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Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
causation Jedan (2009) 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 183
Jouanna (2012) 164
Rohmann (2016) 87, 121, 153, 155, 170, 180, 181, 185, 188, 189, 271
causation, always obtains Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 160
causation, analogia analogical reasoning and entis d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 54, 60, 62, 68, 140, 195, 196, 205
causation, and character Fabian Meinel (2015) 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
causation, and fact Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 138
causation, and medicine/the female body Fabian Meinel (2015) 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
causation, and ritual transgression Fabian Meinel (2015) 29, 30, 31, 32
causation, aristotelian model of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 205
causation, as fiction Fabian Meinel (2015) 46
causation, as goodness of god Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 230
causation, as legacy from presocratics Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 114
causation, as provocation Fabian Meinel (2015) 44, 46
causation, body Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 76, 77, 78, 84, 92, 101, 125, 126, 127, 128, 352, 353, 354, 355, 361, 388, 401, 402
causation, bottom-up and top-down Inwood and Warren (2020) 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87
causation, by soul of its actions Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 163
causation, by stars Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 161
causation, cause Long (2006) 133, 135, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 187, 188, 202, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 232, 239, 242, 265, 270, 274, 276
causation, cecrops, otherness of Fabian Meinel (2015) 236
causation, chance Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 232
causation, constituted by the one Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 146
causation, cosmic Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 113
causation, creation and d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 296
causation, deficient Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 220
causation, divine Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 137
causation, efficient Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 180, 220, 231
causation, elements, multiple Williams (2012) 246, 247
causation, emanation, as Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 33, 54
causation, emanative Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 43
causation, ex nihilo Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 236
causation, external Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 162
causation, final Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 135
causation, formal-efficient Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 135
causation, herodotus, and Fabian Meinel (2015) 18, 22
causation, herodotus, and immanent Joho (2022) 193, 194, 209, 212, 213, 217
causation, herodotus, on human and divine level of Joho (2022) 207, 208, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 225, 226, 244, 245, 246
causation, hippocratic medicine, vs. religious models of Fabian Meinel (2015) 21, 22
causation, in aristotle Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 111
causation, in hagnos, historiography Fabian Meinel (2015) 22, 23
causation, in thucydides, and collective passions Joho (2022) 222, 254, 255
causation, in thucydides, and disposition and trigger Joho (2022) 257, 258, 259, 260, 309, 310
causation, in thucydides, and idea of contest Joho (2022) 250, 251, 252, 257, 258, 259, 279, 280, 310, 311
causation, in thucydides, and ‘truest cause of peloponnesian war’ Joho (2022) 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 166, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265
causation, in thucydides, vs. modern ideas Joho (2022) 247, 248, 249, 257, 265
causation, insanity Graver (2007) 114, 115, 116, 121, 123, 242
causation, intelligible Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 36, 44
causation, intentionality, and direction of Mackey (2022) 104, 106
causation, marionette, as analogy for natural Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 41
causation, models in eur. hipp., polyphony, of Fabian Meinel (2015) 46
causation, models, causation, polyphony of Fabian Meinel (2015) 46
causation, multiple Versnel (2011) 94, 114, 494
Williams (2012) 7, 246
causation, natural Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 236
causation, need cause be like effect? Sorabji (2000) 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 114, 130
causation, of embryo's development Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 173
causation, of emotions Graver (2007) 42, 43, 65, 68, 69, 79, 237
causation, outside the person Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 197
causation, paradigmatic kind of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 205
causation, plotinus, on astral Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 197
causation, protagoras, responsibility and Wolfsdorf (2020) 132
causation, rationalising accounts of Fabian Meinel (2015) 21, 22, 23
causation, simplicius' view of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 111, 120
causation, stoicism, chain of Williams (2012) 160, 312
causation, thucydides, and Fabian Meinel (2015) 22, 23
causation, voluntary Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 232
causation, word-to-world, direction of Mackey (2022) 76, 104, 105, 106
causation, world-to-word, direction of Mackey (2022) 76, 312
causation/cause d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 59, 60, 61, 111, 196, 265
causation/cause, auxiliary d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 142, 156
causation/cause, circle of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 55, 56, 57, 178
causation/cause, complex d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 150, 151, 152
causation/cause, continuity of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 51, 52, 54, 57, 66, 68, 84, 100
causation/cause, efficient d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 81, 105, 106, 111, 140, 142, 144, 145, 151, 164, 248
causation/cause, final d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 81, 105, 106, 111, 142, 162, 164, 248
causation/cause, formal d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115, 116, 124, 131, 141, 149, 154, 155, 156, 159, 160, 161
causation/cause, in philebus d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 74, 84, 85, 86
causation/cause, material d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 111, 141, 154, 156
causation/cause, paradigmatic d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 59, 60, 110, 111, 114, 140, 142, 144, 145, 151, 164, 248, 299, 318
causation/cause, poiêtikon, productive ποιητικόν‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 53, 67, 80, 83, 92, 96, 106, 112, 142, 144, 145, 162, 247
causation/cause, proclean rule of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 54, 106, 156
causation/cause, reductivism/foundationalism of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 48, 52, 53, 54, 62, 63, 66, 173
causation/cause, rules of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 52, 53, 67
causation/cause, stoic d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 109, 242, 243
causation/cause, theurgy and d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 224, 225, 226, 227
causation/cause, transcendence/priority of real d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 51, 57, 62, 66, 77, 78, 79, 100, 111
causation/cause, transverse d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 53, 54, 57, 60, 68
causation/cause, vertical d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 51, 53, 54, 60, 68, 85

List of validated texts:
12 validated results for "causation"
1. Euripides, Hippolytus, 23 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Causation in Thucydides, and idea of contest • causation, as fiction • causation, as provocation • causation, polyphony of causation models • polyphony, of causation models in Eur. Hipp.

 Found in books: Fabian Meinel (2015) 46; Joho (2022) 251


23. πάλαι προκόψας', οὐ πόνου πολλοῦ με δεῖ."". None
23. ’Tis not this I grudge him, no! why should I? But for his sins against me, I will this very day take vengeance on Hippolytus; for long ago I cleared the ground of many obstacles, so it needs but trifling toil.''. None
2. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • G/good(ness) of gods/gods causing - • body, causation

 Found in books: Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 361; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 253


176a. λαβόντος ὀρθῶς ὑμνῆσαι θεῶν τε καὶ ἀνδρῶν εὐδαιμόνων βίον ἀληθῆ . ΘΕΟ. εἰ πάντας, ὦ Σώκρατες, πείθοις ἃ λέγεις ὥσπερ ἐμέ, πλείων ἂν εἰρήνη καὶ κακὰ ἐλάττω κατʼ ἀνθρώπους εἴη. ΣΩ. ἀλλʼ οὔτʼ ἀπολέσθαι τὰ κακὰ δυνατόν, ὦ Θεόδωρε— ὑπεναντίον γάρ τι τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἀεὶ εἶναι ἀνάγκη—οὔτʼ ἐν θεοῖς αὐτὰ ἱδρῦσθαι, τὴν δὲ θνητὴν φύσιν καὶ τόνδε τὸν τόπον περιπολεῖ ἐξ ἀνάγκης. διὸ καὶ πειρᾶσθαι χρὴ ἐνθένδε''. None
176a. THEO. If, Socrates, you could persuade all men of the truth of what you say as you do me, there would be more peace and fewer evils among mankind. SOC. But it is impossible that evils should be done away with, Theodorus, for there must always be something opposed to the good; and they cannot have their place among the gods, but must inevitably hover about mortal nature and this earth. Therefore we ought to try to escape from earth to the dwelling of the gods as quickly as we can;''. None
3. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Stoics, analysis of causation • causation • causation, and the rolling cylinder • causation, on fate

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 245, 255; Jedan (2009) 42, 43, 44


4. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antiochus of Ascalon, and causation • causation

 Found in books: Hankinson (1998) 336, 337; Jedan (2009) 183


5. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bites, sharp, little contractions caused by appearance of evil • First movements, 2 kinds. Mental, bites and little soul movements caused by appearance, without assent and emotion having yet occurred • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, First movements of body or soul caused by appearance without assent or emotion having yet occurred • direction of causation, word-to-world • emotions, causation of

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 43, 237; Mackey (2022) 105; Sorabji (2000) 38, 67, 70


6. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Causation • animal imagery, animalization caused by disease • causation, cause

 Found in books: Kazantzidis (2021) 81; Long (2006) 159, 160, 165, 166, 170, 171, 174, 175, 208, 209, 214; Rohmann (2016) 155, 271


7. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 113.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bites, sharp, little contractions caused by appearance of evil • First movements, 2 kinds. Mental, bites and little soul movements caused by appearance, without assent and emotion having yet occurred • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, First movements of body or soul caused by appearance without assent or emotion having yet occurred • emotions, causation of

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 237; Sorabji (2000) 66, 119


113.18. Every living thing possessed of reason is inactive if it is not first stirred by some external impression; then the impulse comes, and finally assent confirms the impulse.8 Now what assent is, I shall explain. Suppose that I ought to take a walk: I do walk, but only after uttering the command to myself and approving this opinion of mine. Or suppose that I ought to seat myself; I do seat myself, but only after the same process. This assent is not a part of virtue. ''. None
8. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bites, sharp, little contractions caused by appearance of evil • First movements, 2 kinds. Mental, bites and little soul movements caused by appearance, without assent and emotion having yet occurred • First movements, Physical, e.g. pallor, erection, glaring caused by appearance, without assent and emotion having yet occurred • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, First movements of body or soul caused by appearance without assent or emotion having yet occurred • emotions, causation of

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 237; Sorabji (2000) 66, 67, 68


9. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Causation • degeneration, caused by wealth

 Found in books: Isaac (2004) 97; Rohmann (2016) 153


10. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bites, sharp, little contractions caused by appearance of evil • Causation, Need cause be like effect? • Causation, bottom-up and top-down

 Found in books: Inwood and Warren (2020) 87; Sorabji (2000) 119, 130


11. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plotinus, on astral causation • body, causation • causation, always obtains • causation, and fact • causation, by soul of its actions • causation, by stars • causation, cause • causation, emanative • causation, external • causation, outside the person

 Found in books: Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 126, 388, 401, 402; Long (2006) 149; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 43, 138, 160, 161, 162, 163, 197


12. Augustine, The City of God, 5.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • causation, cause • foreknowledge, causative/non-causative

 Found in books: Long (2006) 150, 151; Wilson (2018) 192


5.9. The manner in which Cicero addresses himself to the task of refuting the Stoics, shows that he did not think he could effect anything against them in argument unless he had first demolished divination. And this he attempts to accomplish by denying that there is any knowledge of future things, and maintains with all his might that there is no such knowledge either in God or man, and that there is no prediction of events. Thus he both denies the foreknowledge of God, and attempts by vain arguments, and by opposing to himself certain oracles very easy to be refuted, to overthrow all prophecy, even such as is clearer than the light (though even these oracles are not refuted by him). But, in refuting these conjectures of the mathematicians, his argument is triumphant, because truly these are such as destroy and refute themselves. Nevertheless, they are far more tolerable who assert the fatal influence of the stars than they who deny the foreknowledge of future events. For, to confess that God exists, and at the same time to deny that He has foreknowledge of future things, is the most manifest folly. This Cicero himself saw, and therefore attempted to assert the doctrine embodied in the words of Scripture, The fool has said in his heart, There is no God. That, however, he did not do in his own person, for he saw how odious and offensive such an opinion would be; and therefore, in his book on the nature of the gods, he makes Cotta dispute concerning this against the Stoics, and preferred to give his own opinion in favor of Lucilius Balbus, to whom he assigned the defense of the Stoical position, rather than in favor of Cotta, who maintained that no divinity exists. However, in his book on divination, he in his own person most openly opposes the doctrine of the prescience of future things. But all this he seems to do in order that he may not grant the doctrine of fate, and by so doing destroy free will. For he thinks that, the knowledge of future things being once conceded, fate follows as so necessary a consequence that it cannot be denied. But, let these perplexing debatings and disputations of the philosophers go on as they may, we, in order that we may confess the most high and true God Himself, do confess His will, supreme power, and prescience. Neither let us be afraid lest, after all, we do not do by will that which we do by will, because He, whose foreknowledge is infallible, foreknew that we would do it. It was this which Cicero was afraid of, and therefore opposed foreknowledge. The Stoics also maintained that all things do not come to pass by necessity, although they contended that all things happen according to destiny. What is it, then, that Cicero feared in the prescience of future things? Doubtless it was this - that if all future things have been foreknown, they will happen in the order in which they have been foreknown; and if they come to pass in this order, there is a certain order of things foreknown by God; and if a certain order of things, then a certain order of causes, for nothing can happen which is not preceded by some efficient cause. But if there is a certain order of causes according to which everything happens which does happen, then by fate, says he, all things happen which do happen. But if this be so, then is there nothing in our own power, and there is no such thing as freedom of will; and if we grant that, says he, the whole economy of human life is subverted. In vain are laws enacted. In vain are reproaches, praises, chidings, exhortations had recourse to; and there is no justice whatever in the appointment of rewards for the good, and punishments for the wicked. And that consequences so disgraceful, and absurd, and pernicious to humanity may not follow, Cicero chooses to reject the foreknowledge of future things, and shuts up the religious mind to this alternative, to make choice between two things, either that something is in our own power, or that there is foreknowledge - both of which cannot be true; but if the one is affirmed, the other is thereby denied. He therefore, like a truly great and wise man, and one who consulted very much and very skillfully for the good of humanity, of those two chose the freedom of the will, to confirm which he denied the foreknowledge of future things; and thus, wishing to make men free he makes them sacrilegious. But the religious mind chooses both, confesses both, and maintains both by the faith of piety. But how so? Says Cicero; for the knowledge of future things being granted, there follows a chain of consequences which ends in this, that there can be nothing depending on our own free wills. And further, if there is anything depending on our wills, we must go backwards by the same steps of reasoning till we arrive at the conclusion that there is no foreknowledge of future things. For we go backwards through all the steps in the following order:- If there is free will, all things do not happen according to fate; if all things do not happen according to fate, there is not a certain order of causes; and if there is not a certain order of causes, neither is there a certain order of things foreknown by God - for things cannot come to pass except they are preceded by efficient causes, - but, if there is no fixed and certain order of causes foreknown by God, all things cannot be said to happen according as He foreknew that they would happen. And further, if it is not true that all things happen just as they have been foreknown by Him, there is not, says he, in God any foreknowledge of future events. Now, against the sacrilegious and impious darings of reason, we assert both that God knows all things before they come to pass, and that we do by our free will whatsoever we know and feel to be done by us only because we will it. But that all things come to pass by fate, we do not say; nay we affirm that nothing comes to pass by fate; for we demonstrate that the name of fate, as it is wont to be used by those who speak of fate, meaning thereby the position of the stars at the time of each one's conception or birth, is an unmeaning word, for astrology itself is a delusion. But an order of causes in which the highest efficiency is attributed to the will of God, we neither deny nor do we designate it by the name of fate, unless, perhaps, we may understand fate to mean that which is spoken, deriving it from fari, to speak; for we cannot deny that it is written in the sacred Scriptures, God has spoken once; these two things have I heard, that power belongs unto God. Also unto You, O God, belongs mercy: for You will render unto every man according to his works. Now the expression, Once has He spoken, is to be understood as meaning immovably, that is, unchangeably has He spoken, inasmuch as He knows unchangeably all things which shall be, and all things which He will do. We might, then, use the word fate in the sense it bears when derived from fari, to speak, had it not already come to be understood in another sense, into which I am unwilling that the hearts of men should unconsciously slide. But it does not follow that, though there is for God a certain order of all causes, there must therefore be nothing depending on the free exercise of our own wills, for our wills themselves are included in that order of causes which is certain to God, and is embraced by His foreknowledge, for human wills are also causes of human actions; and He who foreknew all the causes of things would certainly among those causes not have been ignorant of our wills. For even that very concession which Cicero himself makes is enough to refute him in this argument. For what does it help him to say that nothing takes place without a cause, but that every cause is not fatal, there being a fortuitous cause, a natural cause, and a voluntary cause? It is sufficient that he confesses that whatever happens must be preceded by a cause. For we say that those causes which are called fortuitous are not a mere name for the absence of causes, but are only latent, and we attribute them either to the will of the true God, or to that of spirits of some kind or other. And as to natural causes, we by no means separate them from the will of Him who is the author and framer of all nature. But now as to voluntary causes. They are referable either to God, or to angels, or to men, or to animals of whatever description, if indeed those instinctive movements of animals devoid of reason, by which, in accordance with their own nature, they seek or shun various things, are to be called wills. And when I speak of the wills of angels, I mean either the wills of good angels, whom we call the angels of God, or of the wicked angels, whom we call the angels of the devil, or demons. Also by the wills of men I mean the wills either of the good or of the wicked. And from this we conclude that there are no efficient causes of all things which come to pass unless voluntary causes, that is, such as belong to that nature which is the spirit of life. For the air or wind is called spirit, but, inasmuch as it is a body, it is not the spirit of life. The spirit of life, therefore, which quickens all things, and is the creator of every body, and of every created spirit, is God Himself, the uncreated spirit. In His supreme will resides the power which acts on the wills of all created spirits, helping the good, judging the evil, controlling all, granting power to some, not granting it to others. For, as He is the creator of all natures, so also is He the bestower of all powers, not of all wills; for wicked wills are not from Him, being contrary to nature, which is from Him. As to bodies, they are more subject to wills: some to our wills, by which I mean the wills of all living mortal creatures, but more to the wills of men than of beasts. But all of them are most of all subject to the will of God, to whom all wills also are subject, since they have no power except what He has bestowed upon them. The cause of things, therefore, which makes but is made, is God; but all other causes both make and are made. Such are all created spirits, and especially the rational. Material causes, therefore, which may rather be said to be made than to make, are not to be reckoned among efficient causes, because they can only do what the wills of spirits do by them. How, then, does an order of causes which is certain to the foreknowledge of God necessitate that there should be nothing which is dependent on our wills, when our wills themselves have a very important place in the order of causes? Cicero, then, contends with those who call this order of causes fatal, or rather designate this order itself by the name of fate; to which we have an abhorrence, especially on account of the word, which men have become accustomed to understand as meaning what is not true. But, whereas he denies that the order of all causes is most certain, and perfectly clear to the prescience of God, we detest his opinion more than the Stoics do. For he either denies that God exists, - which, indeed, in an assumed personage, he has labored to do, in his book De Natura Deorum, - or if he confesses that He exists, but denies that He is prescient of future things, what is that but just the fool saying in his heart there is no God? For one who is not prescient of all future things is not God. Wherefore our wills also have just so much power as God willed and foreknew that they should have; and therefore whatever power they have, they have it within most certain limits; and whatever they are to do, they are most assuredly to do, for He whose foreknowledge is infallible foreknew that they would have the power to do it, and would do it. Wherefore, if I should choose to apply the name of fate to anything at all, I should rather say that fate belongs to the weaker of two parties, will to the stronger, who has the other in his power, than that the freedom of our will is excluded by that order of causes, which, by an unusual application of the word peculiar to themselves, the Stoics call Fate. "". None



Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.