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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
bishop Alikin (2009) 32, 56, 68, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 100, 133, 134, 135, 205, 207, 208, 243, 244, 245, 263, 264
Binder (2012) 198
Brand (2022) 109, 110, 119, 151, 208, 272
Gunderson (2022) 206, 208, 211, 212, 213, 214, 217
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 114, 220, 222, 346
Huttner (2013) 155, 213, 214, 215, 259, 269, 270, 273, 274, 282, 283, 301, 347
Maier and Waldner (2022) 4, 81, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98, 99, 100, 106, 144, 150, 156, 157, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 171
Novenson (2020) 90, 91, 224, 232, 234, 263, 290
Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 164, 167, 168, 206, 220, 221, 223, 225, 239, 240, 246, 248, 249, 252, 253, 283, 298, 300, 336, 361, 400, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 443, 444, 445, 446, 451, 454
Rohmann (2016) 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 69, 70, 71, 76, 90, 94, 115, 119, 124, 127, 128, 129, 134, 136, 138, 139, 142, 143, 160, 163, 165, 166, 167, 204, 209, 220, 223, 233, 235, 244, 250, 252, 265, 266, 271, 275, 276, 278, 279
Rupke (2016) 88, 91
Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 25, 130, 149, 175, 186, 211, 265, 294
bishop, abercius Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 464
bishop, aberkios Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 401
bishop, acacius of caesarea Klein and Wienand (2022) 19, 185
bishop, acacius of constantinople Klein and Wienand (2022) 245, 246, 251
bishop, aetius Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 54, 67
bishop, alypius Wilson (2018) 107, 223
bishop, ambrose of milan Klein and Wienand (2022) 23
bishop, anastasius of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 156, 245, 251, 253, 254
bishop, and cyrus and john at menouthis, cyril of alexandria Renberg (2017) 370, 372
bishop, and martyr, polycarp of smyrna Marek (2019) 534, 536, 538, 542
bishop, and martyr, sagaris Marek (2019) 539
bishop, and martyrdom, cyprian Bremmer (2017) 379
bishop, and unintentional incubation, redemptus Renberg (2017) 789, 802
bishop, andrew of caesarea Klein and Wienand (2022) 271, 273, 275
bishop, anthimos Marek (2019) 541
bishop, apa theodorus Humfress (2007) 168
bishop, apatheia and metriopatheia ideals for different people, nemesius Sorabji (2000) 392
bishop, appion Humfress (2007) 42
bishop, appius Humfress (2007) 162
bishop, arculf Bay (2022) 40
bishop, artemius Humfress (2007) 162
bishop, as evidence for incubation in gaul, gregory of tours Renberg (2017) 783
bishop, as high priests, priest Sider (2001) 120
bishop, athanasius of alexandria Klein and Wienand (2022) 173, 200, 202
bishop, augustine Klein and Wienand (2022) 273, 275
bishop, augustine of hippo Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 320
bishop, augustine, ordained Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 113
bishop, bekkers Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 393
bishop, berkeley, george Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 569, 576, 577, 578, 579
bishop, cartesius van , t Westeinde (2021) 213
bishop, chronopius Humfress (2007) 122
bishop, clematius, church with burial of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 309
bishop, clematius, epitaph of Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 260, 309, 310
bishop, closure of alexandrian sarapieion, theophilus, alexandrian Renberg (2017) 370
bishop, constantinople, eutychios Renberg (2017) 758, 759, 779
bishop, cornelius Bremmer (2017) 52, 63
bishop, crispinus, donatist Humfress (2007) 262, 263
bishop, cyprian of toulon Bay (2022) 40
bishop, cyprian, christian Rizzi (2010) 150
bishop, dionysius of tarsus Klein and Wienand (2022) 255
bishop, dioscorus of alexandria Klein and Wienand (2022) 244, 245
bishop, election of Huttner (2013) 289
bishop, elias of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 28, 30, 31, 32, 156, 164, 165, 169, 170, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254
bishop, elimination of isis cult at menouthis, cyril of alexandria Renberg (2017) 374, 376, 377, 387
bishop, epiphanius of salamis, christian Rizzi (2010) 89, 135
bishop, eucherius of lyons Klein and Wienand (2022) 99, 100, 101
bishop, eudoxius, legal advisor to a Humfress (2007) 170
bishop, euktemon Marek (2019) 540
bishop, eunomius de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 206, 207
bishop, euphemius of constantinople Klein and Wienand (2022) 247, 254
bishop, eurydicus Humfress (2007) 162
bishop, eusebius of caesarea Klein and Wienand (2022) 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 117, 171, 173, 175, 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 216, 221
bishop, eusebius of nicomedia Klein and Wienand (2022) 186
bishop, eusebius of pelusium Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 272
bishop, eusebius, donatist Humfress (2007) 232
bishop, evodius Renberg (2017) 786
bishop, famine stele, evodius Renberg (2017) 89
bishop, firmilian Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 93
bishop, firmilianus Marek (2019) 539, 543, 547
bishop, flavian of antioch Klein and Wienand (2022) 247, 248, 249, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255
bishop, fornication Monnickendam (2020) 96
bishop, from ca., anteros Lampe (2003) 25, 371
bishop, from ca., fabian Lampe (2003) 43, 370
bishop, from ca., pontianus Lampe (2003) 25, 371
bishop, from ca., urban Lampe (2003) 31
bishop, gelasius of caesarea Klein and Wienand (2022) 23
bishop, gerontius Huttner (2013) 283, 284
bishop, gregory of nazianzus Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 269
bishop, heuresius Humfress (2007) 240
bishop, high priest with right of baptism Sider (2001) 120
bishop, high priest with right of baptism, as criminals Sider (2001) 141
bishop, high priest with right of baptism, buy off persecutors Sider (2001) 150
bishop, high priest with right of baptism, episcopacy established by apostles Sider (2001) 150
bishop, hippolytus Humfress (2007) 135
bishop, hypatios Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 198
Marek (2019) 545
bishop, hypatius of ephesus Klein and Wienand (2022) 32
bishop, ignatius of antioch, christian Rizzi (2010) 75, 76, 147, 148, 149, 150
bishop, influential, cyprian Bremmer (2017) 458, 459
bishop, innocent van , t Westeinde (2021) 107, 189
bishop, irenaeus of lyon, christian writer and Marek (2019) 545, 546
bishop, john chrysostom Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 277, 298, 320
bishop, john of antioch de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 291
bishop, john of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 31, 170, 249, 251, 253, 255
bishop, julian Wilson (2018) 169, 180, 181, 182, 183, 210, 211, 263, 275, 280, 297, 298
bishop, julianus valens Kahlos (2019) 43, 44
bishop, juvenal of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 25, 26, 27, 28, 242, 244, 245, 250, 251, 253, 254
bishop, kyriakos Klein and Wienand (2022) 178, 267, 268
bishop, leontios Marek (2019) 548
bishop, macarius of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 14, 17, 142
bishop, macedonius of constantinople Klein and Wienand (2022) 144, 247, 248, 251, 253
bishop, marcian de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 51
bishop, marriage without sex, paulinus of nola Sorabji (2000) 276
bishop, martialis Cosgrove (2022) 333
bishop, meliphthongus Humfress (2007) 166
bishop, melito of sardis, christian Rizzi (2010) 134
bishop, meliton of sardeis, christian writer and Marek (2019) 452, 539
bishop, modestus of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 283, 289, 290
bishop, novatus Humfress (2007) 179
bishop, of ablabius, novatian nicaea Humfress (2007) 182, 183
bishop, of agdama and optimus antioch Humfress (2007) 182
bishop, of alba longa, peter the Simmons(1995) 34
bishop, of alexander alexandria Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 339
bishop, of alexander jerusalem Mendez (2022) 7
bishop, of alexandria, athanasius Ando (2013) 219, 239
Rizzi (2010) 112, 113, 135
bishop, of alexandria, peter Rupke (2016) 87
bishop, of alypius thagaste Humfress (2007) 85, 177, 178, 179, 190, 203, 211
bishop, of ambrose milan Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 73, 75, 76
bishop, of amphilocius of iconium lycaonia Humfress (2007) 181, 182, 247, 248, 260
bishop, of antiocheia, theophilos Marek (2019) 526
bishop, of appion syene Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 220
bishop, of armenia, gregory the illuminator Marek (2019) 548, 549
bishop, of asterius amasea Humfress (2007) 55, 75, 76, 182
bishop, of athanasius alexandria Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 56, 70, 73, 84, 95, 355
Humfress (2007) 176, 186
bishop, of athanasius alexandria, vita antonii Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 114
bishop, of augustine, hippo, understanding of josephus Cohen (2010) 192
bishop, of biltha, caecilius McGowan (1999) 5, 204
bishop, of bosporius colonia Humfress (2007) 260
bishop, of caesarea, theophilus Wilson (2018) 48, 50
bishop, of caesaria, helladius Humfress (2007) 260
bishop, of calahorra, valerian O, Daly (2012) 2, 243
bishop, of carthage Moss (2012) 155
bishop, of chrysanthus, novation constantinople Humfress (2007) 182
bishop, of claudiopolis, theodore Humfress (2007) 260
bishop, of clermont, conversion, by avitus Kraemer (2020) 2, 63, 72, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 334, 337, 339, 344, 348
bishop, of constantinople, nicephorus i Tabbernee (2007) 292, 293
bishop, of cyprian carthage Humfress (2007) 186, 187, 266
bishop, of cyrene, synesius Salvesen et al (2020) 348
bishop, of cyril alexandria Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 70, 73, 78, 216, 304, 347, 355
bishop, of cyril alexandria, anti-jewish treatises and homilies of Kraemer (2020) 185, 266
bishop, of cyril alexandria, devotions to st. stephen and Kraemer (2020) 265, 266
bishop, of cyril alexandria, hypatia and Kraemer (2020) 217, 219
bishop, of cyril alexandria, jews expelled from alexandria by Kraemer (2020) 2, 215, 216, 217, 219, 224, 225, 348, 352, 353
bishop, of cyril alexandria, marian devotion controversies and Kraemer (2020) 255
bishop, of cyril alexandria, orestes and Kraemer (2020) 215, 216, 217, 219, 225, 352
bishop, of cyril alexandria, the dialogue of timothy and aquila and Kraemer (2020) 224
bishop, of cyril jerusalem Humfress (2007) 184, 230, 246
Kraemer (2020) 113
bishop, of cyrrhus theodoret, syria Klein and Wienand (2022) 129
bishop, of damasus rome Humfress (2007) 194, 255
bishop, of daniel philae Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 222
bishop, of demetrios alexandria Neusner Green and Avery-Peck (2022) 97
bishop, of dexianus seleucia Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 124
bishop, of dionysius alexandria, ammon Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 307
bishop, of ephesus, antoninus Ando (2013) 270, 271
bishop, of epiphanios salamis, anti-jewish stereotypes deployed by Kraemer (2020) 151, 152
bishop, of epiphanius constantia Humfress (2007) 171
bishop, of epiphanius salamis Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 116
Humfress (2007) 217, 230
bishop, of eudoxius antioch Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 54
bishop, of eunomius cyzicus Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 67
bishop, of flaccus hierapolis Huttner (2013) 1, 284, 286, 287, 288, 290
bishop, of flavian antioch Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210
bishop, of flavianus antioch Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 76
bishop, of gabriel, bashra Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 16
bishop, of gregor alexandria Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 56
bishop, of helenopolis, palladius Pinheiro et al (2015) 51
bishop, of hero hierapolis? Huttner (2013) 371
bishop, of hilary poitiers Humfress (2007) 112, 238
bishop, of himerius tarragona Humfress (2007) 201, 202
bishop, of hippolytus rome Johnston and Struck (2005) 277
bishop, of hyginus rome Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 150
bishop, of innocent i rome Humfress (2007) 180
bishop, of irenaeus lyon Humfress (2007) 135, 220
bishop, of isidore seville Edmondson (2008) 13, 116, 144
bishop, of jerusalem, theodosius Klein and Wienand (2022) 149, 150, 155, 242, 244, 245, 251
bishop, of john ii jerusalem Mendez (2022) 1, 11, 66, 77, 78, 85, 87
bishop, of juvenal jerusalem Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 349, 350, 370, 401
bishop, of laodikeia, junius eugenius, christian official and Marek (2019) 534
bishop, of leo rome Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 245
bishop, of leo rome, tome of Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 350, 373, 384
bishop, of lucifer caralis Humfress (2007) 240
bishop, of lucius alexandria Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 56
bishop, of macedonius philae Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 136, 141, 142, 145, 225, 227
bishop, of marcellus apamea Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 116, 117, 309
bishop, of marinus arles Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 239
bishop, of maximus iii jerusalem Mendez (2022) 36, 66, 69, 139
bishop, of nicholas sion Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 58, 129, 130, 131
bishop, of nisibis and ebed-ieshu, nestorian armenia Humfress (2007) 177
bishop, of noviomagus, dreams, in late antique and medieval christian literature, anon., life of eligius Renberg (2017) 788
bishop, of ossius cordoba Humfress (2007) 179
bishop, of oxyrhynchus, sotas Huebner (2018) 25
bishop, of paul constantinople Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 372
bishop, of paul of samosata antioch Humfress (2007) 224, 225
bishop, of paulinus antioch Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 203
bishop, of peter alexandria Ando and Ruepke (2006) 122
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 61, 369
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 47, 56
bishop, of peter mongus alexandria Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 136, 144, 145
bishop, of peter terracina Kraemer (2020) 334, 335, 336
bishop, of porphyry gaza Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 63, 65, 396
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 117, 118, 119, 120, 121
bishop, of porphyry gaza, life of Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 2, 63, 64, 65
bishop, of possidius calama Humfress (2007) 262, 263
bishop, of primasius hadrumetum Humfress (2007) 196
bishop, of proclus cyzicus Humfress (2007) 183
bishop, of rome Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 306, 434, 435, 436, 440, 441, 442, 444, 446, 448, 450, 453
bishop, of rome, soter soul, immortality of Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 258, 259
bishop, of rome, stephen Hellholm et al. (2010) 923
bishop, of rome, victor Iricinschi et al. (2013) 129, 132
Stanton (2021) 188, 189, 203, 204
bishop, of rouen, victricius Moss (2010) 169
bishop, of salamis, conversion of joseph of epiphanios tiberias, recounted by Kraemer (2020) 3, 91, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 186, 344, 346, 369
bishop, of salamis, panarion, medicine epiphanios chest, of Kraemer (2020) 87, 147
bishop, of sardes, meliton Merz and Tieleman (2012) 129
bishop, of sebaste, eustathius Humfress (2007) 254
bishop, of serapion thmuis Humfress (2007) 186
bishop, of severus minorca Levine (2005) 292
bishop, of sicca, le kef, city of roman north africa Simmons(1995) 6, 123, 124, 125, 261
bishop, of silvanus troas Humfress (2007) 171
bishop, of siricius rome Humfress (2007) 201, 202
bishop, of sirmium, martyrdom of irenaeus Moss (2010) 158
bishop, of sisinnius laodicea? Huttner (2013) 55, 346, 347, 350, 351, 352, 354
bishop, of sisinnius, orator and novatian constantinople Humfress (2007) 182
bishop, of thabbora, victor Humfress (2007) 188
bishop, of the triphyllius ledri Humfress (2007) 176
bishop, of theodore aquileia, building projects of Parkins and Smith (1998) 218
bishop, of theodorus philae Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 211, 214, 215, 216, 217
bishop, of theodosius jerusalem Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 349, 350, 351, 352
bishop, of theophilus alexandria Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 58, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 102, 103, 104, 107, 146, 147, 300, 302, 303, 308, 309, 342, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 354, 355, 359, 360
bishop, of trier, dreams, in late antique and medieval christian literature, anon., life of st. maximinus Renberg (2017) 787, 788
bishop, of tyre, paulinus Bianchetti et al (2015) 384
bishop, of ursinus rome Humfress (2007) 255
bishop, of valerian cimiez Humfress (2007) 29, 36, 58, 76, 155
bishop, of victor palermo Kraemer (2020) 255, 315, 338
bishop, office, of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 120, 121, 122, 124
bishop, offices, christian, chorepiskopos, country Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 23, 62, 63, 67, 74, 160
bishop, on kosmas and damian miracles, gregory of tours Renberg (2017) 763, 799, 800
bishop, origen, vs. Azar (2016) 64, 66
bishop, paul of ankara Klein and Wienand (2022) 129
bishop, paul, nicene Kraemer (2020) 126, 234
bishop, pelagian opponent of augustine, crucial reply to julian of eclanum, augustine, consent vs. command of will Sorabji (2000) 409, 412
bishop, pelagian opponent of augustine, julian of eclanum Sorabji (2000) 335, 399
bishop, pelagian opponent of augustine, male member has consent of will, so lust no different from decision to eat or drink, salivation, julian of eclanum, digestion, sleep Sorabji (2000) 381, 409, 412
bishop, pelagian opponent of augustine, neither sleep nor lust need oppose julian of eclanum, will, if they have consent Sorabji (2000) 409, 410
bishop, pelagian opponent of julian of eclanum, augustine, by what mechanism can adam's act of will have resulted in genetic transmission of original sin? Sorabji (2000) 416
bishop, pelagian opponent of julian of eclanum, augustine, is desire for privacy in sex universal? Sorabji (2000) 411, 412
bishop, pelagian opponent of julian of eclanum, augustine, marriage without sex Sorabji (2000) 276
bishop, pelagian opponent of julian of eclanum, augustine, sleepeven parallels lust in extinguishing thought about its purpose Sorabji (2000) 409, 415
bishop, pelagian opponent of julian of eclanum, augustine, visits carthage Sorabji (2000) 403
bishop, peter i, christian Rizzi (2010) 130
bishop, peter of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 164, 166, 170
bishop, petilianus, donatist Humfress (2007) 188, 246
bishop, plousianos Humfress (2007) 170
bishop, polycarp, as Moss (2012) 53, 69
bishop, polycrates Marek (2019) 546
bishop, procurator, appointed for Humfress (2007) 166
bishop, rabbula of edessa Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 272
bishop, rebuttal of emperor julians polemic, cyril of alexandria Renberg (2017) 110, 755
bishop, restitutus, primianist Humfress (2007) 265
bishop, sallustius Klein and Wienand (2022) 247, 254
bishop, salvius, maximianist Humfress (2007) 265, 266
bishop, sergius of constantinople Klein and Wienand (2022) 47, 284
bishop, severus of antioch Klein and Wienand (2022) 30, 31, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255
bishop, severus of minorca Bay (2022) 180
bishop, severus, minorca Levine (2005) 292
bishop, simplicianus Wilson (2018) 1, 5, 125, 139, 145, 152, 198, 199, 200, 207, 208, 209, 223, 275, 276, 294
bishop, sophronius of jerusalem Klein and Wienand (2022) 286, 288
bishop, source of miracle narratives linked to incubation, venantius fortunatus, merovingian Renberg (2017) 788
bishop, spyridion, peasant Humfress (2007) 176
bishop, st. martin dreams, in late antique and medieval christian literature, gregory of tours, on the powerful deeds of the Renberg (2017) 783, 784, 785
bishop, stephanus Huttner (2013) 283, 284
bishop, synesios of cyrene, philosopher and Marek (2019) 135, 497
bishop, theodoret of cyrrhus Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 268
bishop, theodulf Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 466
bishop, thraseas Marek (2019) 539
bishop, trophimus, italian Tabbernee (2007) 238
bishop, unintentional incubation during martyrs vigil, gregory of nyssa Renberg (2017) 754, 755
bishop, urbanus Humfress (2007) 178
bishop, victor Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 258, 262, 263, 265, 271, 275, 276
Peppard (2011) 147
bishop, voice-oracles, theophilus, alexandrian Renberg (2017) 576, 577, 578
bishop, year of four emperors, zephyrinus Peppard (2011) 147
bishop, zephyrinus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 257, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265, 267, 269, 275
bishop/pope, damasus Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 369, 370, 459, 765, 774
bishops Bay (2022) 238
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 254, 255, 258, 259, 260, 262, 263, 265, 270, 343, 399, 406
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 65, 195, 235, 239, 351, 354, 357, 361, 369, 372, 373, 379, 384, 396, 397, 400, 401, 403, 404
Ernst (2009) 180, 227, 230, 234, 235, 236, 240, 288
Gardner (2015) 9
Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 269, 270, 278, 279, 280, 315, 320
Huebner (2018) 82, 115
Humfress (2007) 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 198, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 208, 209, 210, 211, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260
Lampe (2003) 31, 34, 89, 101, 115, 144, 224, 234, 244, 251, 336, 341, 365, 367, 371, 377, 382, 385
Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 55, 56, 57, 78, 98, 99, 108, 109, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121
Ruffini (2018) 125, 126, 127
Rüpke (2011) 171, 172
Vinzent (2013) 63, 70, 76, 89, 96, 138, 171, 181, 185
van den Broek (2013) 112
bishops, acting in court, donatists Humfress (2007) 187, 188, 189
bishops, advocates, and Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 55, 56, 122
bishops, anatolius Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 21, 144
bishops, and congregation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 59, 189, 190, 199, 427
bishops, and violence Humfress (2007) 166
bishops, andreas Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 371
bishops, apostles as Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 109, 110
bishops, arian Kraemer (2020) 126
bishops, as advocates, donatists Humfress (2007) 187, 188, 189
bishops, as benefactors Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 268
bishops, as choir leader Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12, 175, 178, 187, 190, 196, 197, 200
bishops, as unifier Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 402
bishops, as vicars of christ Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 37, 38, 118, 137
bishops, athanasius Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 21, 144
bishops, authority and duties Gray (2021) 8, 121
bishops, authority of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 185, 197, 269
bishops, bithynia/bithynians Marek (2019) 549
bishops, cappadocians Gray (2021) 6, 7, 8
bishops, care of congregations souls Humfress (2007) 232
bishops, chair of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 405
bishops, clematius Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 21, 144, 259, 260, 309, 310, 350, 432, 433
bishops, compared with roman legal officials Humfress (2007) 232
bishops, consecration of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 124
bishops, court Humfress (2007) 41, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 271
bishops, court and real court of law, libanius, contrasting Humfress (2007) 168
bishops, court, notarii, in Humfress (2007) 169
bishops, crispus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 20
bishops, cultural models of Humfress (2007) 155, 228, 229
bishops, dionysius Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 20, 83, 249, 309
bishops, egyptian Langworthy (2019) 99, 109, 114, 115
de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 264, 301, 302, 310, 315, 316, 317
bishops, episcopus Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 109, 111
bishops, epitaph of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 401, 402
bishops, forensic training of Humfress (2007) 55, 180, 181, 182, 183, 188, 189
bishops, governors, are bought by Sider (2001) 138
bishops, heretics, legislation against confirmation of Humfress (2007) 238
bishops, hierotheus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 309
bishops, ideal, bishop, Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 198
bishops, in didache Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 405
bishops, in image of christ Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 117, 133
bishops, in the bioi Gray (2021) 111, 145, 154, 200
bishops, involvement in dispute settlement Humfress (2007) 153, 154
bishops, judgments of used as precedents Humfress (2007) 169
bishops, legal training of donatists Humfress (2007) 188, 189
bishops, leonides Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 113
bishops, local Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 89, 271, 413
bishops, martyrdom of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 176
bishops, metropolitan, title of towns and Huttner (2013) 265, 278, 279, 288, 289, 290, 310, 311, 315, 316, 322, 323, 324, 325
bishops, modestus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 144, 149
bishops, narcissus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 249, 260, 308
bishops, nicene, anti-jewish actions of Kraemer (2020) 185, 189, 262, 339, 343
bishops, nicene, competing interests with emperors of Kraemer (2020) 175, 190
bishops, nicene, enhanced legal powers of under justinian Kraemer (2020) 292
bishops, nicene, lobbying for legislation of Kraemer (2020) 127, 129, 131, 189, 208, 342
bishops, nicene, opposition to gamaliel vi of Kraemer (2020) 230
bishops, nicene, women ordained as Kraemer (2020) 369
bishops, nicias Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 20, 149
bishops, of de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 51, 52, 74, 284, 285, 299, 300, 301, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313
bishops, of aphroditos relationship with Ruffini (2018) 125
bishops, of constantinople Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 422
bishops, of palestine Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 413
bishops, of rome Humfress (2007) 210
Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 81, 82, 83, 84, 124, 125
bishops, of syria Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 178, 185, 195, 199, 200
bishops, ordination, of Humfress (2007) 198
bishops, person of Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 120, 121, 122, 124
bishops, pistus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 4, 20
bishops, praise, of silent Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 199
bishops, priests Ando and Ruepke (2006) 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124
bishops, privilegium fori Humfress (2007) 260
bishops, publius Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 14, 19, 20, 308
bishops, quadratus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 14, 20, 308
bishops, reinstatement by imperial rescript Humfress (2007) 262
bishops, relation to local roman authorities Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 44
bishops, rescripts, reinstating Humfress (2007) 262
bishops, role in prosecution of heretics Humfress (2007) 167, 229, 263
bishops, role in the development of canon law Humfress (2007) 203, 204
bishops, roman law, use of by christian Humfress (2007) 202
bishops, sacerdos Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 78, 108, 111, 112, 114, 115, 118
bishops, see also church, authority of Yates and Dupont (2020) 193, 194, 208, 209
bishops, see also church, disciplinary role Yates and Dupont (2020) 127, 134
bishops, see also church, hermeneutical role Yates and Dupont (2020) 201, 202, 204
bishops, see also church, models for Yates and Dupont (2020) 125
bishops, silence of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 197, 198, 199
bishops, silvanus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 21
bishops, teaching Gray (2021) 107, 240
bishops, theocharistus Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 371
bishops, unworthy Hellholm et al. (2010) 1291
bishops’, support for, synagogues, jewish Kraemer (2020) 135, 136
germanus, bishop, of paris, dreams, in late antique and medieval christian literature, venantius fortunatus, life of Renberg (2017) 788

List of validated texts:
68 validated results for "bishops"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • bishops, and congregation

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 59; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 167

32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃'
32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ '. None
32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. .''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, understanding of Josephus • Clement, bishop of Rome

 Found in books: Cohen (2010) 192; Petropoulou (2012) 276

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃''. None
1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts.''. None
3. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • bishops, as unifier • bishops, epitaph of

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 402; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 167

6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.'"". None
4. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 94; Hitch (2017) 94

5. Anon., Didache, 15.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Irenaeus of Lyon, Christian writer and bishop • Polycrates, bishop • bishop • bishops • bishops, as choir leader

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 32, 71, 73, 207, 264; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12, 406; Marek (2019) 546; Vinzent (2013) 76

9. Now concerning the Thanksgiving (Eucharist), thus give thanks. First, concerning the cup: We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of David Your servant, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. And concerning the broken bread: We thank You, our Father, for the life and knowledge which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let Your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Your kingdom; for Yours is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ forever. But let no one eat or drink of your Thanksgiving (Eucharist), but they who have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, Give not that which is holy to the dogs. Matthew 7:6 ' "10. But after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire. "
15.1. Therefore, appoint for yourselves bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek, and not lovers of money, 1 Timothy 3:4 and truthful and proven; for they also render to you the service of prophets and teachers. Despise them not therefore, for they are your honoured ones, together with the prophets and teachers. And reprove one another, not in anger, but in peace, as you have it in the Gospel; Matthew 18:15-17 but to every one that acts amiss against another, let no one speak, nor let him hear anything from you until he repents. But your prayers and alms and all your deeds so do, as you have it in the Gospel of our Lord. '. None
6. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 44.1-44.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rome, bishops • bishop • bishops, after Constantine • bishops, factor for unity • bishops, in Rome

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72, 76, 264; Esler (2000) 254, 270, 319

44.1. Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would be strife on account of the office of the episcopate. For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those ministers already mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions, that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them, or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ, in a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry. For our sin will not be small, if we eject from the episcopate those who have blamelessly and holily fulfilled its duties. Blessed are those presbyters who, having finished their course before now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect departure from this world; for they have no fear lest any one deprive them of the place now appointed them. But we see that you have removed some men of excellent behaviour from the ministry, which they fulfilled blamelessly and with honour. 44.5. Our apostles also knew, through our Lord Jesus Christ, that there would be strife on account of the office of the episcopate. For this reason, therefore, inasmuch as they had obtained a perfect fore-knowledge of this, they appointed those ministers already mentioned, and afterwards gave instructions, that when these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed them in their ministry. We are of opinion, therefore, that those appointed by them, or afterwards by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole church, and who have blamelessly served the flock of Christ, in a humble, peaceable, and disinterested spirit, and have for a long time possessed the good opinion of all, cannot be justly dismissed from the ministry. For our sin will not be small, if we eject from the episcopate those who have blamelessly and holily fulfilled its duties. Blessed are those presbyters who, having finished their course before now, have obtained a fruitful and perfect departure from this world; for they have no fear lest any one deprive them of the place now appointed them. But we see that you have removed some men of excellent behaviour from the ministry, which they fulfilled blamelessly and with honour. ''. None
7. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 2.2, 3.2, 5.2-5.3, 6.1, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bishop • bishops • bishops, and congregation • bishops, as choir leader • bishops, as unifier • bishops, authority of • bishops, epitaph of • bishops, factor for unity • bishops, ideal bishop • bishops, of Syria • bishops, silence of • episcopacy • praise, of silent bishops

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72, 73, 133; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 196, 197, 198, 199, 402; Esler (2000) 254, 317; Moss (2012) 56; Novenson (2020) 90, 91

2.2. May I have joy of you always, if so be I am worthy of it. It is therefore meet for you in every way to glorify Jesus Christ who glorified you; that being perfectly joined together in one submission, submitting yourselves to your bishop and presbytery, ye may be sanctified in all things.
3.2. But, since love doth not suffer me to be silent concerning you, therefore was I forward to exhort you, that ye run in harmony with the mind of God: for Jesus Christ also, our inseparable life, is the mind of the Father, even as the bishops that are settled in the farthest parts of the earth are in the mind of Jesus Christ.
5.2. Let no man be deceived. If any one be not within the precinct of the altar, he lacketh the bread of God. For, if the prayer of one and another hath so great force, how much more that of the bishop and of the whole Church. 5.3. Whosoever therefore cometh not to the congregation, he doth thereby show his pride and hath separated himself; for it is written, God resisteth the proud. Let us therefore be careful not to resist the bishop, that by our submission we may give ourselves to God.
6.1. And in proportion as a man seeth that his bishop is silent, let him fear him the more. For every one whom the Master of the household sendeth to be steward over His own house, we ought so to receive as Him that sent him. Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself. ' "
20.2. especially if the Lord should reveal aught to me. Assemble yourselves together in common, every one of you severally, man by man, in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ, who after the flesh was of David's race, who is Son of Man and Son of God, to the end that ye may obey the bishop and presbytery without distraction of mind; breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality and the antidote that we should not die but live for ever in Jesus Christ. "'. None
8. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 6.1, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bishop • episcopacy

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72, 73; Moss (2012) 57; Novenson (2020) 91

6.1. Seeing then that in the aforementioned persons I beheld your whole people in faith and embraced them, I advise you, be ye zealous to do all things in godly concord, the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons also who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ, who was with the Father before the worlds and appeared at the end of time.
7.1. Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, being united with Him, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. And attempt not to think anything right for yourselves apart from others: but let there be one prayer in common, one supplication, one mind, one hope, in love and in joy unblameable, which is Jesus Christ, than whom there is nothing better. ''. None
9. Ignatius, To The Romans, 3.2, 4.2, 5.1-5.3, 6.1, 6.3, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • Bishop of Rome • Bishops • Ignatius of Antioch, bishop • Victor, bishop of Rome • bishop • bishops, as choir leader • episcopacy • episkopos

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 196; Esler (2000) 517; Lampe (2003) 377; Maier and Waldner (2022) 160, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170; Moss (2012) 56; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 436, 441; Stanton (2021) 204

3.2. Only pray that I may have power within and without, so that I may not only say it but also desire it; that I may not only be called a Christian, but also be found one. For if I shall be found so, then can I also be called one, and be faithful then, when I am no more visible to the world.
4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God.
5.1. From Syria even unto Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards, even a company of soldiers, who only wax worse when they are kindly treated. Howbeit through their wrong doings I become more completely a disciple; yet am I not hereby justified. 5.2. May I have joy of the beasts that have been prepared for me; and I pray that I may find them prompt; nay I will entice them that they may devour me promptly, not as they have done to some, refusing to touch them through fear. Yea though of themselves they should not be willing while I am ready, I myself will force them to it. 5.3. Bear with me. I know what is expedient for me. Now am I beginning to be a disciple. May nought of things visible and things invisible envy me; that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Come fire and cross and grapplings with wild beasts, cuttings and manglings, wrenching of bones, hacking of limbs, crushings of my whole body, come cruel tortures of the devil to assail me. Only be it mine to attain unto Jesus Christ.
6.1. The farthest bounds of the universe shall profit me nothing, neither the kingdoms of this world. It is good for me to die for Jesus Christ rather than to reign over the farthest bounds of the earth. Him I seek, who died on our behalf; Him I desire, who rose again for our sake. The pangs of a new birth are upon me.
6.3. Permit me to be an imitator of the passion of my God. If any man hath Him within himself, let him understand what I desire, and let him have fellow- feeling with me, for he knoweth the things which straiten me.
9.3. My spirit saluteth you, and the love of the churches which received me in the name of Jesus Christ, not as a mere wayfarer: for even those churches which did not lie on my route after the flesh went before me from city to city. ' '. None
10. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 2.2, 3.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ignatius of Antioch, bishop • bishop • bishops • bishops, as choir leader • bishops, as unifier • bishops, epitaph of

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72, 73, 135; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 196, 402; Esler (2000) 317, 517; Novenson (2020) 91

2.2. It is therefore necessary, even as your wont is, that ye should do nothing without the bishop; but be ye obedient also to the presbytery, as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ our hope; for if we live in Him, we shall also be found in Him.
3.1. In like manner let all men respect the deacons as Jesus Christ, even as they should respect the bishop as being a type of the Father and the presbyters as the council of God and as the college of Apostles. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church.
7.2. He that is within the sanctuary is clean; but he that is without the sanctuary is not clean, that is, he that doeth aught without the bishop and presbytery and deacons, this man is not clean in his conscience. ''. None
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.65-18.79 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fabian, bishop from ca. • Theophilus (Alexandrian bishop), voice-oracles

 Found in books: Lampe (2003) 43; Renberg (2017) 578

18.65. Καὶ ὑπὸ τοὺς αὐτοὺς χρόνους ἕτερόν τι δεινὸν ἐθορύβει τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους καὶ περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς ̓́Ισιδος τὸ ἐν ̔Ρώμῃ πράξεις αἰσχυνῶν οὐκ ἀπηλλαγμέναι συντυγχάνουσιν. καὶ πρότερον τοῦ τῶν ̓Ισιακῶν τολμήματος μνήμην ποιησάμενος οὕτω μεταβιβῶ τὸν λόγον ἐπὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις γεγονότα.' "18.66. Παυλῖνα ἦν τῶν ἐπὶ ̔Ρώμης προγόνων τε ἀξιώματι τῶν καθ' ἑαυτὴν ἐπιτηδεύοντι κόσμον ἀρετῆς ἐπὶ μέγα προϊοῦσα τῷ ὀνόματι, δύναμίς τε αὐτῇ χρημάτων ἦν καὶ γεγονυῖα τὴν ὄψιν εὐπρεπὴς καὶ τῆς ὥρας ἐν ᾗ μάλιστα ἀγάλλονται αἱ γυναῖκες εἰς τὸ σωφρονεῖν ἀνέκειτο ἡ ἐπιτήδευσις τοῦ βίου. ἐγεγάμητο δὲ Σατορνίνῳ τῶν εἰς τὰ πάντα ἀντισουμένων τῷ περὶ αὐτὴν ἀξιολόγῳ." '18.67. ταύτης ἐρᾷ Δέκιος Μοῦνδος τῶν τότε ἱππέων ἐν ἀξιώματι μεγάλῳ, καὶ μείζονα οὖσαν ἁλῶναι δώροις διὰ τὸ καὶ πεμφθέντων εἰς πλῆθος περιιδεῖν ἐξῆπτο μᾶλλον, ὥστε καὶ εἴκοσι μυριάδας δραχμῶν ̓Ατθίδων ὑπισχνεῖτο εὐνῆς μιᾶς.' "18.68. καὶ μηδ' ὣς ἐπικλωμένης, οὐ φέρων τὴν ἀτυχίαν τοῦ ἔρωτος ἐνδείᾳ σιτίων θάνατον ἐπιτιμᾶν αὑτῷ καλῶς ἔχειν ἐνόμισεν ἐπὶ παύλῃ κακοῦ τοῦ κατειληφότος. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἐπεψήφιζέν τε τῇ οὕτω τελευτῇ καὶ πράσσειν οὐκ ἀπηλλάσσετο." '18.69. καὶ ἦν γὰρ ὄνομα ̓́Ιδη πατρῷος ἀπελευθέρα τῷ Μούνδῳ παντοίων ἴδρις κακῶν, δεινῶς φέρουσα τοῦ νεανίσκου τῷ ψηφίσματι τοῦ θανεῖν, οὐ γὰρ ἀφανὴς ἦν ἀπολούμενος, ἀνεγείρει τε αὐτὸν ἀφικομένη διὰ λόγου πιθανή τε ἦν ἐλπίδων τινῶν ὑποσχέσεσιν, ὡς διαπραχθησομένων ὁμιλιῶν πρὸς τὴν Παυλῖναν αὐτῷ.' "18.71. τῶν ἱερέων τισὶν ἀφικομένη διὰ λόγων ἐπὶ πίστεσιν μεγάλαις τὸ δὲ μέγιστον δόσει χρημάτων τὸ μὲν παρὸν μυριάδων δυοῖν καὶ ἡμίσει, λαβόντος δ' ἔκβασιν τοῦ πράγματος ἑτέρῳ τοσῷδε, διασαφεῖ τοῦ νεανίσκου τὸν ἔρωτα αὐτοῖς, κελεύουσα παντοίως ἐπὶ τῷ ληψομένῳ τὴν ἄνθρωπον σπουδάσαι." "18.72. οἱ δ' ἐπὶ πληγῇ τοῦ χρυσίου παραχθέντες ὑπισχνοῦντο. καὶ αὐτῶν ὁ γεραίτατος ὡς τὴν Παυλῖναν ὠσάμενος γενομένων εἰσόδων καταμόνας διὰ λόγων ἐλθεῖν ἠξίου. καὶ συγχωρηθὲν πεμπτὸς ἔλεγεν ἥκειν ὑπὸ τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος ἔρωτι αὐτῆς ἡσσημένου τοῦ θεοῦ κελεύοντός τε ὡς αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν." "18.73. τῇ δὲ εὐκτὸς ὁ λόγος ἦν καὶ ταῖς τε φίλαις ἐνεκαλλωπίζετο τῇ ἐπὶ τοιούτοις ἀξιώσει τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος καὶ φράζει πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα, δεῖπνόν τε αὐτῇ καὶ εὐνὴν τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος εἰσηγγέλθαι, συνεχώρει δ' ἐκεῖνος τὴν σωφροσύνην τῆς γυναικὸς ἐξεπιστάμενος." '18.74. χωρεῖ οὖν εἰς τὸ τέμενος, καὶ δειπνήσασα, ὡς ὕπνου καιρὸς ἦν, κλεισθεισῶν τῶν θυρῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἱερέως ἔνδον ἐν τῷ νεῷ καὶ τὰ λύχνα ἐκποδὼν ἦν καὶ ὁ Μοῦνδος, προεκέκρυπτο γὰρ τῇδε, οὐχ ἡμάρτανεν ὁμιλιῶν τῶν πρὸς αὐτήν, παννύχιόν τε αὐτῷ διηκονήσατο ὑπειληφυῖα θεὸν εἶναι.' "18.75. καὶ ἀπελθόντος πρότερον ἢ κίνησιν ἄρξασθαι τῶν ἱερέων, οἳ τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν ᾔδεσαν, ἡ Παυλῖνα πρωὶ̈ ὡς τὸν ἄνδρα ἐλθοῦσα τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν ἐκδιηγεῖται τοῦ ̓Ανούβιδος καὶ πρὸς τὰς φίλας ἐνελαμπρύνετο λόγοις τοῖς ἐπ' αὐτῷ." "18.76. οἱ δὲ τὰ μὲν ἠπίστουν εἰς τὴν φύσιν τοῦ πράγματος ὁρῶντες, τὰ δ' ἐν θαύματι καθίσταντο οὐκ ἔχοντες, ὡς χρὴ ἄπιστα αὐτὰ κρίνειν, ὁπότε εἴς τε τὴν σωφροσύνην καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμα ἀπίδοιεν αὐτῆς." "18.77. τρίτῃ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ μετὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν ὑπαντιάσας αὐτὴν ὁ Μοῦνδος “Παυλῖνα, φησίν, ἀλλά μοι καὶ εἴκοσι μυριάδας διεσώσω δυναμένη οἴκῳ προσθέσθαι τῷ σαυτῆς διακονεῖσθαί τε ἐφ' οἷς προεκαλούμην οὐκ ἐνέλιπες. ἃ μέντοι εἰς Μοῦνδον ὑβρίζειν ἐπειρῶ, μηδέν μοι μελῆσαν τῶν ὀνομάτων, ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐκ τοῦ πράγματος ἡδονῆς, ̓Ανούβιον ὄνομα ἐθέμην αὐτῷ.”" '18.78. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἀπῄει ταῦτα εἰπών, ἡ δὲ εἰς ἔννοιαν τότε πρῶτον ἐλθοῦσα τοῦ τολμήματος περιρρήγνυταί τε τὴν στολὴν καὶ τἀνδρὶ δηλώσασα τοῦ παντὸς ἐπιβουλεύματος τὸ μέγεθος ἐδεῖτο μὴ περιῶφθαι βοηθείας τυγχάνειν:' "18.79. ὁ δὲ τῷ αὐτοκράτορι ἐπεσήμηνε τὴν πρᾶξιν. καὶ ὁ Τιβέριος μαθήσεως ἀκριβοῦς αὐτῷ γενομένης ἐξετάσει τῶν ἱερέων ἐκείνους τε ἀνεσταύρωσεν καὶ τὴν ̓́Ιδην ὀλέθρου γενομένην αἰτίαν καὶ τὰ πάντα ἐφ' ὕβρει συνθεῖσαν τῆς γυναικός, τόν τε ναὸν καθεῖλεν καὶ τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς ̓́Ισιδος εἰς τὸν Θύβριν ποταμὸν ἐκέλευσεν ἐμβαλεῖν. Μοῦνδον δὲ φυγῆς ἐτίμησε," '. None
18.65. 4. About the same time also another sad calamity put the Jews into disorder, and certain shameful practices happened about the temple of Isis that was at Rome. I will now first take notice of the wicked attempt about the temple of Isis, and will then give an account of the Jewish affairs. 18.66. There was at Rome a woman whose name was Paulina; one who, on account of the dignity of her ancestors, and by the regular conduct of a virtuous life, had a great reputation: she was also very rich; and although she was of a beautiful countece, and in that flower of her age wherein women are the most gay, yet did she lead a life of great modesty. She was married to Saturninus, one that was every way answerable to her in an excellent character. 18.67. Decius Mundus fell in love with this woman, who was a man very high in the equestrian order; and as she was of too great dignity to be caught by presents, and had already rejected them, though they had been sent in great abundance, he was still more inflamed with love to her, insomuch that he promised to give her two hundred thousand Attic drachmae for one night’s lodging; 18.68. and when this would not prevail upon her, and he was not able to bear this misfortune in his amours, he thought it the best way to famish himself to death for want of food, on account of Paulina’s sad refusal; and he determined with himself to die after such a manner, and he went on with his purpose accordingly. 18.69. Now Mundus had a freed-woman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief. This woman was very much grieved at the young man’s resolution to kill himself, (for he did not conceal his intentions to destroy himself from others,) and came to him, and encouraged him by her discourse, and made him to hope, by some promises she gave him, that he might obtain a night’s lodging with Paulina; 18.71. She went to some of Isis’s priests, and upon the strongest assurances of concealment, she persuaded them by words, but chiefly by the offer of money, of twenty-five thousand drachmae in hand, and as much more when the thing had taken effect; and told them the passion of the young man, and persuaded them to use all means possible to beguile the woman. 18.72. So they were drawn in to promise so to do, by that large sum of gold they were to have. Accordingly, the oldest of them went immediately to Paulina; and upon his admittance, he desired to speak with her by herself. When that was granted him, he told her that he was sent by the god Anubis, who was fallen in love with her, and enjoined her to come to him. 18.73. Upon this she took the message very kindly, and valued herself greatly upon this condescension of Anubis, and told her husband that she had a message sent her, and was to sup and lie with Anubis; so he agreed to her acceptance of the offer, as fully satisfied with the chastity of his wife. 18.74. Accordingly, she went to the temple, and after she had supped there, and it was the hour to go to sleep, the priest shut the doors of the temple, when, in the holy part of it, the lights were also put out. Then did Mundus leap out, (for he was hidden therein,) and did not fail of enjoying her, who was at his service all the night long, as supposing he was the god; 18.75. and when he was gone away, which was before those priests who knew nothing of this stratagem were stirring, Paulina came early to her husband, and told him how the god Anubis had appeared to her. Among her friends, also, she declared how great a value she put upon this favor, 18.76. who partly disbelieved the thing, when they reflected on its nature, and partly were amazed at it, as having no pretense for not believing it, when they considered the modesty and the dignity of the person. 18.77. But now, on the third day after what had been done, Mundus met Paulina, and said, “Nay, Paulina, thou hast saved me two hundred thousand drachmae, which sum thou sightest have added to thy own family; yet hast thou not failed to be at my service in the manner I invited thee. As for the reproaches thou hast laid upon Mundus, I value not the business of names; but I rejoice in the pleasure I reaped by what I did, while I took to myself the name of Anubis.” 18.78. When he had said this, he went his way. But now she began to come to the sense of the grossness of what she had done, and rent her garments, and told her husband of the horrid nature of this wicked contrivance, and prayed him not to neglect to assist her in this case. So he discovered the fact to the emperor; 18.79. whereupon Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, and ordered them to be crucified, as well as Ide, who was the occasion of their perdition, and who had contrived the whole matter, which was so injurious to the woman. He also demolished the temple of Isis, and gave order that her statue should be thrown into the river Tiber;' '. None
12. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Episkopos • bishops

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 44; Esler (2000) 317

9.1. Οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐλεύθερος; οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος; οὐχὶ Ἰησοῦν τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν ἑόρακα; οὐ τὸ ἔργον μου ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ ἐν κυρίῳ;''. None
9.1. Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Haven't I seen JesusChrist, our Lord? Aren't you my work in the Lord?"". None
13. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 2.12, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Episkopos • bishop • bishops

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 71, 207, 208; Dijkstra (2020) 44; Esler (2000) 317; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 98

2.12. διδάσκειν δὲ γυναικὶ οὐκ ἐπιτρέπω, οὐδὲ αὐθεντεῖν ἀνδρός, ἀλλʼ εἶναι ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ.
3.1. πιστὸς ὁ λόγος. Εἴ τις ἐπισκοπῆς ὀρέγεται, καλοῦ ἔργου ἐπιθυμεῖ. 3.2. δεῖ οὖν τὸν ἐπίσκοπον ἀνεπίλημπτον εἶναι, μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἄνδρα, νηφάλιον, σώφρονα, κόσμιον, φιλόξενον, διδακτικόν,''. None
2.12. But I don't permit a woman to teach, nor to exercise authority over a man, but to be in quietness. " '
3.1. This is a faithful saying: if a man seeks the office of an overseer, he desires a good work. 3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching; '". None
14. New Testament, Acts, 11.26, 14.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Episkopos • Flavian (bishop of Antioch) • Ignatius of Antioch, Christian Bishop • bishop • bishops • bishops, involvement in dispute settlement

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72; Dijkstra (2020) 45; Esler (2000) 317; Humfress (2007) 154; Rizzi (2010) 75; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 201

11.26. καὶ εὑρὼν ἤγαγεν εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν. ἐγένετο δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ὅλον συναχθῆναι ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ διδάξαι ὄχλον ἱκανόν, χρηματίσαὶ τε πρώτως ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ τοὺς μαθητὰς Χριστιανούς.
14.23. χειροτονήσαντες δὲ αὐτοῖς κατʼ ἐκκλησίαν πρεσβυτέρους προσευξάμενοι μετὰ νηστειῶν παρέθεντο αὐτοὺς τῷ κυρίῳ εἰς ὃν πεπιστεύκεισαν.' '. None
11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch.
14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. ' '. None
15. New Testament, Apocalypse, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Polycarp of Smyrna, bishop and martyr • bishops

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 235; Marek (2019) 538

13.5. καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷστόμα λαλοῦν μεγάλακαὶ βλασφημίας, καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαποιῆσαιμῆνας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ δύο.''. None
13.5. A mouth speaking great things and blasphemy was given to him. Authority to make war for forty-two months was given to him. ''. None
16. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Episkopos • bishop • bishops

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 71; Dijkstra (2020) 44; Esler (2000) 317

1.1. ΠΑΥΛΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΣ δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἁγίοις ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Φιλίπποιςσὺν ἐπισκόποις καὶ διακόνοις·''. None
1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: ''. None
17. New Testament, Titus, 1.5-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bishop • bishops

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72, 207; Esler (2000) 317; Vinzent (2013) 89

1.5. Τούτου χάριν ἀπέλειπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ, καὶ καταστήσῃς κατὰ πόλιν πρεσβυτέρους, ὡς ἐγώ σοι διεταξάμην, 1.6. εἴ τίς ἐστιν ἀνέγκλητος, μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνήρ, τέκνα ἔχων πιστά, μὴ ἐν κατηγορίᾳ ἀσωτίας ἢ ἀνυπότακτα. 1.7. δεῖ γὰρ τὸν ἐπίσκοπον ἀνέγκλητον εἶναι ὡς θεοῦ οἰκονόμον, μὴ αὐθάδη, μὴ ὀργίλον, μὴ πάροινον, μὴ πλήκτην, μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ,''. None
1.5. I left you in Crete for this reason, that you would set in order the things that were lacking, and appoint elders in every city, as I directed you; 1.6. if anyone is blameless, the husband of one wife, having children who believe, who are not accused of loose or unruly behavior. ' "1.7. For the overseer must be blameless, as God's steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain; "'. None
18. New Testament, John, 6.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Victor, bishop of Rome • bishop

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 134; Stanton (2021) 189

6.53. εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς.''. None
6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don\'t have life in yourselves. ''. None
19. New Testament, Luke, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Episkopos • bishops, Dionysius • bishops, Narcissus

 Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 249; Dijkstra (2020) 44

10.1. Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἀνέδειξεν ὁ κύριος ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα δύο καὶ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο δύο πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ εἰς πᾶσαν πόλιν καὶ τόπον οὗ ἤμελλεν αὐτὸς ἔρχεσθαι.''. None
10.1. Now after these things, the Lord also appointed seventy others, and sent them two by two before his face into every city and place, where he was about to come. ''. None
20. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.6.43-1.6.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 53; Hitch (2017) 53

1.6.43. Usage remains to be discussed. For it would be almost laughable to prefer the language of the past to that of the present day, and what is ancient speech but ancient usage of speaking? But even here the critical faculty is necessary, and we must make up our minds what we mean by usage. 1.6.44. \xa0If it be defined merely as the practice of the majority, we shall have a very dangerous rule affecting not merely style but life as well, a far more serious matter. For where is so much good to be found that what is right should please the majority? The practices of depilation, of dressing the hair in tiers, or of drinking in excess at the baths, although they may have thrust their way into society, cannot claim the support of usage, since there is something to blame in all of them (although we have usage on our side when we bathe or have our hair cut or take our meals together). So too in speech we must not accept as a rule of language words and phrases that have become a vicious habit with a\xa0number of persons. 1.6.45. \xa0To say nothing of the language of the uneducated, we are all of us well aware that whole theatres and the entire crowd of spectators will often commit barbarisms in the cries which they utter as one man. I\xa0will therefore define usage in speech as the agreed practice of educated men, just as where our way of life is concerned I\xa0should define it as the agreed practice of all good men.''. None
21. Tacitus, Annals, 1.7, 1.33, 1.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 108; Hitch (2017) 108

1.7. At Germanicus legionum, quas navibus vexerat, secundam et quartam decimam itinere terrestri P. Vitellio ducendas tradit, quo levior classis vadoso mari innaret vel reciproco sideret. Vitellius primum iter sicca humo aut modice adlabente aestu quietum habuit: mox inpulsu aquilonis, simul sidere aequinoctii, quo maxime tumescit Oceanus, rapi agique agmen. et opplebantur terrae: eadem freto litori campis facies, neque discerni poterant incerta ab solidis, brevia a profundis. sternuntur fluctibus, hauriuntur gurgitibus; iumenta, sarcinae, corpora exanima interfluunt, occursant. permiscentur inter se manipuli, modo pectore, modo ore tenus extantes, aliquando subtracto solo disiecti aut obruti. non vox et mutui hortatus iuvabant adversante unda; nihil strenuus ab ignavo, sapiens ab inprudenti, consilia a casu differre: cuncta pari violentia involvebantur. tandem Vitellius in editiora enisus eodem agmen subduxit. pernoctavere sine utensilibus, sine igni, magna pars nudo aut mulcato corpore, haud minus miserabiles quam quos hostis circumsidet: quippe illic etiam honestae mortis usus, his inglorium exitium. lux reddidit terram, penetratumque ad amnem Visurgin, quo Caesar classe contenderat. inpositae dein legiones, vagante fama submersas; nec fides salutis, antequam Caesarem exercitumque reducem videre.
1.7. At Romae ruere in servitium consules, patres, eques. quanto quis inlustrior, tanto magis falsi ac festites, vultuque composito ne laeti excessu principis neu tristiores primordio, lacrimas gaudium, questus adulationem miscebant. Sex. Pompeius et Sex. Appuleius consules primi in verba Tiberii Caesaris iuravere, aputque eos Seius Strabo et C. Turranius, ille praetoriarum cohortium praefectus, hic annonae; mox senatus milesque et populus. nam Tiberius cuncta per consules incipiebat tamquam vetere re publica et ambiguus imperandi: ne edictum quidem, quo patres in curiam vocabat, nisi tribuniciae potestatis praescriptione posuit sub Augusto acceptae. verba edicti fuere pauca et sensu permodesto: de honoribus parentis consulturum, neque abscedere a corpore idque unum ex publicis muneribus usurpare. sed defuncto Augusto signum praetoriis cohortibus ut imperator dederat; excubiae, arma, cetera aulae; miles in forum, miles in curiam comitabatur. litteras ad exercitus tamquam adepto principatu misit, nusquam cunctabundus nisi cum in senatu loqueretur. causa praecipua ex formidine ne Germanicus, in cuius manu tot legiones, immensa sociorum auxilia, mirus apud populum favor, habere imperium quam exspectare mallet. dabat et famae ut vocatus electusque potius a re publica videretur quam per uxorium ambitum et senili adoptione inrepsisse. postea cognitum est ad introspiciendas etiam procerum voluntates inductam dubitationem: nam verba vultus in crimen detorquens recondebat.
1.33. Interea Germanico per Gallias, ut diximus, census accipienti excessisse Augustum adfertur. neptem eius Agrippinam in matrimonio pluresque ex ea liberos habebat, ipse Druso fratre Tiberii genitus, Augustae nepos, set anxius occultis in se patrui aviaeque odiis quorum causae acriores quia iniquae. quippe Drusi magna apud populum Romanum memoria, credebaturque, si rerum potitus foret, libertatem redditurus; unde in Germanicum favor et spes eadem. nam iuveni civile ingenium, mira comitas et diversa ab Tiberii sermone vultu, adrogantibus et obscuris. accedebant muliebres offensiones novercalibus Liviae in Agrippinam stimulis, atque ipsa Agrippina paulo commotior, nisi quod castitate et mariti amore quamvis indomitum animum in bonum vertebat.
1.52. Nuntiata ea Tiberium laetitia curaque adfecere: gaudebat oppressam seditionem, sed quod largiendis pecuniis et missione festinata favorem militum quaesivisset, bellica quoque Germanici gloria angebatur. rettulit tamen ad senatum de rebus gestis multaque de virtute eius memoravit, magis in speciem verbis adornata quam ut penitus sentire crederetur. paucioribus Drusum et finem Illyrici motus laudavit, sed intentior et fida oratione. cunctaque quae Germanicus indulserat servavit etiam apud Pannonicos exercitus.''. None
1.7. \xa0At Rome, however, consuls, senators, and knights were rushing into slavery. The more exalted the personage, the grosser his hypocrisy and his haste, â\x80\x94 his lineaments adjusted so as to betray neither cheerfulness at the exit nor undue depression at the entry of a prince; his tears blent with joy, his regrets with adulation. The consuls, Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Appuleius, first took the oath of allegiance to Tiberius Caesar. It was taken in their presence by Seius Strabo and Caius Turranius, chiefs respectively of the praetorian cohorts and the corn department. The senators, the soldiers, and the populace followed. For in every action of Tiberius the first step had to be taken by the consuls, as though the old republic were in being, and himself undecided whether to reign or no. Even his edict, convening the Fathers to the senate-house was issued simply beneath the tribunician title which he had received under Augustus. It was a laconic document of very modest purport:â\x80\x94 "He intended to provide for the last honours to his father, whose body he could not leave â\x80\x94\xa0it was the one function of the state which he made bold to exercise." Yet, on the passing of Augustus he had given the watchword to the praetorian cohorts as Imperator; he had the sentries, the men-atâ\x80\x91arms, and the other appurteces of a court; soldiers conducted him to the forum, soldiers to the curia; he dispatched letters to the armies as if the principate was already in his grasp; and nowhere manifested the least hesitation, except when speaking in the senate. The chief reason was his fear that Germanicus â\x80\x94 backed by so many legions, the vast reserves of the provinces, and a wonderful popularity with the nation â\x80\x94 might prefer the ownership to the reversion of a throne. He paid public opinion, too, the compliment of wishing to be regarded as the called and chosen of the state, rather than as the interloper who had wormed his way into power with the help of connubial intrigues and a senile act of adoption. It was realized later that his coyness had been assumed with the further object of gaining an insight into the feelings of the aristocracy: for all the while he was distorting words and looks into crimes and storing them in his memory. <' "
1.33. \xa0In the meantime, Germanicus, as we have stated, was traversing the Gallic provinces and assessing their tribute, when the message came that Augustus was no more. Married to the late emperor's granddaughter Agrippina, who had borne him several children, and himself a grandchild of the dowager (he was the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus), he was tormented none the less by the secret hatred of his uncle and grandmother â\x80\x94 hatred springing from motives the more potent because iniquitous. For Drusus was still a living memory to the nation, and it was believed that, had he succeeded, he would have restored the age of liberty; whence the same affection and hopes centred on the young Germanicus with his unassuming disposition and his exceptional courtesy, so far removed from the inscrutable arrogance of word and look which characterized Tiberius. Feminine animosities increased the tension as Livia had a stepmother's irritable dislike of Agrippina, whose own temper was not without a hint of fire, though purity of mind and wifely devotion kept her rebellious spirit on the side of righteousness. <" '
1.52. \xa0The news both relieved and disquieted Tiberius. He was thankful that the rising had been crushed; but that Germanicus should have earned the good-will of the troops by his grants of money and acceleration of discharges â\x80\x94 to say nothing of his laurels in the field â\x80\x94 there was the rub! However, in a motion before the senate, he acknowledged his services and enlarged on his courage; but in terms too speciously florid to be taken as the expression of his inmost feelings. He expressed his satisfaction with Drusus and the conclusion of the trouble in Illyricum more briefly; but he was in earnest, and his language honest. In addition, he confirmed to the Pannonian legions all concessions granted by Germanicus to his own. <''. None
22. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Polycarp, as bishop • bishop • bishops • episcopacy

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 72, 73, 135; Esler (2000) 317; Moss (2012) 69

23. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.41 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hippolytus (bishop of Rome) • Theophilus (Alexandrian bishop), voice-oracles • Victor (bishop)

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 276; Johnston and Struck (2005) 277; Renberg (2017) 578

4.41. But putting a skull on the ground, they make it speak in this manner. The skull itself is made out of the caul of an ox; and when fashioned into the requisite figure, by means of Etruscan wax and prepared gum, (and) when this membrane is placed around, it presents the appearance of a skull, which seems to all to speak when the contrivance operates; in the same manner as we have explained in the case of the (attendant) youths, when, having procured the windpipe of a crane, or some such long-necked animal, and attaching it covertly to the skull, the accomplice utters what he wishes. And when he desires (the skull) to become invisible, he appears as if burning incense, placing around, (for this purpose,) a quantity of coals; and when the wax catches the heat of these, it melts, and in this way the skull is supposed to become invisible. ''. None
24. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.1, 1.23.2, 3.3.2-3.3.4, 4.26.2, 4.33.8, 5.33.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • Bishops • Episkopos • Hippolytus, bishop, • Synesios of Cyrene, philosopher and bishop • Victor, bishop of Rome • bishop • bishop, • bishops, factor for unity

 Found in books: Bowie (2021) 508; Dijkstra (2020) 46; Esler (2000) 254; Huttner (2013) 213; Lampe (2003) 251; Marek (2019) 497; Novenson (2020) 263; Rohmann (2016) 160; Stanton (2021) 188, 203, 204

1.1. I. ΛΕΓΟΥΣI 1γάρ τινα εἶναι ἐν ἀοράτοις καὶ ἀκατονομάστοις ὑψώμασι 2τέλειον Αἰῶνα προόντα· τοῦτον δὲ καὶ Epiph. Hær. xxxi. cf. Tbeodoret. Hær. Pab. 1.7. dre. Tertull. adv. Val. προαρχὴν καὶ προπάτορα καὶ Bυθὸν καλοῦσιν. 3 ὑπάρχοντα δ᾿ αὐτὸν ἀχώρυτον καὶ ἀόρατον, ἀΐδιόν τε καὶ ἀγέννητον. ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ καὶ ἠραμίᾳ πολλῇ γεγονέναι ἐν ἀπείροις αἰῶσι 4 χρόνων . συνυπάρχειν δ᾿ αὐτῷ καὶ Ἔννοιαν, ἣν δὲ καὶ Χάριν, καὶ Σιγὴν ὀνομάζουσι· καὶ ἐννονθῆναί ποτε ἀφʼ LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. l. ἑαυτοῦ προβαλέσθαι τὸν Bυθὸν τοῦτον, ἀρχὴν τῶν πάντων καὶ καθάπερ σπέρμα, τὴν προβολὴν ταύτην, ἣν προβαλέσθαι ἐνενοήθη, καὶ καθέσθαι ὡς ἐν μήτρα τῇ συνυπαρχούσῃ ἑαυτῷ Σιγῇ· ταύτην δὲ ὑποδεξαμένην τὸ σπέρμα τοῦτο καὶ ἐγκύμονα γενομένην, ἀποκυῆσαι Νοῦν, ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ἶσον τῷ προβαλόντι, καὶ μόνον χωροῦντα τὸ μέγεθος τοῦ Πατρός· τὸν δὲ Νοῦν τοῦτον καὶ Μονογενῆ καλοῦσι, καὶ Πατέρα, 2καὶ Ἀρχὴν τῶν G. 8. πάντων· συμπροβεβλῆσθαι δὲ αὐτῷ Ἀλήθειαν· καὶ εἶναι ταύτην πρῶτον καὶ ἀρχέγονον 3Πυθαγορικὴν τετρακτὺν, ἣν καὶ M.6. ῥίζαν τῶν πάντων καλοῦσιν· ἔστι γάρ Βοθὸς καὶ Σιγὴ, ἔπειτα LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. 2. Νοῦς καὶ Ἀλήθεια. Αἰσθόμενόν τε τὸν Μονογενῆ τοῦτον ἐφʼ οἷς προεβλήθη, προβαλεῖν καὶ αὐτὸν Λόγον καὶ Ζωὴν, πατέρα πάντων τῶν μετʼ αὐτὸν ἐσομένων, καὶ ἀρχὴν καὶ 1 μόφωσιν παντὸς τοῦ πληρώματος. Ἐκ δὴ τοῦ Λόγου καὶ τῆς Ζωῆς προβεβλῆσθαι κατὰ συζυγίαν 2Ἄνθρωπον καὶ Ἐκκλησίαν· καὶ εἶναι ταύτην ἀρχέγονον Ὀγδοάδα, ῥίζαν καὶ ὑπόστασιν τῶν πάντων, τέτρασιν ὀνόμασι παῤ αὐτοῖς καλουμένων, l. καλουμένην Βυθῷ, καὶ Νῷ, καὶ Λόγῳ, καὶ Ἀνθρώπῳ· εἶναι γὰρ αὐτῶν ἕκαστον ἀῤῥενόθηλυν· οὕτως πρῶτον τὸν Προπάτορα ἡνῶσθαι κατὰ συζυγίαν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ Ἐννοίᾳ· τὸν δὲ Μονογενῆ, τουτέστι τὸν Νοῦν, τῇ Ἀληθείᾳ· τὸν δὲ Λόγον τῇ Ζωῇ, καὶ τὸν Ἄνθρωπον τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ. Τούτους δὲ τοὺς Αἰῶνας εἰς δόξαν τοῦ Πατρὸς προβεβλημένους, βουληθέντας καὶ αὐτοὺς διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου δοξάσαι τὸν Πατέρα, προβαλεῖν προβολὰς ἐν συζυγίᾳ· τὸν μὲν Λόγον καὶ τὴν Ζωὴν, μετὰ τὸ προβαλέσθαι τὸν Ἄνθρωπον καὶ τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν, ἄλλους δέκα Αἰῶνας, ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα λέγουσι ταῦτα· Βύθιος καὶ LIB. I. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I i. 3. Μίξις, 1Ἀγήρατος καὶ Ἑνώσις, Αὐτοφυὴς καὶ Ἡδονὴ, Ἀκίνητος καὶ Σύγκρασις, Μονογενὴς καὶ Μακαρία· οὗτοι δέκα Αἰῶνες, οὓς καὶ φάσκουσιν ἐκ Λόγου καὶ Ζωῆς προβεβλῆσθαι. τὸν δὲ Ἄνθρωπον καὶ αὐτὸν προβαλεῖν μετὰ τῆς Ἐκκλησίας Αἰῶνας δώδεκα, οἷς ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα χαρίζονται· Παράκλητος M. 7. καὶ Πίστις, Πατρικὸς καὶ Ἐλπὶς, Μητρικὸς καὶ Ἀγάπη, 2Ἀείνους καὶ Σύνεσις, Ἐκκλησιαστικὸς καὶ Μακαριότης, G. 9. Θλητὸς καὶ Σοφία· οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τριάκοντα Αἰῶνες τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν, οἱ 3σεσιγημένοι καὶ μὴ γινωσκόμενοι· τοῦτο τὸ ἀόρατον καὶ πνευματικὸν κατʼ αὐτοὺς πλήρωμα, τριχῆ διεσταμένον 4εἰς ὀγδοάδα, καὶ δεκάδα, καὶ δωδεκάδα. Καὶ διὰ II. xil. LIB. L. i. l. GR. I. i. l. MASS. I. i. 3. τοῦτο τὸν Σωτῆρα λέγουσιν (οὐδὲ γὰρ Μύριον ὀνομάζειν αὐτὸν θέλουσι) τριάκοντα ἔτεσι κατὰ τὸ φανερὸν μηδὲν πεποιηκέναι, ἐπιδεικνύντα τὸ μυστήριον τούτων τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς παραβολῆς τῶν εἰς τὸν ἀμπελῶνα πεμπομένων ἐργατῶν φασὶ φανερώτατα τοὺς τριάκοντα τούτους Αἰῶνας μεμηνύσθαι· πέμπονται γὰρ οἱ μὲν περὶ πρώτην ὥραν, οἱ δὲ περὶ τρίτην, οἱ δὲ περὶ ἕκτην, οἱ δὲ περὶ ἐνάτην, ἄλλοι δὲ περὶ ἑνδεκάτην· συντιθέμεναι οὖν αἱ προειρημέναι ὧραι εἰς ἑαυτὰς, τὸν τῶν τριάκοντα ἀριθμὸν ἀναπληροῦσι· μία γὰρ, καὶ τρεῖς, καὶ ἓξ, καὶ ἐννέα, καὶ ἕνδεκα, τριάκοντα γίνονται· διὰ δὲ τῶν ὡρῶν τοὺς Αἰῶνας μεμηνύσθαι θέλουσι. Καὶ ταῦτʼ εἶναι τὰ μεγάλα καὶ θαυμαστὰ καὶ ἀπόῤῥητα Μυστήρια, ἃ καρποφοροῦσιν αὐτοὶ, καὶ εἴ που τι τῶν ἐν LIB. I. i. 2. GR. I. i. 2. MASS. I. ii. 1. πλήθει εἰρημένων ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς δυνηθείη προσαρμόσαι, καὶ εἰκάσαι τῷ πλάσματι αὐτῶν. G. 10. M.8.' '. None
1.1. It is said that Thales of Miletus, one of the seven wise men, first attempted to frame a system of natural philosophy. This person said that some such thing as water is the generative principle of the universe, and its end - for that out of this, solidified and again dissolved, all things consist, and that all things are supported on it; from which also arise both earthquakes and changes of the winds and atmospheric movements, and that all things are both produced and are in a state of flux corresponding with the nature of the primary author of generation - and that the Deity is that which has neither beginning nor end. This person, having been occupied with an hypothesis and investigation concerning the stars, became the earliest author to the Greeks of this kind of learning. And he, looking towards heaven, alleging that he was carefully examining supernal objects, fell into a well; and a certain maid, by name Thratta, remarked of him derisively, that while intent on beholding things in heaven, he did not know, what was at his feet. And he lived about the time of Croesus.
1.23.2. Now this Simon of Samaria, from whom all sorts of heresies derive their origin, formed his sect out of the following materials:--Having redeemed from slavery at Tyre, a city of Phoenicia, a certain woman named Helena, he was in the habit of carrying her about with him, declaring that this woman was the first conception of his mind, the mother of all, by whom, in the beginning, he conceived in his mind the thought of forming angels and archangels. For this Ennoea leaping forth from him, and comprehending the will of her father, descended to the lower regions of space, and generated angels and powers, by whom also he declared this word was formed. But after she had produced them, she was detained by them through motives of jealousy, because they were unwilling to be looked upon as the progeny of any other being. As to himself, they had no knowledge of him whatever; but his Ennoea was detained by those powers and angels who had been produced by her. She suffered all kinds of contumely from them, so that she could not return upwards to her father, but was even shut up in a human body, and for ages passed in succession from one female body to another, as from vessel to vessel. She was, for example, in that Helen on whose account the Trojan war was undertaken; for whose sake also Stesichorus was struck blind, because he had cursed her in his verses, but afterwards, repenting and writing what are called palinodes, in which he sang her praise, he was restored to sight. Thus she, passing from body to body, and suffering insults in every one of them, at last became a common prostitute; and she it was that was meant by the lost sheep.
3.3.2. Since, however, it would be very tedious, in such a volume as this, to reckon up the successions of all the Churches, we do put to confusion all those who, in whatever manner, whether by an evil self-pleasing, by vainglory, or by blindness and perverse opinion, assemble in unauthorized meetings; we do this, I say, by indicating that tradition derived from the apostles, of the very great, the very ancient, and universally known Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also by pointing out the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. For it is a matter of necessity that every Church should agree with this Church, on account of its pre- eminent authority, that is, the faithful everywhere, inasmuch as the apostolical tradition has been preserved continuously by those faithful men who exist everywhere. 3.3.3. The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate. of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy. To him succeeded Anacletus; and after him, in the third place from the apostles, Clement was allotted the bishopric. This man, as he had seen the blessed apostles, and had been conversant with them, might be said to have the preaching of the apostles still echoing in his ears, and their traditions before his eyes. Nor was he alone in this, for there were many still remaining who had received instructions from the apostles. In the time of this Clement, no small dissension having occurred among the brethren at Corinth, the Church in Rome despatched a most powerful letter to the Corinthians, exhorting them to peace, renewing their faith, and declaring the tradition which it had lately received from the apostles, proclaiming the one God, omnipotent, the Maker of heaven and earth, the Creator of man, who brought on the deluge, and called Abraham, who led the people from the land of Egypt, spake with Moses, set forth the law, sent the prophets, and who has prepared fire for the devil and his angels. From this document, whosoever chooses to do so, may learn that He, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, was preached by the Churches, and may also understand the apostolical tradition of the Church, since this Epistle is of older date than these men who are now propagating falsehood, and who conjure into existence another god beyond the Creator and the Maker of all existing things. To this Clement there succeeded Evaristus. Alexander followed Evaristus; then, sixth from the apostles, Sixtus was appointed; after him, Telephorus, who was gloriously martyred; then Hyginus; after him, Pius; then after him, Anicetus. Sorer having succeeded Anicetus, Eleutherius does now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, hold the inheritance of the episcopate. In this order, and by this succession, the ecclesiastical tradition from the apostles, and the preaching of the truth, have come down to us. And this is most abundant proof that there is one and the same vivifying faith, which has been preserved in the Church from the apostles until now, and handed down in truth. 3.3.4. But Polycarp also was not only instructed by apostles, and conversed with many who had seen Christ, but was also, by apostles in Asia, appointed bishop of the Church in Smyrna, whom I also saw in my early youth, for he tarried on earth a very long time, and, when a very old man, gloriously and most nobly suffering martyrdom, departed this life, having always taught the things which he had learned from the apostles, and which the Church has handed down, and which alone are true. To these things all the Asiatic Churches testify, as do also those men who have succeeded Polycarp down to the present time,--a man who was of much greater weight, and a more stedfast witness of truth, than Valentinus, and Marcion, and the rest of the heretics. He it was who, coming to Rome in the time of Anicetus caused many to turn away from the aforesaid heretics to the Church of God, proclaiming that he had received this one and sole truth from the apostles,--that, namely, which is handed down by the Church. There are also those who heard from him that John, the disciple of the Lord, going to bathe at Ephesus, and perceiving Cerinthus within, rushed out of the bath-house without bathing, exclaiming, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within." And Polycarp himself replied to Marcion, who met him on one occasion, and said, "Dost thou know me?" "I do know thee, the first-born of Satan." Such was the horror which the apostles and their disciples had against holding even verbal communication with any corrupters of the truth; as Paul also says, "A man that is an heretic, after the first and second admonition, reject; knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself." There is also a very powerful Epistle of Polycarp written to the Philippians, from which those who choose to do so, and are anxious about their salvation, can learn the character of his faith, and the preaching of the truth. Then, again, the Church in Ephesus, founded by Paul, and having John remaining among them permanently until the times of Trajan, is a true witness of the tradition of the apostles.
4.26.2. Wherefore it is incumbent to obey the presbyters who are in the Church,--those who, as I have shown, possess the succession from the apostles; those who, together with the succession of the episcopate, have received the certain gift of truth, according to the good pleasure of the Father. But it is also incumbent to hold in suspicion others who depart from the primitive succession, and assemble themselves together in any place whatsoever, looking upon them either as heretics of perverse minds, or as schismaries puffed up and self-pleasing, or again as hypocrites, acting thus for the sake of lucre and vainglory. For all these have fallen from the truth. And the heretics, indeed, who bring strange fire to the altar of God--namely, strange doctrines--shall be burned up by the fire from heaven, as were Nadab and Abiud. But such as rise up in opposition to the truth, and exhort others against the Church of God, shall remain among those in hell (apud inferos), being swallowed up by an earthquake, even as those who were with Chore, Dathan, and Abiron. But those who cleave asunder, and separate the unity of the Church, shall receive from God the same punishment as Jeroboam did.
4.33.8. True knowledge is that which consists in the doctrine of the apostles, and the ancient constitution of the Church throughout all the world, and the distinctive manifestation of the body of Christ according to the successions of the bishops, by which they have handed down that Church which exists in every place, and has come even unto us, being guarded and preserved without any forging of Scriptures, by a very complete system of doctrine, and neither receiving addition nor suffering curtailment in the truths which she believes; and it consists in reading the word of God without falsification, and a lawful and diligent exposition in harmony with the Scriptures, both without danger and without blasphemy; and above all, it consists in the pre- eminent gift of love, which is more precious than knowledge, more glorious than prophecy, and which excels all the other gifts of God.
5.33.4. And these things are bone witness to in writing by Papias, the hearer of John, and a companion of Polycarp, in his fourth book; for there were five books compiled (suntetagmena) by him. And he says in addition, "Now these things are credible to believers." And he says that, "when the traitor Judas did not give credit to them, and put the question, \'How then can things about to bring forth so abundantly be wrought by the Lord?\' the Lord declared, \'They who shall come to these times shall see.\'" When prophesying of these times, therefore, Esaias says: "The wolf also shall feed with the lamb, and the leopard shall take his rest with the kid; the calf also, and the bull, and the lion shall eat together; and a little boy shall lead them. The ox and the bear shall feed together, and their young ones shall agree together; and the lion shall eat straw as well as the ox. And the infant boy shall thrust his hand into the asp\'s den, into the nest also of the adder\'s brood; and they shall do no harm, nor have power to hurt anything in my holy mountain." And again he says, in recapitulation, "Wolves and lambs shall then browse together, and the lion shall eat straw like the ox, and the serpent earth as if it were bread; and they shall neither hurt nor annoy anything in my holy mountain, saith the Lord." I am quite aware that some persons endeavour to refer these words to the case of savage men, both of different nations and various habits, who come to believe, and when they have believed, act in harmony with the righteous. But although this is true now with regard to some men coming from various nations to the harmony of the faith, nevertheless in the resurrection of the just the words shall also apply to those animals mentioned. For God is non in all things. And it is right that when the creation is restored, all the animals should obey and be in subjection to man, and revert to the food originally given by God (for they had been originally subjected in obedience to Adam), that is, the productions of the earth. But some other occasion, and not the present, is to be sought for showing that the lion shall then feed on straw. And this indicates the large size and rich quality of the fruits. For if that animal, the lion, feeds upon straw at that period, of what a quality must the wheat itself be whose straw shall serve as suitable food for lions?''. None
25. Justin, First Apology, 26, 58 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • Bishops • bishops

 Found in books: Lampe (2003) 244; Rohmann (2016) 160; Vinzent (2013) 171

26. And, thirdly, because after Christ's ascension into heaven the devils put forward certain men who said that they themselves were gods; and they were not only not persecuted by you, but even deemed worthy of honours. There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitto, who in the reign of Claudius C sar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him. He was considered a god, and as a god was honoured by you with a statue, which statue was erected on the river Tiber, between the two bridges, and bore this inscription, in the language of Rome: - Simoni Deo Sancto, To Simon the holy God. And almost all the Samaritans, and a few even of other nations, worship him, and acknowledge him as the first god; and a woman, Helena, who went about with him at that time, and had formerly been a prostitute, they say is the first idea generated by him. And a man, Meder, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparet a, a disciple of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he was in Antioch by his magical art. He persuaded those who adhered to him that they should never die, and even now there are some living who hold this opinion of his. And there is Marcion, a man of Pontus, who is even at this day alive, and teaching his disciples to believe in some other god greater than the Creator. And he, by the aid of the devils, has caused many of every nation to speak blasphemies, and to deny that God is the maker of this universe, and to assert that some other being, greater than He, has done greater works. All who take their opinions from these men, are, as we before said, called Christians; just as also those who do not agree with the philosophers in their doctrines, have yet in common with them the name of philosophers given to them. And whether they perpetrate those fabulous and shameful deeds - the upsetting of the lamp, and promiscuous intercourse, and eating human flesh - we know not; but we do know that they are neither persecuted nor put to death by you, at least on account of their opinions. But I have a treatise against all the heresies that have existed already composed, which, if you wish to read it, I will give you. "
58. And, as we said before, the devils put forward Marcion of Pontus, who is even now teaching men to deny that God is the maker of all things in heaven and on earth, and that the Christ predicted by the prophets is His Son, and preaches another god besides the Creator of all, and likewise another son. And this man many have believed, as if he alone knew the truth, and laugh at us, though they have no proof of what they say, but are carried away irrationally as lambs by a wolf, and become the prey of atheistical doctrines, and of devils. For they who are called devils attempt nothing else than to seduce men from God who made them, and from Christ His first-begotten; and those who are unable to raise themselves above the earth they have riveted, and do now rivet, to things earthly, and to the works of their own hands; but those who devote themselves to the contemplation of things divine, they secretly beat back; and if they have not a wise sober-mindedness, and a pure and passionless life, they drive them into godlessness. ' "'. None
26. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 5.7, 6.16, 9.23, 10.96-10.97 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishops • Clement, bishop of Rome • Polycarp of Smyrna, bishop and martyr • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 28, 77; Hitch (2017) 28, 77; Lampe (2003) 89; Marek (2019) 536; Petropoulou (2012) 222

5.7. To Calvisius Rufus. It is beyond question that a community cannot be appointed heir and cannot take a share of an inheritance before the general distribution of the estate. None the less, Saturninus, who left us his heirs, bequeathed a fourth share to our community of Comum, and then, in lieu of that fourth share, assigned them permission to take 400,000 sesterces before the division of the estate. As a matter of strict law, this is null and void, but if you only look at the intentions of the deceased, it is quite sound and valid. I don't know what the lawyers will think of what I am going to say, but to me the wishes of the deceased seem worthy of more consideration than the letter of the law, especially as regards the sum which he wished to go to our common birthplace. Moreover, I, who gave 1,600,000 sesterces our of my own money to my native place, am not the man to refuse it a little more than a third part of 400,000 sesterces which have come to me by a lucky windfall. I know that you too will not refuse to fall in with my views, as your affection for the same community is that of a thoroughly loyal citizen. I shall be glad, therefore, if at the next meeting of the decurions, you will lay before them the state of the law, and I hope you will do so briefly and modestly. Then add that we make them an offer of the 400,000 sesterces, in accordance with the wishes of Saturninus. But be sure to point out that the munificence and generosity are his, and that all we are doing is to obey his wishes. I have refrained from writing in a public manner on this business, firstly, because I knew very well that our friendship was such, and that your judgment was so ripe, that you could and ought to act for me as well as for yourself, and then again I was afraid that I might not preserve in a letter that exact mean which you will have no difficulty in preserving in a speech. For a man's expression, his gestures, and even the tones of his voice help to indicate the precise meaning of his words, while a letter, which is deprived of all these advantages, is exposed to the malignity of those who put upon it what interpretation they choose. Farewell. " '
6.16. To Tacitus. You ask me to send you an account of my uncle\'s death, so that you may be able to give posterity an accurate description of it. I am much obliged to you, for I can see that the immortality of his fame is well assured, if you take in hand to write of it. For although he perished in a disaster which devastated some of the fairest regions of the land, and though he is sure of eternal remembrance like the peoples and cities that fell with him in that memorable calamity, though too he had written a large number of works of lasting value, yet the undying fame of which your writings are assured will secure for his a still further lease of life. For my own part, I think that those people are highly favoured by Providence who are capable either of performing deeds worthy of the historian\'s pen or of writing histories worthy of being read, but that they are peculiarly favoured who can do both. Among the latter I may class my uncle, thanks to his own writings and to yours. So I am all the more ready to fulfil your injunctions, nay, I am even prepared to beg to be allowed to undertake them. My uncle was stationed at Misenum, where he was in active command of the fleet, with full powers. On the 24th of August *, about the seventh hour, my mother drew his attention to the fact that a cloud of unusual size and shape had made its appearance. He had been out in the sun, followed by a cold bath, and after a light meal he was lying down and reading. Yet he called for his sandals, and climbed up to a spot from which he could command a good view of the curious phenomenon. Those who were looking at the cloud from some distance could not make out from which mountain it was rising - it was afterwards discovered to have been Mount Vesuvius - but in likeness and form it more closely resembled a pine-tree than anything else, for what corresponded to the trunk was of great length and height, and then spread out into a number of branches, the reason being, I imagine, that while the vapour was fresh, the cloud was borne upwards, but when the vapour became wasted, it lost its motion, or even became dissipated by its own weight, and spread out laterally. At times it looked white, and at other times dirty and spotted, according to the quantity of earth and cinders that were shot up. To a man of my uncle\'s learning, the phenomenon appeared one of great importance, which deserved a closer study. He ordered a Liburnian galley to be got ready, and offered to take me with him, if I desired to accompany him, but I replied that I preferred to go on with my studies, and it so happened that he had assigned me some writing to do. He was just leaving the house when he received a written message from Rectina, the wife of Tascus, who was terrified at the peril threatening her - for her villa lay just beneath the mountain, and there were no means of escape save by shipboard - begging him to save her from her perilous position. So he changed his plans, and carried out with the greatest fortitude the task, which he had started as a scholarly inquiry. He had the galleys launched and went on board himself, in the hope of succouring, not only Rectina, but many others, for there were a number of people living along the shore owing to its delightful situation. He hastened, therefore, towards the place whence others were fleeing, and steering a direct course, kept the helm straight for the point of danger, so utterly devoid of fear that every movement of the looming portent and every change in its appearance he described and had noted down by his secretary, as soon as his eyes detected it. Already ashes were beginning to fall upon the ships, hotter and in thicker showers as they approached more nearly, with pumice-stones and black flints, charred and cracked by the heat of the flames, while their way was barred by the sudden shoaling of the sea bottom and the litter of the mountain on the shore. He hesitated for a moment whether to turn back, and then, when the helmsman warned him to do so, he exclaimed, "Fortune favours the bold ; try to reach Pomponianus." The latter was at Stabiae, separated by the whole width of the bay, for the sea there pours in upon a gently rounded and curving shore. Although the danger was not yet close upon him, it was none the less clearly seen, and it travelled quickly as it came nearer, so Pomponianus had got his baggage together on shipboard, and had determined upon flight, and was waiting for the wind which was blowing on shore to fall. My uncle sailed in with the wind fair behind him, and embraced Pomponianus, who was in a state of fright, comforting and cheering him at the same time. Then in order to calm his friend\'s fears by showing how composed he was himself, he ordered the servants to carry him to the bath, and, after his ablutions, he sat down and had dinner in the best of spirits, or with that assumption of good spirits which is quite as remarkable as the reality. In the meantime broad sheets of flame, which rose high in the air, were breaking out in a number of places on Mount Vesuvius and lighting up the sky, and the glare and brightness seemed all the more striking owing to the darkness of the night. My uncle, in order to allay the fear of his companions, kept declaring that the country people in their terror had left their fires burning, and that the conflagration they saw arose from the blazing and empty villas. Then he betook himself to rest and enjoyed a very deep sleep, for his breathing, which, owing to his bulk, was rather heavy and loud, was heard by those who were waiting at the door of his chamber. But by this time the courtyard leading to the room he occupied was so full of ashes and pumice-stones mingled together, and covered to such a depth, that if he had delayed any longer in the bedchamber there would have been no means of escape. So my uncle was aroused, and came out and joined Pomponianus and the rest who had been keeping watch. They held a consultation whether they should remain indoors or wander forth in the open; for the buildings were beginning to shake with the repeated and intensely severe shocks of earthquake, and seemed to be rocking to and fro as though they had been torn from their foundations. Outside again there was danger to be apprehended from the pumice-stones, though these were light and nearly burnt through, and thus, after weighing the two perils, the latter course was determined upon. With my uncle it was a choice of reasons which prevailed, with the rest a choice of fears. They placed pillows on their heads and secured them with cloths, as a precaution against the falling bodies. Elsewhere the day had dawned by this time, but there it was still night, and the darkness was blacker and thicker than any ordinary night. This, however, they relieved as best they could by a number of torches and other kinds of lights. They decided to make their way to the shore, and to see from the nearest point whether the sea would enable them to put out, but it was still running high and contrary. A sheet was spread on the ground, and on this my uncle lay, and twice he called for a draught of cold water, which he drank. Then the flames, and the smell of sulphur which gave warning of them, scattered the others in flight and roused him. Leaning on two slaves, he rose to his feet and immediately fell down again, owing, as I think, to his breathing being obstructed by the thickness of the fumes and congestion of the stomach, that organ being naturally weak and narrow, and subject to inflammation. When daylight returned - two days after the last day he had seen - his body was found untouched, uninjured, and covered, dressed just as he had been in life. The corpse suggested a person asleep rather than a dead man. Meanwhile my mother and I were at Misenum. But that is of no consequence for the purposes of history, nor indeed did you express a wish to be told of anything except of my uncle\'s death. So I will say no more, except to add that I have given you a full account both of the incidents which I myself witnessed and of those narrated to me immediately afterwards, when, as a rule, one gets the truest account of what has happened. You will pick out what you think will answer your purpose best, for to write a letter is a different thing from writing a history, and to write to a friend is not like writing to all and sundry. Farewell.
9.23. To Maximus. When I have been pleading, it has often happened that the centumviri, after strictly preserving for a long time their judicial dignity and gravity, have suddenly leaped to their feet en masse and applauded me, as if they could not help themselves but were obliged to do so. I have often again left the senate-house with just as much glory as I had hoped to obtain, but I never felt greater gratification than I did a little while ago at something which Cornelius Tacitus told me in conversation. He said that he was sitting by the side of a certain individual at the last Circensian games, and that, after they had had a long and learned talk on a variety of subjects, his acquaintance said to him ' ". None
27. Tertullian, To Scapula, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Anteros, bishop from ca. • Bishops • Firmilianus, bishop • Junius Eugenius, Christian official and bishop of Laodikeia • Meliton of Sardeis, Christian writer and bishop • Polycarp of Smyrna, bishop and martyr • Pontianus, bishop from ca. • Sagaris, bishop and martyr • Thraseas, bishop

 Found in books: Lampe (2003) 371; Marek (2019) 534, 539

3. However, as we have already remarked, it cannot but distress us that no state shall bear unpunished the guilt of shedding Christian blood; as you see, indeed, in what took place during the presidency of Hilarian, for when there had been some agitation about places of sepulture for our dead, and the cry arose, No are - no burial-grounds for the Christians, it came that their own are, their threshing-floors, were a-wanting, for they gathered in no harvests. As to the rains of the bygone year, it is abundantly plain of what they were intended to remind men - of the deluge, no doubt, which in ancient times overtook human unbelief and wickedness; and as to the fires which lately hung all night over the walls of Carthage, they who saw them know what they threatened; and what the preceding thunders pealed, they who were hardened by them can tell. All these things are signs of God's impending wrath, which we must needs publish and proclaim in every possible way; and in the meanwhile we must pray it may be only local. Sure are they to experience it one day in its universal and final form, who interpret otherwise these samples of it. That sun, too, in the metropolis of Utica, with light all but extinguished, was a portent which could not have occurred from an ordinary eclipse, situated as the lord of day was in his height and house. You have the astrologers, consult them about it. We can point you also to the deaths of some provincial rulers, who in their last hours had painful memories of their sin in persecuting the followers of Christ. Vigellius Saturninus, who first here used the sword against us, lost his eyesight. Claudius Lucius Herminianus in Cappadocia, enraged that his wife had become a Christian, had treated the Christians with great cruelty: well, left alone in his palace, suffering under a contagious malady, he boiled out in living worms, and was heard exclaiming, Let nobody know of it, lest the Christians rejoice, and Christian wives take encouragement. Afterwards he came to see his error in having tempted so many from their steadfastness by the tortures he inflicted, and died almost a Christian himself. In that doom which overtook Byzantium, C cilius Capella could not help crying out, Christians, rejoice! Yes, and the persecutors who seem to themselves to have acted with impunity shall not escape the day of judgment. For you we sincerely wish it may prove to have been a warning only, that, immediately after you had condemned Mavilus of Adrumetum to the wild beasts, you were overtaken by those troubles, and that even now for the same reason you are called to a blood-reckoning. But do not forget the future. "". None
28. Tertullian, Against Praxeas, 1.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Victor, bishop of Rome • Zephyrinus (bishop) • bishops

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 254, 259; Stanton (2021) 204

1.5. In various ways has the devil rivalled and resisted the truth. Sometimes his aim has been to destroy the truth by defending it. He maintains that there is one only Lord, the Almighty Creator of the world, in order that out of this doctrine of the unity he may fabricate a heresy. He says that the Father Himself came down into the Virgin, was Himself born of her, Himself suffered, indeed was Himself Jesus Christ. Here the old serpent has fallen out with himself, since, when he tempted Christ after John's baptism, he approached Him as the Son of God; surely intimating that God had a Son, even on the testimony of the very Scriptures, out of which he was at the moment forging his temptation: If you are the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. Matthew 4:3 Again: If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from hence; for it is written, He shall give His angels charge concerning you- referring no doubt, to the Father - and in their hands they shall bear you up, that you hurt not your foot against a stone. Or perhaps, after all, he was only reproaching the Gospels with a lie, saying in fact: Away with Matthew; away with Luke! Why heed their words? In spite of them, I declare that it was God Himself that I approached; it was the Almighty Himself that I tempted face to face; and it was for no other purpose than to tempt Him that I approached Him. If, on the contrary, it had been only the Son of God, most likely I should never have condescended to deal with Him. However, he is himself a liar from the beginning, John 8:44 and whatever man he instigates in his own way; as, for instance, Praxeas. For he was the first to import into Rome from Asia this kind of heretical pravity, a man in other respects of restless disposition, and above all inflated with the pride of confessorship simply and solely because he had to bear for a short time the annoyance of a prison; on which occasion, even if he had given his body to be burned, it would have profited him nothing, not having the love of God, 1 Corinthians 13:3 whose very gifts he has resisted and destroyed. For after the Bishop of Rome had acknowledged the prophetic gifts of Montanus, Prisca, and Maximilla, and, in consequence of the acknowledgment, had bestowed his peace on the churches of Asia and Phrygia, he, by importunately urging false accusations against the prophets themselves and their churches, and insisting on the authority of the bishop's predecessors in the see, compelled him to recall the pacific letter which he had issued, as well as to desist from his purpose of acknowledging the said gifts. By this Praxeas did a twofold service for the devil at Rome: he drove away prophecy, and he brought in heresy; he put to flight the Paraclete, and he crucified the Father. Praxeas' tares had been moreover sown, and had produced their fruit here also, while many were asleep in their simplicity of doctrine; but these tares actually seemed to have been plucked up, having been discovered and exposed by him whose agency God was pleased to employ. Indeed, Praxeas had deliberately resumed his old (true) faith, teaching it after his renunciation of error; and there is his own handwriting in evidence remaining among the carnally-minded, in whose society the transaction then took place; afterwards nothing was heard of him. We indeed, on our part, subsequently withdrew from the carnally-minded on our acknowledgment and maintece of the Paraclete. But the tares of Praxeas had then everywhere shaken out their seed, which having lain hid for some while, with its vitality concealed under a mask, has now broken out with fresh life. But again shall it be rooted up, if the Lord will, even now; but if not now, in the day when all bundles of tares shall be gathered together, and along with every other stumbling-block shall be burnt up with unquenchable fire. Matthew 13:30 "". None
29. Tertullian, Apology, 39.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Martialis, Bishop • bishop

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 32; Cosgrove (2022) 333

39.18. I shall at once go on, then, to exhibit the peculiarities of the Christian society, that, as I have refuted the evil charged against it, I may point out its positive good. We are a body knit together as such by a common religious profession, by unity of discipline, and by the bond of a common hope. We meet together as an assembly and congregation, that, offering up prayer to God as with united force, we may wrestle with Him in our supplications. This violence God delights in. We pray, too, for the emperors, for their ministers and for all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for the prevalence of peace, for the delay of the final consummation. We assemble to read our sacred writings, if any peculiarity of the times makes either forewarning or reminiscence needful. However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our confidence more steadfast; and no less by inculcations of God's precepts we confirm good habits. In the same place also exhortations are made, rebukes and sacred censures are administered. For with a great gravity is the work of judging carried on among us, as befits those who feel assured that they are in the sight of God; and you have the most notable example of judgment to come when any one has sinned so grievously as to require his severance from us in prayer, in the congregation and in all sacred intercourse. The tried men of our elders preside over us, obtaining that honour not by purchase, but by established character. There is no buying and selling of any sort in the things of God. Though we have our treasure chest, it is not made up of purchase-money, as of a religion that has its price. On the monthly day, if he likes, each puts in a small donation; but only if it be his pleasure, and only if he be able: for there is no compulsion; all is voluntary. These gifts are, as it were, piety's deposit fund. For they are not taken thence and spent on feasts, and drinking-bouts, and eating-houses, but to support and bury poor people, to supply the wants of boys and girls destitute of means and parents, and of old persons confined now to the house; such, too, as have suffered shipwreck; and if there happen to be any in the mines, or banished to the islands, or shut up in the prisons, for nothing but their fidelity to the cause of God's Church, they become the nurslings of their confession. But it is mainly the deeds of a love so noble that lead many to put a brand upon us. See, they say, how they love one another, for themselves are animated by mutual hatred; how they are ready even to die for one another, for they themselves will sooner put to death. And they are angry with us, too, because we call each other brethren; for no other reason, as I think, than because among themselves names of consanguinity are assumed in mere pretence of affection. But we are your brethren as well, by the law of our common mother nature, though you are hardly men, because brothers so unkind. At the same time, how much more fittingly they are called and counted brothers who have been led to the knowledge of God as their common Father, who have drunk in one spirit of holiness, who from the same womb of a common ignorance have agonized into the same light of truth! But on this very account, perhaps, we are regarded as having less claim to be held true brothers, that no tragedy makes a noise about our brotherhood, or that the family possessions, which generally destroy brotherhood among you, create fraternal bonds among us. One in mind and soul, we do not hesitate to share our earthly goods with one another. All things are common among us but our wives. We give up our community where it is practised alone by others, who not only take possession of the wives of their friends, but most tolerantly also accommodate their friends with theirs, following the example, I believe, of those wise men of ancient times, the Greek Socrates and the Roman Cato, who shared with their friends the wives whom they had married, it seems for the sake of progeny both to themselves and to others; whether in this acting against their partners' wishes, I am not able to say. Why should they have any care over their chastity, when their husbands so readily bestowed it away? O noble example of Attic wisdom, of Roman gravity - the philosopher and the censor playing pimps! What wonder if that great love of Christians towards one another is desecrated by you! For you abuse also our humble feasts, on the ground that they are extravagant as well as infamously wicked. To us, it seems, applies the saying of Diogenes: The people of Megara feast as though they were going to die on the morrow; they build as though they were never to die! But one sees more readily the mote in another's eye than the beam in his own. Why, the very air is soured with the eructations of so many tribes, and curi, and decuri . The Salii cannot have their feast without going into debt; you must get the accountants to tell you what the tenths of Hercules and the sacrificial banquets cost; the choicest cook is appointed for the Apaturia, the Dionysia, the Attic mysteries; the smoke from the banquet of Serapis will call out the firemen. Yet about the modest supper-room of the Christians alone a great ado is made. Our feast explains itself by its name. The Greeks call it agapè, i.e., affection. Whatever it costs, our outlay in the name of piety is gain, since with the good things of the feast we benefit the needy; not as it is with you, do parasites aspire to the glory of satisfying their licentious propensities, selling themselves for a belly-feast to all disgraceful treatment - but as it is with God himself, a peculiar respect is shown to the lowly. If the object of our feast be good, in the light of that consider its further regulations. As it is an act of religious service, it permits no vileness or immodesty. The participants, before reclining, taste first of prayer to God. As much is eaten as satisfies the cravings of hunger; as much is drunk as befits the chaste. They say it is enough, as those who remember that even during the night they have to worship God; they talk as those who know that the Lord is one of their auditors. After manual ablution, and the bringing in of lights, each is asked to stand forth and sing, as he can, a hymn to God, either one from the holy Scriptures or one of his own composing - a proof of the measure of our drinking. As the feast commenced with prayer, so with prayer it is closed. We go from it, not like troops of mischief-doers, nor bands of vagabonds, nor to break out into licentious acts, but to have as much care of our modesty and chastity as if we had been at a school of virtue rather than a banquet. Give the congregation of the Christians its due, and hold it unlawful, if it is like assemblies of the illicit sort: by all means let it be condemned, if any complaint can be validly laid against it, such as lies against secret factions. But who has ever suffered harm from our assemblies? We are in our congregations just what we are when separated from each other; we are as a community what we are individuals; we injure nobody, we trouble nobody. When the upright, when the virtuous meet together, when the pious, when the pure assemble in congregation, you ought not to call that a faction, but a curia- i.e., the court of God. "". None
30. Tertullian, On Baptism, 17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bishop; high priest with right of baptism • bishops • bishops, sacerdos • priests; bishop as high priest,

 Found in books: Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 108; Sider (2001) 120

17. For concluding our brief subject, it remains to put you in mind also of the due observance of giving and receiving baptism. of giving it, the chief priest (who is the bishop) has the right: in the next place, the presbyters and deacons, yet not without the bishop's authority, on account of the honour of the Church, which being preserved, peace is preserved. Beside these, even laymen have the right; for what is equally received can be equally given. Unless bishops, or priests, or deacons, be on the spot, other disciples are called i.e. to the work. The word of the Lord ought not to be hidden by any: in like manner, too, baptism, which is equally God's property, can be administered by all. But how much more is the rule of reverence and modesty incumbent on laymen- seeing that these powers belong to their superiors - lest they assume to themselves the specific function of the bishop! Emulation of the episcopal office is the mother of schisms. The most holy apostle has said, that all things are lawful, but not all expedient. Let it suffice assuredly, in cases of necessity, to avail yourself (of that rule, if at any time circumstance either of place, or of time, or of person compels you (so to do); for then the steadfast courage of the succourer, when the situation of the endangered one is urgent, is exceptionally admissible; inasmuch as he will be guilty of a human creature's loss if he shall refrain from bestowing what he had free liberty to bestow. But the woman of pertness, who has usurped the power to teach, will of course not give birth for herself likewise to a right of baptizing, unless some new beast shall arise like the former; so that, just as the one abolished baptism, so some other should in her own right confer it! But if the writings which wrongly go under Paul's name, claim Thecla's example as a licence for women's teaching and baptizing, let them know that, in Asia, the presbyter who composed that writing, as if he were augmenting Paul's fame from his own store, after being convicted, and confessing that he had done it from love of Paul, was removed from his office. For how credible would it seem, that he who has not permitted a woman even to learn with over-boldness, should give a female the power of teaching and of baptizing! Let them be silent, he says, and at home consult their own husbands. 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 "". None
31. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Carthage, bishop of • Melito of Sardis, Christian Bishop

 Found in books: Moss (2012) 155; Rizzi (2010) 134

32. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Martialis, Bishop • bishops

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 333; Rüpke (2011) 171

33. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • Episcopal • Episkopos • Holy Spirit, and episcopal authority • Victor, bishop of Rome • bishops • bishops see also church, authority of • bishops, factor for unity

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 46; Esler (2000) 254; Humfress (2007) 175; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 129; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 437; Yates and Dupont (2020) 194

34. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minorca, bishop, Severus • Severus (bishop of Minorca) • bishops

 Found in books: Gardner (2015) 9; Levine (2005) 292

35. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bishop • bishops, factor for unity

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 68, 75; Esler (2000) 254

36. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 1.13, 3.31, 3.36, 3.36.1, 3.36.5-3.36.10, 4.3.2, 4.23-4.24, 4.23.10, 4.26, 5.3.4, 5.4.1, 5.13, 5.16, 5.23-5.25, 5.24.6, 5.24.11-5.24.17, 6.43, 7.5.2, 8.2.4-8.2.5, 8.9.7, 8.13.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alba Longa, Peter the bishop of • Bishop • Bishops • Cornelius, bishop • Episkopos • Eusebius of Caesarea, bishop • Eusebius, on Gaul episcopacy • Fabian, bishop from ca. • Firmilianus, bishop • Flaccus (bishop of Hierapolis, • Gregory the Illuminator, bishop of Armenia • Hypatios, bishop • Ignatius of Antioch, Christian Bishop • Irenaeus of Lyon, Christian writer and bishop • Leontios, bishop • Marinus (bishop of Arles) • Polycarp of Smyrna, bishop and martyr • Polycarp, as bishop • Polycrates, bishop • Rome, bishops • Synesios of Cyrene, philosopher and bishop • Victor, bishop of Rome • Zephyrinus (bishop) • bishop • bishop, • bishops • bishops, Narcissus • bishops, Publius • bishops, Quadratus • bishops, cultural models of • bishops, factor for unity • bishops, in Rome • bishops, role in prosecution of heretics • episcopacy, episcopate • episcopacy, in Gaul • offices (Christian), chorepiskopos (country bishop) • succession, episcopal

 Found in books: Alikin (2009) 208; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 259, 260; Bremmer (2017) 52; Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 308; Dijkstra (2020) 46; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 239; Esler (2000) 253, 320; Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 233; Humfress (2007) 228, 229; Huttner (2013) 1, 213, 214, 259; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 129, 132; Klein and Wienand (2022) 216; Lampe (2003) 89, 101, 244, 251, 367, 370, 377, 385; Maier and Waldner (2022) 87, 88, 157, 171; Marek (2019) 497, 542, 543, 545, 546, 547, 548; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67; Moss (2012) 53, 101, 116; Rizzi (2010) 76; Rohmann (2016) 28; Simmons(1995) 34; Stanton (2021) 188, 189, 203, 204

3.36.1. At that time Polycarp, a disciple of the apostles, was a man of eminence in Asia, having been entrusted with the episcopate of the church of Smyrna by those who had seen and heard the Lord.

3.36.5. So when he came to Smyrna, where Polycarp was, he wrote an epistle to the church of Ephesus, in which he mentions Onesimus, its pastor; and another to the church of Magnesia, situated upon the Maeander, in which he makes mention again of a bishop Damas; and finally one to the church of Tralles, whose bishop, he states, was at that time Polybius.
3.36.6. In addition to these he wrote also to the church of Rome, entreating them not to secure his release from martyrdom, and thus rob him of his earnest hope. In confirmation of what has been said it is proper to quote briefly from this epistle.
3.36.7. He writes as follows: From Syria even unto Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and by sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards that is, a company of soldiers who only become worse when they are well treated. In the midst of their wrongdoings, however, I am more fully learning discipleship, but I am not thereby justified.
3.36.8. May I have joy of the beasts that are prepared for me; and I pray that I may find them ready; I will even coax them to devour me quickly that they may not treat me as they have some whom they have refused to touch through fear. And if they are unwilling, I will compel them. Forgive me.
3.36.9. I know what is expedient for me. Now do I begin to be a disciple. May nothing of things visible and things invisible envy me; that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Let fire and cross and attacks of wild beasts, let wrenching of bones, cutting of limbs, crushing of the whole body, tortures of the devil — let all these come upon me if only I may attain unto Jesus Christ.

3.36.10. These things he wrote from the above-mentioned city to the churches referred to. And when he had left Smyrna he wrote again from Troas to the Philadelphians and to the church of Smyrna; and particularly to Polycarp, who presided over the latter church. And since he knew him well as an apostolic man, he commended to him, like a true and good shepherd, the flock at Antioch, and besought him to care diligently for it.
4.3.2. He himself reveals the early date at which he lived in the following words: But the works of our Saviour were always present, for they were genuine: — those that were healed, and those that were raised from the dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely while the Saviour was on earth, but also after his death, they were alive for quite a while, so that some of them lived even to our day. Such then was Quadratus.

4.23.10. For from the beginning it has been your practice to do good to all the brethren in various ways, and to send contributions to many churches in every city. Thus relieving the want of the needy, and making provision for the brethren in the mines by the gifts which you have sent from the beginning, you Romans keep up the hereditary customs of the Romans, which your blessed bishop Soter has not only maintained, but also added to, furnishing an abundance of supplies to the saints, and encouraging the brethren from abroad with blessed words, as a loving father his children.
5.3.4. The followers of Montanus, Alcibiades and Theodotus in Phrygia were now first giving wide circulation to their assumption in regard to prophecy — for the many other miracles that, through the gift of God, were still wrought in the different churches caused their prophesying to be readily credited by many — and as dissension arose concerning them, the brethren in Gaul set forth their own prudent and most orthodox judgment in the matter, and published also several epistles from the witnesses that had been put to death among them. These they sent, while they were still in prison, to the brethren throughout Asia and Phrygia, and also to Eleutherus, who was then bishop of Rome, negotiating for the peace of the churches.
5.4.1. The same witnesses also recommended Irenaeus, who was already at that time a presbyter of the parish of Lyons, to the above-mentioned bishop of Rome, saying many favorable things in regard to him, as the following extract shows:
5.24.6. All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith. And I also, Polycrates, the least of you all, do according to the tradition of my relatives, some of whom I have closely followed. For seven of my relatives were bishops; and I am the eighth. And my relatives always observed the day when the people put away the leaven.' "
5.24.11. Among them was Irenaeus, who, sending letters in the name of the brethren in Gaul over whom he presided, maintained that the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord should be observed only on the Lord's day. He fittingly admonishes Victor that he should not cut off whole churches of God which observed the tradition of an ancient custom and after many other words he proceeds as follows:" '5.24.12. For the controversy is not only concerning the day, but also concerning the very manner of the fast. For some think that they should fast one day, others two, yet others more; some, moreover, count their day as consisting of forty hours day and night. 5.24.13. And this variety in its observance has not originated in our time; but long before in that of our ancestors. It is likely that they did not hold to strict accuracy, and thus formed a custom for their posterity according to their own simplicity and peculiar mode. Yet all of these lived none the less in peace, and we also live in peace with one another; and the disagreement in regard to the fast confirms the agreement in the faith. 5.24.14. He adds to this the following account, which I may properly insert:Among these were the presbyters before Soter, who presided over the church which you now rule. We mean Anicetus, and Pius, and Hyginus, and Telesphorus, and Xystus. They neither observed it themselves, nor did they permit those after them to do so. And yet though not observing it, they were none the less at peace with those who came to them from the parishes in which it was observed; although this observance was more opposed to those who did not observe it. 5.24.15. But none were ever cast out on account of this form; but the presbyters before you who did not observe it, sent the eucharist to those of other parishes who observed it. 5.24.16. And when the blessed Polycarp was at Rome in the time of Anicetus, and they disagreed a little about certain other things, they immediately made peace with one another, not caring to quarrel over this matter. For neither could Anicetus persuade Polycarp not to observe what he had always observed with John the disciple of our Lord, and the other apostles with whom he had associated; neither could Polycarp persuade Anicetus to observe it as he said that he ought to follow the customs of the presbyters that had preceded him. 5.24.17. But though matters were in this shape, they communed together, and Anicetus conceded the administration of the eucharist in the church to Polycarp, manifestly as a mark of respect. And they parted from each other in peace, both those who observed, and those who did not, maintaining the peace of the whole church.
7.5.2. And all Syria, and Arabia to which you send help when needed, and whither you have just written, Mesopotamia, Pontus, Bithynia, and in short all everywhere are rejoicing and glorifying God for the uimity and brotherly love. Thus far Dionysius.' "
8.2.4. It was in the nineteenth year of the reign of Diocletian, in the month Dystrus, called March by the Romans, when the feast of the Saviour's passion was near at hand, that royal edicts were published everywhere, commanding that the churches be leveled to the ground and the Scriptures be destroyed by fire, and ordering that those who held places of honor be degraded, and that the household servants, if they persisted in the profession of Christianity, be deprived of freedom." '8.2.5. Such was the first edict against us. But not long after, other decrees were issued, commanding that all the rulers of the churches in every place be first thrown into prison, and afterwards by every artifice be compelled to sacrifice.
8.9.7. Such an one was Philoromus, who held a high office under the imperial government at Alexandria, and who administered justice every day, attended by a military guard corresponding to his rank and Roman dignity. Such also was Phileas, bishop of the church of Thmuis, a man eminent on account of his patriotism and the services rendered by him to his country, and also on account of his philosophical learning.
8.13.7. The virtue of his manly deeds we have recorded in the proper place. of those who suffered death illustriously at Alexandria and throughout Egypt and Thebais, Peter, bishop of Alexandria, one of the most excellent teachers of the religion of Christ, should first be mentioned; and of the presbyters with him Faustus, Dius and Ammonius, perfect martyrs of Christ; also Phileas, Hesychius, Pachymius and Theodorus, bishops of Egyptian churches, and besides them many other distinguished persons who are commemorated by the parishes of their country and region.It is not for us to describe the conflicts of those who suffered for the divine religion throughout the entire world, and to relate accurately what happened to each of them. This would be the proper work of those who were eye-witnesses of the events. I will describe for posterity in another work those which I myself witnessed.' '. None
37. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine, 3.26-3.27, 3.54, 3.64, 4.27 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athanasius (bishop of Alexandria), Vita Antonii • Bishop • Paulinus, bishop of Tyre • Theophilus (bishop of Alexandria) • bishop • bishops • bishops court • bishops, Nicene, anti-Jewish actions of • delegation of adjudication, episcopal jurisdiction • priests, bishops

 Found in books: Ando and Ruepke (2006) 121; Bianchetti et al (2015) 384; Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 114, 146; Humfress (2007) 161; Kraemer (2020) 343; Rohmann (2016) 31, 33

3.26. For it had been in time past the endeavor of impious men (or rather let me say of the whole race of evil spirits through their means), to consign to the darkness of oblivion that divine monument of immortality to which the radiant angel had descended from heaven, and rolled away the stone for those who still had stony hearts, and who supposed that the living One still lay among the dead; and had declared glad tidings to the women also, and removed their stony-hearted unbelief by the conviction that he whom they sought was alive. This sacred cave, then, certain impious and godless persons had thought to remove entirely from the eyes of men, supposing in their folly that thus they should be able effectually to obscure the truth. Accordingly they brought a quantity of earth from a distance with much labor, and covered the entire spot; then, having raised this to a moderate height, they paved it with stone, concealing the holy cave beneath this massive mound. Then, as though their purpose had been effectually accomplished, they prepare on this foundation a truly dreadful sepulchre of souls, by building a gloomy shrine of lifeless idols to the impure spirit whom they call Venus, and offering detestable oblations therein on profane and accursed altars. For they supposed that their object could not otherwise be fully attained, than by thus burying the sacred cave beneath these foul pollutions. Unhappy men! They were unable to comprehend how impossible it was that their attempt should remain unknown to him who had been crowned with victory over death, any more than the blazing sun, when he rises above the earth, and holds his wonted course through the midst of heaven, is unseen by the whole race of mankind. Indeed, his saving power, shining with still greater brightness, and illumining, not the bodies, but the souls of men, was already filling the world with the effulgence of its own light. Nevertheless, these devices of impious and wicked men against the truth had prevailed for a long time, nor had any one of the governors, or military commanders, or even of the emperors themselves ever yet appeared, with ability to abolish these daring impieties, save only that one who enjoyed the favor of the King of kings. And now, acting as he did under the guidance of the divine Spirit, he could not consent to see the sacred spot of which we have spoken, thus buried, through the devices of the adversaries, under every kind of impurity, and abandoned to forgetfulness and neglect; nor would he yield to the malice of those who had contracted this guilt, but calling on the divine aid, gave orders that the place should be thoroughly purified, thinking that the parts which had been most polluted by the enemy ought to receive special tokens, through his means, of the greatness of the divine favor. As soon, then, as his commands were issued, these engines of deceit were cast down from their proud eminence to the very ground, and the dwelling-places of error, with the statues and the evil spirits which they represented, were overthrown and utterly destroyed. ' "3.27. Nor did the emperor's zeal stop here; but he gave further orders that the materials of what was thus destroyed, both stone and timber, should be removed and thrown as far from the spot as possible; and this command also was speedily executed. The emperor, however, was not satisfied with having proceeded thus far: once more, fired with holy ardor, he directed that the ground itself should be dug up to a considerable depth, and the soil which had been polluted by the foul impurities of demon worship transported to a far distant place. " "
3.54. All these things the emperor diligently performed to the praise of the saving power of Christ, and thus made it his constant aim to glorify his Saviour God. On the other hand he used every means to rebuke the superstitious errors of the heathen. Hence the entrances of their temples in the several cities were left exposed to the weather, being stripped of their doors at his command; the tiling of others was removed, and their roofs destroyed. From others again the venerable statues of brass, of which the superstition of antiquity had boasted for a long series of years, were exposed to view in all the public places of the imperial city: so that here a Pythian, there a Sminthian Apollo, excited the contempt of the beholder: while the Delphic tripods were deposited in the hippodrome and the Muses of Helicon in the palace itself. In short, the city which bore his name was everywhere filled with brazen statues of the most exquisite workmanship, which had been dedicated in every province, and which the deluded victims of superstition had long vainly honored as gods with numberless victims and burnt sacrifices, though now at length they learned to renounce their error, when the emperor held up the very objects of their worship to be the ridicule and sport of all beholders. With regard to those images which were of gold, he dealt with them in a different manner. For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain and childish dread of these bugbears of error, wrought in gold and silver, he judged it right to remove these also, like stumbling-stones thrown in the way of men walking in the dark, and henceforward to open a royal road, plain and unobstructed to all. Having formed this resolution, he considered no soldiers or military force of any sort needful for the suppression of the evil: a few of his own friends sufficed for this service, and these he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province. Accordingly, sustained by confidence in the emperor's pious intentions and their own personal devotion to God, they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations, abolishing this ancient error in every city and country. They ordered the priests themselves, amidst general laughter and scorn, to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day: they then stripped them of their ornaments, and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality which had been hidden beneath a painted exterior. Lastly, whatever part of the material appeared valuable they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth, after which they secured and set apart whatever they judged needful for their purpose, leaving to the superstitious worshipers that which was altogether useless, as a memorial of their shame. Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to what we have described. For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped, as we have said, of their precious materials, he also attacked those composed of brass; causing those to be dragged from their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive, whom the dotage of mythology had esteemed as gods. " "
3.64. Victor Constantinus, Maximus Augustus, to the heretics. Understand now, by this present statute, you Novatians, Valentinians, Marcionites, Paulians, you who are called Cataphrygians, and all you who devise and support heresies by means of your private assemblies, with what a tissue of falsehood and vanity, with what destructive and venomous errors, your doctrines are inseparably interwoven; so that through you the healthy soul is stricken with disease, and the living becomes the prey of everlasting death. You haters and enemies of truth and life, in league with destruction! All your counsels are opposed to the truth, but familiar with deeds of baseness; full of absurdities and fictions: and by these ye frame falsehoods, oppress the innocent, and withhold the light from them that believe. Ever trespassing under the mask of godliness, you fill all things with defilement: ye pierce the pure and guileless conscience with deadly wounds, while you withdraw, one may almost say, the very light of day from the eyes of men. But why should I particularize, when to speak of your criminality as it deserves demands more time and leisure than I can give? For so long and unmeasured is the catalogue of your offenses, so hateful and altogether atrocious are they, that a single day would not suffice to recount them all. And, indeed, it is well to turn one's ears and eyes from such a subject, lest by a description of each particular evil, the pure sincerity and freshness of one's own faith be impaired. Why then do I still bear with such abounding evil; especially since this protracted clemency is the cause that some who were sound have become tainted with this pestilent disease? Why not at once strike, as it were, at the root of so great a mischief by a public manifestation of displeasure? " '
4.27. He also passed a law to the effect that no Christian should remain in servitude to a Jewish master, on the ground that it could not be right that those whom the Saviour had ransomed should be subjected to the yoke of slavery by a people who had slain the prophets and the Lord himself. If any were found hereafter in these circumstances, the slave was to be set at liberty, and the master punished by a fine. He likewise added the sanction of his authority to the decisions of bishops passed at their synods, and forbade the provincial governors to annul any of their decrees: for he rated the priests of God at a higher value than any judge whatever. These and a thousand similar provisions did he enact for the benefit of his subjects; but there is not time now to give a special description of them, such as might convey an accurate idea of his imperial wisdom in these respects: nor need I now relate at length, how, as a devoted servant of the Supreme God, he employed himself from morning until night in seeking objects for his beneficence, and how equally and universally kind he was to all. ''. None
38. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria • Athanasius, bishop and patron • Bishop • Bishops, authority and duties • Epiphanius of Salamis, Christian Bishop • patron and client relations, Athanasius as bishop and patron

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 1114; Gray (2021) 121; Rizzi (2010) 135; Rohmann (2016) 39, 244

39. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Firmilianus, bishop • Meliton of Sardeis, Christian writer and bishop • Sagaris, bishop and martyr • Thraseas, bishop • bishops, factor for unity

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 253; Marek (2019) 539, 543, 547

40. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • bishops

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 235; Rohmann (2016) 28

41. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Eusebius of Caesarea, bishop • Origen, vs. bishop

 Found in books: Azar (2016) 66; Klein and Wienand (2022) 12

42. Ambrose, On Duties, 2.125, 2.137-2.139 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arians, devising an episcopal role • Auxentius (bishop of Milan) • bishops • bishops court • delegation of adjudication, episcopal jurisdiction

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 1185, 1189; Farag (2021) 254; Humfress (2007) 161

2.125. In giving judgment let us have no respect of persons. Favour must be put out of sight, and the case be decided on its merits. Nothing is so great a strain on another's good opinion or confidence, as the fact of our giving away the cause of the weaker to the more powerful in any case that comes before us. The same happens if we are hard on the poor, while we make excuses for the rich man when guilty. Men are ready enough to flatter those in high positions, so as not to let them think themselves injured, or to feel vexed as though overthrown. But if you fear to give offense then do not undertake to give judgment. If you are a priest or some cleric do not urge it. It is allowable for you to be silent in the matter, if it be a money affair, though it is always due to consistency to be on the side of equity. But in the cause of God, where there is danger to the whole Church, it is no small sin to act as though one saw nothing." '
2.137. Although we did not act thus without good reason, yet we have followed it up among the people so as to confess and to add again and again that it was far better to preserve souls than gold for the Lord. For He Who sent the apostles without gold Matthew 10:9 also brought together the churches without gold. The Church has gold, not to store up, but to lay out, and to spend on those who need. What necessity is there to guard what is of no good? Do we not know how much gold and silver the Assyrians took out of the temple of the Lord? Is it not much better that the priests should melt it down for the sustece of the poor, if other supplies fail, than that a sacrilegious enemy should carry it off and defile it? Would not the Lord Himself say: Why did you suffer so many needy to die of hunger? Surely you had gold? Thou should have given them sustece. Why are so many captives brought on the slave market, and why are so many unredeemed left to be slain by the enemy? It had been better to preserve living vessels than gold ones.' "2.138. To this no answer could be given. For what would you say: I feared that the temple of God would need its ornaments? He would answer: The sacraments need not gold, nor are they proper to gold only — for they are not bought with gold. The glory of the sacraments is the redemption of captives. Truly they are precious vessels, for they redeem men from death. That, indeed, is the true treasure of the Lord which effects what His blood effected. Then, indeed, is the vessel of the Lord's blood recognized, when one sees in either redemption, so that the chalice redeems from the enemy those whom His blood redeemed from sin. How beautifully it is said, when long lines of captives are redeemed by the Church: These Christ has redeemed. Behold the gold that can be tried, behold the useful gold, behold the gold of Christ which frees from death, behold the gold whereby modesty is redeemed and chastity is preserved." '2.139. These, then, I preferred to hand over to you as free men, rather than to store up the gold. This crowd of captives, this company surely is more glorious than the sight of cups. The gold of the Redeemer ought to contribute to this work so as to redeem those in danger. I recognize the fact that the blood of Christ not only glows in cups of gold, but also by the office of redemption has impressed upon them the power of the divine operation.'". None
43. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 27.3.12-27.3.14 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishops • bishops, after Constantine • bishops, of Rome

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 63; Esler (2000) 271; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 36

27.3.12. Damasus and Ursinus, burning with a superhuman desire of seizing the bishopric, engaged in bitter strife because of their opposing interests; and the supporters of both parties went even so far as conflicts ending in bloodshed and death. Since Viventius was able neither to end nor to diminish this strife, he was compelled to yield to its great violence, and retired to the suburbs. 27.3.13. And in the struggle Damasus was victorious through the efforts of the party which favoured him. It is a well-known fact that in the basilica of Sicininus, In the Fifth Region, also called Basilica Liberii (see Val. in Wagner-Erfurdt); now Santa Maria Maggiore. where the assembly of the Christian sect is held, in a single day a hundred and thirty-seven corpses of the slain were found, and that it was only with difficulty that the long-continued frenzy of the people was afterwards quieted. 27.3.14. Bearing in mind the ostentation in city life, I do not deny that those who are desirous of such a thing ought to struggle with the exercise of all their strength to gain what they seek; for when they attain it, they will be so free from care that they are enriched from the offerings of matrons, ride seated in carriages, wearing clothing chosen with care, and serve banquets so lavish that their entertainments outdo the tables of kings.''. None
44. Augustine, Confessions, 1.7, 6.3.3, 7.3.5, 8.5, 8.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arians, devising an episcopal role • Julian of Eclanum, bishop, Pelagian opponent of Augustine • Julian of Eclanum, bishop, Pelagian opponent of Augustine, Neither sleep nor lust need oppose will, if they have consent • Simplicianus, Bishop • silence, episcopal

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 1184; Harrison (2006) 107, 108, 109; Sorabji (2000) 335, 399, 410; Wilson (2018) 125

1.7. 11. Hearken, O God! Alas for the sins of men! Man says this, and You have compassion on him; for You created him, but did not create the sin that is in him. Who brings to my remembrance the sin of my infancy? For before You none is free from sin, not even the infant which has lived but a day upon the earth. Who brings this to my remembrance? Does not each little one, in whom I behold that which I do not remember of myself? In what, then, did I sin? Is it that I cried for the breast? If I should now so cry - not indeed for the breast, but for the food suitable to my years - I should be most justly laughed at and rebuked. What I then did deserved rebuke; but as I could not understand those who rebuked me, neither custom nor reason suffered me to be rebuked. For as we grow we root out and cast from us such habits. I have not seen any one who is wise, when purging John 15:2 anything cast away the good. Or was it good, even for a time, to strive to get by crying that which, if given, would be hurtful - to be bitterly indigt that those who were free and its elders, and those to whom it owed its being, besides many others wiser than it, who would not give way to the nod of its good pleasure, were not subject unto it - to endeavour to harm, by struggling as much as it could, because those commands were not obeyed which only could have been obeyed to its hurt? Then, in the weakness of the infant's limbs, and not in its will, lies its innocency. I myself have seen and known an infant to be jealous though it could not speak. It became pale, and cast bitter looks on its foster-brother. Who is ignorant of this? Mothers and nurses tell us that they appease these things by I know not what remedies; and may this be taken for innocence, that when the fountain of milk is flowing fresh and abundant, one who has need should not be allowed to share it, though needing that nourishment to sustain life? Yet we look leniently on these things, not because they are not faults, nor because the faults are small, but because they will vanish as age increases. For although you may allow these things now, you could not bear them with equanimity if found in an older person. 12. You, therefore, O Lord my God, who gave life to the infant, and a frame which, as we see, You have endowed with senses, compacted with limbs, beautified with form, and, for its general good and safety, hast introduced all vital energies - You command me to praise You for these things, to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praise unto Your name, O Most High; for You are a God omnipotent and good, though You had done nought but these things, which none other can do but You, who alone made all things, O You most fair, who made all things fair, and orders all according to Your law. This period, then, of my life, O Lord, of which I have no remembrance, which I believe in the word of others, and which I guess from other infants, it chagrins me - true though the guess be - to reckon in this life of mine which I lead in this world; inasmuch as, in the darkness of my forgetfulness, it is like to that which I passed in my mother's womb. But if I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me, where, I pray you, O my God, where, Lord, or when was I, Your servant, innocent? But behold, I pass by that time, for what have I to do with that, the memories of which I cannot recall? " "
6.3.3. 3. Nor did I now groan in my prayers that You would help me; but my mind was wholly intent on knowledge, and eager to dispute. And Ambrose himself I esteemed a happy man, as the world counted happiness, in that such great personages held him in honour; only his celibacy appeared to me a painful thing. But what hope he cherished, what struggles he had against the temptations that beset his very excellences, what solace in adversities, and what savoury joys Your bread possessed for the hidden mouth of his heart when ruminating on it, I could neither conjecture, nor had I experienced. Nor did he know my embarrassments, nor the pit of my danger. For I could not request of him what I wished as I wished, in that I was debarred from hearing and speaking to him by crowds of busy people, whose infirmities he devoted himself to. With whom when he was not engaged (which was but a little time), he either was refreshing his body with necessary sustece, or his mind with reading. But while reading, his eyes glanced over the pages, and his heart searched out the sense, but his voice and tongue were silent. ofttimes, when we had come (for no one was forbidden to enter, nor was it his custom that the arrival of those who came should be announced to him), we saw him thus reading to himself, and never otherwise; and, having long sat in silence (for who dared interrupt one so intent?), we were fain to depart, inferring that in the little time he secured for the recruiting of his mind, free from the clamour of other men's business, he was unwilling to be taken off. And perchance he was fearful lest, if the author he studied should express anything vaguely, some doubtful and attentive hearer should ask him to expound it, or to discuss some of the more abstruse questions, as that, his time being thus occupied, he could not turn over as many volumes as he wished; although the preservation of his voice, which was very easily weakened, might be the truer reason for his reading to himself. But whatever was his motive in so doing, doubtless in such a man was a good one. 4. But verily no opportunity could I find of ascertaining what I desired from that Your so holy oracle, his breast, unless the thing might be entered into briefly. But those surgings in me required to find him at full leisure, that I might pour them out to him, but never were they able to find him so; and I heard him, indeed, every Lord's day, rightly dividing the word of truth 2 Timothy 2:15 among the people; and I was all the more convinced that all those knots of crafty calumnies, which those deceivers of ours had knit against the divine books, could be unravelled. But so soon as I understood, withal, that man made after the image of Him that created him was not so understood by Your spiritual sons (whom of the Catholic mother You had begotten again through grace), as though they believed and imagined You to be bounded by human form - although what was the nature of a spiritual substance I had not the faintest or dimmest suspicion - yet rejoicing, I blushed that for so many years I had barked, not against the Catholic faith, but against the fables of carnal imaginations. For I had been both impious and rash in this, that what I ought inquiring to have learned, I had pronounced on condemning. For Thou, O most high and most near, most secret, yet most present, who hast not limbs some larger some smaller, but art wholly everywhere, and nowhere in space, nor are You of such corporeal form, yet have You created man after Your own image, and, behold, from head to foot is he confined by space. " '
7.3.5. 4. But I also, as yet, although I said and was firmly persuaded, that Thou our Lord, the true God, who made not only our souls but our bodies, and not our souls and bodies alone, but all creatures and all things, were uncontaminable and inconvertible, and in no part mutable: yet understood I not readily and clearly what was the cause of evil. And yet, whatever it was, I perceived that it must be so sought out as not to constrain me by it to believe that the immutable God was mutable, lest I myself should become the thing that I was seeking out. I sought, therefore, for it free from care, certain of the untruthfulness of what these asserted, whom I shunned with my whole heart; for I perceived that through seeking after the origin of evil, they were filled with malice, in that they liked better to think that Your Substance did suffer evil than that their own did commit it. 5. And I directed my attention to discern what I now heard, that free will was the cause of our doing evil, and Your righteous judgment of our suffering it. But I was unable clearly to discern it. So, then, trying to draw the eye of my mind from that pit, I was plunged again therein, and trying often, was as often plunged back again. But this raised me towards Your light, that I knew as well that I had a will as that I had life: when, therefore, I was willing or unwilling to do anything, I was most certain that it was none but myself that was willing and unwilling; and immediately I perceived that there was the cause of my sin. But what I did against my will I saw that I suffered rather than did, and that judged I not to be my fault, but my punishment; whereby, believing You to be most just, I quickly confessed myself to be not unjustly punished. But again I said: Who made me? Was it not my God, who is not only good, but goodness itself? Whence came I then to will to do evil, and to be unwilling to do good, that there might be cause for my just punishment? Who was it that put this in me, and implanted in me the root of bitterness, seeing I was altogether made by my most sweet God? If the devil were the author, whence is that devil? And if he also, by his own perverse will, of a good angel became a devil, whence also was the evil will in him whereby he became a devil, seeing that the angel was made altogether good by that most Good Creator? By these reflections was I again cast down and stifled; yet not plunged into that hell of error (where no man confesses unto You), to think that You allow evil, rather than that man does it.
8.5. 10. But when that man of Yours, Simplicianus, related this to me about Victorinus, I burned to imitate him; and it was for this end he had related it. But when he had added this also, that in the time of the Emperor Julian, there was a law made by which Christians were forbidden to teach grammar and oratory, and he, in obedience to this law, chose rather to abandon the wordy school than Your word, by which You make eloquent the tongues of the dumb, Wisdom 10:21 - he appeared to me not more brave than happy, in having thus discovered an opportunity of waiting on You only, which thing I was sighing for, thus bound, not with the irons of another, but my own iron will. My will was the enemy master of, and thence had made a chain for me and bound me. Because of a perverse will was lust made; and lust indulged in became custom; and custom not resisted became necessity. By which links, as it were, joined together (whence I term it a chain), did a hard bondage hold me enthralled. givest away thy strength to resist him in the rest; when the hem is worn, the whole garment will ravel out, if it be not mended by timely repentance. See Müller, Lehre von der Sünde, book v., where the beginnings and alarming progress of evil in the soul are graphically described. See 9JKLJKLsec. 18, note, below}-- But that new will which had begun to develope in me, freely to worship You, and to wish to enjoy You, O God, the only sure enjoyment, was not able as yet to overcome my former wilfulness, made strong by long indulgence. Thus did my two wills, one old and the other new, one carnal, the other spiritual, contend within me; and by their discord they unstrung my soul. 11. Thus came I to understand, from my own experience, what I had read, how that the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh. Galatians 5:17 I verily lusted both ways; yet more in that which I approved in myself, than in that which I disapproved in myself. For in this last it was now rather not I, Romans 7:20 because in much I rather suffered against my will than did it willingly. And yet it was through me that custom became more combative against me, because I had come willingly whither I willed not. And who, then, can with any justice speak against it, when just punishment follows the sinner? Nor had I now any longer my wonted excuse, that as yet I hesitated to be above the world and serve You, because my perception of the truth was uncertain; for now it was certain. But I, still bound to the earth, refused to be Your soldier; and was as much afraid of being freed from all embarrassments, as we ought to fear to be embarrassed. 12. Thus with the baggage of the world was I sweetly burdened, as when in slumber; and the thoughts wherein I meditated upon You were like the efforts of those desiring to awake, who, still overpowered with a heavy drowsiness, are again steeped therein. And as no one desires to sleep always, and in the sober judgment of all waking is better, yet does a man generally defer to shake off drowsiness, when there is a heavy lethargy in all his limbs, and, though displeased, yet even after it is time to rise with pleasure yields to it, so was I assured that it were much better for me to give up myself to Your charity, than to yield myself to my own cupidity; but the former course satisfied and vanquished me, the latter pleased me and fettered me. Nor had I anything to answer You calling to me, Awake, you that sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give you light. Ephesians 5:14 And to You showing me on every side, that what Thou said was true, I, convicted by the truth, had nothing at all to reply, but the drawling and drowsy words: Presently, lo, presently; Leave me a little while. But presently, presently, had no present; and my leave me a little while went on for a long while. In vain did I delight in Your law after the inner man, when another law in my members warred against the law of my mind, and brought me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. For the law of sin is the violence of custom, whereby the mind is drawn and held, even against its will; deserving to be so held in that it so willingly falls into it. O wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me from the body of this death but Your grace only, through Jesus Christ our Lord? ' "
8.9. 21. Whence is this monstrous thing? And why is it? Let Your mercy shine on me, that I may inquire, if so be the hiding-places of man's punishment, and the darkest contritions of the sons of Adam, may perhaps answer me. Whence is this monstrous thing? And why is it? The mind commands the body, and it obeys immediately; the mind commands itself, and is resisted. The mind commands the hand to be moved, and such readiness is there that the command is scarce to be distinguished from the obedience. Yet the mind is mind, and the hand is body. The mind commands the mind to will, and yet, though it be itself, it obeys not. Whence this monstrous thing? And why is it? I repeat, it commands itself to will, and would not give the command unless it willed; yet is not that done which it commands. But it wills not entirely; therefore it commands not entirely. For so far forth it commands, as it wills; and so far forth is the thing commanded not done, as it wills not. For the will commands that there be a will;- not another, but itself. But it does not command entirely, therefore that is not which it commands. For were it entire, it would not even command it to be, because it would already be. It is, therefore, no monstrous thing partly to will, partly to be unwilling, but an infirmity of the mind, that it does not wholly rise, sustained by truth, pressed down by custom. And so there are two wills, because one of them is not entire; and the one is supplied with what the other needs. "". None
45. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 1.17-1.18, 4.26, 7.13-7.14 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • Cyril (bishop of Alexandria) • Innocent I (bishop of Rome) • Macarios (?bishop of Magnesia) • Nicholas (bishop of Sion) • Theophilus (bishop of Alexandria) • bishop • bishops • bishops, forensic training of

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 400; Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 58, 347; Humfress (2007) 137, 180; Rohmann (2016) 31, 250; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 186

1.17. Helena, the emperor's mother (from whose name having made Drepanum, once a village, a city, the emperor called it Helenopolis), being divinely directed by dreams went to Jerusalem. Finding that which was once Jerusalem, desolate 'as a Preserve for autumnal fruits,' according to the prophet, she sought carefully the sepulchre of Christ, from which he arose after his burial; and after much difficulty, by God's help she discovered it. What the cause of the difficulty was I will explain in a few words. Those who embraced the Christian faith, after the period of his passion, greatly venerated this tomb; but those who hated Christianity, having covered the spot with a mound of earth, erected on it a temple to Venus, and set up her image there, not caring for the memory of the place. This succeeded for a long time; and it became known to the emperor's mother. Accordingly she having caused the statue to be thrown down, the earth to be removed, and the ground entirely cleared, found three crosses in the sepulchre: one of these was that blessed cross on which Christ had hung, the other two were those on which the two thieves that were crucified with him had died. With these was also found the tablet of Pilate, on which he had inscribed in various characters, that the Christ who was crucified was king of the Jews. Since, however, it was doubtful which was the cross they were in search of, the emperor's mother was not a little distressed; but from this trouble the bishop of Jerusalem, Macarius, shortly relieved her. And he solved the doubt by faith, for he sought a sign from God and obtained it. The sign was this: a certain woman of the neighborhood, who had been long afflicted with disease, was now just at the point of death; the bishop therefore arranged it so that each of the crosses should be brought to the dying woman, believing that she would be healed on touching the precious cross. Nor was he disappointed in his expectation: for the two crosses having been applied which were not the Lord's, the woman still continued in a dying state; but when the third, which was the true cross, touched her, she was immediately healed, and recovered her former strength. In this manner then was the genuine cross discovered. The emperor's mother erected over the place of the sepulchre a magnificent church, and named it New Jerusalem, having built it facing that old and deserted city. There she left a portion of the cross, enclosed in a silver case, as a memorial to those who might wish to see it: the other part she sent to the emperor, who being persuaded that the city would be perfectly secure where that relic should be preserved, privately enclosed it in his own statue, which stands on a large column of porphyry in the forum called Constantine's at Constantinople. I have written this from report indeed; but almost all the inhabitants of Constantinople affirm that it is true. Moreover the nails with which Christ's hands were fastened to the cross (for his mother having found these also in the sepulchre had sent them) Constantine took and had made into bridle-bits and a helmet, which he used in his military expeditions. The emperor supplied all materials for the construction of the churches, and wrote to Macarius the bishop to expedite these edifices. When the emperor's mother had completed the New Jerusalem, she reared another church not at all inferior, over the cave at Bethlehem where Christ was born according to the flesh: nor did she stop here, but built a third on the mount of his Ascension. So devoutly was she affected in these matters, that she would pray in the company of women; and inviting the virgins enrolled in the register of the churches to a repast, serving them herself, she brought the dishes to table. She was also very munificent to the churches and to the poor; and having lived a life of piety, she died when about eighty years old. Her remains were conveyed to New Rome, the capital, and deposited in the imperial sepulchres. " "1.18. After this the emperor became increasingly attentive to the interests of the Christians, and abandoned the heathen superstitions. He abolished the combats of the gladiators, and set up his own statues in the temples. And as the heathens affirmed that it was Serapis who brought up the Nile for the purpose of irrigating Egypt, because a cubit was usually carried into his temple, he directed Alexander to transfer the cubit to the church. And although they predicted that the Nile would not overflow because of the displeasure of Serapis, nevertheless there was an inundation in the following year and afterwards, taking place regularly: thus it was proved by fact that the rising of the Nile was not in consequence of their superstition, but by reason of the decrees of Providence. About the same time those barbarians the Sarmatians and Goths made incursions on the Roman territory; yet the emperor's earnestness respecting the churches was by no means abated, but he made suitable provision for both these matters. Placing his confidence in the Christian banner, he completely vanquished his enemies, so as even to cast off the tribute of gold which preceding emperors were accustomed to pay the barbarians: while they themselves, being terror-struck at the unexpectedness of their defeat, then for the first time embraced the Christian religion, by means of which Constantine had been protected. Again he built other churches, one of which was erected near the Oak of Mamre, under which the Sacred Oracles declare that Abraham entertained angels. For the emperor having been informed that altars had been reared under that oak, and that pagan sacrifices were offered upon them, censured by letter Eusebius bishop of C sarea, and ordered that the altars should be demolished, and a house of prayer erected beside the oak. He also directed that another church should be constructed in Heliopolis in Phœnicia, for this reason. Who originally legislated for the inhabitants of Heliopolis I am unable to state, but his character and morals may be judged of from the practice of that city; for the laws of the country ordered the women among them to be common, and therefore the children born there were of doubtful descent, so that there was no distinction of fathers and their offspring. Their virgins also were presented for prostitution to the strangers who resorted there. The emperor hastened to correct this evil which had long prevailed among them. And passing a solemn law of chastity, he removed the shameful evil and provided for the mutual recognition of families. And having built churches there, he took care that a bishop and sacred clergy should be ordained. Thus he reformed the corrupt manners of the people of Heliopolis. He likewise demolished the temple of Venus at Aphaca on Mount Libanus, and abolished the infamous deeds which were there celebrated. Why need I describe his expulsion of the Pythonic demon from Cilicia, by commanding the mansion in which he was lurking to be razed from its foundations? So great indeed was the emperor's devotion to Christianity, that when he was about to enter on a war with Persia, he prepared a tabernacle formed of embroidered linen on the model of a church, just as Moses had done in the wilderness; Exodus xxxv.-xl and this so constructed as to be adapted to conveyance from place to place, in order that he might have a house of prayer even in the most desert regions. But the war was not at that time carried on, being prevented through dread of the emperor. It would, I conceive, be out of place here to describe the emperor's diligence in rebuilding cities and converting many villages into cities; as for example Drepanum, to which he gave his mother's name, and Constantia in Palestine, so called from his sister. For my task is not to enumerate of the emperor's actions, but simply such as are connected with Christianity, and especially those which relate to the churches. Wherefore I leave to others more competent to detail such matters, the emperor's glorious achievements, inasmuch as they belong to a different subject, and require a distinct treatise. But I myself should have been silent, if the Church had remained undisturbed by divisions: for where the subject does not supply matter for relation, there is no necessity for a narrator. Since however subtle and vain disputation has confused and at the same time scattered the apostolic faith of Christianity, I thought it desirable to record these things, in order that the transactions of the churches might not be lost in obscurity. For accurate information on these points procures celebrity among the many, and at the same time renders him who is acquainted with them more secure from error, and instructs him not to be carried away by any empty sound of sophistical argumentation which he may chance to hear. " "
4.26. Now Providence opposed Didymus to the Arians at Alexandria. But for the purpose of confuting them in other cities, it raised up Basil of C sarea and Gregory of Nazianzus; concerning these it will be reasonable to give a brief account in this place. Indeed the universally prevalent memory of the men would be enough as a token of their fame; and the extent of their knowledge is sufficiently perceptible in their writings. Since, however, the exercise of their talents was of great service to the Church, tending in a high degree to the maintece of the catholic faith, the nature of my history obliges me to take particular notice of these two persons. If any one should compare Basil and Gregory with one another, and consider the life, morals, and virtues of each, he would find it difficult to decide to which of them he ought to assign the pre-eminence: so equally did they both appear to excel, whether you regard the rectitude of their conduct, or their deep acquaintance with Greek literature and the sacred Scriptures. In their youth they were pupils at Athens of Himerius and Proh resius, the most celebrated sophists of that age: subsequently they frequented the school of Libanius at Antioch in Syria, where they cultivated rhetoric to the utmost. Having been deemed worthy of the profession of sophistry, they were urged by many of their friends to enter the profession of teaching eloquence; others would have persuaded them to practice law: but despising both these pursuits, they abandoned their former studies, and embraced the monastic life. Having had some slight taste of philosophical science from him who then taught it at Antioch, they procured Origen's works, and drew from them the right interpretation of the sacred Scriptures; for the fame of Origen was very great and widespread throughout the whole world at that time; after a careful perusal of the writings of that great man, they contended against the Arians with manifest advantage. And when the defenders of Arianism quoted the same author in confirmation, as they imagined, of their own views, these two confuted them, and clearly proved that their opponents did not at all understand the reasoning of Origen. Indeed, although Eunomius, who was then their champion, and many others on the side of the Arians were considered men of great eloquence, yet whenever they attempted to enter into controversy with Gregory and Basil, they appeared in comparison with them ignorant and illiterate. Basil being ordained to the office of deacon, was by Meletius, bishop of Antioch, from that rank elevated to the bishopric of C sarea in Cappadocia, which was his native country. Thither he therefore hastened, fearing lest these Arian dogmas should have infected the provinces of Pontus; and in order to counteract them, he founded several monasteries, diligently instructed the people in his own doctrines, and confirmed the faith of those whose minds were wavering. Gregory being constituted bishop of Nazianzus, a small city of Cappadocia over which his own father had before presided, pursued a course similar to that which Basil took; for he went through the various cities, and strengthened the weak in faith. To Constantinople in particular he made frequent visits, and by his ministrations there, comforted and assured the orthodox believers, wherefore a short time after, by the suffrage of many bishops, he was made bishop of the church at Constantinople. When intelligence of the proceedings of these two zealous and devoted men reached the ears of the emperor Valens, he immediately ordered Basil to be brought from C sarea to Antioch; where being arraigned before the tribunal of the prefect, that functionary asked him 'why he would not embrace the emperor's faith?' Basil with much boldness condemned the errors of that creed which his sovereign counteced, and vindicated the doctrine of the homoousion: and when the prefect threatened him with death, 'Would,' said Basil, 'that I might be released from the bonds of the body for the truth's sake.' The prefect having exhorted him to reconsider the matter more seriously, Basil is reported to have said, 'I am the same today that I shall be tomorrow: but I wish that you had not changed yourself.' At that time, therefore, Basil remained in custody throughout the day. It happened, however, not long afterwards that Galates, the emperor's infant son, was attacked with a dangerous malady, so that the physicians despaired of his recovery; when the empress Dominica, his mother, assured the emperor that she had been greatly disquieted in her dreams by fearful visions, which led her to believe that the child's illness was a chastisement on account of the ill treatment of the bishop. The emperor after a little reflection sent for Basil, and in order to prove his faith said to him, 'If the doctrine you maintain is the truth, pray that my son may not die. If your majesty should believe as I do,' replied Basil, 'and the church should be unified, the child shall live.' To these conditions the emperor would not agree: 'God's will concerning the child will be done then,' said Basil; as Basil said this the emperor ordered him to be dismissed; the child, however, died shortly after. Such is an epitome of the history of these distinguished ecclesiastics, both of whom have left us many admirable works, some of which Rufinus says he has translated into Latin. Basil had two brothers, Peter and Gregory; the former of whom adopted Basil's monastic mode of life; while the latter emulated his eloquence in teaching, and completed after his death Basil's treatise on the Six Days' Work, which had been left unfinished. He also pronounced at Constantinople the funeral oration of Meletius, bishop of Antioch; and many other orations of his are still extant. " "
7.13. About this same time it happened that the Jewish inhabitants were driven out of Alexandria by Cyril the bishop on the following account. The Alexandrian public is more delighted with tumult than any other people: and if at any time it should find a pretext, breaks forth into the most intolerable excesses; for it never ceases from its turbulence without bloodshed. It happened on the present occasion that a disturbance arose among the populace, not from a cause of any serious importance, but out of an evil that has become very popular in almost all cities, viz. a fondness for dancing exhibitions. In consequence of the Jews being disengaged from business on the Sabbath, and spending their time, not in hearing the Law, but in theatrical amusements, dancers usually collect great crowds on that day, and disorder is almost invariably produced. And although this was in some degree controlled by the governor of Alexandria, nevertheless the Jews continued opposing these measures. And although they are always hostile toward the Christians they were roused to still greater opposition against them on account of the dancers. When therefore Orestes the prefect was publishing an edict - for so they are accustomed to call public notices - in the theatre for the regulation of the shows, some of the bishop Cyril's party were present to learn the nature of the orders about to be issued. There was among them a certain Hierax, a teacher of the rudimental branches of literature, and one who was a very enthusiastic listener of the bishop Cyril's sermons, and made himself conspicuous by his forwardness in applauding. When the Jews observed this person in the theatre, they immediately cried out that he had come there for no other purpose than to excite sedition among the people. Now Orestes had long regarded with jealousy the growing power of the bishops, because they encroached on the jurisdiction of the authorities appointed by the emperor, especially as Cyril wished to set spies over his proceedings; he therefore ordered Hierax to be seized, and publicly subjected him to the torture in the theatre. Cyril, on being informed of this, sent for the principal Jews, and threatened them with the utmost severities unless they desisted from their molestation of the Christians. The Jewish populace on hearing these menaces, instead of suppressing their violence, only became more furious, and were led to form conspiracies for the destruction of the Christians; one of these was of so desperate a character as to cause their entire expulsion from Alexandria; this I shall now describe. Having agreed that each one of them should wear a ring on his finger made of the bark of a palm branch, for the sake of mutual recognition, they determined to make a nightly attack on the Christians. They therefore sent persons into the streets to raise an outcry that the church named after Alexander was on fire. Thus many Christians on hearing this ran out, some from one direction and some from another, in great anxiety to save their church. The Jews immediately fell upon and slew them; readily distinguishing each other by their rings. At daybreak the authors of this atrocity could not be concealed: and Cyril, accompanied by an immense crowd of people, going to their synagogues- for so they call their house of prayer- took them away from them, and drove the Jews out of the city, permitting the multitude to plunder their goods. Thus the Jews who had inhabited the city from the time of Alexander the Macedonian were expelled from it, stripped of all they possessed, and dispersed some in one direction and some in another. One of them, a physician named Adamantius, fled to Atticus bishop of Constantinople, and professing Christianity, some time afterwards returned to Alexandria and fixed his residence there. But Orestes the governor of Alexandria was filled with great indignation at these transactions, and was excessively grieved that a city of such magnitude should have been suddenly bereft of so large a portion of its population; he therefore at once communicated the whole affair to the emperor. Cyril also wrote to him, describing the outrageous conduct of the Jews; and in the meanwhile sent persons to Orestes who should mediate concerning a reconciliation: for this the people had urged him to do. And when Orestes refused to listen to friendly advances, Cyril extended toward him the book of gospels, believing that respect for religion would induce him to lay aside his resentment. When, however, even this had no pacific effect on the prefect, but he persisted in implacable hostility against the bishop, the following event afterwards occurred. " "7.14. Some of the monks inhabiting the mountains of Nitria, of a very fiery disposition, whom Theophilus some time before had unjustly armed against Dioscorus and his brethren, being again transported with an ardent zeal, resolved to fight in behalf of Cyril. About five hundred of them therefore quitting their monasteries, came into the city; and meeting the prefect in his chariot, they called him a pagan idolater, and applied to him many other abusive epithets. He supposing this to be a snare laid for him by Cyril, exclaimed that he was a Christian, and had been baptized by Atticus the bishop at Constantinople. As they gave but little heed to his protestations, and a certain one of them named Ammonius threw a stone at Orestes which struck him on the head and covered him with the blood that flowed from the wound, all the guards with a few exceptions fled, plunging into the crowd, some in one direction and some in another, fearing to be stoned to death. Meanwhile the populace of Alexandria ran to the rescue of the governor, and put the rest of the monks to flight; but having secured Ammonius they delivered him up to the prefect. He immediately put him publicly to the torture, which was inflicted with such severity that he died under the effects of it: and not long after he gave an account to the emperors of what had taken place. Cyril also on the other hand forwarded his statement of the matter to the emperor: and causing the body of Ammonius to be deposited in a certain church, he gave him the new appellation of Thaumasius, ordering him to be enrolled among the martyrs, and eulogizing his magimity in church as that of one who had fallen in a conflict in defense of piety. But the more sober-minded, although Christians, did not accept Cyril's prejudiced estimate of him; for they well knew that he had suffered the punishment due to his rashness, and that he had not lost his life under the torture because he would not deny Christ. And Cyril himself being conscious of this, suffered the recollection of the circumstance to be gradually obliterated by silence. But the animosity between Cyril and Orestes did not by any means subside at this point, but was kindled afresh by an occurrence similar to the preceding. "". None
46. Theodoret of Cyrus, Ecclesiastical History, 5.17 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ambrose (bishop of Milan) • Arians, devising an episcopal role • Athanasius (bishop of Alexandria) • Cyril (bishop of Alexandria) • Flavianus (bishop of Antioch)

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 1195; Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 73, 76

5.17. Thessalonica is a large and very populous city, belonging to Macedonia, but the capital of Thessaly and Achaia, as well as of many other provinces which are governed by the prefect of Illyricum. Here arose a great sedition, and several of the magistrates were stoned and violently treated. The emperor was fired with anger when he heard the news, and unable to endure the rush of his passion, did not even check its onset by the curb of reason, but allowed his rage to be the minister of his vengeance. When the imperial passion had received its authority, as though itself an independent prince, it broke the bonds and yoke of reason, unsheathed swords of injustice right and left without distinction, and slew innocent and guilty together. No trial preceded the sentence. No condemnation was passed on the perpetrators of the crimes. Multitudes were mowed down like ears of grain in harvest-tide. It is said that seven thousand perished. News of this lamentable calamity reached Ambrosius. The emperor on his arrival at Milan wished according to custom to enter the church. Ambrosius met him outside the outer porch and forbade him to step over the sacred threshold. You seem, sir, not to know, said he, the magnitude of the bloody deed that has been done. Your rage has subsided, but your reason has not yet recognised the character of the deed. Peradventure your Imperial power prevents your recognising the sin, and power stands in the light of reason. We must however know how our nature passes away and is subject to death; we must know the ancestral dust from which we sprang, and to which we are swiftly returning. We must not because we are dazzled by the sheen of the purple fail to see the weakness of the body that it robes. You are a sovereign, Sir, of men of like nature with your own, and who are in truth your fellow slaves; for there is one Lord and Sovereign of mankind, Creator of the Universe. With what eyes then will you look on the temple of our common Lord - with what feet will you tread that holy threshold, how will you stretch forth your hands still dripping with the blood of unjust slaughter? How in such hands will you receive the all holy Body of the Lord? How will you who in your rage unrighteously poured forth so much blood lift to your lips the precious Blood? Begone. Attempt not to add another crime to that which you have committed. Submit to the restriction to which the God the Lord of all agrees that you be sentenced. He will be your physician, He will give you health. Educated as he had been in the sacred oracles, Theodosius knew clearly what belonged to priests and what to emperors. He therefore bowed to the rebuke of Ambrose, and retired sighing and weeping to the palace. After a considerable time, when eight months had passed away, the festival of our Saviour's birth came round and the emperor sat in his palace shedding a storm of tears. Now Rufinus, at that time controller of the household, and, from his familiarity with his imperial master, able to use great freedom of speech, approached and asked him why he wept. With a bitter groan and yet more abundant weeping You are trifling, Rufinus, said the emperor, because you do not feel my troubles. I am groaning and lamenting at the thought of my own calamity; for menials and for beggars the way into the church lies open; they can go in without fear, and put up their petitions to their own Lord. I dare not set my foot there, and besides this for me the door of heaven is shut, for I remember the voice of the Lord which plainly says, 'Whatsoever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven.' Rufinus replied With your permission I will hasten to the bishop, and by my entreaties induce him to remit your penalty. He will not yield said the emperor. I know the justice of the sentence passed by Ambrose, nor will he ever be moved by respect for my imperial power to transgress the law of God. Rufinus urged his suit again and again, promising to win over Ambrosius; and at last the emperor commanded him to go with all dispatch. Then, the victim of false hopes, Theodosius, in reliance on the promises of Rufinus, followed in person, himself. No sooner did the divine Ambrose perceive Rufinus than he exclaimed, Rufinus, your impudence matches a dog's, for you were the adviser of this terrible slaughter; you have wiped shame from your brow, and guilty as you are of this mad outrage on the image of God you stand here fearless, without a blush. Then Rufinus began to beg and pray, and announced the speedy approach of the emperor. Fired with divine zeal the holy Ambrosius exclaimed Rufinus, I tell you beforehand; I shall prevent him from crossing the sacred threshold. If he is for changing his sovereign power into that of a tyrant I too will gladly submit to a violent death. On this Rufinus sent a messenger to inform the emperor in what mind the archbishop was, and exhorted him to remain within the palace. Theodosius had already reached the middle of the forum when he received the message. I will go, said he, and accept the disgrace I deserve. He advanced to the sacred precincts but did not enter the holy building. The archbishop was seated in the house of salutation and there the emperor approached him and besought that his bonds might be loosed. Your coming said Ambrose is the coming of a tyrant. You are raging against God; you are trampling on his laws. No, said Theodosius, I do not attack laws laid down, I do not seek wrongfully to cross the sacred threshold; but I ask you to loose my bond, to take into account the mercy of our common Lord, and not to shut against me a door which our master has opened for all them that repent. The archbishop replied What repentance have you shown since your tremendous crime? You have inflicted wounds right hard to heal; what salve have you applied? Yours said the emperor is the duty alike of pointing out and of mixing the salve. It is for me to receive what is given me. Then said the divine Ambrosius You let your passion minister justice, your passion not your reason gives judgment. Put forth therefore an edict which shall make the sentence of your passion null and void; let the sentences which have been published inflicting death or confiscation be suspended for thirty days awaiting the judgment of reason. When the days shall have elapsed let them that wrote the sentences exhibit their orders, and then, and not till then, when passion has calmed down, reason acting as sole judge shall examine the sentences and will see whether they be right or wrong. If it find them wrong it will cancel the deeds; if they be righteous it will confirm them, and the interval of time will inflict no wrong on them that have been rightly condemned. This suggestion the emperor accepted and thought it admirable. He ordered the edict to be put out immediately and gave it the authority of his sign manual. On this the divine Ambrosius loosed the bond. Now the very faithful emperor came boldly within the holy temple but did not pray to his Lord standing, or even on his knees, but lying prone upon the ground he uttered David's cry My soul cleaves unto the dust, quicken thou me according to your word. He plucked out his hair; he smote his head; he besprinkled the ground with drops of tears and prayed for pardon. When the time came for him to bring his oblations to the holy table, weeping all the while he stood up and approached the sanctuary. After making his offering, as he was wont, he remained within at the rail, but once more the great Ambrosius kept not silence and taught him the distinction of places. First he asked him if he wanted anything; and when the emperor said that he was waiting for participation in the divine mysteries, Ambrose sent word to him by the chief deacon and said, The inner place, sir, is open only to priests; to all the rest it is inaccessible; go out and stand where others stand; purple can make emperors, but not priests. This instruction too the faithful emperor most gladly received, and intimated in reply that it was not from any audacity that he had remained within the rails, but because he had understood that this was the custom at Constantinople. I owe thanks, he added, for being cured too of this error. So both the archbishop and the emperor showed a mighty shining light of virtue. Both to me are admirable; the former for his brave words, the latter for his docility; the archbishop for the warmth of his zeal, and the prince for the purity of his faith. On his return to Constantinople Theodosius kept within the bounds of piety which he had learned from the great archbishop. For when the occasion of a feast brought him once again into the divine temple, after bringing his gifts to the holy table he straightway went out. The bishop at that time was Nectarius, and on his asking the emperor what could possibly be the reason of his not remaining within, Theodosius answered with a sigh I have learned after great difficulty the differences between an emperor and a priest. It is not easy to find a man capable of teaching me the truth. Ambrosius alone deserves the title of bishop. So great is the gain of conviction when brought home by a man of bright and shining goodness. "". None
47. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • bishops and institutional Church • controversy, episcopal elections

 Found in books: Goldhill (2022) 390; Hanghan (2019) 52; Hitch (2017) 52

48. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Julian of Eclanum, bishop, Pelagian opponent of Augustine, By what mechanism can Adam's act of will have resulted in genetic transmission of original sin? • Julian of Eclanum, bishop, Pelagian opponent of Augustine, Is desire for privacy in sex universal? • Julian, Bishop

 Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 411, 416; Wilson (2018) 181, 210

49. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, ordained bishop • Julian, Bishop

 Found in books: Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 113; Wilson (2018) 211

50. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishops, authority and duties • Eustathius, bishop of Sebaste • Flaccus (bishop of Hierapolis, • Nemesius, bishop, Apatheia and metriopatheia ideals for different people • bishops

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 121; Humfress (2007) 254; Huttner (2013) 286; Sorabji (2000) 392

51. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amphilocius of Iconium (bishop of Lycaonia) • Bosporius (bishop of Colonia) • Helladius, bishop of Caesaria • Theodore, bishop of Claudiopolis • bishops • bishops, privilegium fori • episcopal appointment • offices (Christian), chorepiskopos (country bishop)

 Found in books: Humfress (2007) 260; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 160, 161

52. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Porphyry (bishop of Gaza) • Porphyry (bishop of Gaza),Life of • bishops • synagogues, Jewish, bishops’ support for

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 65; Kraemer (2020) 135

53. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • Porphyry (bishop of Gaza)

 Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 118, 119, 120, 121; Rohmann (2016) 134

54. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arians, devising an episcopal role • bishops, Nicene, lobbying for legislation of

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 1194; Kraemer (2020) 131

55. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 2, 28, 53, 57, 77, 90, 94, 103, 108, 114, 119, 121, 129, 174; Hitch (2017) 2, 28, 53, 57, 77, 90, 94, 103, 108, 114, 119, 121, 129, 174

56. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ablabius (Novatian bishop of Nicaea) • Amphilocius of Iconium (bishop of Lycaonia) • Appius (bishop) • Arians, devising an episcopal role • Artemius (bishop) • Asterius (bishop of Amasea) • Bishop • Chrysanthus (Novation bishop of Constantinople) • Cyril (bishop of Alexandria), Jews expelled from Alexandria by • Cyril (bishop of Alexandria), Marian devotion controversies and • Cyril (bishop of Alexandria), Orestes and • Cyril (bishop of Alexandria), The Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila and • Cyril (bishop of Jerusalem) • Epiphanios (bishop of Salamis), Panarion (Medicine Chest) of • Epiphanios (bishop of Salamis), conversion of Joseph of Tiberias, recounted by • Eurydicus (bishop) • Hilary (Bishop of Poitiers) • Nicephorus I (bishop) of Constantinople • Optimus (bishop of Agdama and Antioch) • Paul (Nicene bishop) • Paul of Erythrum (bishop) • Peter (bishop of Alexandria) • Peter, bishop of Alexandria • Petilianus (Donatist bishop) • Protogenes (bishop of Serdica) • Sisinnius (orator and Novatian bishop of Constantinople) • Theophilus (bishop of Alexandria) • Victor (bishop of Palermo) • bishop • bishops • bishops court • bishops, Arian • bishops, Nicene, lobbying for legislation of • bishops, after Constantine • bishops, forensic training of • delegation of adjudication, episcopal jurisdiction • episcopal appointment • heretics, legislation against confirmation of bishops • priests, bishops

 Found in books: Ando and Ruepke (2006) 121, 123; Dijkstra (2020) 54; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 369; Esler (2000) 270, 1188; Farag (2021) 187, 217; Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 308; Humfress (2007) 41, 156, 157, 158, 160, 162, 163, 182, 184, 238, 245, 246, 247, 250, 252, 256, 257, 259; Kraemer (2020) 126, 127, 129, 147, 208, 216, 224, 255; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 157; Rohmann (2016) 33, 69, 70, 71, 115, 265; Rupke (2016) 87, 88, 91; Tabbernee (2007) 292

57. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 2; Hitch (2017) 2

58. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishops • bishops

 Found in books: Humfress (2007) 173; Lampe (2003) 144, 341

59. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bishop • ‘Philostratean Bishops’

 Found in books: Fowler (2014) 19; Rohmann (2016) 220

60. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Protogenes (bishop of Serdica) • bishops, after Constantine

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 270; Farag (2021) 187, 228

61. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Acacius of Constantinople, bishop • Anastasius of Jerusalem, bishop • Cyril (bishop of Jerusalem) • Elias of Jerusalem, bishop • Flavian of Antioch, bishop • John of Jerusalem, bishop • Juvenal of Jerusalem, bishop • Macedonius of Constantinople, bishop • Maximus III (bishop of Jerusalem) • Severus of Antioch, bishop • Theodosius, bishop of Jerusalem • bishops • bishops court

 Found in books: Humfress (2007) 184, 271; Klein and Wienand (2022) 25, 248, 251; Mendez (2022) 139

62. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 57; Hitch (2017) 57

63. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Peter (bishop of Terracina) • Victor (bishop of Palermo) • bishop • conversion, by Avitus, bishop of Clermont

 Found in books: Gunderson (2022) 217; Kraemer (2020) 334, 335, 338

64. None, None, nan (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Delphinus, Bishop of Bordeaux • Julian, Bishop • Simplicianus, Bishop

 Found in books: Conybeare (2000) 13; Wilson (2018) 275

65. Sozomenus, Ecclesiastical History, 7.23
 Tagged with subjects: • Ambrose (bishop of Milan) • Flavian (bishop of Antioch) • Flavianus (bishop of Antioch)

 Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 76; Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 209

7.23. In this time, on account of the necessities of war, it seemed best to the officials whose concern it was, to impose more than the customary taxes; for this reason the populace of Antioch in Syria revolted; the statues of the emperor and empress were thrown down and dragged by ropes through the city, and, as is usual on such occasions, the enraged multitude uttered every insulting epithet that passion could suggest. The emperor determined to avenge this insult by the death of many of the citizens of Antioch; the people were struck dumb at the mere announcement; the rage of the citizens had subsided, and had given place to repentance; and, as if already subjected to the threatened punishment, they abandoned themselves to groans and tears, and supplicated God to turn away the anger of the emperor, and made use of some threnodic hymns for their litanies. They deputed Flavian, their bishop, to go on an embassy to Theodosius; but on his arrival, finding that the resentment of the emperor at what had occurred was unabated, he had recourse to the following artifice. He caused some young men accustomed to sing at the table of the emperor to utter these hymns with the litanies of the Antiochans. It is said that the humanity of the emperor was excited; he was overcome by pity at once; his wrath was subdued, and as his heart yearned over the city, he shed tears on the cup which he held in his hand. It is reported that, on the night before the sedition occurred, a spectre was seen in the form of a woman of prodigious height and terrible aspect, pacing through the streets of the city, lashing the air with an ill-sounding whip, similar to that which is used in goading on the beasts brought forward at the public theatres. It might have been inferred that the sedition was excited by the agency of some evil and malicious demon. There is no doubt but that much bloodshed would have ensued, had not the wrath of the emperor been stayed by his respect for this sacerdotal entreaty. ''. None
66. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Ignatius of Antioch, Christian Bishop • bishop

 Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022) 164; Rizzi (2010) 75

67. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • episcopal appointment • metropolitan (title of towns and bishops),

 Found in books: Huttner (2013) 310; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 149, 150

68. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Sidonius, episcopacy

 Found in books: Hanghan (2019) 77; Hitch (2017) 77

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