; by paying court to others both you and I have a home, obtaining by lot the same fortune. But he is tyrant at home—wretched me!—and in his pride laughs at you and me alike. '. None
22. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 101, 154, 331, 337-341, 374-375, 380-381, 383-384, 390-400, 437, 443, 535, 541-542, 647, 653, 656-664, 669-670, 863-872, 882-883, 895-897 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, and the chorus • Chorus,oaths sworn by • Euripides, and the chorus • Oedipus Rex, chorus • Oedipus the King (Sophocles), the chorus in • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, Antigone, flexible • chorus, Antigone, in danger and safe • chorus, Antigone, oedipus tyrannus • chorus, Antigone, part of 'the large group' • chorus, the, and Creon • chorus, the, dialogue with • chorus, the, movements of • dialogue, with the chorus • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests • entrance, of the chorus • prayer, chorus in Oedipus Tyrannus • spectators, and choruses

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47, 316; Budelmann (1999) 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225; Jouanna (2018) 194, 439; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 257; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 180, 181, 182; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 31, 89, 387

101. By banishing the man, or by paying back bloodshed with bloodshed, since it is this blood which brings the tempest on our city. Oedipu'
154. O sweetly-speaking message of Zeus, in what spirit have you come to glorious Thebes from golden Pytho ? I am on the rack, terror shakes my soul, O Delian healer to whom wild cries rise,
331. What are you saying? Do you know the secret and refuse to tell it? Will you betray and destroy the state? Teiresia
337. You blame my anger, but do not perceive your own: no, you blame me. Oedipu 339. Who would not be angry hearing such words, 340. with which you now are slighting the city? Teiresia 341. The future will come of itself, though I shroud it in silence. Oedipu
374. Night, endless night has you in her keeping, so that you can never hurt me, 375. or any man that sees the light of the sun. Teiresia
380. O wealth, and empire, and skill surpassing skill in life’s keen rivalries, how great is the envy in your keeping, if for the sake of this office which the city has entrusted to me, a gift unsought,
390. Come, tell me, where have you proved yourself a seer? Why, when the watchful dog who wove dark song was here, did you say nothing to free the people? Yet the riddle, at least, was not for the first comer to read: there was need of a seer’s help, 395. and you were discovered not to have this art, either from birds, or known from some god. But rather I, Oedipus the ignorant, stopped her, having attained the answer through my wit alone, untaught by birds. It is I whom you are trying to oust, assuming that 400. you will have great influence in Creon’s court. But I think that you and the one who plotted these things will rue your zeal to purge the land: if you did not seem to be an old man, you would have learned to your cost how haughty you are. Choru
437. What parents? Wait. What man is my father? Teiresia
443. But if it saved this city I care not. Teiresia
535. the palpable thief of its crown? Come, tell me, in the name of the gods, was it cowardice or folly which you saw in me and which led you to plot this thing? Did you think that I would not notice this deed of yours creeping upon me by stealth, or that if I became aware of it I would not ward it off?
541. Is your attempt not foolish, to seek the throne without followers or friends—a prize which followers and wealth must win? Creon
647. In the name of the gods, believe it, Oedipus, first for the sake of this awful oath to the gods, then for my sake and for the sake of those who stand before you. Choru
653. Do you understand what you crave? Choru
656. That you should never use an unproved rumor to cast a dishonoring charge on the friend who has bound himself with a curse. Oedipu 658. Then be quite aware that when you seek this you are seeking death or exile from this land for me. Choru 660. No, by the god that stands at the head of all the host of the gods, no, by the sun. Unblest, unbefriended, may I die the worst possible death, if I have this thought!
669. Then let him go, though I am surely doomed to be killed 670. or thrust dishonored from the land. Your words, not his, move me to compassion. Creon
863. May destiny still find me winning the praise of reverent purity in all words and 865. deeds sanctioned by those laws of sublime range, called into life through the high clear aether, whose father is Olympus alone. Their parent was no race of mortal men, 870. no, nor shall oblivion ever lay them to sleep: the god is mighty in them, and he does not grow old. Choru
882. quell such rivalry as benefits the state. I will always hold the god as our protector. Choru
895. No. For if such deeds are held in honor, why should we join in the sacred dance? Choru 897. No longer will I go reverently to the earth’s central and inviolate shrine, no more to Abae’s temple or to Olympia , '. None
23. Sophocles, Women of Trachis, 216-221, 1039-1040, 1189, 1193-1201, 1220-1221 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chorus,oaths sworn by • Euripides, and the chorus • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, the, and stasima • chorus, the, and the hero(ine) • chorus, the, dialogue with • chorus, the, function of • dance, and the chorus • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 289; Jouanna (2018) 444, 712, 713; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 257; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 25

216. and to the nymphs her neighbors! I am uplifted, I will not spurn the flute—O you master of my heart! Behold, his ivy stirs me! Euoe! 220. Quickly it wheels me round in Bacchus’s race! Oh, oh, Paean! Look, dear lady! All is taking shape, plain to see, before your gaze. Deianeira:
1039. Heal this pain with which your godless mother has enraged me! So may I see her fall to ruin, exactly, just exactly, as she has destroyed me! '1040. Sweet Hades, brother of Zeus, give me sleep, give me sleep. Kill me in my misery by a swift-flying doom! Chorus:
1189. And pray that, if you break this oath, you may suffer. Hyllus:
1193. Then, you must carry my body there after raising it up in your own hands, aided by as many of our friends as you require; 1195. and when you have cut many a branch from the deep-rooted oak and chopped down many a sturdy wild-olive, you must lay my body on them and with a flaming pine-torch burn it. And let no tear of mourning show itself there. 1200. No, do this without laments or tears, if you are indeed my son. But if you fail to do this, even from the world below my curse and my wrath shall await you for ever. Hyllus:
1220. You mean Iole, I would guess. Heracles: 1221. You know her. Just this is the command that I impose upon you, my son: when I am dead, if you wish to show your piety by remembrance of your oath to your father, make this woman your wife and do not disobey your father. '. None
24. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, Acharnian chorus in • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, the, competition of

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 42, 273, 375; Hesk (2000) 266; Jouanna (2018) 181; Riess (2012) 258, 280

25. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, in drama • chorus, the, competition of • choruses, festivals

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 242; Jouanna (2018) 181; Lipka (2021) 96, 106; Riess (2012) 276, 298

26. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristophanes, Acharnian chorus in • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, in drama • chorus, khoros, Athenian empire as • chorus, khoros, flexible metaphor • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Hesk (2000) 265; Kowalzig (2007) 113; Lipka (2021) 133; Riess (2012) 238, 257

27. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 41; Riess (2012) 361

28. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, in drama • chorus, khoros, Athenian empire as • chorus, khoros, flexible metaphor • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 41, 48; Kowalzig (2007) 113, 115; Lipka (2021) 86, 123; Riess (2012) 303

29. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, in drama • chorus, khoros, Athenian empire as • chorus, khoros, flexible metaphor • chorus, khoros, of islands • chorus, the, requests for

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 84; Kowalzig (2007) 115, 116; Lipka (2021) 79; Riess (2012) 282

30. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, in drama

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 379; Lipka (2021) 123

31. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus • chorus / choral lyric • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, in drama • chorus, the, numbers of • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests • leader, chorus-leader

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 88; Bernabe et al (2013) 42, 48, 175, 273, 281, 373; Jouanna (2018) 695; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 229; Lipka (2021) 86; Papadodima (2022) 66; Riess (2012) 255; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 187, 293

32. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, in drama • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 42, 47, 273, 289, 381; Kowalzig (2007) 122; Lipka (2021) 112

33. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, in drama • choruses, festivals

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 242; Lipka (2021) 86; Riess (2012) 312

34. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chorus,oaths sworn by • chorus χορός, choral

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 41; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 241

35. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, and the tragic chorus in the fourth century • Euripides, and the chorus • Sophocles, and the chorus/choral song • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, in drama • choruses, and cosmic imagery

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 245; Lipka (2021) 121; Seaford (2018) 171

36. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, cf. choregia, choregos • chorus, the, and women

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 183; Riess (2012) 362

37. Polybius, Histories, 4.20.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus, khoros, and civic identity • chorus, khoros, and social integration • chorus, khoros, and socialization • chorus, khoros, image of community • chorus, khoros, integral to sacrificial rituals • choruses/choreuts • choruses/choreuts, comic • choruses/choreuts, in satyrplay • choruses/choreuts, professional • choruses/choreuts, recruited from local communities • choruses/choreuts, supposed decline/disappearance of • choruses/choreuts, tragic • choruses/choreuts, trainers of (chorodidaskaloi/hypodidaskaloi) • comedy, choruses of • satyrplay/satyr drama, choruses of • tragedy, choruses of

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 11; Kowalzig (2007) 4, 5

4.20.8. ταῦτα γὰρ πᾶσίν ἐστι γνώριμα καὶ συνήθη, διότι σχεδὸν παρὰ μόνοις Ἀρκάσι πρῶτον μὲν οἱ παῖδες ἐκ νηπίων ᾄδειν ἐθίζονται κατὰ νόμους τοὺς ὕμνους καὶ παιᾶνας, οἷς ἕκαστοι κατὰ τὰ πάτρια τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους ἥρωας καὶ θεοὺς ὑμνοῦσι·''. None
4.20.8. \xa0For it is a well-known fact, familiar to all, that it is hardly known except in Arcadia, that in the first place the boys from their earliest childhood are trained to sing in measure the hymns and paeans in which by traditional usage they celebrated the heroes and gods of each particular place: later they learn the measures of Philoxenus and Timotheus, and every year in the theatre they compete keenly in choral singing to the accompaniment of professional flute-players, the boys in the contest proper to them and the young men in what is called the men's contest. <"". None
38. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 79-82 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exodus, choirs • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • Philo Judaeus, Agriculture, choirs • Philo Judaeus, Life of Moses II, choirs • Philo of Alexandria, choirs, characterization of • Therapeutae,choir • choruses, Therapeutae

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 279, 280; Kraemer (2010) 84, 91, 94, 95, 96, 98, 101, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109

79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices. "80. And the chorus of men will have Moses for their leader; and that of the women will be under the guidance of Miriam, "the purified outward Sense." For it is just that hymns and praises should be uttered in honour of God without any delay, both in accordance with the suggestions of the intellect and the perceptions of the outward senses, and that each instrument should be struck in harmony, I mean those both of the mind and of the outward sense, in gratitude and honour to the holy Saviour. 81. Accordingly, all the men sing the song on the sea-shore, not indeed with a blind mind, but seeing sharply, Moses being the leader of the song; and women sing, who are in good truth the most excellent of their sex, having been enrolled in the lists of the republic of virtue, Miriam being their leader. XVIII. 82. And the same hymn is sung by both the choruses, having a most admirable burden of the song which is beautiful to be sung. And it is as follows: "Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has been glorified gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the Sea." ' "'. None
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 65-67, 69, 72, 75, 80, 83-89 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exodus, choirs • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • Philo of Alexandria, choirs, characterization of • Therapeutae,choir • choruses, Therapeutae

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 276, 277, 278; Kraemer (2010) 59, 61, 94, 95, 96, 98, 106, 108

65. In the first place, these men assemble at the end of seven weeks, venerating not only the simple week of seven days, but also its multiplied power, for they know it to be pure and always virgin; and it is a prelude and a kind of forefeast of the greatest feast, which is assigned to the number fifty, the most holy and natural of numbers, being compounded of the power of the right-angled triangle, which is the principle of the origination and condition of the whole. '66. Therefore when they come together clothed in white garments, and joyful with the most exceeding gravity, when some one of the ephemereutae (for that is the appellation which they are accustomed to give to those who are employed in such ministrations), before they sit down to meat standing in order in a row, and raising their eyes and their hands to heaven, the one because they have learnt to fix their attention on what is worthy looking at, and the other because they are free from the reproach of all impure gain, being never polluted under any pretence whatever by any description of criminality which can arise from any means taken to procure advantage, they pray to God that the entertainment may be acceptable, and welcome, and pleasing; 67. and after having offered up these prayers the elders sit down to meat, still observing the order in which they were previously arranged, for they do not look on those as elders who are advanced in years and very ancient, but in some cases they esteem those as very young men, if they have attached themselves to this sect only lately, but those whom they call elders are those who from their earliest infancy have grown up and arrived at maturity in the speculative portion of philosophy, which is the most beautiful and most divine part of it.
69. And the order in which they sit down to meat is a divided one, the men sitting on the right hand and the women apart from them on the left; and in case any one by chance suspects that cushions, if not very costly ones, still at all events of a tolerably soft substance, are prepared for men who are well born and well bred, and contemplators of philosophy, he must know that they have nothing but rugs of the coarsest materials, cheap mats of the most ordinary kind of the papyrus of the land, piled up on the ground and projecting a little near the elbow, so that the feasters may lean upon them, for they relax in a slight degree the Lacedaemonian rigour of life, and at all times and in all places they practise a liberal, gentlemanlike kind of frugality, hating the allurements of pleasure with all their might.
72. for they are not any chance free men who are appointed to perform these duties, but young men who are selected from their order with all possible care on account of their excellence, acting as virtuous and wellborn youths ought to act who are eager to attain to the perfection of virtue, and who, like legitimate sons, with affectionate rivalry minister to their fathers and mothers, thinking their common parents more closely connected with them than those who are related by blood, since in truth to men of right principles there is nothing more nearly akin than virtue; and they come in to perform their service ungirdled, and with their tunics let down, in order that nothing which bears any resemblance to a slavish appearance may be introduced into this festival.
75. These, then, are the first circumstances of the feast; but after the guests have sat down to the table in the order which I have been describing, and when those who minister to them are all standing around in order, ready to wait upon them, and when there is nothing to drink, some one will say ... but even more so than before, so that no one ventures to mutter, or even to breathe at all hard, and then some one looks out some passage in the sacred scriptures, or explains some difficulty which is proposed by some one else, without any thoughts of display on his own part, for he is not aiming at reputation for cleverness and eloquence, but is only desirous to see some points more accurately, and is content when he has thus seen them himself not to bear ill will to others, who, even if they did not perceive the truth with equal acuteness, have at all events an equal desire of learning.
80. and then some one rising up sings a hymn which has been made in honour of God, either such as he has composed himself, or some ancient one of some old poet, for they have left behind them many poems and songs in trimetre iambics, and in psalms of thanksgiving and in hymns, and songs at the time of libation, and at the altar, and in regular order, and in choruses, admirably measured out in various and well diversified strophes. And after him then others also arise in their ranks, in becoming order, while every one else listens in decent silence, except when it is proper for them to take up the burden of the song, and to join in at the end; for then they all, both men and women, join in the hymn.
83. And after the feast they celebrate the sacred festival during the whole night; and this nocturnal festival is celebrated in the following manner: they all stand up together, and in the middle of the entertainment two choruses are formed at first, the one of men and the other of women, and for each chorus there is a leader and chief selected, who is the most honourable and most excellent of the band. 84. Then they sing hymns which have been composed in honour of God in many metres and tunes, at one time all singing together, and at another moving their hands and dancing in corresponding harmony, and uttering in an inspired manner songs of thanksgiving, and at another time regular odes, and performing all necessary strophes and antistrophes. 85. Then, when each chorus of the men and each chorus of the women has feasted separately by itself, like persons in the bacchanalian revels, drinking the pure wine of the love of God, they join together, and the two become one chorus, an imitation of that one which, in old time, was established by the Red Sea, on account of the wondrous works which were displayed there; 86. for, by the commandment of God, the sea became to one party the cause of safety, and to the other that of utter destruction; for it being burst asunder, and dragged back by a violent reflux, and being built up on each side as if there were a solid wall, the space in the midst was widened, and cut into a level and dry road, along which the people passed over to the opposite land, being conducted onwards to higher ground; then, when the sea returned and ran back to its former channel, and was poured out from both sides, on what had just before been dry ground, those of the enemy who pursued were overwhelmed and perished. 87. When the Israelites saw and experienced this great miracle, which was an event beyond all description, beyond all imagination, and beyond all hope, both men and women together, under the influence of divine inspiration, becoming all one chorus, sang hymns of thanksgiving to God the Saviour, Moses the prophet leading the men, and Miriam the prophetess leading the women. 88. Now the chorus of male and female worshippers being formed, as far as possible on this model, makes a most humorous concert, and a truly musical symphony, the shrill voices of the women mingling with the deep-toned voices of the men. The ideas were beautiful, the expressions beautiful, and the chorus-singers were beautiful; and the end of ideas, and expressions, and chorussingers, was piety; 89. therefore, being intoxicated all night till the morning with this beautiful intoxication, without feeling their heads heavy or closing their eyes for sleep, but being even more awake than when they came to the feast, as to their eyes and their whole bodies, and standing there till morning, when they saw the sun rising they raised their hands to heaven, imploring tranquillity and truth, and acuteness of understanding. And after their prayers they each retired to their own separate abodes, with the intention of again practising the usual philosophy to which they had been wont to devote themselves. '. None
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.256 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exodus, choirs • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • Philo Judaeus, Agriculture, choirs • Philo Judaeus, Life of Moses II, choirs • choruses, Therapeutae

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 279; Kraemer (2010) 84, 95, 96, 98

2.256. For this mercy Moses very naturally honoured his Benefactor with hymns of gratitude. For having divided the host into two choruses, one of men and one of women, he himself became the leader of that of the men, and appointed his sister to be the chief of that of the women, that they might sing hymns to their father and Creator, joining in harmonies responsive to one another, by a combination of dispositions and melody, the former being eager to offer the same requital for the mercies which they had received, and the latter consisting of a symphony of the deep male with the high female voices, for the tones of men are deep and those of women are high; and when there is a perfect and harmonious combination of the two a most delightful and thoroughly harmonious melody is effected. ''. None
41. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, khoros, and civic identity • chorus, khoros, mystery cult and • defending Greeks and democracies, democracy, in 5th cent. Greece, and the chorus • polis, civic integration in the chorus

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 49; Kowalzig (2007) 169

3.5.2. διελθὼν δὲ Θρᾴκην καὶ τὴν Ἰνδικὴν ἅπασαν, στήλας ἐκεῖ στήσας 1 -- ἧκεν εἰς Θήβας, καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας ἠνάγκασε καταλιπούσας τὰς οἰκίας βακχεύειν ἐν τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι. Πενθεὺς δὲ γεννηθεὶς ἐξ Ἀγαυῆς Ἐχίονι, παρὰ Κάδμου εἰληφὼς τὴν βασιλείαν, διεκώλυε ταῦτα γίνεσθαι, καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς Κιθαιρῶνα τῶν Βακχῶν κατάσκοπος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς Ἀγαυῆς κατὰ μανίαν ἐμελίσθη· ἐνόμισε γὰρ αὐτὸν θηρίον εἶναι. δείξας δὲ Θηβαίοις ὅτι θεός ἐστιν, ἧκεν εἰς Ἄργος, κἀκεῖ 2 -- πάλιν οὐ τιμώντων αὐτὸν ἐξέμηνε τὰς γυναῖκας. αἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι τοὺς ἐπιμαστιδίους ἔχουσαι 3 -- παῖδας τὰς σάρκας αὐτῶν ἐσιτοῦντο.''. None
3.5.2. Having traversed Thrace and the whole of India and set up pillars there, he came to Thebes, and forced the women to abandon their houses and rave in Bacchic frenzy on Cithaeron. But Pentheus, whom Agave bore to Echion, had succeeded Cadmus in the kingdom, and he attempted to put a stop to these proceedings. And coming to Cithaeron to spy on the Bacchanals, he was torn limb from limb by his mother Agave in a fit of madness; for she thought he was a wild beast. And having shown the Thebans that he was a god, Dionysus came to Argos, and there again, because they did not honor him, he drove the women mad, and they on the mountains devoured the flesh of the infants whom they carried at their breasts.''. None
42. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.31.2, 2.22.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus • chorus, khoros, and civic identity • chorus, khoros, mystery cult and • chorus, khoros, of islands • defending Greeks and democracies, democracy, in 5th cent. Greece, and the chorus • polis, civic integration in the chorus

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 126; Kowalzig (2007) 84, 85, 122, 168, 169; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 109

1.31.2. ἐν δὲ Πρασιεῦσιν Ἀπόλλωνός ἐστι ναός· ἐνταῦθα τὰς Ὑπερβορέων ἀπαρχὰς ἰέναι λέγεται, παραδιδόναι δὲ αὐτὰς Ὑπερβορέους μὲν Ἀριμασποῖς, Ἀριμασποὺς δʼ Ἰσσηδόσι, παρὰ δὲ τούτων Σκύθας ἐς Σινώπην κομίζειν, ἐντεῦθεν δὲ φέρεσθαι διὰ Ἑλλήνων ἐς Πρασιάς, Ἀθηναίους δὲ εἶναι τοὺς ἐς Δῆλον ἄγοντας· τὰς δὲ ἀπαρχὰς κεκρύφθαι μὲν ἐν καλάμῃ πυρῶν, γινώσκεσθαι δὲ ὑπʼ οὐδένων. ἔστι δὲ μνῆμα ἐπὶ Πρασιαῖς Ἐρυσίχθονος, ὡς ἐκομίζετο ὀπίσω μετὰ τὴν θεωρίαν ἐκ Δήλου, γενομένης οἱ κατὰ τὸν πλοῦν τῆς τελευτῆς.
2.22.1. τῆς δὲ Ἥρας ὁ ναὸς τῆς Ἀνθείας ἐστὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ τῆς Λητοῦς ἐν δεξιᾷ καὶ πρὸ αὐτοῦ γυναικῶν τάφος. ἀπέθανον δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες ἐν μάχῃ πρὸς Ἀργείους τε καὶ Περσέα, ἀπὸ νήσων τῶν ἐν Αἰγαίῳ Διονύσῳ συνεστρατευμέναι· καὶ διὰ τοῦτο Ἁλίας αὐτὰς ἐπονομάζουσιν. ἀντικρὺ δὲ τοῦ μνήματος τῶν γυναικῶν Δήμητρός ἐστιν ἱερὸν ἐπίκλησιν Πελασγίδος ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱδρυσαμένου Πελασγοῦ τοῦ Τριόπα, καὶ οὐ πόρρω τοῦ ἱεροῦ τάφος Πελασγοῦ.''. None
1.31.2. At Prasiae is a temple of Apollo. Hither they say are sent the first-fruits of the Hyperboreans, and the Hyperboreans are said to hand them over to the Arimaspi, the Arimaspi to the Issedones, from these the Scythians bring them to Sinope, thence they are carried by Greeks to Prasiae, and the Athenians take them to Delos . The first-fruits are hidden in wheat straw, and they are known of none. There is at Prasiae a monument to Erysichthon, who died on the voyage home from Delos, after the sacred mission thither.
2.22.1. The temple of Hera Anthea (Flowery) is on the right of the sanctuary of Leto, and before it is a grave of women. They were killed in a battle against the Argives under Perseus, having come from the Aegean Islands to help Dionysus in war; for which reason they are surnamed Haliae (Women of the Sea). Facing the tomb of the women is a sanctuary of Demeter, surnamed Pelasgian from Pelasgus, son of Triopas, its founder, and not far from the sanctuary is the grave of Pelasgus.''. None
43. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • choruses, and the Cowherds of Pergamon • choruses, in mystery cult

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 175; Cosgrove (2022) 193; Seaford (2018) 169

44. Demosthenes, Orations, 21.58-21.60, 21.226
 Tagged with subjects: • choregia, choregos, cf. chorus • dramatic festivals, choruses

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 79; Riess (2012) 118, 133

21.58. And now I solemnly call your attention to another point. I shall beg you not to be offended if I mention by name some persons who have fallen into misfortune; for I swear to you that in doing so I have no intention of casting reproach upon any man; I only want to show you how carefully all the rest of you avoid anything like violent or insulting behavior. There is, for instance, Sannio, the trainer of the tragic choruses, who was convicted of shirking military service and so found himself in trouble. 21.59. After that misfortune he was hired by a chorus-master—Theozotides, if I am not mistaken—who was keen to win a victory in the tragedies. Well, at first the rival masters were indigt and threatened to debar him, but when they saw that the theater was full and the crowd assembled for the contest, they hesitated, they gave way, and no one laid a finger on him. One can see that the forbearance which piety inspires in every one of you is such that Sannio has been training choruses ever since, not hindered even by his private enemies, much less by any of the chorus-masters. 21.60. Then again there is Aristeides of the tribe of Oeneis, who has had a similar misfortune. He is now an old man and perhaps less useful in a chorus, but he was once chorus-leader for his tribe. You know, of course, that if the leader is withdrawn, the rest of the chorus is done for. But in spite of the keen rivalry of many of the chorus-masters, not one of them looked at the possible advantage or ventured to remove him or prevent him from performing. Since this involved laying hands on him, and since he could not be cited before the Archon as if he were an alien whom it was desired to eject, every man shrank from being seen as the personal author of such an outrage.
21.226. Those of you who were spectators at the Dionysia hissed and hooted Meidias when he entered the theater; you gave every indication of your abhorrence, though you had not yet heard what I had to say about him. Were you so indigt before the case was investigated, that you urged me to demand vengeance for my wrongs and applauded me when I brought my plaint before the Assembly? ''. None
45. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus χορός, choral • chorus, khoros, Athenian empire as • chorus, khoros, flexible metaphor • chorus, khoros, of islands

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 103; Kowalzig (2007) 114

46. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • chorus

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 393; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 196

47. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • choruses/choreuts, comic • choruses/choreuts, in parades • choruses/choreuts, tragic • choruses/choreuts, trainers of (chorodidaskaloi/hypodidaskaloi) • dithyramb/dithyrambic choruses/contests

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 45; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 166

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