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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
be, abadan, zoroastrianism Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 174, 192, 193
be, and passing away, aristotle, coming to Singer and van Eijk (2018) 32, 84
being Bernabe et al (2013) 388
Gazis and Hooper (2021) 99, 101
Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 76, 79, 80, 95, 104, 136, 138, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 155, 156, 161, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 188, 193, 195, 196, 206, 208, 210, 215, 247, 267, 272, 273, 275, 276, 282, 283, 294, 324, 346, 350
d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 50, 55, 56, 71, 77, 124, 125, 130, 131, 137, 140, 141, 175, 187, 244, 296, 318
being, an intermediary term, mediating / Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 131, 133, 173, 182, 184, 197, 214, 216, 225, 232, 236, 237, 238, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247
being, and, becoming, Del Lucchese (2019) 63, 64, 71, 252, 260, 273, 287, 292, 298
d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 57, 144, 145
being, as a cause of demiurgy d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 151
being, as mixture/mixture, mikton, μικτόν‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 55, 56, 69, 85, 86, 93
being, god Geljon and Runia (2013) 24
being, great chain of Sly (1990) 171, 179, 204, 205
being, king, as mythical Fishbane (2003) 60, 61, 74, 75, 76, 80, 84, 87, 88, 270, 271
being, living being-life-one, of motion d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 55, 56, 57
being, living being-life-one, of sameness d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 57, 58
being, relation to life and thinking Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 117, 118, 119, 120
being, remaining, monê, μονή‎, and d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 56
being/becoming McDonough (2009) 119, 120, 121, 123, 140, 141
being/intellect, in plotinus d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 56, 99, 102, 103
beings, a species of animals, human Rohmann (2016) 46, 118
beings, and genuine humanness, epictetus, on human Dürr (2022) 138
beings, angelic Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 47, 79, 81, 85, 86, 87, 131, 132, 134, 162, 164
beings, anubis as messenger of celestial and infernal Griffiths (1975) 11, 216
beings, anubis as messenger of infernal and celestial Griffiths (1975) 11, 216
beings, are not product of god, irrational Schibli (2002) 341
beings, aristotle, on humans as political Dürr (2022) 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
beings, as θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα, human Dürr (2022) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 215, 216
beings, as „mortal rational animals“, human Dürr (2022) 3, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 139, 140
beings, as, salus, human Jim (2022) 254
beings, ascent, one soul in all Williams (2009) 97
beings, autonomy, and fictional Bexley (2022) 299, 301, 304, 305, 306, 307, 340, 341, 342
beings, contemplation and action, human Dürr (2022) 77, 78, 79, 80
beings, contrasted with gods, human Dürr (2022) 93
beings, cosmos, place and role of human Dürr (2022) 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75
beings, creation of living d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 245
beings, daemon, daimôn, δαίμων‎, as intermediary d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 14, 262, 271
beings, death of divine Trudinger (2004) 104
beings, defined by epictetus, human Dürr (2022) 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146
beings, distinct according to nature, rational/intelligent Schibli (2002) 332
beings, divine Trudinger (2004) 108, 197
beings, divine, irrational Schibli (2002) 343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 351, 352, 358
beings, do not enjoy same providence, irrational Schibli (2002) 360
beings, do not participate in truth and virtue, irrational Schibli (2002) 341
beings, elohim, angels, see also divine Trudinger (2004) 266
beings, enemies of god, divine Trudinger (2004) 96, 97
beings, eternity, eternal human Segev (2017) 41, 96, 97, 101, 105, 106, 108, 109
beings, eulogy, of human Jouanna (2018) 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490
beings, foremost of heavenly Griffiths (1975) 5, 142
beings, four living Rasimus (2009) 69, 74, 107, 111, 204, 233, 234
beings, four living creatures, angelic Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 119, 131
beings, function, ἔργον, of human Dürr (2022) 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
beings, generation, of human Joosse (2021) 23, 122
beings, god of the path, relationship with human Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 181, 182, 185, 206
beings, heavenly hierarchy divine Moss (2010) 115
beings, human Schibli (2002) 332, 339, 341, 345, 361, 362
beings, human nature and human Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 52, 187, 206, 209, 210, 222, 314, 464, 479, 480, 481, 484, 485, 486, 488, 491, 529
beings, image, eikôn, εἰκών‎, of life in inanimate d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 152
beings, in 4qdibham, divine Trudinger (2004) 266
beings, in dead sea scrolls, divine Trudinger (2004) 96, 97, 98, 103
beings, in ps, divine Trudinger (2004) 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102, 103, 104, 179
beings, inspiration, ἐνθουσιασμός, /inspired, discourse - by higher Joosse (2021) 215, 216
beings, intellect, of particular Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 139
beings, irrational Schibli (2002) 334, 345, 346, 359, 360
beings, isis, foremost of heavenly Griffiths (1975) 5, 142
beings, judgement irrational, κρίσις Schibli (2002) 343, 344, 361
beings, love, for the human Hellholm et al. (2010) 1208
beings, mystical traditions of judaism, regarding celestial Scopello (2008) 130, 131, 132, 133
beings, nature, of human Long (2006) 6, 13, 14, 27, 28, 29, 30, 61, 63, 72, 111, 149, 194, 198, 199, 204, 205, 211, 242, 244, 245, 330, 336, 342, 345, 348, 349, 352, 359, 373, 382, 385, 386, 387
beings, of anubis, messenger, of celestial and infernal Griffiths (1975) 11, 215
beings, of isis, foremost of heavenly Griffiths (1975) 5, 142
beings, of providence, irrational Schibli (2002) 344, 347
beings, of the judges, irrational Schibli (2002) 351
beings, only species of are preserved, irrational Schibli (2002) 345, 360
beings, overseeing, irrational Schibli (2002) 346
beings, paean, to human Jouanna (2018) 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490
beings, perfection, of human Segev (2017) 141, 142, 145, 153
beings, perish chaotically, irrational Schibli (2002) 361
beings, place and role in cosmos, human Dürr (2022) 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 123, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133
beings, rational/intelligent Schibli (2002) 331, 332, 339, 340, 341
beings, rejoice for isis, divine Griffiths (1975) 323
beings, sexual relations among divine Blidstein (2017) 24, 50
beings, slaves as human Perry (2014) 18
beings, spirit, characterizations as, angelic or daemonic Frey and Levison (2014) 25, 168, 173, 179, 182, 201, 209, 218, 226, 227, 228, 229, 234, 349, 353
beings, spiritual, powers Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 250, 267, 428, 449, 612
beings, stoics, on incorporeal O, Brien (2015) 200
beings, thinking/thought of νοεῖν / rational/intelligent νόησις Schibli (2002) 341
beings, unity of rational/intelligent Schibli (2002) 332
beings, unity, of human Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 203
beings, unity, of living Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 203
beings, vocation of human Dürr (2022) 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
beings, with face now black, now golden, with dogs neck, he carries heralds staff and anubis, first in procession of gods, messenger of celestial and infernal palm-branch, ibid. Griffiths (1975) 216
beings, ”, creation, in genesis, of “living Hoenig (2018) 203
beings, „fashioned“ for a purpose, human Dürr (2022) 75, 76, 77
beings/creatures, irrational, ἂλογα Schibli (2002) 194, 210, 236, 237, 238, 291
beings/elders, of heaven, angelic beings, twenty-four celestial Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 131
beings/substances, mathematical objects as not natural d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 169, 170, 172, 173
beings/substances, vs. counternatural, natural d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 199
bes Bortolani et al (2019) 102, 108, 115, 116, 150, 151, 154, 155, 158, 165, 178
Bricault et al. (2007) 312, 313, 314, 315
Edmonds (2019) 222
Johnston and Struck (2005) 240, 241, 242, 248, 262
Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 91, 100
bes, abba Cain (2016) 10, 65, 109, 130, 198, 224, 258
bes, and dionysos christus-bes, cult, survival of cult as Renberg (2017) 494, 495
bes, and dionysos cult Renberg (2017) 545
bes, and dionysos cult, and divinatory incubation at abydos Renberg (2017) 485, 486, 488, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 506
bes, and dionysos cult, and fertility Renberg (2017) 544, 545
bes, and dionysos cult, and priestly incubation at abydos Renberg (2017) 494
bes, and dionysos cult, and proxy incubation at abydos Renberg (2017) 493, 494
bes, and dionysos cult, apotropaic function Renberg (2017) 496, 545
bes, and dionysos cult, chthonic aspects Renberg (2017) 33, 493
bes, and dionysos cult, dream-divination rituals in the magical papyri Renberg (2017) 434, 496
bes, and dionysos cult, issuer of oracles and dream-oracles Renberg (2017) 28, 494, 495, 579
bes, and dionysos cult, latin invocation for epiphany Renberg (2017) 493, 621
bes, and dionysos cult, oracle preserved in epitaph Renberg (2017) 493
bes, at abydos Rohmann (2016) 55
bes, bes, , story of Bortolani et al (2019) 31, 35, 36
bes, chambers, bes, and dionysos cult, saqqâra Renberg (2017) 544, 545, 606
bes, chambers, saqqâra, individual structures and complexes Renberg (2017) 544, 545, 606
bes, god Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 123, 143
Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 136, 140
bes, replacing osiris-sarapis as dream-oracle issuer, abydos memnonion, question of Renberg (2017) 485, 486, 491, 494
bes, sardinia, cult of Renberg (2017) 493
beth-el, as divine, being, Fishbane (2003) 26, 269, 305
between, god and human, beings, reciprocity James (2021) 229, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240
beyond, egypt, bes, and dionysos cult, worship Renberg (2017) 363, 493
forms/being, existence, huparxis, ὕπαρξις‎, of the d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 111, 112, 113, 117, 121, 141, 203, 217, 227
number, of determined, human beings Schibli (2002) 360

List of validated texts:
19 validated results for "bes"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 12.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Four living beings

 Found in books: Rasimus (2009) 111; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 85

12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One."''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, death of • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 81; Trudinger (2004) 95, 96, 104

32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃''. None
32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Four living beings • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings • divine beings, death of • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 234; Rasimus (2009) 107, 204; Trudinger (2004) 104

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃' '. None
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 81; Trudinger (2004) 95

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃''. None
1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 29.1, 82.6-82.7, 89.7, 104.4, 106.35-106.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings • divine beings • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps • sexual relations among divine beings

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 50; Frey and Levison (2014) 226; Ruzer (2020) 81, 82, 83; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 132; Trudinger (2004) 95, 98, 197

29.1. יְהוָה לַמַּבּוּל יָשָׁב וַיֵּשֶׁב יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ לְעוֹלָם׃
29.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד הָבוּ לַיהוָה בְּנֵי אֵלִים הָבוּ לַיהוָה כָּבוֹד וָעֹז׃
82.6. אֲ\u200dנִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 82.7. אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃
89.7. כִּי מִי בַשַּׁחַק יַעֲרֹךְ לַיהוָה יִדְמֶה לַיהוָה בִּבְנֵי אֵלִים׃
104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃
106.35. וַיִּתְעָרְבוּ בַגּוֹיִם וַיִּלְמְדוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם׃ 106.36. וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וַיִּהְיוּ לָהֶם לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃ 106.38. וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ דָם נָקִי דַּם־בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר זִבְּחוּ לַעֲצַבֵּי כְנָעַן וַתֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ בַּדָּמִים׃''. None
29.1. A Psalm of David. Ascribe unto the LORD, O ye sons of might, Ascribe unto the LORD glory and strength.
82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High.' "82.7. Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'" '
89.7. For who in the skies can be compared unto the LORD, Who among the sons of might can be likened unto the LORD,
104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers.
106.35. But mingled themselves with the nations, And learned their works; 106.36. And they served their idols, Which became a snare unto them; 106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons, 106.38. And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, Whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; And the land was polluted with blood.''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.1-6.7, 44.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Besa, catechesis • Four living beings • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Dilley (2019) 137; Rasimus (2009) 69; Trudinger (2004) 92, 95, 98

6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃
6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4. וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 6.5. וָאֹמַר אוֹי־לִי כִי־נִדְמֵיתִי כִּי אִישׁ טְמֵא־שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי וּבְתוֹךְ עַם־טְמֵא שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב כִּי אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת רָאוּ עֵינָי׃ 6.6. וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.7. וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָגַע זֶה עַל־שְׂפָתֶיךָ וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּר׃
44.28. הָאֹמֵר לְכוֹרֶשׁ רֹעִי וְכָל־חֶפְצִי יַשְׁלִם וְלֵאמֹר לִירוּשָׁלִַם תִּבָּנֶה וְהֵיכָל תִּוָּסֵד׃''. None
6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory. 6.4. And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke. 6.5. Then said I: Woe is me! for I am undone; Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For mine eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts. 6.6. Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar; 6.7. and he touched my mouth with it, and said: Lo, this hath touched thy lips; And thine iniquity is taken away, And thy sin expiated.
44.28. That saith of Cyrus: ‘He is My shepherd, And shall perform all My pleasure’; Even saying of Jerusalem: ‘She shall be built’; And to the temple: ‘My foundation shall be laid.’''. None
7. Hesiod, Works And Days, 200 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • eternity, eternal human beings • justice, peculiar to human beings

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 161; Segev (2017) 105

200. Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ''. None
200. That’s given to the honest, just and kind.''. None
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 20.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Four living beings • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps • sexual relations among divine beings

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 50; Rasimus (2009) 111; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 79; Trudinger (2004) 96

7. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms,and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they,became pregt, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed,all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against,them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and,fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones."
20.5. And these are the names of the holy angels who watch. Uriel, one of the holy angels, who is,over the world and over Tartarus. Raphael, one of the holy angels, who is over the spirits of men.,Raguel, one of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the world of the luminaries. Michael, one,of the holy angels, to wit, he that is set over the best part of mankind and over chaos. Saraqael,,one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits, who sin in the spirit. Gabriel, one of the holy,angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim. Remiel, one of the holy angels, whom God set over those who rise.' "'. None
9. Anon., Testament of Levi, 8.2-8.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spiritual, powers, beings • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 267; Trudinger (2004) 94

8.2. And I saw seven men in white raiment saying unto me: Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of truth, and the plate of faith, and the turban of the head, and the ephod of prophecy. 8.3. And they severally carried (these things) and put (them,) on me, and said unto me: From henceforth become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever.''. None
10. Cicero, On Duties, 1.22, 1.107-1.116 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • human beings, as θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα • human beings, defined by Epictetus • human beings, place and role in cosmos • nature, of human beings • ζῷον λογικόν θνητόν, human beings as • ζῷον λογικόν, gods and human beings as, in Stoic thought • ζῷον λογικόν, human beings as • θεωρία, vocation of human beings • θνητὰ λογικὰ ζῷα, human beings as

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 47, 130, 131, 146; Long (2006) 336, 349

1.22. Sed quoniam, ut praeclare scriptum est a Platone, non nobis solum nati sumus ortusque nostri partem patria vindicat, partem amici, atque, ut placet Stoicis, quae in terris gigtur, ad usum hominum omnia creari, homines autem hominum causa esse generatos, ut ipsi inter se aliis alii prodesse possent, in hoc naturam debemus ducem sequi, communes utilitates in medium afferre mutatione officiorum, dando accipiendo, tum artibus, tum opera, tum facultatibus devincire hominum inter homines societatem.
1.107. Intellegendum etiam cst duabus quasi nos a natura indutos esse personis; quarum una communis est ex eo, quod omnes participes sumus rationis praestantiaeque eius, qua antecellimus bestiis, a qua omne honestum decorumque trahitur, et ex qua ratio inveniendi officii exquiritur, altera autem, quae proprie singulis est tributa. Ut enim in corporibus magnae dissimilitudines sunt (alios videmus velocitate ad cursum, alios viribus ad luctandum valere, itemque in formis aliis dignitatem inesse, aliis venustatem), sic in animis exsistunt maiores etiam varietates. 1.108. Erat in L. Crasso, in L. Philippo multus lepos, maior etiam magisque de industria in C. Caesare L. filio; at isdem temporibus in M. Scauro et in M. Druso adulescente singularis severitas, in C. Laelio multa hilaritas, in eius familiari Scipione ambitio maior, vita tristior. De Graecis autem dulcem et facetum festivique sermonis atque in omni oratione simulatorem, quem ei)/rwna Graeci nominarunt, Socratem accepimus, contra Pythagoram et Periclem summam auctoritatem consecutos sine ulla hilaritate. Callidum Hannibalem ex Poenorum, ex nostris ducibus Q. Maximum accepimus, facile celare, tacere, dissimulare, insidiari, praeripere hostium consilia. In quo genere Graeci Themistoclem et Pheraeum Iasonem ceteris anteponunt; in primisque versutum et callidum factum Solonis, qui, quo et tutior eius vita esset et plus aliquanto rei publicae prodesset, furere se simulavit. 1.109. Sunt his alii multum dispares, simplices et aperti. qui nihil ex occulto, nihil de insidiis agendum putant, veritatis cultores, fraudis inimici, itemque alii, qui quidvis perpetiantur, cuivis deserviant, dum, quod velint, consequantur, ut Sullam et M. Crassum videbamus. Quo in genere versutissimum et patientissimum Lacedaemonium Lysandrum accepimus, contraque Callicratidam, qui praefectus classis proximus post Lysandrum fuit; itemque in sermonibus alium quemque, quamvis praepotens sit, efficere, ut unus de multis esse videatur; quod in Catulo, et in patre et in filio, itemque in Q. Mucio ° Mancia vidimus. Audivi ex maioribus natu hoc idem fuisse in P. Scipione Nasica, contraque patrem eius, illum qui Ti. Gracchi conatus perditos vindicavit, nullam comitatem habuisse sermonis ne Xenocratem quidem, severissimum philosophorum, ob eamque rem ipsam magnum et clarum fuisse. Innumerabiles aliae dissimilitudines sunt naturae morumque, minime tamen vituperandorum. 1.110. Admodum autem tenenda sunt sua cuique non vitiosa, sed tamen propria, quo facilius decorum illud, quod quaerimus, retineatur. Sic enim est faciendum, ut contra universam naturam nihil contendamus, ea tamen conservata propriam nostram sequamur, ut, etiamsi sint alia graviora atque meliora, tamen nos studia nostra nostrae naturae regula metiamur; neque enim attinet naturae repugnare nec quicquam sequi, quod assequi non queas. Ex quo magis emergit, quale sit decorum illud, ideo quia nihil decet invita Minerva, ut aiunt, id est adversante et repugte natura. 1.111. Omnino si quicquam est decorum, nihil est profecto magis quam aequabilitas cum universae vitae, tum singularum actionum, quam conservare non possis, si aliorum naturam imitans omittas tuam. Ut enim sermone eo debemus uti, qui innatus est nobis, ne, ut quidam, Graeca verba inculcantes iure optimo rideamur, sic in actiones omnemque vitam nullam discrepantiam conferre debemus. 1.112. Atque haec differentia naturarum tantam habet vim, ut non numquam mortem sibi ipse consciscere alius debeat, alius in eadem causa non debeat. Num enim alia in causa M. Cato fuit, alia ceteri, qui se in Africa Caesari tradiderunt? Atqui ceteris forsitan vitio datum esset, si se interemissent, propterea quod lenior eorum vita et mores fuerant faciliores, Catoni cum incredibilem tribuisset natura gravitatem eamque ipse perpetua constantia roboravisset semperque in proposito susceptoque consilio permansisset, moriendum potius quam tyranni vultus aspiciendus fuit. 1.113. Quam multa passus est Ulixes in illo errore diuturno, cum et mulieribus, si Circe et Calypso mulieres appellandae sunt, inserviret et in omni sermone omnibus affabilem et iucundum esse se vellet! domi vero etiam contumelias servorun ancillarumque pertulit, ut ad id aliquando, quod cupiebat, veniret. At Aiax, quo animo traditur, milies oppetere mortem quam illa perpeti maluisset. Quae contemplantes expendere oportebit, quid quisque habeat sui, eaque moderari nee velle experiri, quam se aliena deceant; id enim maxime quemque decet, quod est cuiusque maxime suum. 1.114. Suum quisque igitur noscat ingenium acremque se et bonorum et vitiorum suorum iudicem praebeat, ne scaenici plus quam nos videantur habere prudentiae. Illi enim non optimas, sed sibi accommodatissimas fabulas eligunt; qui voce freti sunt, Epigonos Medumque, qui gestu, Melanippam, Clytemnestram, semper Rupilius, quem ego memini, Antiopam, non saepe Aesopus Aiacem. Ergo histrio hoc videbit in scaena, non videbit sapiens vir in vita? Ad quas igitur res aptissimi erimus, in iis potissimum elaborabimus; sin aliquando necessitas nos ad ea detruserit, quae nostri ingenii non erunt, omnis adhibenda erit cura, meditatio, diligentia, ut ea si non decore, at quam minime indecore facere possimus; nec tam est enitendum, ut bona, quae nobis data non sint, sequamur, quam ut vitia fugiamus. 1.115. Ac duabus iis personis, quas supra dixi, tertia adiungitur, quam casus aliqui aut tempus imponit; quarta etiam, quam nobismet ipsi iudicio nostro accommodamus. Nam regna, imperia, nobilitas, honores, divitiae, opes eaque, quae sunt his contraria, in casu sita temporibus gubertur; ipsi autem gerere quam personam velimus, a nostra voluntate proficiscitur. Itaque se alii ad philosophiam, alii ad ius civile, alii ad eloquentiam applicant, ipsarumque virtutum in alia alius mavult excellere. 1.116. Quorum vero patres aut maiores aliqua gloria praestiterunt, ii student plerumque eodem in genere laudis excellere, ut Q. Mucius P. f. in iure civili, Pauli filius Africanus in re militari. Quidam autem ad eas laudes, quas a patribus acceperunt, addunt aliquam suam, ut hic idem Africanus eloquentia cumulavit bellicam gloriam; quod idem fecit Timotheus Cononis filius, qui cum belli laude non inferior fuisset quam pater, ad eam laudem doctrinae et ingenii gloriam adiecit. Fit autem interdum, ut non nulli omissa imitatione maiorum suum quoddam institutum consequantur, maximeque in eo plerumque elaborant ii, qui magna sibi proponunt obscuris orti maioribus.''. None
1.22. \xa0But since, as Plato has admirably expressed it, we are not born for ourselves alone, but our country claims a share of our being, and our friends a share; and since, as the Stoics hold, everything that the earth produces is created for man's use; and as men, too, are born for the sake of men, that they may be able mutually to help one another; in this direction we ought to follow Nature as our guide, to contribute to the general good by an interchange of acts of kindness, by giving and receiving, and thus by our skill, our industry, and our talents to cement human society more closely together, man to man. <" '
1.107. \xa0We must realize also that we are invested by Nature with two characters, as it were: one of these is universal, arising from the fact of our being all alike endowed with reason and with that superiority which lifts us above the brute. From this all morality and propriety are derived, and upon it depends the rational method of ascertaining our duty. The other character is the one that is assigned to individuals in particular. In the matter of physical endowment there are great differences: some, we see, excel in speed for the race, others in strength for wrestling; so in point of personal appearance, some have stateliness, others comeliness. <' "1.108. \xa0Diversities of character are greater still. Lucius Crassus and Lucius Philippus had a large fund of wit; Gaius Caesar, Lucius's son, had a still richer fund and employed it with more studied purpose. Contemporary with them, Marcus Scaurus and Marcus Drusus, the younger, were examples of unusual seriousness; Gaius Laelius, of unbounded jollity; while his intimate friend, Scipio, cherished more serious ideals and lived a more austere life. Among the Greeks, history tells us, Socrates was fascinating and witty, a genial conversationalist; he was what the Greeks call εἴÏ\x81Ï\x89ν in every conversation, pretending to need information and professing admiration for the wisdom of his companion. Pythagoras and Pericles, on the other hand, reached the heights of influence and power without any seasoning of mirthfulness. We read that Hannibal, among the Carthaginian generals, and Quintus Maximus, among our own, were shrewd and ready at concealing their plans, covering up their tracks, disguising their movements, laying stratagems, forestalling the enemy's designs. In these qualities the Greeks rank Themistocles and Jason of Pherae above all others. Especially crafty and shrewd was the device of Solon, who, to make his own life safer and at the same time to do a considerably larger service for his country, feigned insanity. <" '1.109. \xa0Then there are others, quite different from these, straightforward and open, who think that nothing should be done by underhand means or treachery. They are lovers of truth, haters of fraud. There are others still who will stoop to anything, truckle to anybody, if only they may gain their ends. Such, we saw, were Sulla and Marcus Crassus. The most crafty and most persevering man of this type was Lysander of Sparta, we are told; of the opposite type was Callicratidas, who succeeded Lysander as admiral of the fleet. So we find that another, no matter how eminent he may be, will condescend in social intercourse to make himself appear but a very ordinary person. Such graciousness of manner we have seen in the case of Catulus â\x80\x94 both father and son â\x80\x94 and also of Quintus Mucius Mancia. I\xa0have heard from my elders that Publius Scipio Nasica was another master of this art; but his father, on the other hand â\x80\x94 the man who punished Tiberius Gracchus for his nefarious undertakings â\x80\x94 had no such gracious manner in social intercourse .\xa0.\xa0., and because of that very fact he rose to greatness and fame. Countless other dissimilarities exist in natures and characters, and they are not in the least to be criticized. < 1.110. \xa0Everybody, however, must resolutely hold fast to his own peculiar gifts, in so far as they are peculiar only and not vicious, in order that propriety, which is the object of our inquiry, may the more easily be secured. For we must so act as not to oppose the universal laws of human nature, but, while safeguarding those, to follow the bent of our own particular nature; and even if other careers should be better and nobler, we may still regulate our own pursuits by the standard of our own nature. For it is of no avail to fight against one\'s nature or to aim at what is impossible of attainment. From this fact the nature of that propriety defined above comes into still clearer light, inasmuch as nothing is proper that "goes against the grain," as the saying is â\x80\x94 that is, if it is in direct opposition to one\'s natural genius. <' "1.111. \xa0If there is any such thing as propriety at all, it can be nothing more than uniform consistency in the course of our life as a whole and all its individual actions. And this uniform consistency one could not maintain by copying the personal traits of others and eliminating one's own. For as we ought to employ our mother-tongue, lest, like certain people who are continually dragging in Greek words, we draw well-deserved ridicule upon ourselves, so we ought not to introduce anything foreign into our actions or our life in general. <" '1.112. \xa0Indeed, such diversity of character carries with it so great significance that suicide may be for one man a duty, for another under the same circumstances a crime. Did Marcus Cato find himself in one predicament, and were the others, who surrendered to Caesar in Africa, in another? And yet, perhaps, they would have been condemned, if they had taken their lives; for their mode of life had been less austere and their characters more pliable. But Cato had been endowed by nature with an austerity beyond belief, and he himself had strengthened it by unswerving consistency and had remained ever true to his purpose and fixed resolve; and it was for him to die rather than to look upon the face of a tyrant. <' "1.113. \xa0How much Ulysses endured on those long wanderings, when he submitted to the service even of women (if Circe and Calypso may be called women) and strove in every word to be courteous and complaisant to all! And, arrived at home, he brooked even the insults of his men-servants and maidservants, in order to attain in the end the object of his desire. But Ajax, with the temper he is represented as having, would have chosen to meet death a\xa0thousand times rather than suffer such indignities! If we take this into consideration, we shall see that it is each man's duty to weigh well what are his own peculiar traits of character, to regulate these properly, and not to wish to try how another man's would suit him. For the more peculiarly his own a man's character is, the better it fits him. <" '1.114. \xa0Everyone, therefore, should make a proper estimate of his own natural ability and show himself a critical judge of his own merits and defects; in this respect we should not let actors display more practical wisdom than we have. They select, not the best plays, but the ones best suited to their talents. Those who rely most upon the quality of their voice take the Epigoni and the Medus; those who place more stress upon the action choose the Melanippa and the Clytaemnestra; Rupilius, whom I\xa0remember, always played in the Antiope, Aesopus rarely in the Ajax. Shall a player have regard to this in choosing his rôle upon the stage, and a wise man fail to do so in selecting his part in life? We shall, therefore, work to the best advantage in that rôle to which we are best adapted. But if at some time stress of circumstances shall thrust us aside into some uncongenial part, we must devote to it all possible thought, practice, and pains, that we may be able to perform it, if not with propriety, at least with as little impropriety as possible; and we need not strive so hard to attain to points of excellence that have not been vouchsafed to us as to correct the faults we have. < 1.115. \xa0To the two above-mentioned characters is added a\xa0third, which some chance or some circumstance imposes, and a\xa0fourth also, which we assume by our own deliberate choice. Regal powers and military commands, nobility of birth and political office, wealth and influence, and their opposites depend upon chance and are, therefore, controlled by circumstances. But what rôle we ourselves may choose to sustain is decided by our own free choice. And so some turn to philosophy, others to the civil law, and still others to oratory, while in case of the virtues themselves one man prefers to excel in one, another in another. <' "1.116. \xa0They, whose fathers or forefathers have achieved distinction in some particular field, often strive to attain eminence in the same department of service: for example, Quintus, the son of Publius Mucius, in the law; Africanus, the son of Paulus, in the army. And to that distinction which they have severally inherited from their fathers some have added lustre of their own; for example, that same Africanus, who crowned his inherited military glory with his own eloquence. Timotheus, Conon's son, did the same: he proved himself not inferior to his father in military renown and added to that distinction the glory of culture and intellectual power. It happens sometimes, too, that a man declines to follow in the footsteps of his fathers and pursues a vocation of his own. And in such callings those very frequently achieve signal success who, though sprung from humble parentage, have set their aims high. <"". None
11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.10, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • divine beings, death of • divine beings, in Ps • heavenly hierarchy divine beings

 Found in books: Moss (2010) 115; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 79; Trudinger (2004) 95, 104

12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃'
12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ '. None
7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened.
12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.''. None
12. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 201; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 79

13. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Spirit, characterizations as,, angelic or daemonic beings • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps • mystical traditions of Judaism, regarding celestial beings

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 25, 179, 182; Scopello (2008) 131; Trudinger (2004) 97

14. New Testament, Galatians, 4.4-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, enemies of God • divine beings, in Dead Sea Scrolls • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 89; Trudinger (2004) 97

4.4. ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, 4.5. ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν.''. None
4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law, 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. ''. None
15. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Angelic beings • heavenly hierarchy divine beings

 Found in books: Moss (2010) 115; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 132

1.12. ''. None
1.12. As a mantle you will roll them up, And they will be changed; But you are the same. Your years will not fail."''. None
16. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 121.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • human beings, place and role in cosmos • nature, of human beings

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 128; Long (2006) 352

121.14. You maintain, do you, says the objector, "that every living thing is at the start adapted to its constitution, but that man\'s constitution is a reasoning one, and hence man is adapted to himself not merely as a living, but as a reasoning, being? For man is dear to himself in respect of that wherein he is a man. How, then, can a child, being not yet gifted with reason, adapt himself to a reasoning constitution?" ''. None
17. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.86, 7.149 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • irrational beings • nature, of human beings • ζῷον λογικόν, gods and human beings as, in Stoic thought • ζῷον λογικόν, human beings as

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 41, 46; Long (2006) 30; Schibli (2002) 334

7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically." '
7.149. Nature, they hold, aims both at utility and at pleasure, as is clear from the analogy of human craftsmanship. That all things happen by fate or destiny is maintained by Chrysippus in his treatise De fato, by Posidonius in his De fato, book ii., by Zeno and by Boethus in his De fato, book i. Fate is defined as an endless chain of causation, whereby things are, or as the reason or formula by which the world goes on. What is more, they say that divination in all its forms is a real and substantial fact, if there is really Providence. And they prove it to be actually a science on the evidence of certain results: so Zeno, Chrysippus in the second book of his De divinatione, Athenodorus, and Posidonius in the second book of his Physical Discourse and the fifth book of his De divinatione. But Panaetius denies that divination has any real existence.'". None
18. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abydos Memnonion, question of Bes replacing Osiris-Sarapis as dream-oracle issuer • Bes • Bes (god) • Bes and Dionysos cult, and divinatory incubation at Abydos • Bes and Dionysos cult, apotropaic function • Bes and Dionysos cult, dream-divination rituals in the magical papyri • Bes(as)

 Found in books: Bortolani et al (2019) 102, 108, 115, 150, 151, 154, 155, 158, 165; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 143; Johnston and Struck (2005) 241, 242, 262; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 100; Pachoumi (2017) 159, 160, 161, 162; Renberg (2017) 434, 485, 486, 492, 496, 506

19. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
 Tagged with subjects: • Divine/heavenly (beings, status) • divine beings, in Ps

 Found in books: Ruzer (2020) 82; Trudinger (2004) 93

5a. לומר לך שאם חטא יחיד אומרים לו כלך אצל יחיד ואם חטאו צבור אומרים לו כלך אצל צבור,וצריכא דאי אשמועינן יחיד משום דלא מפרסם חטאיה אבל צבור דמפרסם חטאיהו אימא לא ואי אשמועינן צבור משום דנפישי רחמייהו אבל יחיד דלא אלימא זכותיה אימא לא צריכא,והיינו דרבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר\' יונתן כל העושה מצוה אחת בעולם הזה מקדמתו והולכת לפניו לעולם הבא שנאמר (ישעיהו נח, ח) והלך לפניך צדקך וכבוד ה\' יאספך וכל העובר עבירה אחת מלפפתו ומוליכתו ליום הדין שנאמר (איוב ו, יח) ילפתו ארחות דרכם וגו\',ר"א אומר קשורה בו ככלב שנאמר (בראשית לט, י) ולא שמע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה לשכב אצלה בעוה"ז להיות עמה בעוה"ב,אמר ר"ל בואו ונחזיק טובה לאבותינו שאלמלא הן לא חטאו אנו לא באנו לעולם שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון וגו\',למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מולדו והכתיב (בראשית ט, ז) ואתם פרו ורבו עד סיני בסיני נמי כתיב (דברים ה, כז) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם לשמחת עונה,והכתיב (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם וגו\' לאותן העומדים על הר סיני,והאמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם וגו\' וכי ספר היה לו לאדם הראשון מלמד שהראה לו הקב"ה לאדם הראשון דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו דור דור ופרנסיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של ר"ע שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל וגו\',וא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו נשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי לא לעולם אריב ולא לנצח אקצוף כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,לא תימא אנו לא באנו לעולם אלא כמי שלא באנו לעולם למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מייתי והכתיב פרשת יבמות ופרשת נחלות,על תנאי ומי כתיבי קראי על תנאי אין דהכי אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית א, לא) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי מלמד שהתנה הקב"ה עם מעשה בראשית ואמר אם מקבלין ישראל את התורה מוטב ואם לאו אחזיר אתכם לתוהו ובוהו,מיתיבי (דברים ה, כו) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם לבטל מהם מלאך המות א"א שכבר נגזרה גזרה,הא לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא תהא אומה ולשון שולטת בהן שנאמר (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם,הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא יהא מלאך המות שולט בהן שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון,ורבי יוסי נמי הכתיב למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם טובה הוא דהויא הא מיתה איכא (רבי יוסי) אמר לך כיון דליכא מיתה אין לך טובה גדולה מזו,ות"ק נמי הכתיב אכן כאדם תמותון מאי מיתה עניות דאמר מר ארבעה חשובים כמתים אלו הן עני סומא ומצורע ומי שאין לו בנים,עני דכתיב (שמות ד, יט) כי מתו כל האנשים ומאן נינהו דתן ואבירם ומי מתו מיהוי הוו אלא שירדו מנכסיהם,סומא דכתיב (איכה ג, ו) במחשכים הושיבני כמתי עולם מצורע דכתיב (במדבר יב, יב) אל נא תהי כמת ומי שאין לו בנים דכתיב (בראשית ל, א) הבה לי בנים ואם אין מתה אנכי,תנו רבנן (ויקרא כו, ג) אם בחקתי תלכו אין אם אלא לשון תחנונים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים פא, יד) לו עמי שומע לי וגו\' כמעט אויביהם אכניע ואומר (ישעיהו מח, יח) לו הקשבת למצותי ויהי כנהר שלומך וגו\' ויהי כחול זרעך וצאצאי מעיך וגו\',תנו רבנן (דברים ה, כז) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם אמר להן משה לישראל כפויי טובה בני כפויי טובה בשעה שאמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם היה להם לומר תן אתה,כפויי טובה דכתיב (במדבר כא, ה) ונפשנו קצה''. None
5a. This serves to say to you that if an individual has sinned, one says to him: Go to that famous individual who sinned, King David, and learn from him that one can repent. And if the community sinned, one says to them: Go to the community that sinned, i.e., the Jewish people at the time of the Golden Calf.,The Gemara notes: And it is necessary to learn about repentance both in the case of an individual and in the case of a community. The reason is that if we had learned this idea only with regard to an individual, one might have thought that he has the option to repent only because his sin is not publicized. But in the case of a community, whose sin is publicized, one might say that the community cannot repent. And likewise, if we had learned this idea only with regard to a community, one might have said that their repentance is accepted because their prayers are more numerous than those of an individual, and they are heard before God. But in the case of an individual, whose merit is not as strong, one might say that he is not able to repent. Therefore, it is necessary to teach both cases.,And this is similar to that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man raised on high al (II\xa0Samuel 23:1)? This is the meaning of the verse: The saying of David, son of Yishai, who raised and lightened the yoke ullah of repentance, as he taught the power of repentance through his own example.,And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani further says that Rabbi Yonatan says: With regard to anyone who performs one mitzva in this world, the mitzva will precede him and walk before him in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And your righteousness shall go before you, the glory of the Lord shall be your reward” (Isaiah 58:8). And with regard to anyone who commits one transgression, that transgression will shroud him and lead him on the Day of Judgment, as it is stated: “The paths of their way do wind, they go up into the waste, and are lost” (Job 6:18).,Rabbi Elazar says: The transgression is tied to him like a dog and does not leave him, as it is stated with regard to Joseph and Potiphar’s wife: “And he did not listen to her, to lie by her, or to be with her” (Genesis 39:10). This teaches that Joseph refused “to lie by her” in this world, which would have meant that he would have had “to be with her” in the World-to-Come.,§ The Gemara further discusses the sin of the Golden Calf. Reish Lakish says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestors who sinned with the Golden Calf, as had they not sinned we would not have come into the world. Reish Lakish explains: As it is stated about the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: “I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High” (Psalms 82:6), which indicates that they had become like angels and would not have propagated offspring. Then, God states: After you ruined your deeds: “Yet you shall die like a man, and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: Is this to say that if they had not sinned with the Golden Calf they would not have sired children? But isn’t it written that Noah and his children were instructed: “And you, be fruitful, and multiply” (Genesis 9:7)? The Gemara answers: This instruction was issued only until the revelation at Sinai, but the Jewish people would have become like angels there, had they not sinned. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it also written about the Jewish people who were at the revelation at Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents” (Deuteronomy 5:27), which means that they were instructed to resume marital relations? The Gemara answers: That verse is referring to the enjoyment of conjugal rights, not to procreation.,The Gemara further asks: But isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26), which indicates that they would continue to bear children? The Gemara answers: This verse is referring to those children who stood with them at Mount Sinai, not to future generations.,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: But doesn’t Reish Lakish say: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam, in the day that God created man” (Genesis 5:1)? Did Adam the first man have a book? Rather, the verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam, the first man, every generation and its expositors, every generation and its Sages, and every generation and its leaders. When Adam arrived at the generation of Rabbi Akiva, he rejoiced in his Torah and was saddened by his death, as Rabbi Akiva was tortured and murdered. Adam said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God! How great is the sum of them” (Psalms 139:17). It is evident from here that the Jews were destined to bear future generations from the beginning of time.,And similarly, Rabbi Yosei says: The Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. As it is stated: “For I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth; for the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” (Isaiah 57:16). According to Rabbi Yosei, in order for the Messiah to come in the end of days, it is necessary for the future generations to be born.,The Gemara answers: Do not say that if our ancestors had not sinned we would not have come into the world, as we still would have been born; rather, it would have been as though we had not come into the world. We would have been of no importance, due to the previous generations that would have still been alive. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that if the Jewish people had not sinned with the Golden Calf then they would not have died? But isn’t the chapter that addresses widows whose husbands die childless (Deuteronomy 25:5–10) written in the Torah, and the chapter that addresses the inheritance a deceased father bequeaths to his sons (Numbers 27:8–11) is also written?,The Gemara answers: These passages were written conditionally, i.e., if the Jewish people were to sin and not become like angels, those halakhot would take effect. The Gemara asks: And are verses written conditionally in this manner? The Gemara answers: Yes, as this is what Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day” (Genesis 1:31)? This teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the acts of Creation, and He said: If the Jewish people accept the Torah at the revelation at Sinai, all is well and the world will continue to exist. But if they do not accept it, I will return you to the primordial state of chaos and disorder.,The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita to the new formulation of Reish Lakish’s statement, according to which the Jewish people would have become immortal had they not sinned with the Golden Calf. The verse states about the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). The baraita states that although they had reached such an elevated state, it was not possible to nullify the power of the Angel of Death over them, as the decree of death was already issued from the time of creation.,Rather, the baraita explains that the Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that no nation or tongue would rule over them, as it is stated in the same verse: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever.” This indicates that had the Jewish people not sinned they would not have achieved immortality, which contradicts Reish Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: Reish Lakish said his statement in accordance with the opinion of that tanna. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that the Angel of Death would not rule over them, as it is stated: “I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High” (Psalms 82:6), i.e., they had become immortal like angels. Then, God states: After you ruined your deeds, “yet you shall die like a man, and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: And also, according to Rabbi Yosei, isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever,” from which it may be inferred that although it will be good for them if they remain in this elevated state, there will still be death? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Since there is no death, there is no greater good than this, i.e., the promise of the verse is immortality.,The Gemara inquires: And according to the first tanna as well, isn’t it written: “Yet you shall die like a man,” which indicates that their mortality was decreed only due to the sin of the Golden Calf? The Gemara answers: What is meant by death? It means poverty. As the Master said: Four are considered as though they were dead: These are a pauper, a blind person, a leper, and one who has no children.,A pauper is considered as though dead, as it is written that God said to Moses: “Go, return to Egypt; for all the men that sought your life are dead” (Exodus 4:19). And who were these men? They were Dathan and Abiram. But did they really die? They were still alive, as they participated in the rebellion of Korah, which took place years later. Rather, the verse does not mean that they had died, but that they had lost their property and become impoverished. This demonstrates that a pauper is considered as though he were dead.,A blind person is considered as though he were dead, as it is written: “He has made me to dwell in dark places, as those that have been long dead” (Lamentations 3:6). A leper is considered as though he were dead, as it is written that Aaron said to Moses when Miriam was struck with leprosy: “Let her not, I pray, be as one dead” (Numbers 12:12). And one who has no children is considered as though he were dead, as it is written that Rachel said to Jacob: “Give me children, or else I am dead” (Genesis 30:1).,The Sages taught with regard to the verse: “If you walk in My statutes” (Leviticus 26:3): In this context, “if” is a term that means nothing other than supplication, i.e., God is hoping that the Jewish people will observe the Torah. And similarly, it is stated: “Oh that My people would hearken to Me, that Israel would walk in My ways, I would soon subdue their enemies” (Psalms 81:14–15). And it states: “Oh that you would hearken to My commandments! Then your peace would be as a river, and your righteousness as the waves of the sea. Your seed also would be as the sand, and the offspring of your body like its grains” (Isaiah 48:18–19).,§ The Gemara returns to a verse cited above. The Sages taught with regard to the verse: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). At a later stage, Moses said to the Jewish people: Ingrates, children of ingrates! When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always,” they should have said: You should give us a heart to fear You.,The Gemara explains that Moses calls the Jewish people ingrates, as it is written that the Jewish people spoke disparagingly of the manna: “And our soul loathes''. None

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