Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.





10 results for "beth"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
4.19. "וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 4.19. "and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
20.4. "לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ", 20.4. "Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;",
3. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
1.5. "וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים עַל־הַגַּגּוֹת לִצְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים לַיהוָה וְהַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּמַלְכָּם׃", 1.5. "And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; And them that worship, that swear to the LORD And swear by Malcam;",
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
17.16. "וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מַסֵּכָה שנים [שְׁנֵי] עֲגָלִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֲשֵׁירָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבָּעַל׃", 17.16. "and they forsook all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made an Asherah, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal;",
5. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •beth alpha Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 1
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 8.2, 19.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
8.2. "וְהֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר נָתַן חוּרָם לִשְׁלֹמֹה בָּנָה שְׁלֹמֹה אֹתָם וַיּוֹשֶׁב שָׁם אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 8.2. "that the cities which Huram had given to Solomon, Solomon built them, and caused the children of Israel to dwell there.",
7. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •beth alpha Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 1
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.117 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •beth alpha Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 174
12.117. But by them he sent to Eleazar the high priest ten beds, with feet of silver, and the furniture to them belonging, and a cup of the value of thirty talents; and besides these, ten garments, and purple, and a very beautiful crown, and a hundred pieces of the finest woven linen; as also vials and dishes, and vessels for pouring, and two golden cisterns to be dedicated to God.
9. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
24b. של חמשה ושל ששה ושל שמונה ושל שבעה לא יעשה אפי' של שאר מיני מתכות רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו מלכי בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראייה שפודין של ברזל היו וחיפום בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו העשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, יט) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא דמות ארבעה פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם א"ר הונא בריה דרב אידי מפרקיה דאביי שמיעא לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והא תניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקודש ומלאכי השרת אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת כי תניא ההיא לעבדם,אי לעבדם אפילו שלשול קטן נמי אין ה"נ דתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בארץ לרבות הרים וגבעות ימים ונהרות אפיקים וגאיות מתחת לרבות שלשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם חותמו בולט הוה ומשום חשדא כדתניא טבעת חותמו בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמו שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא ההיא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דהוה ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי רב ושמואל ואבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו התם ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא ר"ג יחיד הוא כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה איבעית אימא דפרקים הוה,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד עבד וכתיב (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה שבאו שנים ואמרו ראינוהו שחרית במזרח 24b. a candelabrum b of five or of six or of eight /b lamps. b But one may not fashion /b a candelabrum with b seven /b lamps b even /b if he constructs it b from other kinds of metal /b rather than gold, as in exigent circumstances the candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals. b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Also, one may not fashion /b a candelabrum b of wood, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned /b it. When they first purified the Temple they had to prepare the candelabrum out of wood, as no other material was available. Since this candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The other Sages b said to /b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: b From there /b you seek to bring b a proof? /b There the branches of the candelabrum b were /b comprised of b spits [ i shippudin /i ] of iron and they covered them with tin. /b Later, when b they grew richer /b and could afford a candelabrum of higher-quality material, b they fashioned them from silver. /b When b they grew even richer, they fashioned them from gold. /b Still, Abaye proves from this i baraita /i that the prohibition against forming an image applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s forms were permitted.,The Gemara asks: b And is it /b really b permitted /b to form images of b those attendants /b concerning b which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), comes to teach: b You shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high. /b Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon. b Abaye said: /b This does not include the sun and the moon, as b the Torah prohibited only /b the fashioning of b an image of /b all b four faces /b of the creatures of the Heavenly Chariot b together /b (see Ezekiel, chapter 1). However, all other images, which are not the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b However, if /b that is b so, let /b the fashioning of an image of b a human face [ i partzuf /i ] alone be permitted. Why, /b then, b is it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b All faces are permitted /b for ornamental purposes, b except for the face of a person? Rav Huna, son of Rav Idi, said: From a lecture of Abaye I heard /b that there is a different reason why one may not form an image of a human face, as the verse states: b “You shall not make with Me [ i iti /i ]” /b (Exodus 20:19). This can be read as: b You shall not make Me [ i oti /i ]. /b Since man is created in the image of God, it is prohibited to form an image of a human being.,The Gemara asks: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b other attendants? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high, for example, i ofanim /i and seraphim and the sacred i ḥayyot /i and the ministering angels. Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only /b those b attendants that are /b found b in the upper Heaven, /b i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but not the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b those /b bodies found b in the lower heaven? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:3). The phrase b “that is in heaven” /b comes b to include /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars, and /b the b constellations. /b The term b “above” /b serves b to include the ministering angels. /b Apparently, it is prohibited to form an image even of the celestial bodies found in the lower Heaven. The Gemara answers: b When that /b i baraita /i b is taught, /b it is in reference to the prohibition b against worshipping them. /b However, there is no prohibition against forming an image in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: b If /b that i baraita /i is referring to b the prohibition against worshipping them, /b then b even a tiny worm /b should b also /b be prohibited. The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so, as it is taught /b in the same i baraita /i with regard to the continuation of the verse, b “in the earth” /b comes b to include mountains and hills, seas and rivers, streams and valleys; “beneath” /b comes b to include a tiny worm. /b If so, it is indeed possible to explain that the entire i baraita /i is referring to the prohibition against idol worship.,The Gemara raises yet another objection: b And is the mere fashioning /b of images of the celestial bodies b permitted? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i : b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19). This verse teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me, for example /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars and /b the b constellations. /b This is explicit proof that it is prohibited to form images of the sun and the moon; consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty with Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of b Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, /b i.e., gentiles, b fashioned /b those images b for him, /b and it is prohibited only for a Jew to fashion such images; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession. The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b there is the case of b Rav Yehuda, as others fashioned for him /b a seal in the form of a human being, b and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, /b who was his student: b Sharp-witted one, blind this one’s eyes, /b i.e., disfigure the image, as it is prohibited even to have the image of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: b There, /b in the case of Rav Yehuda, b his was a protruding seal, /b i.e., the image projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it b due to /b the potential b suspicion /b that he had an object of idol worship in his hand. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b a ring, /b if b its seal protrudes it is prohibited to place it /b on one’s finger, due to the suspicion of idol worship, b but it is permitted to seal /b objects b with it. /b In this case, the act of sealing creates an image that is sunken below the surface, which is not prohibited. However, if b its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it /b on one’s finger, b but it is prohibited to seal /b objects b with it, /b as that creates a protruding image.,The Gemara asks: b And are we concerned about /b arousing b suspicion /b in a case of this kind? b But /b what about that b certain synagogue that had been /b destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and its stones were b relocated and /b it was rebuilt so that it b sat in Neharde’a, /b and b there was a statue [ i andarta /i ] /b of the king b in it. And /b nevertheless b Rav and Shmuel and Shmuel’s father and Levi would /b all b enter and pray there and they were not concerned about /b arousing b suspicion. /b The Gemara answers: When b many /b Jews are present it b is different, /b as a large group is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for purposes of ornamentation.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? /b According to this reasoning, his images of the moon should have been prohibited, as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: b Since he is the i Nasi /i , /b the head of the Great Sanhedrin, b many /b people b were /b always b found with him, /b and therefore there was no room for suspicion. The Gemara suggests an alternative answer: b If you wish, say /b that these images were not whole; rather, they b were /b formed b from pieces /b of images that had to be put together. Only complete images are prohibited.,The Gemara suggests yet another answer: b If you wish, say: /b Rabban Gamliel b did /b this b to teach himself, /b which is not prohibited, as b it is written: “You shall not learn to do /b after the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9), which indicates: b However, you may learn to understand and to teach. /b In other words, it is permitted to do certain things for the sake of Torah study which would otherwise be prohibited., strong MISHNA: /strong There was b an incident /b in b which two /b witnesses b came /b to testify about the new moon, b and they said: We saw /b the waning moon b in the morning in the east, /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •zodiac motif, at beth alpha Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 479
42b. והא שיפויין דעיקר עבודת כוכבים קיימת וקתני לצרכה היא אסורה ושיפוייה מותרין,רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע אמר לפי שאין עבודת כוכבים בטלה דרך גדילתה,איתיביה ר' שמעון בן לקיש לר' יוחנן קן שבראש האילן של הקדש לא נהנין ולא מועלין בראשה של אשרה יתיז בקנה,קס"ד כגון ששברה ממנו עצים וקינתה בהן וקתני יתיז בקנה,הב"ע כגון דאייתי עצים מעלמא וקינתה בהן,דיקא נמי דקתני גבי הקדש לא נהנין ולא מועלין אי אמרת בשלמא דאייתי עצים מעלמא היינו דקתני גבי הקדש לא נהנין ולא מועלין לא נהנין מדרבנן ולא מועלין מדאורייתא דהא לא קדישי,אלא אי אמרת ששברה עצים ממנו וקינתה בהן אמאי לא מועלין הא קדישי,מידי איריא הכא בגידולין הבאין לאחר מכאן עסקינן וקא סבר אין מעילה בגידולין,ורבי אבהו א"ר יוחנן מאי יתיז יתיז באפרוחין,א"ל רבי יעקב לרבי ירמיה בר תחליפא אסברה לך באפרוחין כאן וכאן מותרין בביצים כאן וכאן אסורין אמר רב אשי ואפרוחין שצריכין לאמן כביצים דמו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה צורת לבנה צורת דרקון יוליכם לים המלח רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר שעל המכובדין אסורין שעל המבוזין מותרין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big למימרא דלהני הוא דפלחי להו למידי אחרינא לא ורמינהי השוחט לשום ימים לשום נהרות לשום מדבר לשום חמה לשום לבנה לשום כוכבים ומזלות לשום מיכאל שר הגדול לשום שילשול קטן הרי אלו זבחי מתים,אמר אביי מיפלח לכל דמשכחי פלחי מיצר ומפלחי הני תלתא דחשיבי ציירי להו ופלחי להו למידי אחרינא לנוי בעלמא עבדי להו,מנקיט רב ששת חומרי מתנייתא ותני כל המזלות מותרין חוץ ממזל חמה ולבנה וכל הפרצופין מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם וכל הצורות מותרות חוץ מצורת דרקון,אמר מר כל המזלות מותרין חוץ ממזל חמה ולבנה הכא במאי עסקינן אילימא בעושה אי בעושה כל המזלות מי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה צורת לבנה צורת דרקון יוליכם לים המלח,אי במוצא אימא מציעתא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם אי במוצא פרצוף אדם מי אסור והתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה צורת לבנה צורת דרקון יוליכם לים המלח צורת דרקון אין פרצוף אדם לא,אלא פשיטא בעושה וכדרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע,אי בעושה אימא סיפא כל הצורות מותרות חוץ מצורת דרקון ואי בעושה צורת דרקון מי אסיר והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב 42b. The Gemara asks: b But /b consider the case of b shavings, where the main /b object of b idol worship /b still b exists, and /b nevertheless b it is taught /b in the i baraita /i cited earlier that if a gentile shaved an idol down b for its /b own b sake, /b the idol is b forbidden, but its shavings are permitted. /b Here too, in the case of the fallen leaves of a tree that is worshipped as an idol, it should be permitted to derive benefit from them., b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, says: /b The reason the leaves are not permitted is b because /b the status of an object of b idol worship cannot be revoked /b by b its /b natural b manner of growth. /b Since the falling of leaves is a natural phenomenon, their detachment from the tree does not effect a revocation of their status as objects of idol worship., b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish raised an objection to /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoḥa /b from a mishna ( i Me’ila /i 13b): With regard to a bird’s b nest at the top of a tree that belongs to the Temple /b treasury, one b may not /b derive b benefit /b from it i ab initio /i , b but /b if one derived benefit from it, he is b not /b liable for b misuse /b of property consecrated to the Temple. With regard to a nest that is b at the top of a tree /b used as part of idolatrous rites b [ i ashera /i ], /b although one may not climb the tree, as that would be benefiting from an object of idol worship, he b may knock /b the nest off b with a pole /b and benefit from it by using it for firewood and the like.,In analyzing this i baraita /i , b it enters your mind /b that this is referring to a case b where /b the bird b broke off branches from /b the worshipped tree b and built a nest with them. And /b yet, the i baraita /i b teaches /b that one may b knock /b the nest off b with a pole /b and it is then permitted to benefit from it. Apparently, the forbidden branches used in the construction of the nest lost their idolatrous status without human involvement, in accordance with the opinion of Reish Lakish that an idol that breaks loses its status.,The Gemara explains: b Here we are dealing with /b a case b where /b the bird b brought branches from elsewhere and built a nest with them /b on top of the worshipped tree. The branches were never part of an object of idol worship.,The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna b is also precise /b if read with this understanding, b as it teaches with regard to /b a nest in b a consecrated /b tree: One b may not /b derive b benefit /b from it i ab initio /i , b but /b if one derived benefit from it, he is b not /b liable for b misuse /b of consecrated property. b Granted, if you say that /b the bird b brought branches from elsewhere, this /b explanation is consistent with that b which /b the mishna b teaches with regard to /b a nest in b a consecrated /b tree, namely, that one b may not /b derive b benefit /b from it, b but /b if one derived benefit from it, he is b not /b liable for b misuse /b of consecrated property. According to this understanding of the mishna, one b may not /b derive b benefit /b from the nest b by rabbinic law, but /b if one derived benefit from it, he is b not /b liable for b misusing /b consecrated property b by Torah law, as /b the branches b are not consecrated, /b but were brought from elsewhere., b But if you say that /b the bird b broke off branches from /b the tree itself b and built a nest with them, why /b is it taught that one who derives benefit from it is b not /b liable for b misusing /b consecrated property? b Aren’t /b the branches b consecrated? /b Evidently, the mishna is referring to a nest that was built with branches from other trees, in accordance with Rabbi Yoḥa’s understanding that an object of idol worship that broke on its own is still forbidden.,The Gemara responds to this proof for Rabbi Yoḥa’s understanding of the mishna: Does this b argument /b prove b anything? /b The mishna can still be interpreted as referring to a case where the branches for the nest came from the tree itself, and b here we are dealing with /b a case of b growths that came afterward, /b i.e., branches that grew after the tree was consecrated, b and /b the i tanna /i of the mishna b holds /b that b there is no /b prohibition against the b misuse /b of consecrated property b with regard to /b such b growths. /b ,Another explanation of the mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa is presented. b Rabbi Abbahu /b says that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: What /b does it mean that one b may knock /b off the nest? It means that one b may knock /b off b the chicks; /b but one may not derive benefit from the nest itself., b Rabbi Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yirmeya bar Taḥlifa: I will explain /b the mishna b to you: With regard to /b the b chicks, /b which can fly away and are not confined to the tree, both b here and there, /b i.e., both in the case of a tree consecrated to the Temple treasury and in the case of a tree used for idol worship, deriving benefit from them is b permitted. /b But b with regard to /b the b eggs, /b both b here and there, /b i.e., both in the case of a tree consecrated to the Temple treasury and in the case of a tree used for idol worship, deriving benefit from them is b prohibited, /b as they are not seen as independent of the tree. b Rav Ashi /b added to this and b said: And chicks that /b still b need their mother /b to survive b are /b considered b like eggs; /b deriving benefit from them is prohibited., strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, /b or b a figure of a dragon, he must take them /b and cast them b into the Dead Sea /b and not derive any benefit from them, as they are assumed to be objects of idol worship. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b Those figures b that /b are b upon respectable /b vessels b are forbidden. /b Those b that are upon disgraceful vessels are permitted. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks with regard to the specific figures listed in the mishna: b Is this to say that /b people b worship only these /b figures, b but not /b any b other item? And /b the Gemara b raises a contradiction /b between this list and that which is taught in another mishna ( i Ḥullin /i 39b): With regard to b one who slaughters /b an animal b for the sake of, /b i.e., to worship, b seas, for the sake of rivers, for the sake of the wilderness, for the sake of the sun, for the sake of the moon, for the sake of the stars and constellations, for the sake of Michael the great ministering /b angel, or even b for the sake of a small worm, /b in all of b these /b cases, the animal is forbidden, as these animals have the status of b offerings to the dead, /b i.e., idols., b Abaye said /b in response to the contradiction: With regard to b worship, /b people might b worship any /b item b that they find. /b With regard to b fashioning /b figures b and /b then b worshipping /b them, only with regard to b these three /b items listed in the mishna, b which are important, /b do people b fashion /b figures of b them and worship them. With regard to /b figures of any b other entity, /b people b make them merely for ornamental /b purposes., b Rav Sheshet would consolidate the principles of the i baraitot /i /b pertaining to this matter b and teach: /b Figures of b all constellations are permitted, except for /b the following b celestial objects: The sun and the moon. And /b figures of b all faces are permitted, except for the human face. And all figures /b of other items b are permitted except for the figure of a dragon. /b , b The Master said: /b Figures of b all constellations are permitted, except for /b the following b celestial objects: The sun and the moon. /b The Gemara asks: b What are we dealing with here? If we say /b that the reference is b to one who forms /b these figures, i.e., b if /b Rav Sheshet is discussing the issue b of /b which figures it is permitted to b form, is /b forming figures of b all the /b other b constellations permitted? But isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver, or gods of gold, you shall not make for you” (Exodus 20:20)? This verse is interpreted to mean: b You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, /b i.e., those celestial bodies, including the constellations, that were created to serve God., b Rather, /b it is b obvious /b that this i halakha /i is referring to a case b where /b one b finds /b vessels with these figures on them, b and /b this is b as we learned /b in the mishna: In the case of b one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, /b or b a figure of a dragon, he must take them /b and cast them b into the Dead Sea. /b This indicates that it is permitted to derive benefit from any other vessels that were found and that had figures on them.,The Gemara asks: b If /b it is a case b where /b one b finds /b vessels with these figures on them, b say the middle clause /b of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Figures of b all faces are permitted, except for the human face. /b Now, b if /b it is a case b where /b one b finds /b vessels with figures on them, b is /b a vessel with the figure of b the human face forbidden? But didn’t we learn /b in the mishna: In the case of b one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, /b or b a figure of a dragon, he must take them /b and cast them b into the Dead Sea? /b This indicates that a vessel with b the figure of a dragon is /b forbidden, but a vessel with the figure of b a human face is not. /b , b Rather, /b the Gemara concludes, it is b obvious /b that the statement that the figure of a human face is forbidden is referring to a case b where one forms /b a figure, b and /b this is prohibited, b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, /b who states (43b) that the interpretation of the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver, or gods of gold, you shall not make for you” (Exodus 20:20), is: Do not make of Me, i.e., do not form the figure of a person, who was created in the image of God.,The Gemara asks: b If /b it is referring to a case b where one forms /b a figure, b say the last clause /b of Rav Sheshet’s statement: b All figures are permitted except for the figure of a dragon. And if /b it is referring to a case b where one forms /b a figure, b is /b forming b the figure of a dragon prohibited? But isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver, or gods of gold”? /b