Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.





249 results for "bar"
1. Septuagint, Ezekiel, 47.1-47.12 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 342
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt, r. akiva’s acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah •r. akiva, acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhba Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 179; Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 79; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 511
24.17. "אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃", 24.17. "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 37
119.126. "עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַיהוָה הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ׃", 119.126. "It is time for the LORD to work; They have made void Thy law.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 5.13 5.13 5 13 \n1 5.12 5.12 5 12 \n2 5.14 5.14 5 14 \n3 5.15 5.15 5 15 \n4 23.4 23.4 23 4 \n5 23.5 23.5 23 5 \n6 23.6 23.6 23 6 \n7 23.7 23.7 23 7 \n8 23.8 23.8 23 8 \n9 23.9 23.9 23 9 \n10 32.38 32.38 32 38 \n11 32.39 32.39 32 39 \n12 32.37 32.37 32 37 \n13 30.3 30.3 30 3 \n14 28.48 28.48 28 48 \n15 28.47 28.47 28 47 \n16 18.18 18.18 18 18 \n17 6.5 6.5 6 5 \n18 22.24 22.24 22 24 \n19 7.3 7.3 7 3 \n20 7.4 7.4 7 4 \n21 22.22 22.22 22 22 \n22 22.23 22.23 22 23 \n23 22.26 22.26 22 26 \n24 22.27 22.27 22 27 \n25 22.25 22.25 22 25 \n26 "11.23" "11.23" "11 23" (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 207
5.13. "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃", 5.13. "Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;",
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 23.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 37
23.22. "שְׁמַע לְאָבִיךָ זֶה יְלָדֶךָ וְאַל־תָּבוּז כִּי־זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ׃", 23.22. "Hearken unto thy father that begot thee, And despise not thy mother when she is old.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 313
1.14. "וְהַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו כַּרְשְׁנָא שֵׁתָר אַדְמָתָא תַרְשִׁישׁ מֶרֶס מַרְסְנָא מְמוּכָן שִׁבְעַת שָׂרֵי פָּרַס וּמָדַי רֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַיֹּשְׁבִים רִאשֹׁנָה בַּמַּלְכוּת׃", 1.14. "and the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king’s face, and sat the first in the kingdom:",
7. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, a b c d\n0 31.17 31.17 31 17 \n1 31.16 31.16 31 16 \n2 31.15 31.15 31 15 \n3 31.14 31.14 31 14 \n4 20.12 20.12 20 12 \n5 20.11 20.11 20 11 \n6 20.10 20.10 20 10 \n7 20.8 20.8 20 8 \n8 20.9 20.9 20 9 \n9 15.3 15.3 15 3 \n10 40 40 40 None\n11 30 30 30 None\n12 31 31 31 None\n13 27 27 27 None\n14 35 35 35 None\n15 36 36 36 None\n16 37 37 37 None\n17 38 38 38 None\n18 39 39 39 None\n19 29 29 29 None\n20 28 28 28 None\n21 26 26 26 None\n22 25 25 25 None\n23 6.8 6.8 6 8 \n24 19.16 19.16 19 16 \n25 12.41 12.41 12 41 \n26 "12.15" "12.15" "12 15" \n27 "12.8" "12.8" "12 8" \n28 "23.15" "23.15" "23 15" \n29 "12.19" "12.19" "12 19" (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 207
31.17. "בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃", 31.17. "It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’",
8. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 75
5.1. "דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃", 5.1. "בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃", 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved.
9. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.21-5.24, 6.1-6.4, 9.25-9.26, 25.23, 25.30, 32.5, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhba (revolt) •bar kokhba Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 126; Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 239; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 278; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 137, 190, 191
5.21. "וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃", 5.22. "וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃", 5.23. "וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃", 5.24. "וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃", 6.1. "וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃", 6.1. "וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃", 6.2. "וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃", 6.2. "מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃", 6.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃", 6.4. "הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃", 9.25. "וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃", 9.26. "וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃", 25.23. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃", 32.5. "וַיְצַו אֹתָם לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לַאדֹנִי לְעֵשָׂו כֹּה אָמַר עַבְדְּךָ יַעֲקֹב עִם־לָבָן גַּרְתִּי וָאֵחַר עַד־עָתָּה׃", 5.21. "And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah.", 5.22. "And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.", 5.23. "And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years.", 5.24. "And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.", 6.1. "And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,", 6.2. "that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose.", 6.3. "And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’", 6.4. "The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.", 9.25. "And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.", 9.26. "And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant.", 25.23. "And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger.", 25.30. "And Esau said to Jacob: ‘Let me swallow, I pray thee, some of this red, red pottage; for I am faint.’ Therefore was his name called Edom.", 32.5. "And he commanded them, saying: ‘Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob: I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed until now.", 49.10. "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 87
3.23. "הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃", 3.23. "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.",
11. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt, failure of Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 44
5.21. "נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃", 5.21. "If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;",
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 199
17.29. "וַיִּהְיוּ עֹשִׂים גּוֹי גּוֹי אֱלֹהָיו וַיַּנִּיחוּ בְּבֵית הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ הַשֹּׁמְרֹנִים גּוֹי גּוֹי בְּעָרֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הֵם יֹשְׁבִים שָׁם׃", 17.29. "Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.8, 34.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhba Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 31
3.8. "וָאֵרֶא כִּי עַל־כָּל־אֹדוֹת אֲשֶׁר נִאֲפָה מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁלַּחְתִּיהָ וָאֶתֵּן אֶת־סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻתֶיהָ אֵלֶיהָ וְלֹא יָרְאָה בֹּגֵדָה יְהוּדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתִּזֶן גַּם־הִיא׃", 34.5. "בְּשָׁלוֹם תָּמוּת וּכְמִשְׂרְפוֹת אֲבוֹתֶיךָ הַמְּלָכִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כֵּן יִשְׂרְפוּ־לָךְ וְהוֹי אָדוֹן יִסְפְּדוּ־לָךְ כִּי־דָבָר אֲנִי־דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃", 3.8. "And I saw, when, forasmuch as backsliding Israel had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a bill of divorcement, that yet treacherous Judah her sister feared not; but she also went and played the harlot;", 34.5. "thou shalt die in peace; and with the burnings of thy fathers, the former kings that were before thee, so shall they make a burning for thee; and they shall lament thee: ‘Ah lord! ’ for I have spoken the word, saith the LORD.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 19.20, 50.1, 55, 56, 56.9-57.13, 57, 58, 59, 60, 60.1, 60.2, 60.3, 60.4, 60.5, 60.6, 60.7, 60.8, 60.9, 60.10, 60.11, 60.12, 60.13, 60.14, 60.15, 60.16, 60.17, 60.18, 60.19, 60.20, 60.21, 60.22, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 57
60.14. "וְהָלְכוּ אֵלַיִךְ שְׁחוֹחַ בְּנֵי מְעַנַּיִךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ עַל־כַּפּוֹת רַגְלַיִךְ כָּל־מְנַאֲצָיִךְ וְקָרְאוּ לָךְ עִיר יְהוָה צִיּוֹן קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 60.14. "And the sons of them that afflicted thee Shall come bending unto thee, And all they that despised thee shall bow down At the soles of thy feet; And they shall call thee The city of the LORD, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel.",
15. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 15.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Ben-Eliyahu (2019), Identity and Territory : Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity. 28
15.8. "וְעָלָה הַגְּבוּל גֵּי בֶן־הִנֹּם אֶל־כֶּתֶף הַיְבוּסִי מִנֶּגֶב הִיא יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְעָלָה הַגְּבוּל אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי גֵי־הִנֹּם יָמָּה אֲשֶׁר בִּקְצֵה עֵמֶק־רְפָאִים צָפֹנָה׃", 15.8. "And the border went up by the Valley of the son of Hinnom unto the side of the Jebusite southward—the same is Jerusalem—and the border went up to the top of the mountain that lieth before the Valley of Hinnom westward, which is at the uttermost part of the vale of Rephaim northward.",
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.3 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 115
1.3. "הָיֹה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יְחֶזְקֵאל בֶּן־בּוּזִי הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים עַל־נְהַר־כְּבָר וַתְּהִי עָלָיו שָׁם יַד־יְהוָה׃", 1.3. "the word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, a b c d\n0 "9.10" "9.10" "9 10" (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolts, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Allen and Doedens (2022), Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature 6
18. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.1-3.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolts, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Allen and Doedens (2022), Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature 259
3.1. "רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעִנְיָן אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ׃", 3.1. "לַכֹּל זְמָן וְעֵת לְכָל־חֵפֶץ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 3.2. "עֵת לָלֶדֶת וְעֵת לָמוּת עֵת לָטַעַת וְעֵת לַעֲקוֹר נָטוּעַ׃", 3.2. "הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד הַכֹּל הָיָה מִן־הֶעָפָר וְהַכֹּל שָׁב אֶל־הֶעָפָר׃", 3.3. "עֵת לַהֲרוֹג וְעֵת לִרְפּוֹא עֵת לִפְרוֹץ וְעֵת לִבְנוֹת׃", 3.4. "עֵת לִבְכּוֹת וְעֵת לִשְׂחוֹק עֵת סְפוֹד וְעֵת רְקוֹד׃", 3.5. "עֵת לְהַשְׁלִיךְ אֲבָנִים וְעֵת כְּנוֹס אֲבָנִים עֵת לַחֲבוֹק וְעֵת לִרְחֹק מֵחַבֵּק׃", 3.6. "עֵת לְבַקֵּשׁ וְעֵת לְאַבֵּד עֵת לִשְׁמוֹר וְעֵת לְהַשְׁלִיךְ׃", 3.7. "עֵת לִקְרוֹעַ וְעֵת לִתְפּוֹר עֵת לַחֲשׁוֹת וְעֵת לְדַבֵּר׃", 3.8. "עֵת לֶאֱהֹב וְעֵת לִשְׂנֹא עֵת מִלְחָמָה וְעֵת שָׁלוֹם׃", 3.1. "To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven:", 3.2. "A time to be born, and a time to die; A time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;", 3.3. "A time to kill, and a time to heal; A time to break down, and a time to build up;", 3.4. "A time to weep, and a time to laugh; A time to mourn, and a time to dance;", 3.5. "A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together; A time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing;", 3.6. "A time to seek, and a time to lose; A time to keep, and a time to cast away;", 3.7. "A time to rend, and a time to sew; A time to keep silence, and a time to speak;", 3.8. "A time to love, and a time to hate; A time for war, and a time for peace.",
19. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •apocalypse of peter, and bar kokhba Found in books: Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 282
69c. κάθαρσίς τις τῶν τοιούτων πάντων καὶ ἡ σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἀνδρεία, καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ φρόνησις μὴ καθαρμός τις ᾖ. καὶ κινδυνεύουσι καὶ οἱ τὰς τελετὰς ἡμῖν οὗτοι καταστήσαντες οὐ φαῦλοί τινες εἶναι, ἀλλὰ τῷ ὄντι πάλαι αἰνίττεσθαι ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀμύητος καὶ ἀτέλεστος εἰς Ἅιδου ἀφίκηται ἐν βορβόρῳ κείσεται, ὁ δὲ κεκαθαρμένος τε καὶ τετελεσμένος ἐκεῖσε ἀφικόμενος μετὰ θεῶν οἰκήσει. εἰσὶν γὰρ δή, ὥς φασιν οἱ περὶ τὰς τελετάς, ναρθηκοφόροι 69c. from all these things, and self-restraint and justice and courage and wisdom itself are a kind of purification. And I fancy that those men who established the mysteries were not unenlightened, but in reality had a hidden meaning when they said long ago that whoever goes uninitiated and unsanctified to the other world will lie in the mire, but he who arrives there initiated and purified will dwell with the gods. For as they say in the mysteries, the thyrsus-bearers are many, but the mystics few ;
20. Herodotus, Histories, 1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 210
1.1. The Persian learned men say that the Phoenicians were the cause of the dispute. These (they say) came to our seas from the sea which is called Red, and having settled in the country which they still occupy, at once began to make long voyages. Among other places to which they carried Egyptian and Assyrian merchandise, they came to Argos , ,which was at that time preeminent in every way among the people of what is now called Hellas . The Phoenicians came to Argos , and set out their cargo. ,On the fifth or sixth day after their arrival, when their wares were almost all sold, many women came to the shore and among them especially the daughter of the king, whose name was Io (according to Persians and Greeks alike), the daughter of Inachus. ,As these stood about the stern of the ship bargaining for the wares they liked, the Phoenicians incited one another to set upon them. Most of the women escaped: Io and others were seized and thrown into the ship, which then sailed away for Egypt .
21. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •apocalypse of peter, and bar kokhba Found in books: Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 282
363d. ἤδη διάγειν μεθύοντας, ἡγησάμενοι κάλλιστον ἀρετῆς μισθὸν μέθην αἰώνιον. οἱ δʼ ἔτι τούτων μακροτέρους ἀποτείνουσιν μισθοὺς παρὰ θεῶν· παῖδας γὰρ παίδων φασὶ καὶ γένος κατόπισθεν λείπεσθαι τοῦ ὁσίου καὶ εὐόρκου. ταῦτα δὴ καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα ἐγκωμιάζουσιν δικαιοσύνην· τοὺς δὲ ἀνοσίους αὖ καὶ ἀδίκους εἰς πηλόν τινα κατορύττουσιν ἐν Ἅιδου καὶ κοσκίνῳ ὕδωρ ἀναγκάζουσι φέρειν, ἔτι τε ζῶντας 363d. they entertain the time henceforth with wine, as if the fairest meed of virtue were an everlasting drunk. And others extend still further the rewards of virtue from the gods. For they say that the children’s children of the pious and oath-keeping man and his race thereafter never fail. Such and such-like are their praises of justice. But the impious and the unjust they bury in mud in the house of Hades and compel them to fetch water in a sieve, and, while they still live,
22. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4.3-4.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 178
4.3. "וּשְׁנַיִם זֵיתִים עָלֶיהָ אֶחָד מִימִין הַגֻּלָּה וְאֶחָד עַל־שְׂמֹאלָהּ׃", 4.4. "וָאַעַן וָאֹמַר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי לֵאמֹר מָה־אֵלֶּה אֲדֹנִי׃", 4.5. "וַיַּעַן הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הֲלוֹא יָדַעְתָּ מָה־הֵמָּה אֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר לֹא אֲדֹנִי׃", 4.6. "וַיַּעַן וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לֵאמֹר זֶה דְּבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶל לֵאמֹר לֹא בְחַיִל וְלֹא בְכֹחַ כִּי אִם־בְּרוּחִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃", 4.7. "מִי־אַתָּה הַר־הַגָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי זְרֻבָּבֶל לְמִישֹׁר וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הָאֶבֶן הָרֹאשָׁה תְּשֻׁאוֹת חֵן חֵן לָהּ׃", 4.8. "וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 4.9. "יְדֵי זְרֻבָּבֶל יִסְּדוּ הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְיָדָיו תְּבַצַּעְנָה וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃", 4.11. "וָאַעַן וָאֹמַר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁנֵי הַזֵּיתִים הָאֵלֶה עַל־יְמִין הַמְּנוֹרָה וְעַל־שְׂמֹאולָהּ׃", 4.12. "וָאַעַן שֵׁנִית וָאֹמַר אֵלָיו מַה־שְׁתֵּי שִׁבֲּלֵי הַזֵּיתִים אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד שְׁנֵי צַנְתְּרוֹת הַזָּהָב הַמְרִיקִים מֵעֲלֵיהֶם הַזָּהָב׃", 4.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לֵאמֹר הֲלוֹא יָדַעְתָּ מָה־אֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר לֹא אֲדֹנִי׃", 4.14. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־הַיִּצְהָר הָעֹמְדִים עַל־אֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 4.3. "and two olive-trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof.’", 4.4. "And I answered and spoke to the angel that spoke with me, saying: ‘What are these, my lord?’", 4.5. "Then the angel that spoke with me answered and said unto me: ‘Knowest thou not what these are?’ And I said: ‘No, my lord.’", 4.6. "Then he answered and spoke unto me, saying: ‘This is the word of the LORD unto Zerubbabel, saying: Not by might, nor by power, but by My spirit, saith the LORD of hosts.", 4.7. "Who art thou, O great mountain before Zerubbabel? thou shalt become a plain; and he shall bring forth the top stone with shoutings of Grace, grace, unto it.’", 4.8. "Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:", 4.9. "’The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also finish it; and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto you.", 4.10. "For who hath despised the day of small things? even they shall see with joy the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel, even these seven, which are the eyes of the LORD, that run to and fro through the whole earth.’", 4.11. "Then answered I, and said unto him: ‘What are these two olive-trees upon the right side of the candlestick and upon the left side thereof?’", 4.12. "And I answered the second time, and said unto him: ‘What are these two olive branches, which are beside the two golden spouts, that empty the golden oil out of themselves?’", 4.13. "And he answered me and said: ‘Knowest thou not what these are?’ And I said: ‘No, my lord.’", 4.14. "Then said he: ‘These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth.’",
23. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba war Found in books: Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 474
24. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.10-9.23, 13.6-13.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba caves Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 95
25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.9, 9.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba caves Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 95
26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.9, 9.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba caves Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 95
27. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.1-1.11, 13.42, 14.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 151, 210
1.1. After Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came from the land of Kittim, had defeated Darius, king of the Persians and the Medes, he succeeded him as king. (He had previously become king of Greece.) 1.2. He fought many battles, conquered strongholds, and put to death the kings of the earth. 1.3. He advanced to the ends of the earth, and plundered many nations. When the earth became quiet before him, he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up. 1.4. He gathered a very strong army and ruled over countries, nations, and princes, and they became tributary to him. 1.5. After this he fell sick and perceived that he was dying. 1.6. So he summoned his most honored officers, who had been brought up with him from youth, and divided his kingdom among them while he was still alive. 1.7. And after Alexander had reigned twelve years, he died. 1.8. Then his officers began to rule, each in his own place. 1.9. They all put on crowns after his death, and so did their sons after them for many years; and they caused many evils on the earth. 1.10. From them came forth a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king; he had been a hostage in Rome. He began to reign in the one hundred and thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks. 1.11. In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covet with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us." 13.42. and the people began to write in their documents and contracts, "In the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews." 14.47. So Simon accepted and agreed to be high priest, to be commander and ethnarch of the Jews and priests, and to be protector of them all.
28. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.6, 9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 207
6.6. A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.' 9.17. and in addition to all this he also would become a Jew and would visit every inhabited place to proclaim the power of God."
29. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.13, 7.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 79; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 318
7.13. "חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃", 7.25. "וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃", 7.13. "I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him.", 7.25. "And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time.",
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.10-9.23, 13.6-13.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba caves Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 95
31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 5.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba caves Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 95
32. Anon., Jubilees, 11-12, 8-10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 4.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
158. Moreover, in the monthly divisions of the country, when the whole people receives money or corn in turn, he never allowed the Jews to fall short in their reception of this favour, but even if it happened that this distribution fell on the day of their sacred sabbath, on which day it is not lawful for them to receive any thing, or to give any thing, or in short to perform any of the ordinary duties of life, he charged the dispenser of these gifts, and gave him the most careful and special injunctions to make the distribution to the Jews on the day following, that they might not lose the effects of his common kindness. XXIV.
34. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 158 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
158. I, Flaccus, who was born, and brought up, and educated in Rome, the heaven of the world, and who have been the schoolfellow and companion of the granddaughters of Augustus, and who was afterwards selected by Tiberius Caesar as one of his most intimate friends, and who have had entrusted to me for six years the greatest of all his possessions, namely, Egypt.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.1-2.44, 2.288 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 318
2.1. The first volume of this treatise relates to the subject of the birth and bringing up of Moses, and also of his education and of his government of his people, which he governed not merely irreproachably, but in so exceedingly praiseworthy a manner; and also of all the affairs, which took place in Egypt, and in the travels and journeyings of the nation, and of the events which happened with respect to their crossing the Red Sea and in the desert, which surpass all power of description; and, moreover, of all the labours which he conducted to a successful issue, and of the inheritances which he distributed in portions to his soldiers. But the book which we are now about to compose relates to the affairs which follow those others in due order, and bear a certain correspondence and connection with them. 2.2. For some persons say, and not without some reason and propriety, that this is the only way by which cities can be expected to advance in improvement, if either the kings cultivate philosophy, or if philosophers exercise the kingly power. But Moses will be seen not only to have displayed all these powers--I mean the genius of the philosopher and of the king--in an extraordinary degree at the same time, but three other powers likewise, one of which is conversant about legislation, the second about the way of discharging the duties of high priest, and the last about the prophetic office; 2.3. and it is on these subjects that I have now been constrained to choose to enlarge; for I conceive that all these things have fitly been united in him, inasmuch as in accordance with the providential will of God he was both a king and a lawgiver, and a high priest and a prophet, and because in each office he displayed the most eminent wisdom and virtue. We must now show how it is that every thing is fitly united in him. 2.4. It becomes a king to command what ought to be done, and to forbid what ought not to be done; but the commanding what ought to be done, and the prohibition of what ought not to be done, belongs especially to the law, so that the king is at once a living law, and the law is a just king. 2.5. But a king and a lawgiver ought to pay attention not only to human things, but also to divine ones, for the affairs of neither kings nor subjects go on well except by the intervention of divine providence; on which account it was necessary that such a man as Moses should enjoy the first priesthood, in order that he might with perfectly conducted sacrifices, and with a perfect knowledge of the proper way to serve God, entreat for a deliverance from evil and for a participation in good, both for himself and for the people whom he was governing, from the merciful God who listens favourably to prayers. 2.6. But since there is an infinite variety of both human and divine circumstances which are unknown both to king, and lawgiver, and chief priest, for a man is no less a created and mortal being from having all these offices, or because he is clothed with such a vast and boundless inheritance of honour and happiness, he was also of necessity invested with the gift of prophecy, in order that he might through the providence of God learn all those things which he was unable to comprehend by his own reason; for what the mind is unable to attain to, that prophecy masters. 2.7. Therefore the connection of these four powers is beautiful and harmonious, for being all connected together and united one to another, they unite in concert, receiving and imparting a reciprocity of benefits from and to one another, imitating the virgin graces with whom it is an immutable law of their nature that they cannot be disunited, with respect to whom one might fairly say, what is habitually said of the virtues, that he who has one has them all. 2.8. And first of all we must speak of the matters which relate to his character and conduct as a lawgiver. I am not ignorant that the man who desires to be an excellent and perfect lawgiver ought to exercise all the virtues in their complete integrity and perfection, since in the houses of his nation some are near relations and some distant, but still they are all related to one another. And in like manner we must look upon some of the virtues as connected more closely with some matters, and on others as being more removed from them. 2.9. Now these four qualities are closely connected with and related to the legislative power, namely, humility, the love of justice, the love of virtue, and the hatred of iniquity; for every individual who has any desire for exercising his talents as a lawgiver is under the influence of each of these feelings. It is the province of humanity to prepare for adoption such opinions as will benefit the common weal, and to teach the advantages which will proceed from them. It is the part of justice to point out how we ought to honour equality, and to assign to every man his due according to his deserts. It is the part of the love of virtue to embrace those things which are by nature good, and to give to every one who deserves them facilities without limit for the most unrestrained enjoyment of happiness. It is also the province of the hatred of iniquity to reject all those who dishonour virtue, and to look upon them as common enemies of the human race. 2.10. Therefore it is a very great thing if it has fallen to the lot of any one to arrive at any one of the qualities before mentioned, and it is a marvellous thing, as it should seem, for any one man to have been able to grasp them all, which in fact Moses appears to have been the only person who has ever done, having given a very clear description of the aforesaid virtues in the commandments which he established. 2.11. And those who are well versed in the sacred scriptures know this, for if he had not had these principles innate within him he would never have compiled those scriptures at the promptings of God. And he gave to those who were worthy to use them the most admirable of all possessions, namely, faithful copies and imitations of the original examples which were consecrated and enshrined in the soul, which became the laws which he revealed and established, displaying in the clearest manner the virtues which I have enumerated and described above. 2.12. But that he himself is the most admirable of all the lawgivers who have ever lived in any country either among the Greeks or among the barbarians, and that his are the most admirable of all laws, and truly divine, omitting no one particular which they ought to comprehend, there is the clearest proof possible in this fact, the laws of other lawgivers, 2.13. if any one examines them by his reason, he will find to be put in motion in an innumerable multitude of pretexts, either because of wars, or of tyrannies, or of some other unexpected events which come upon nations through the various alterations and innovations of fortune; and very often luxury, abounding in all kind of superfluity and unbounded extravagance, has overturned laws, from the multitude not being able to bear unlimited prosperity, but having a tendency to become insolent through satiety, and insolence is in opposition to law. 2.14. But the enactments of this lawgiver are firm, not shaken by commotions, not liable to alteration, but stamped as it were with the seal of nature herself, and they remain firm and lasting from the day on which they were first promulgated to the present one, and there may well be a hope that they will remain to all future time, as being immortal, as long as the sun and the moon, and the whole heaven and the whole world shall endure. 2.15. At all events, though the nation of the Hebrews experienced so many changes both in the direction of prosperity and of the opposite destiny, no one, no not even the very smallest and most unimportant of all his commandments was changed, since every one, as it seems, honoured their venerable and godlike character; 2.16. and what neither famine, nor pestilence, nor war, nor sovereign, nor tyrant, nor the rise of any passions or evil feelings against either soul or body, nor any other evil, whether inflicted by God or deriving its rise from men, ever dissolved, can surely never be looked upon by us in any other light than as objects of all admiration, and beyond all powers of description in respect of their excellence. 2.17. But this is not so entirely wonderful, although it may fairly by itself be considered a thing of great intrinsic importance, that his laws were kept securely and immutably from all time; but this is more wonderful by far, as it seems, that not only the Jews, but that also almost every other nation, and especially those who make the greatest account of virtue, have dedicated themselves to embrace and honour them, for they have received this especial honour above all other codes of laws, which is not given to any other code. 2.18. And a proof of this is to be found in the fact that of all the cities in Greece and in the territory of the barbarians, if one may so say, speaking generally, there is not one single city which pays any respect to the laws of another state. In fact, a city scarcely adheres to its own laws with any constancy for ever, but continually modifies them, and adapts them to the changes of times and circumstances. 2.19. The Athenians rejected the customs and laws of the Lacedaemonians, and so did the Lacedaemonians repudiate the laws of the Athenians. Nor, again, in the countries of the barbarians do the Egyptians keep the laws of the Scythians, nor do the Scythians keep the laws of the Egyptians; nor, in short, do those who live in Asia attend to the laws which obtain in Europe, nor do the inhabitants of Europe respect the laws of the Asiatic nations. And, in short, it is very nearly an universal rule, from the rising of the sun to its extreme west, that every country, and nation, and city, is alienated from the laws and customs of foreign nations and states, and that they think that they are adding to the estimation in which they hold their own laws by despising those in use among other nations. 2.20. But this is not the case with our laws which Moses has given to us; for they lead after them and influence all nations, barbarians, and Greeks, the inhabitants of continents and islands, the eastern nations and the western, Europe and Asia; in short, the whole habitable world from one extremity to the other. 2.21. For what man is there who does not honour that sacred seventh day, granting in consequence a relief and relaxation from labour, for himself and for all those who are near to him, and that not to free men only, but also to slaves, and even to beasts of burden; 2.22. for the holiday extends even to every description of animal, and to every beast whatever which performs service to man, like slaves obeying their natural master, and it affects even every species of plant and tree; for there is no shoot, and no branch, and no leaf even which it is allowed to cut or to pluck on that day, nor any fruit which it is lawful to gather; but everything is at liberty and in safety on that day, and enjoys, as it were, perfect freedom, no one ever touching them, in obedience to a universal proclamation. 2.23. Again, who is there who does not pay all due respect and honour to that which is called "the fast," and especially to that great yearly one which is of a more austere and venerable character than the ordinary solemnity at the full moon? on which, indeed, much pure wine is drunk, and costly entertainments are provided, and everything which relates to eating and drinking is supplied in the most unlimited profusion, by which the insatiable pleasures of the belly are inflamed and increased. 2.24. But on this fast it is not lawful to take any food or any drink, in order that no bodily passion may at all disturb or hinder the pure operations of the mind; but these passions are wont to be generated by fulness and satiety, so that at this time men feast, propitiating the Father of the universe with holy prayers, by which they are accustomed to solicit pardon for their former sins, and the acquisition and enjoyment of new blessings. 2.25. And that beauty and dignity of the legislation of Moses is honoured not among the Jews only, but also by all other nations, is plain, both from what has been already said and from what I am about to state. 2.26. In olden time the laws were written in the Chaldaean language, and for a long time they remained in the same condition as at first, not changing their language as long as their beauty had not made them known to other nations; 2.27. but when, from the daily and uninterrupted respect shown to them by those to whom they had been given, and from their ceaseless observance of their ordices, other nations also obtained an understanding of them, their reputation spread over all lands; for what was really good, even though it may through envy be overshadowed for a short time, still in time shines again through the intrinsic excellence of its nature. Some persons, thinking it a scandalous thing that these laws should only be known among one half portion of the human race, namely, among the barbarians, and that the Greek nation should be wholly and entirely ignorant of them, turned their attention to their translation. 2.28. And since this undertaking was an important one, tending to the general advantage, not only of private persons, but also of rulers, of whom the number was not great, it was entrusted to kings and to the most illustrious of all kings. 2.29. Ptolemy, surnamed Philadelphus, was the third in succession after Alexander, the monarch who subdued Egypt; and he was, in all virtues which can be displayed in government, the most excellent sovereign, not only of all those of his time, but of all that ever lived; so that even now, after the lapse of so many generations, his fame is still celebrated, as having left many instances and monuments of his magimity in the cities and districts of his kingdom, so that even now it is come to be a sort of proverbial expression to call excessive magnificence, and zeal, for honour and splendour in preparation, Philadelphian, from his name; 2.30. and, in a word, the whole family of the Ptolemies was exceedingly eminent and conspicuous above all other royal families, and among the Ptolemies, Philadelphus was the most illustrious; for all the rest put together scarcely did as many glorious and praiseworthy actions as this one king did by himself, being, as it were, the leader of the herd, and in a manner the head of all the kings. 2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person. 2.32. And having explained his wishes, and having requested him to pick him out a number of men, of perfect fitness for the task, who should translate the law, the high-priest, as was natural, being greatly pleased, and thinking that the king had only felt the inclination to undertake a work of such a character from having been influenced by the providence of God, considered, and with great care selected the most respectable of the Hebrews whom he had about him, who in addition to their knowledge of their national scriptures, had also been well instructed in Grecian literature, and cheerfully sent them. 2.33. And when they arrived at the king's court they were hospitably received by the king; and while they feasted, they in return feasted their entertainer with witty and virtuous conversation; for he made experiment of the wisdom of each individual among them, putting to them a succession of new and extraordinary questions; and they, since the time did not allow of their being prolix in their answers, replied with great propriety and fidelity as if they were delivering apophthegms which they had already prepared. 2.34. So when they had won his approval, they immediately began to fulfil the objects for which that honourable embassy had been sent; and considering among themselves how important the affair was, to translate laws which had been divinely given by direct inspiration, since they were not able either to take away anything, or to add anything, or to alter anything, but were bound to preserve the original form and character of the whole composition, they looked out for the most completely purified place of all the spots on the outside of the city. For the places within the walls, as being filled with all kinds of animals, were held in suspicion by them by reason of the diseases and deaths of some, and the accursed actions of those who were in health. 2.35. The island of Pharos lies in front of Alexandria, the neck of which runs out like a sort of tongue towards the city, being surrounded with water of no great depth, but chiefly with shoals and shallow water, so that the great noise and roaring from the beating of the waves is kept at a considerable distance, and so mitigated. 2.36. They judged this place to be the most suitable of all the spots in the neighbourhood for them to enjoy quiet and tranquillity in, so that they might associate with the laws alone in their minds; and there they remained, and having taken the sacred scriptures, they lifted up them and their hands also to heaven, entreating of God that they might not fail in their object. And he assented to their prayers, that the greater part, or indeed the universal race of mankind might be benefited, by using these philosophical and entirely beautiful commandments for the correction of their lives. 2.37. Therefore, being settled in a secret place, and nothing even being present with them except the elements of nature, the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven, concerning the creation of which they were going in the first place to explain the sacred account; for the account of the creation of the world is the beginning of the law; they, like men inspired, prophesied, not one saying one thing and another another, but every one of them employed the self-same nouns and verbs, as if some unseen prompter had suggested all their language to them. 2.38. And yet who is there who does not know that every language, and the Greek language above all others, is rich in a variety of words, and that it is possible to vary a sentence and to paraphrase the same idea, so as to set it forth in a great variety of manners, adapting many different forms of expression to it at different times. But this, they say, did not happen at all in the case of this translation of the law, but that, in every case, exactly corresponding Greek words were employed to translate literally the appropriate Chaldaic words, being adapted with exceeding propriety to the matters which were to be explained; 2.39. for just as I suppose the things which are proved in geometry and logic do not admit any variety of explanation, but the proposition which was set forth from the beginning remains unaltered, in like manner I conceive did these men find words precisely and literally corresponding to the things, which words were alone, or in the greatest possible degree, destined to explain with clearness and force the matters which it was desired to reveal. 2.40. And there is a very evident proof of this; for if Chaldaeans were to learn the Greek language, and if Greeks were to learn Chaldaean, and if each were to meet with those scriptures in both languages, namely, the Chaldaic and the translated version, they would admire and reverence them both as sisters, or rather as one and the same both in their facts and in their language; considering these translators not mere interpreters but hierophants and prophets to whom it had been granted it their honest and guileless minds to go along with the most pure spirit of Moses. 2.41. On which account, even to this very day, there is every year a solemn assembly held and a festival celebrated in the island of Pharos, to which not only the Jews but a great number of persons of other nations sail across, reverencing the place in which the first light of interpretation shone forth, and thanking God for that ancient piece of beneficence which was always young and fresh. 2.42. And after the prayers and the giving of thanks some of them pitched their tents on the shore, and some of them lay down without any tents in the open air on the sand of the shore, and feasted with their relations and friends, thinking the shore at that time a more beautiful abode than the furniture of the king's palace. 2.43. In this way those admirable, and incomparable, and most desirable laws were made known to all people, whether private individuals or kings, and this too at a period when the nation had not been prosperous for a long time. And it is generally the case that a cloud is thrown over the affairs of those who are not flourishing, so that but little is known of them; 2.44. and then, if they make any fresh start and begin to improve, how great is the increase of their renown and glory? I think that in that case every nation, abandoning all their own individual customs, and utterly disregarding their national laws, would change and come over to the honour of such a people only; for their laws shining in connection with, and simultaneously with, the prosperity of the nation, will obscure all others, just as the rising sun obscures the stars. 2.288. And some time afterwards, when he was about to depart from hence to heaven, to take up his abode there, and leaving this mortal life to become immortal, having been summoned by the Father, who now changed him, having previously been a double being, composed of soul and body, into the nature of a single body, transforming him wholly and entirely into a most sun-like mind; he then, being wholly possessed by inspiration, does not seem any longer to have prophesied comprehensively to the whole nation altogether, but to have predicted to each tribe separately what would happen to each of them, and to their future generations, some of which things have already come to pass, and some are still expected, because the accomplishment of those predictions which have been fulfilled is the clearest testimony to the future.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 172, 95-97 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 318
97. But the rod is the symbol of education, for without being looked at sternly, and chastised for some causes, it is impossible for any one to be admonished and corrected to any good purpose; but the number ten is a confirmation of that perfection which takes place in accordance with improvement, with which he must begin who having brought forth an offspring educated it, and brought the wished-for fruit to maturity. XXIX.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 54, 92, 63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
63. On which principle also it is that he also calls Israel, who was the younger brother in point of time, "the first born Son," judging of him by his merit, signifying thereby that, since to see God is the most clear proof of primogeniture, he is in consequence pardoned as the eldest offspring of the uncreate incomprehensible God, conceived by that virtue which is hated among men, and to whom the law enjoins that "the honours due to seniority shall be paid, as being the Eldest."
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 80-81, 79 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 318
79. This is the first reason on account of which it seems that man was created after all other animals. And there is another not altogether unreasonable, which I must mention. At the moment of his first birth, man found all the requisites for life ready prepared for him that he might teach them to those who should come afterwards. Nature all but crying out with a distinct voice, that men, imitating the Author of their being, should pass their lives without labour and without trouble, living in the most ungrudging abundance and plenty. And this would be the case if there were neither irrational pleasures to obtain mastery over the soul raising up a wall of gluttony and lasciviousness, nor desires of glory, or power, or riches, to assume dominion over life, nor pains to contract and warp the intellect, nor that evil councillor--fear, to restrain the natural inclinations towards virtuous actions, nor folly and cowardice, and injustice, and the incalculable multitude of other evils to attack them.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 318
63. For the Father of the universe has caused him to spring up as the eldest son, whom, in another passage, he calls the firstborn; and he who is thus born, imitating the ways of his father, has formed such and such species, looking to his archetypal patterns. XV.
40. Mishnah, Pesahim, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141
6.2. "אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, וַהֲלֹא דִין הוּא, מָה אִם שְׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִיא מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵן מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת לֹא יִדְחוּ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, יוֹם טוֹב יוֹכִיחַ, שֶׁהִתִּירוּ בוֹ מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה, וְאָסוּר בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, מַה זֶּה, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, מָה רְאָיָה רְשׁוּת לְמִצְוָה. הֵשִׁיב רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְאָמַר, הַזָּאָה תוֹכִיחַ, שֶׁהִיא מִצְוָה וְהִיא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אַף אַתָּה אַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל אֵלּוּ, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מִצְוָה וְהֵן מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, לֹא יִדְחוּ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, וְעָלֶיהָ אֲנִי דָן, וּמָה אִם שְׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִיא מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה, דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, הַזָּאָה שֶׁהִיא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, אֵינוֹ דִּין שֶׁדּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אוֹ חִלּוּף, מָה אִם הַזָּאָה שֶׁהִיא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, אֵינָהּ דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, שְׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִיא מִשּׁוּם מְלָאכָה, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁלֹּא תִדְחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, עֲקִיבָא, עָקַרְתָּ מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם בְּמֹעֲדוֹ (במדבר ט), בֵּין בְּחֹל בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת. אָמַר לוֹ, רַבִּי, הָבֵא לִי מוֹעֵד לָאֵלּוּ כַּמּוֹעֵד לַשְּׁחִיטָה. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, אֵינָהּ דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. שְׁחִיטָה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת: \n", 6.2. "Rabbi Eliezer said: is it not logical: if slaughtering, which is [usually forbidden] as a labor, overrides Shabbat, shouldn’t these, which are [only forbidden] as mandated rest (shevut), override Shabbat? Rabbi Joshua said to him: let the festival prove this, for they permitted labor [on the festival] and forbade [activities forbidden because of] shevut. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: what is this, Joshua? What proof is a voluntary act in respect of a commandment! Rabbi Akiva answered and said: let sprinkling [purificatory waters] prove it, which is [performed] because it is a commandment and is [forbidden only] as a shevut, yet it does not override Shabbat; so you too, do not wonder at these, that though they are [required] on account of a commandment and are [forbidden only] as shevut, yet they do not override Shabbat. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: but in respect of that I am arguing: if slaughtering, which is a labor, overrides Shabbat, is it not logical that sprinkling, which is [only] a shevut, should override Shabbat! Rabbi Akiva said to him: or the opposite: if sprinkling, which is [forbidden] as a shevut, does not override Shabbat, then slaughtering, which is [normally forbidden] on account of labor, is it not logical that it should not override Shabbat. Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Akiva! You are uprooting what is written in the Torah, “at twilight, offer it at its set time” (Numbers 9:3), both on week-days and on Shabbat. He said to him: master, give me an appointed time for these as there is an appointed season for slaughtering! Rabbi Akiva stated a general rule: work which could be done on the eve of Shabbat does not override Shabbat; slaughtering, which could not be done on the eve of Shabbat, does override Shabbat.",
41. Mishnah, Yadayim, 2.15-2.16, 3.5, 4.6, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba (bar koziba) •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 53, 75; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 177; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 166
3.5. "סֵפֶר שֶׁנִּמְחַק וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת, כְּפָרָשַׁת וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. מְגִלָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת כְּפָרָשַׁת וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן, מְטַמָּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְקֹהֶלֶת מַחֲלֹקֶת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, קֹהֶלֶת אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם וְשִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים מַחֲלֹקֶת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, קֹהֶלֶת מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עַזַּאי, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מִפִּי שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁנַיִם זָקֵן, בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה בַּיְשִׁיבָה, שֶׁשִּׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת מְטַמְּאִים אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, לֹא נֶחֱלַק אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַל שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים שֶׁלֹּא תְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, שֶׁאֵין כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ כְדַאי כַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתַּן בּוֹ שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכָּל הַכְּתוּבִים קֹדֶשׁ, וְשִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים. וְאִם נֶחְלְקוּ, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ אֶלָּא עַל קֹהֶלֶת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חָמִיו שֶׁל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כְּדִבְרֵי בֶן עַזַּאי, כָּךְ נֶחְלְקוּ וְכָךְ גָּמְרוּ: \n", 4.6. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, וְכִי אֵין לָנוּ עַל הַפְּרוּשִׁים אֶלָּא זוֹ בִלְבָד. הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹמְרִים, עַצְמוֹת חֲמוֹר טְהוֹרִים וְעַצְמוֹת יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל טְמֵאִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ תַּרְוָדוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס, שֶׁאֵינָן חֲבִיבִין, אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדָיִם: \n", 4.8. "אָמַר צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, קוֹבֵל אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם משֶׁה בַּגֵּט. אוֹמְרִים פְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עָלֶיךָ, צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם הַשֵּׁם בַּדַּף, וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל מִלְמַעְלָן וְאֶת הַשֵּׁם מִלְּמַטָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ה) וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ לְשַׁלַּח אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּכְשֶׁלָּקָה מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (שם ט), ה' הַצַּדִּיק: \n", 3.5. "A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision.", 4.6. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands.", 4.8. "A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27).",
42. Mishnah, Zevahim, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151
4.5. "קָדְשֵׁי נָכְרִים, אֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל, נוֹתָר וְטָמֵא. וְהַשּׁוֹחֲטָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי מְחַיֵּב. דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל, חַיָּבִים עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם נוֹתָר, מִשּׁוּם טָמֵא, חוּץ מִן הַדָּם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בְּדָבָר שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהֵאָכֵל. אֲבָל כְּגוֹן הָעֵצִים וְהַלְּבוֹנָה וְהַקְּטֹרֶת, אֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם טֻמְאָה: \n", 4.5. "The sacrifices of non-Jews: one is not liable on their account for piggul, remt, or defilement, and if [a priest] slaughters them outside [the Temple], he is not liable, the words of Rabbi Meir. But Rabbi Yose declares him liable. The things for which one is not liable on account of piggul, one is liable on account of remt and defilement except blood. Rabbi Shimon declares one liable for anything which is normally eaten, but for wood, frankincense and incense, one is not liable for [transgressions involving] defilement.",
43. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.1-7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Cohn (2013), The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis, 133
44. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.4, 4.4-4.6, 4.9-4.10, 5.1-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Cohn (2013), The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis, 133; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 69
3.4. "רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה הֲדַסִּים וּשְׁתֵּי עֲרָבוֹת, לוּלָב אֶחָד וְאֶתְרוֹג אֶחָד, אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם קְטוּמִים וְאֶחָד אֵינוֹ קָטוּם. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּן קְטוּמִים. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁלּוּלָב אֶחָד וְאֶתְרוֹג אֶחָד, כָּךְ הֲדַס אֶחָד וַעֲרָבָה אֶחָת: \n", 4.4. "מִצְוַת לוּלָב כֵּיצַד. יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, מוֹלִיכִין אֶת לוּלְבֵיהֶן לְהַר הַבַּיִת, וְהַחַזָּנִין מְקַבְּלִין מֵהֶן וְסוֹדְרִין אוֹתָן עַל גַּב הָאִצְטַבָּא, וְהַזְּקֵנִים מַנִּיחִין אֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן בַּלִּשְׁכָּה. וּמְלַמְּדִים אוֹתָם לוֹמַר, כָּל מִי שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לוּלָבִי בְיָדוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא לוֹ בְמַתָּנָה. לְמָחָר מַשְׁכִּימִין וּבָאִין, וְהַחַזָּנִין זוֹרְקִין אוֹתָם לִפְנֵיהֶם. וְהֵן מְחַטְּפִין וּמַכִּין אִישׁ אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. וּכְשֶׁרָאוּ בֵית דִּין שֶׁבָּאוּ לִידֵי סַכָּנָה, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא כָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד נוֹטֵל בְּבֵיתוֹ: \n", 4.5. "מִצְוַת עֲרָבָה כֵּיצַד, מָקוֹם הָיָה לְמַטָּה מִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְנִקְרָא מוֹצָא. יוֹרְדִין לְשָׁם וּמְלַקְּטִין מִשָּׁם מֻרְבִּיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲרָבָה, וּבָאִין וְזוֹקְפִין אוֹתָן בְּצִדֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְרָאשֵׁיהֶן כְּפוּפִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. בְּכָל יוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ פַּעַם אַחַת, וְאוֹמְרִים, אָנָּא ה' הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא, אָנָּא ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָּא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲנִי וָהוֹ הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא. וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים. בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתָן, מָה הֵן אוֹמְרִים, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ. לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ: \n", 4.6. "כְּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְחֹל כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מְלַקְּטִין אוֹתָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וּמַנִּיחִים אוֹתָן בְּגִיגִיּוֹת שֶׁל זָהָב, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכְמֹשׁוּ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר, חֲרִיּוֹת שֶׁל דֶּקֶל הָיוּ מְבִיאִין, וְחוֹבְטִין אוֹתָן בַּקַּרְקַע בְּצִדֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם נִקְרָא יוֹם חִבּוּט חֲרִיּוֹת: \n", 4.9. "נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן: \n", 4.10. "כְּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְחֹל כָּךְ מַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְשַׁבָּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה מְמַלֵּא מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת חָבִית שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת, מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ, וּמַנִּיחָהּ בַּלִּשְׁכָּה. נִשְׁפְּכָה אוֹ נִתְגַּלְּתָה, הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַכִּיּוֹר, שֶׁהַיַּיִן וְהַמַּיִם הַמְּגֻלִּין, פְּסוּלִים לְגַבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ: \n", 5.1. "הֶחָלִיל חֲמִשָּׁה וְשִׁשָּׁה. זֶהוּ הֶחָלִיל שֶׁל בֵּית הַשּׁוֹאֵבָה, שֶׁאֵינָה דּוֹחָה לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת יוֹם טוֹב. אָמְרוּ, כָּל מִי שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה שִׂמְחַת בֵּית הַשּׁוֹאֵבָה, לֹא רָאָה שִׂמְחָה מִיָּמָיו: \n", 5.2. "בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג, יָרְדוּ לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, וּמְתַקְּנִין שָׁם תִּקּוּן גָּדוֹל. וּמְנוֹרוֹת שֶׁל זָהָב הָיוּ שָׁם, וְאַרְבָּעָה סְפָלִים שֶׁל זָהָב בְּרָאשֵׁיהֶן, וְאַרְבָּעָה סֻלָּמוֹת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד, וְאַרְבָּעָה יְלָדִים מִפִּרְחֵי כְהֻנָּה וּבִידֵיהֶם כַּדִּים שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים לֹג, שֶׁהֵן מַטִּילִין לְכָל סֵפֶל וָסֵפֶל: \n", 5.3. "מִבְּלָאֵי מִכְנְסֵי כֹהֲנִים וּמֵהֶמְיָנֵיהֶן מֵהֶן הָיוּ מַפְקִיעִין, וּבָהֶן הָיוּ מַדְלִיקִין, וְלֹא הָיְתָה חָצֵר בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְאִירָה מֵאוֹר בֵּית הַשּׁוֹאֵבָה: \n", 5.4. "חֲסִידִים וְאַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה הָיוּ מְרַקְּדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם בַּאֲבוּקוֹת שֶׁל אוֹר שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶן, וְאוֹמְרִים לִפְנֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי שִׁירוֹת וְתִשְׁבָּחוֹת. וְהַלְוִיִּם בְּכִנּוֹרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבִמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וּבִכְלֵי שִׁיר בְּלֹא מִסְפָּר, עַל חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת הַיּוֹרְדוֹת מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, כְּנֶגֶד חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁבַּתְּהִלִּים, שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן לְוִיִּים עוֹמְדִין בִּכְלֵי שִׁיר וְאוֹמְרִים שִׁירָה. וְעָמְדוּ שְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים בַּשַּׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיּוֹרֵד מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בִּידֵיהֶן. קָרָא הַגֶּבֶר, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הִגִּיעוּ לְמַעְלָה עֲשִׂירִית, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הִגִּיעוּ לָעֲזָרָה, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הָיוּ תוֹקְעִין וְהוֹלְכִין, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין לַשַּׁעַר הַיּוֹצֵא מִזְרָח. הִגִּיעוּ לַשַּׁעַר הַיּוֹצֵא מִמִּזְרָח, הָפְכוּ פְנֵיהֶן לַמַּעֲרָב, וְאָמְרוּ, אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁהָיוּ בַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֶל הֵיכַל ה' וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה, וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ, וְאָנוּ לְיָהּ עֵינֵינוּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָיוּ שׁוֹנִין וְאוֹמְרִין, אָנוּ לְיָהּ, וּלְיָהּ עֵינֵינוּ: \n", 3.4. "Rabbi Ishmael says: three hadasim, two aravot, one lulav and one etrog, even if two [of the hadasim] have their tips broken off and [only] one is whole. Rabbi Tarfon says: even if all three have their tips broken off. Rabbi Akiva says: just as there is one lulav and one etrog, so too only one hadas and one aravah.", 4.4. "The mitzvah of the lulav how was it carried out? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, they brought their lulavim to the Temple Mount, and the attendants would receive them and arrange them on top of the portico, and the elders laid theirs in the chamber. And they would teach the people to say, “Whoever gets my lulav in his hand, let it be his as a gift.” The next day they got up early, and came [to the Temple Mount] and the attendants threw down [their lulavim] before them, and they snatched at them, and so they used to come to blows with one another. When the court saw that they reached a state of danger, they instituted that each man should take [his lulav] in his own home.", 4.5. "The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”", 4.6. "As was its performance on a weekday, so was its performance on Shabbat, except that they would gather them on the eve of Shabbat and place them in golden basins so that they would not become wilted. Rabbi Yoha ben Beroka says: they used to bring palm branches and they would beat them on the ground at the sides of the altar, and that day was called “[the day of] the beating of the palm branches.”", 4.9. "How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs.", 4.10. "As it was performed on weekdays, so was it was performed on Shabbat, save that on the eve of Shabbat he would fill a non-sanctified golden barrel from the Shiloah, and place it in the chamber. If it was poured away or uncovered, he would refill it from the laver, for wine or water which has become uncovered is invalid for the altar.", 5.1. "The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life.", 5.2. "At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls.", 5.3. "From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah.", 5.4. "Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”",
45. Mishnah, Tamid, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 56
46. Mishnah, Taanit, 3.8, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 143; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
3.8. "עַל כָּל צָרָה שֶׁלֹּא תָבֹא עַל הַצִּבּוּר, מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶן, חוּץ מֵרוֹב גְּשָׁמִים. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁאָמְרוּ לוֹ לְחוֹנִי הַמְעַגֵּל, הִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים. אָמַר לָהֶם, צְאוּ וְהַכְנִיסוּ תַנּוּרֵי פְסָחִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִמּוֹקוּ. הִתְפַּלֵּל, וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים. מֶה עָשָׂה, עָג עוּגָה וְעָמַד בְּתוֹכָהּ, וְאָמַר לְפָנָיו, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, בָּנֶיךָ שָׂמוּ פְנֵיהֶם עָלַי, שֶׁאֲנִי כְבֶן בַּיִת לְפָנֶיךָ. נִשְׁבָּע אֲנִי בְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן, עַד שֶׁתְּרַחֵם עַל בָּנֶיךָ. הִתְחִילוּ גְּשָׁמִים מְנַטְּפִין. אָמַר, לֹא כָךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי בוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. הִתְחִילוּ לֵירֵד בְּזָעַף. אָמַר, לֹא כָךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי רָצוֹן, בְּרָכָה וּנְדָבָה. יָרְדוּ כְתִקְנָן, עַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְהַר הַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִתְפַּלַלְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ כָּךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ לָהֶן. אָמַר לָהֶן, צְאוּ וּרְאוּ אִם נִמְחֵת אֶבֶן הַטּוֹעִים. שָׁלַח לוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח, אִלְמָלֵא חוֹנִי אַתָּה, גּוֹזְרַנִי עָלֶיךָ נִדּוּי. אֲבָל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְּךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה מִתְחַטֵּא לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וְעוֹשֶׂה לְךָ רְצוֹנְךָ כְּבֵן שֶׁהוּא מִתְחַטֵּא עַל אָבִיו וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ רְצוֹנוֹ. וְעָלֶיךָ הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר (משלי כג), יִשְׂמַח אָבִיךָ וְאִמֶּךָ וְתָגֵל יוֹלַדְתֶּךָ: \n", 4.6. "חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים אֵרְעוּ אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאָב. בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבָטַל הַתָּמִיד, וְהֻבְקְעָה הָעִיר, וְשָׂרַף אַפּוֹסְטֹמוֹס אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, וְהֶעֱמִיד צֶלֶם בַּהֵיכָל. בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאָב נִגְזַר עַל אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנְסוּ לָאָרֶץ, וְחָרַב הַבַּיִת בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה, וְנִלְכְּדָה בֵיתָר, וְנֶחְרְשָׁה הָעִיר. מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס אָב, מְמַעֲטִין בְּשִׂמְחָה: \n", 3.8. "For every trouble that should not come upon the community they sound a blast except on account of too much rain. It happened that they said to Honi the circle drawer: “Pray for rain to fall.” He replied: “Go and bring in the pesah ovens so that they do not dissolve.” He prayed and no rain fell. What did he do? He drew a circle and stood within it and exclaimed before Him: “Master of the universe, Your children have turned their faces to me because I am like one who was born in Your house. I swear by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children.” Rain then began to drip, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but rain [which can fill] cisterns, ditches and caves. The rain then began to come down with great force, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but pleasing rain of blessing and abudance.” Rain then fell in the normal way until the Jews in Jerusalem had to go up Temple Mount because of the rain. They came and said to him: “In the same way that you prayed for [the rain] to fall pray [now] for the rain to stop.” He replied: “Go and see if the stone of people claiming lost objects has washed away.” Rabbi Shimon ben Shetah sent to him: “Were you not Honi I would have excommunicated you, but what can I do to you, for you are spoiled before God and he does your will like a son that is spoiled before his father and his father does his request. Concerning you it is written, “Let your father and your mother rejoice, and let she that bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25).", 4.6. "There were five events that happened to our ancestors on the seventeenth of Tammuz and five on the ninth of Av.On the seventeenth of Tammuz: The tablets were shattered; The tamid (daily) offering was cancelled; The [walls] of the city were breached; And Apostomos burned the Torah, and placed an idol in the Temple. On the ninth of Av It was decreed that our ancestors should not enter the land, The Temple was destroyed the first And the second time, Betar was captured, And the city was plowed up. When Av enters, they limit their rejoicing.",
47. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 509
9.6. ἢ μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρνάβας οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι; 9.6. Or have onlyBarnabas and I no right to not work?
48. Mishnah, Yevamot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
8.3. "עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי, אֲסוּרִים, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר עוֹלָם, אֲבָל נְקֵבוֹתֵיהֶם מֻתָּרוֹת מִיָּד. מִצְרִי וַאֲדוֹמִי אֵינָם אֲסוּרִים אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה דוֹרוֹת, אֶחָד זְכָרִים וְאֶחָד נְקֵבוֹת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר אֶת הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִיָּד. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, קַל וָחֹמֶר הַדְּבָרִים, וּמָה אִם בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁאָסַר אֶת הַזְּכָרִים אִסּוּר עוֹלָם, הִתִּיר אֶת הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִיָּד, מְקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא אָסַר אֶת הַזְּכָרִים אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה דוֹרוֹת, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁנַּתִּיר אֶת הַנְּקֵבוֹת מִיָּד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אִם הֲלָכָה נְקַבֵּל, וְאִם לַדִּין, יֵשׁ תְּשׁוּבָה. אָמַר לָהֶם, לֹא כִי, הֲלָכָה אֲנִי אוֹמֵר. מַמְזֵרִין וּנְתִינִין, אֲסוּרִין, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר עוֹלָם, אֶחָד זְכָרִים, וְאֶחָד נְקֵבוֹת: \n", 8.3. "An Ammonite and a Moabite are forbidden [to enter into the congregation of the Lord] and their prohibition is for ever. However, their women are permitted at once. An Egyptian and an Edomite are forbidden only until the third generation, whether they are males or females. Rabbi Shimon permits their women immediately. Said Rabbi Shimon: This is a kal vehomer: if where the males are forbidden for all time the females are permitted immediately, where the males are forbidden only until the third generation how much more should the females be permitted immediately. They said to him: If this is a halakhah, we shall accept it; but if it is only a logical reference, there is a refutation. He replied: This is not so, I am in fact saying a halakhah. Mamzerim and nethinim are forbidden, and their prohibition is forever, whether they be males or females.",
49. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.15-1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 375, 378
1.15. σπουδάσω δὲ καὶ ἑκάστοτε ἔχειν ὑμᾶς μετὰ τὴν ἐμὴν ἔξοδον τὴν τούτων μνήμην ποιεῖσθαι. 1.16. οὐ γὰρ σεσοφισμένοις μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες ἐγνωρίσαμεν ὑμῖν τὴν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δύναμιν καὶ παρουσίαν, ἀλλʼ ἐπόπται γενηθέντες τῆς ἐκείνου μεγαλειότητος. 1.17. λαβὼν γὰρ παρὰ θεοῦ πατρὸς τιμὴν καὶ δόξαν φωνῆς ἐνεχθείσης αὐτῷ τοιᾶσδε ὑπὸ τῆς μεγαλοπρεποῦς δόξης Ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός μου οὗτός ἐστιν, εἰς ὃν ἐγὼ εὐδόκησα,— 1.18. καὶ ταύτην τὴν φωνὴν ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐνεχθεῖσαν σὺν αὐτῷ ὄντες ἐν τῷ ἁγίῳ ὄρει. 1.15. Yes, I will make every effort that you may always be able to remember these things even after my departure. 1.16. For we did not follow cunningly devised fables, when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 1.17. For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." 1.18. This voice we heard come out of heaven when we were with him in the holy mountain.
50. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 189
12.22. ἀλλὰ προσεληλύθατε Σιὼν ὄρει καὶ πόλει θεοῦ ζῶντος, Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐπουρανίῳ, καὶ μυριάσιν ἀγγέλων, πανηγύρει 12.22. But you have come to Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable hosts of angels,
51. New Testament, Apocalypse, 11.2-11.3, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 79
11.2. καὶ τὴν αὐλὴν τὴν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ναοῦ ἔκβαλε ἔξωθεν, καὶ μὴ αὐτὴν μετρήσῃς, ὅτι ἐδόθητοῖς ἔθνεσιν,καὶ τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίανπατήσουσινμῆνας τεσσεράκοντα [καὶ] δύο. 11.3. καὶ δώσω τοῖς δυσὶν μάρτυσίν μου, καὶ προφητεύσουσιν ἡμέρας χιλίας διακοσίας ἑξήκοντα, περιβεβλημένους σάκκους. 13.5. καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷστόμα λαλοῦν μεγάλακαὶ βλασφημίας, καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαποιῆσαιμῆνας τεσσεράκοντα [καὶ] δύο. 11.2. Leave out the court which is outside of the temple, and don't measure it, for it has been given to the gentiles. They will tread the holy city under foot for forty-two months. 11.3. I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. 13.5. A mouth speaking great things and blasphemy was given to him. Authority to make war for forty-two months was given to him.
52. New Testament, Galatians, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 189
4.26. ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίν, 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all.
53. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
9.10. "יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הֶעֱבִיר הוֹדָיַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. אַף הוּא בִטֵּל אֶת הַמְעוֹרְרִין וְאֶת הַנּוֹקְפִין. עַד יָמָיו הָיָה פַטִּישׁ מַכֶּה בִירוּשָׁלַיִם. וּבְיָמָיו אֵין אָדָם צָרִיךְ לִשְׁאֹל עַל הַדְּמָאי: \n", 9.10. "Yoha the high priest brought to an end the confession made at the presentation of the tithe. He also discontinued the wakers and the knockers Up to his days the hammer used to strike in Jerusalem, And in his days there was no need to inquire about doubtfully tithed produce.",
54. New Testament, Romans, 14.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 133
14.14. οἶδα καὶ πέπεισμαι ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ ὅτι οὐδὲν κοινὸν διʼ ἑαυτοῦ· εἰ μὴ τῷ λογιζομένῳ τι κοινὸν εἶναι, ἐκείνῳ κοινόν. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean.
55. New Testament, John, 2.21, 4.46-4.53, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 141; Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
2.21. ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔλεγεν περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ. 4.46. Ἦλθεν οὖν πάλιν εἰς τὴν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, ὅπου ἐποίησεν τὸ ὕδωρ οἶνον. Καὶ ἦν τις βασιλικὸς οὗ ὁ υἱὸς ἠσθένει ἐν Καφαρναούμ· 4.47. οὗτος ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἥκει ἐκ τῆς Ἰουδαίας εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἠρώτα ἵνα καταβῇ καὶ ἰάσηται αὐτοῦ τὸν υἱόν, ἤμελλεν γὰρ ἀποθνήσκειν. 4.48. εἶπεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς πρὸς αὐτόν Ἐὰν μὴ σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα ἴδητε, οὐ μὴ πιστεύσητε. 4.49. λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλικός Κύριε, κατάβηθι πρὶν ἀποθανεῖν τὸ παιδίον μου. 4.50. λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Πορεύου· ὁ υἱός σου ζῇ. ἐπίστευσεν ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῷ λόγῳ ὃν εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἐπορεύετο. 4.51. ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ καταβαίνοντος οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτοῦ ὑπήντησαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες ὅτι ὁ παῖς αὐτοῦ ζῇ. 4.52. ἐπύθετο οὖν τὴν ὥραν παρʼ αὐτῶν ἐν ᾗ κομψότερον ἔσχεν· εἶπαν οὖν αὐτῷ ὅτι Ἐχθὲς ὥραν ἑβδόμην ἀφῆκεν αὐτὸν ὁ πυρετός. 4.53. ἔγνω οὖν ὁ πατὴρ ὅτι ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐν ᾗ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ὁ υἱός σου ζῇ, καὶ ἐπίστευσεν αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ οἰκία αὐτοῦ ὅλη. 5.10. ἔλεγον οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τῷ τεθεραπευμένῳ Σάββατόν ἐστιν, καὶ οὐκ ἔξεστίν σοι ἆραι τὸν κράβαττον. 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 4.46. Jesus came therefore again to Cana of Galilee, where he made the water into wine. There was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. 4.47. When he heard that Jesus had come out of Judea into Galilee, he went to him, and begged him that he would come down and heal his son, for he was at the point of death. 4.48. Jesus therefore said to him, "Unless you see signs and wonders, you will in no way believe." 4.49. The nobleman said to him, "Sir, come down before my child dies." 4.50. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your son lives." The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him, and he went his way. 4.51. As he was now going down, his servants met him and reported, saying "Your child lives!" 4.52. So he inquired of them the hour when he began to get better. They said therefore to him, "Yesterday at the seventh hour, the fever left him." 4.53. So the father knew that it was at that hour in which Jesus said to him, "Your son lives." He believed, as did his whole house. 5.10. So the Jews said to him who was cured, "It is the Sabbath. It is not lawful for you to carry the mat."
56. New Testament, Luke, 11.1, 13.1, 19.42-19.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba) •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 141; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 177; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 528
11.1. Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν τόπῳ τινὶ προσευχόμενον, ὡς ἐπαύσατο, εἶπέν τις τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν Κύριε, δίδαξον ἡμᾶς προσεύχεσθαι, καθὼς καὶ Ἰωάνης ἐδίδαξεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ. 13.1. Παρῆσαν δέ τινες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ ἀπαγγέλλοντες αὐτῷ περὶ τῶν Γαλιλαίων ὧν τὸ αἷμα Πειλᾶτος ἔμιξεν μετὰ τῶν θυσιῶν αὐτῶν. 19.42. λέγων ὅτι Εἰ ἔγνως ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ταύτῃ καὶ σὺ τὰ πρὸς εἰρήνην— νῦν δὲ ἐκρύβη ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου. 19.43. ὅτι ἥξουσιν ἡμέραι ἐπὶ σε καὶ παρεμβαλοῦσιν οἱ ἐχθροί σου χάρακά σοι καὶ περικυκλώσουσίν σε καὶ συνέξουσίν σε πάντοθεν, 19.44. καὶ ἐδαφιοῦσίν σε καὶ τὰ τέκνα σου ἐν σοί, καὶ οὐκ ἀφήσουσιν λίθον ἐπὶ λίθον ἐν σοί, ἀνθʼ ὧν οὐκ ἔγνως τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς σου. 11.1. It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples." 13.1. Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 19.42. saying, "If you, even you, had known today the things which belong to your peace! But now, they are hidden from your eyes. 19.43. For the days will come on you, when your enemies will throw up a barricade against you, surround you, hem you in on every side, 19.44. and will dash you and your children within you to the ground. They will not leave in you one stone on another, because you didn't know the time of your visitation."
57. New Testament, Mark, 3.6, 7.1-7.15, 9.5, 12.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 141; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 133, 514, 528
3.6. Καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν συμβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 7.1. Καὶ συνἄγονται πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐλθόντες ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων 7.2. καὶ ἰδόντες τινὰς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ὅτι κοιναῖς χερσίν, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν ἀνίπτοις, ἐσθίουσιν τοὺς ἄρτους. 7.3. —οἱ γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐὰν μὴ πυγμῇ νίψωνται τὰς χεῖρας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, κρατοῦντες τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, 7.4. καὶ ἀπʼ ἀγορᾶς ἐὰν μὴ ῥαντίσωνται οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἄλλα πολλά ἐστιν ἃ παρέλαβον κρατεῖν, βαπτισμοὺς ποτηρίων καὶ ξεστῶν καὶ χαλκίων. 7.5. —καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς Διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 7.6. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν Ἠσαίας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· 7.7. μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων· 7.8. ἀφέντες τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κρατεῖτε τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 7.9. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν τηρήσητε· 7.10. Μωυσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητερα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 7.11. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβάν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 7.12. οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 7.13. ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε· καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε. 7.14. Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος πάλιν τὸν ὄχλον ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ἀκούσατέ μου πάντες καὶ σύνετε. 7.15. οὐδὲν ἔστιν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς αὐτὸν ὃ δύναται κοινῶσαι αὐτόν· ἀλλὰ τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενά ἐστιν τὰ κοινοῦντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 9.5. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Ῥαββεί, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ Μωυσεῖ μίαν καὶ Ἠλείᾳ μίαν. 12.9. τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος; ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς, καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. "For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things." 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this." 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." 12.9. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the farmers, and will give the vineyard to others.
58. New Testament, Matthew, 4.23, 22.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 141; Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 53
4.23. Καὶ περιῆγεν ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ, διδάσκων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν καὶ κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας καὶ θεραπεύων πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν ἐν τῷ λαῷ. 22.7. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς ὠργίσθη, καὶ πέμψας τὰ στρατεύματα αὐτοῦ ἀπώλεσεν τοὺς φονεῖς ἐκείνους καὶ τὴν πόλιν αὐτῶν ἐνέπρησεν. 4.23. Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 22.7. But the king was angry, and he sent his armies, destroyed those murderers, and burned their city.
59. New Testament, Acts, a b c d\n0 26 26 26 None\n1 15.21 15.21 15 21 \n2 4.36 4.36 4 36 \n3 2.46 2.46 2 46 \n4 3.1 3.1 3 1 \n5 "17.7" "17.7" "17 7" (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 133
60. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 1.3, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151, 286
61. Mishnah, Shabbat, 1.7-1.9, 6.10, 16.7, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) •bar kokhbah Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151, 152; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
1.7. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מוֹכְרִין לַנָּכְרִי וְאֵין טוֹעֲנִין עִמּוֹ וְאֵין מַגְבִּיהִין עָלָיו, אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְמָקוֹם קָרוֹב. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין: \n", 1.8. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין נוֹתְנִין עוֹרוֹת לְעַבְּדָן וְלֹא כֵלִים לְכוֹבֵס נָכְרִי, אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וּבְכֻלָּן בֵּית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין עִם הַשָּׁמֶשׁ: \n", 1.9. "אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, נוֹהֲגִין הָיוּ בֵּית אַבָּא שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹתְנִין כְּלֵי לָבָן לְכוֹבֵס נָכְרִי שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים קֹדֶם לַשַּׁבָּת. וְשָׁוִין אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ, שֶׁטּוֹעֲנִין קוֹרוֹת בֵּית הַבַּד וְעִגּוּלֵי הַגָּת: \n", 6.10. "יוֹצְאִין בְּבֵיצַת הַחַרְגּוֹל, וּבְשֵׁן שׁוּעָל, וּבְמַסְמֵר מִן הַצָּלוּב, מִשּׁוּם רְפוּאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף בְּחֹל אָסוּר, מִשּׁוּם דַּרְכֵי הָאֱמוֹרִי: \n", 16.7. "כּוֹפִין קְעָרָה עַל גַּבֵּי הַנֵּר בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תֶאֱחֹז בַּקּוֹרָה, וְעַל צוֹאָה שֶׁל קָטָן, וְעַל עַקְרָב שֶׁלֹּא תִשֹּׁךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַעֲשֶׂה בָא לִפְנֵי רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי בַּעֲרָב, וְאָמַר, חוֹשְׁשָׁנִי לוֹ מֵחַטָּאת: \n", 22.3. "שׁוֹבֵר אָדָם אֶת הֶחָבִית לֶאֱכֹל הֵימֶנָּה גְרוֹגָרוֹת, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּלִי. וְאֵין נוֹקְבִים מְגוּפָה שֶׁל חָבִית, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. וְלֹא יִקְּבֶנָּה מִצִּדָּהּ. וְאִם הָיְתָה נְקוּבָה, לֹא יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ שַׁעֲוָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְמָרֵחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַעֲשֶׂה בָא לִפְנֵי רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי בַּעֲרָב, וְאָמַר, חוֹשְׁשָׁנִי לוֹ מֵחַטָּאת: \n", 1.7. "Bet Shammai says: one must not sell [something] to a non-Jew, or help him to load [a donkey], or lift up [an article] upon him unless he can reach a near place [before Shabbat]. But Bet Hillel permits it.", 1.8. "Bet Shammai says: hides must not be given to a [non-Jewish] tanner, nor clothing to a non-Jewish launderer, unless they can be done while it is yet day; But in all these [cases] Bet Hillel, permits as long as the sun is still shining.", 1.9. "Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: My father’s house was accustomed to giving white clothing to a non-Jewish launderer three days before Shabbat. And these and these agree that they lay down an olive press beams and wine press rollers.", 6.10. "One may go out with a locust’s egg, a fox’s tooth, and a nail from [the cross of] a crucified convict for purposes of healing, the words of Rabbi Meir’s view. But the sages say: even on weekdays this is forbidden on account of “the ways of the Amorite” [which Israelites are forbidden from adopting].", 16.7. "One may turn a dish over a lamp so that the beams should not catch [fire], and over an infant’s excrement, and over a scorpion so that it should not bite. Rabbi Judah said: an incident came before Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai in Arabia and he said, “I fear that he may be liable for a sin-offering.”", 22.3. "A man may break open a cask in order to eat dried figs from it, provided that he does not intend to make the cask into a vessel. And one may not perforate the stopper of a cask, the words of Rabbi Judah. But the sages permit it. And one may not pierce it at its side; And if it is already perforated one may not place wax upon it, because he smoothes it out. Rabbi Judah said: a case came before Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai in Arav and he said, “I fear [that he may be liable] to a sin-offering.”",
62. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.146, 11.312, 11.340-11.341, 12.7-12.10, 12.40, 13.68, 13.74-13.79, 15.259-15.266, 18.23-18.25, 18.259, 20.97-20.98 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba) •avitus, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 18, 126; Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 178; Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 356; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 353; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 177; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 167, 202
11.146. So Esdras hearkened to this advice, and made the heads of the priests, and of the Levites, and of the Israelites, swear that they would put away those wives and children, according to the advice of Jechonias. 11.312. But there was now a great disturbance among the people of Jerusalem, because many of those priests and Levites were entangled in such matches; for they all revolted to Manasseh, and Sanballat afforded them money, and divided among them land for tillage, and habitations also, and all this in order every way to gratify his son-in-law. 11.340. 6. So when Alexander had thus settled matters at Jerusalem, he led his army into the neighboring cities; and when all the inhabitants to whom he came received him with great kindness, the Samaritans, who had then Shechem for their metropolis, (a city situate at Mount Gerizzim, and inhabited by apostates of the Jewish nation,) seeing that Alexander had so greatly honored the Jews, determined to profess themselves Jews; 11.341. for such is the disposition of the Samaritans, as we have already elsewhere declared, that when the Jews are in adversity, they deny that they are of kin to them, and then they confess the truth; but when they perceive that some good fortune hath befallen them, they immediately pretend to have communion with them, saying that they belong to them, and derive their genealogy from the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh. 12.7. This is what Agatharchides relates of our nation. But when Ptolemy had taken a great many captives, both from the mountainous parts of Judea, and from the places about Jerusalem and Samaria, and the places near Mount Gerizzim, he led them all into Egypt, and settled them there. 12.8. And as he knew that the people of Jerusalem were most faithful in the observation of oaths and covets; and this from the answer they made to Alexander, when he sent an embassage to them, after he had beaten Darius in battle; so he distributed many of them into garrisons, and at Alexandria gave them equal privileges of citizens with the Macedonians themselves; and required of them to take their oaths, that they would keep their fidelity to the posterity of those who committed these places to their care. 12.9. Nay, there were not a few other Jews who, of their own accord, went into Egypt, as invited by the goodness of the soil, and by the liberality of Ptolemy. 12.10. However, there were disorders among their posterity, with relation to the Samaritans, on account of their resolution to preserve that conduct of life which was delivered to them by their forefathers, and they thereupon contended one with another, while those of Jerusalem said that their temple was holy, and resolved to send their sacrifices thither; but the Samaritans were resolved that they should be sent to Mount Gerizzim. 12.40. 5. When this epistle was sent to the king, he commanded that an epistle should be drawn up for Eleazar, the Jewish high priest, concerning these matters; and that they should inform him of the release of the Jews that had been in slavery among them. He also sent fifty talents of gold for the making of large basons, and vials, and cups, and an immense quantity of precious stones. 13.68. for the prophet Isaiah foretold that, ‘there should be an altar in Egypt to the Lord God;’” and many other such things did he prophesy relating to that place. 13.74. 4. Now it came to pass that the Alexandrian Jews, and those Samaritans who paid their worship to the temple that was built in the days of Alexander at Mount Gerizzim, did now make a sedition one against another, and disputed about their temples before Ptolemy himself; the Jews saying that, according to the laws of Moses, the temple was to be built at Jerusalem; and the Samaritans saying that it was to be built at Gerizzim. 13.75. They desired therefore the king to sit with his friends, and hear the debates about these matters, and punish those with death who were baffled. Now Sabbeus and Theodosius managed the argument for the Samaritans, and Andronicus, the son of Messalamus, for the people of Jerusalem; 13.76. and they took an oath by God and the king to make their demonstrations according to the law; and they desired of Ptolemy, that whomsoever he should find that transgressed what they had sworn to, he would put him to death. Accordingly, the king took several of his friends into the council, and sat down, in order to hear what the pleaders said. 13.77. Now the Jews that were at Alexandria were in great concern for those men, whose lot it was to contend for the temple at Jerusalem; for they took it very ill that any should take away the reputation of that temple, which was so ancient and so celebrated all over the habitable earth. 13.78. Now when Sabbeus and Tlteodosius had given leave to Andronicus to speak first, he began to demonstrate out of the law, and out of the successions of the high priests, how they every one in succession from his father had received that dignity, and ruled over the temple; and how all the kings of Asia had honored that temple with their donations, and with the most splendid gifts dedicated thereto. But as for that at Gerizzm, he made no account of it, and regarded it as if it had never had a being. 13.79. By this speech, and other arguments, Andronicus persuaded the king to determine that the temple at Jerusalem was built according to the laws of Moses, and to put Sabbeus and Theodosius to death. And these were the events that befell the Jews at Alexandria in the days of Ptolemy Philometor. 15.259. 10. But some time afterward, when Salome happened to quarrel with Costobarus, she sent him a bill of divorce and dissolved her marriage with him, though this was not according to the Jewish laws; for with us it is lawful for a husband to do so; but a wife; if she departs from her husband, cannot of herself be married to another, unless her former husband put her away. 15.260. However, Salome chose to follow not the law of her country, but the law of her authority, and so renounced her wedlock; and told her brother Herod, that she left her husband out of her good-will to him, because she perceived that he, with Antipater, and Lysimachus, and Dositheus, were raising a sedition against him; as an evidence whereof, she alleged the case of the sons of Babas, that they had been by him preserved alive already for the interval of twelve years; 15.261. which proved to be true. But when Herod thus unexpectedly heard of it, he was greatly surprised at it, and was the more surprised, because the relation appeared incredible to him. As for the fact relating to these sons of Babas, Herod had formerly taken great pains to bring them to punishment, as being enemies to his government; but they were now forgotten by him, on account of the length of time [since he had ordered them to be slain]. 15.262. Now the cause of his ill-will and hatred to them arose hence, that while Antigonus was king, Herod, with his army, besieged the city of Jerusalem, where the distress and miseries which the besieged endured were so pressing, that the greater number of them invited Herod into the city, and already placed their hopes on him. 15.263. Now the sons of Babas were of great dignity, and had power among the multitude, and were faithful to Antigonus, and were always raising calumnies against Herod, and encouraged the people to preserve the government to that royal family which held it by inheritance. So these men acted thus politically, and, as they thought, for their own advantage; 15.264. but when the city was taken, and Herod had gotten the government into his own hands, and Costobarus was appointed to hinder men from passing out at the gates, and to guard the city, that those citizens that were guilty, and of the party opposite to the king, might not get out of it, Costobarus, being sensible that the sons of Babas were had in respect and honor by the whole multitude, and supposing that their preservation might be of great advantage to him in the changes of government afterward, he set them by themselves, and concealed them in his own farms; 15.265. and when the thing was suspected, he assured Herod upon oath that he really knew nothing of that matter, and so overcame the suspicions that lay upon him; nay, after that, when the king had publicly proposed a reward for the discovery, and had put in practice all sorts of methods for searching out this matter, he would not confess it; but being persuaded that when he had at first denied it, if the men were found, he should not escape unpunished, he was forced to keep them secret, not only out of his good-will to them, but out of a necessary regard to his own preservation also. 15.266. But when the king knew the thing, by his sister’s information, he sent men to the places where he had the intimation they were concealed, and ordered both them, and those that were accused as guilty with them, to be slain, insomuch that there were now none at all left of the kindred of Hyrcanus, and the kingdom was entirely in Herod’s own power, and there was nobody remaining of such dignity as could put a stop to what he did against the Jewish laws. 18.23. 6. But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Judas the Galilean was the author. These men agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but they have an inviolable attachment to liberty, and say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. They also do not value dying any kinds of death, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man lord. 18.24. And since this immovable resolution of theirs is well known to a great many, I shall speak no further about that matter; nor am I afraid that any thing I have said of them should be disbelieved, but rather fear, that what I have said is beneath the resolution they show when they undergo pain. 18.25. And it was in Gessius Florus’s time that the nation began to grow mad with this distemper, who was our procurator, and who occasioned the Jews to go wild with it by the abuse of his authority, and to make them revolt from the Romans. And these are the sects of Jewish philosophy. 18.259. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Caius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be. But Philo, the principal of the Jewish embassage, a man eminent on all accounts, brother to Alexander the alabarch, and one not unskillful in philosophy, was ready to betake himself to make his defense against those accusations; 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; 20.98. and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them, and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem.
63. Mishnah, Parah, 2.1, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) •bar kokhbah Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
2.1. "רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, פָּרַת חַטָּאת הַמְעֻבֶּרֶת, כְּשֵׁרָה. וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֵינָהּ נִלְקַחַת מִן הַנָּכְרִים. וַחֲכָמִים מַכְשִׁירִים. וְלֹא זוֹ בִלְבַד, אֶלָּא כָל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר וְהַיָּחִיד בָּאִין מֵהָאָרֶץ וּמִחוּץ לָאָרֶץ, מִן הֶחָדָשׁ וּמִן הַיָּשָׁן, חוּץ מִן הָעֹמֶר וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא מִן הֶחָדָשׁ וּמִן הָאָרֶץ: \n", 3.5. "לֹא מָצְאוּ מִשֶּׁבַע, עוֹשִׂין מִשֵּׁשׁ, מֵחָמֵשׁ, מֵאַרְבַּע, מִשָּׁלשׁ, מִשְּׁתַּיִם וּמֵאֶחָת. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָם. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה עָשָׂה משֶׁה, וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה עָשָׂה עֶזְרָא, וְחָמֵשׁ, מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שֶׁבַע מֵעֶזְרָא וָאֵילָךְ. וּמִי עֲשָׂאָן. שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק וְיוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל עָשׂוּ שְׁתַּיִם שְׁתַּיִם, אֶלְיְהוֹעֵינַי בֶּן הַקּוֹף וַחֲנַמְאֵל הַמִּצְרִי וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פִּיאָבִי עָשׂוּ אַחַת אֶחָת: \n", 2.1. "Rabbi Eliezer says: a [red] cow for the hatat that is pregt is valid, But the sages say: it is invalid. Rabbi Eliezer says: it may not be bought from non-Jews, But the sages say: it is valid. And not only this, but all sacrifices of the congregation or the individual may be brought from the land of Israel and from outside the land, from new produce and from the old; Except the omer and the two loaves, which may be brought only from new produce and from within the land.", 3.5. "If they did not find the residue of the ashes of the seven [red cows] they performed the sprinkling with those of six, of five, of four, of three, of two or of one. And who prepared these? Moses prepared the first, Ezra prepared the second, and five were prepared from the time of Ezra, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: seven from the time of Ezra. And who prepared them? Shimon the Just and Yoha the high priest prepared two; Elihoenai the son of Ha-Kof and Hanamel the Egyptian and Ishmael the son of Piabi prepared one each.",
64. Mishnah, Oholot, 18.7-18.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151, 152
18.7. "הַקּוֹנֶה שָׂדֶה בְסוּרְיָא, סְמוּכָה לְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, אִם יָכוֹל לְהִכָּנֵס לָהּ בְּטָהֳרָה, טְהוֹרָה, וְחַיֶּבֶת בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהִכָּנֵס לָהּ בְּטָהֳרָה, טְמֵאָה, וְחַיֶּבֶת בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית. מְדוֹרוֹת הַגּוֹיִם, טְמֵאִין. כַּמָּה יִשְׁהֶא בְתוֹכָן וִיהֵא צָרִיךְ בְּדִיקָה, אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין עִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה. וְאִם הָיָה עֶבֶד אוֹ אִשָּׁה מְשַׁמְּרִים אוֹתוֹ, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ בְּדִיקָה: \n", 18.8. "אֶת מַה הֵם בּוֹדְקִים, אֶת הַבִּיבִים הָעֲמֻקִּים וְאֶת הַמַּיִם הַסְּרוּחִים. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אַף הָאַשְׁפַּתּוֹת וְעָפָר הַתִּחוֹחַ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כָּל מְקוֹם שֶׁהַחֲזִיר וְהַחֻלְדָּה יְכוֹלִים לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ בְּדִיקָה: \n", 18.9. "הָאִצְטְוָנִיּוֹת, אֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם מְדוֹר הַגּוֹיִם. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, עִיר גּוֹיִם שֶׁחָרְבָה, אֵין בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם מְדוֹר גּוֹיִם. מִזְרַח קִסְרִין וּמַעֲרַב קִסְרִין, קְבָרוֹת. וּמִזְרַח עַכּוֹ הָיָה סָפֵק, וְטִהֲרוּהוּ חֲכָמִים. רַבִּי וּבֵית דִּינוֹ נִמְנוּ עַל קֵינִי וְטִהֲרוּהוּ: \n", 18.7. "If one buys a field in Syria near to the land of Israel: If he can enter it in cleanness, it is deemed clean and is subject to [the laws of] tithes and sheviit [produce]; But he cannot enter it in cleanness, it [is deemed] unclean, but it is still subject to [the laws of] tithes and sheviit [produce]. The dwelling-places of non-Jews are unclean. How long must [the non-Jew] have dwelt in [the dwelling-places] for them to require examination? Forty days, even if there was no woman with him. If, however, a slave or [an Israelite] woman watched over [the dwelling-place], it does not require examination.", 18.8. "What do they examine? Deep drains and foul-smelling waters. Bet Shammai say: even garbage dumps and crumbled earth. Bet Hillel say: any place where a pig or a weasel can go requires no examination.", 18.9. "Colonnades are not [subject to the laws] of non-Jewish dwelling places. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: a non-Jewish city that has been destroyed is not [subject to the laws] of non-Jewish dwelling-places. The east [side] of Caesaron and the west [side] of Caesaron are graveyards. The east [side] of Acre was doubtful, but the sages declared it clean. Rabbi and his law court voted [to decide] about Keni and declared it clean.",
65. Mishnah, Niddah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 152
4.3. "דַּם נָכְרִית וְדַם טָהֳרָה שֶׁל מְצֹרַעַת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִים. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כְּרֻקָּהּ וּכְמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ. דַּם יוֹלֶדֶת שֶׁלֹּא טָבְלָה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, כְּרֻקָּהּ וּכְמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מְטַמֵּא לַח וְיָבֵשׁ. וּמוֹדִים בְּיוֹלֶדֶת בְּזוֹב, שֶׁהִיא מְטַמְּאָה לַח וְיָבֵשׁ: \n", 4.3. "The blood of a Gentile and the clean blood of a metzoraat (a woman with scale disease): Bet Shammai declares clean. And Bet Hillel holds that it is like her spittle or her urine. The blood of a woman after childbirth who did not immerse [in a mikveh]: Bet Shammai says it is like her spittle or her urine, But Bet Hillel says: it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry. They agree that if she gave birth while in zivah, it conveys uncleanness both when wet and when dry.",
66. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
10.3. "כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. שְׁלוּחֵי בֵית דִּין יוֹצְאִים מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂים אוֹתוֹ כְרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹחַ לִקְצֹר. וְכָל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם, מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְצָר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים, הֵן. בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הֵן, הֵן, הֵן. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּיְתוֹסִים, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב: \n", 10.3. "How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival.",
67. Mishnah, Megillah, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba letters Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 317
1.8. "אֵין בֵּין סְפָרִים לִתְפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁהַסְּפָרִים נִכְתָּבִין בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן, וּתְפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת אֵינָן נִכְתָּבוֹת אֶלָּא אַשּׁוּרִית. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּסְּפָרִים לֹא הִתִּירוּ שֶׁיִּכָּתְבוּ אֶלָּא יְוָנִית: \n", 1.8. "There is no difference between scrolls [of the Tanakh] and tefillin and mezuzahs except that scrolls may be written in any language whereas tefillin and mezuzahs may be written only in Assyrian. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says that scrolls [of the Tanakh] were permitted [by the sages] to be written only in Greek.",
68. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
5.15. "יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל הֶעֱבִיר הוֹדָיוֹת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. אַף הוּא בִּטֵּל אֶת הַמְעוֹרְרִים, וְאֶת הַנּוֹקְפִים. וְעַד יָמָיו הָיָה פַטִּישׁ מַכֶּה בִירוּשָׁלָיִם, וּבְיָמָיו אֵין אָדָם צָרִיךְ לִשְׁאוֹל עַל הַדְּמָאי: \n",
69. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4.1-4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 169
4.1. "יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ תוֹקְעִים, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. מְשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהוּ תּוֹקְעִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ בֵית דִּין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, לֹא הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי אֶלָּא בְיַבְנֶה בִּלְבָד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֶחָד יַבְנֶה וְאֶחָד כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ בֵית דִּין: \n", 4.2. "וְעוֹד זֹאת הָיְתָה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם יְתֵרָה עַל יַבְנֶה, שֶׁכָּל עִיר שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה וְשׁוֹמַעַת וּקְרוֹבָה וִיכוֹלָה לָבֹא, תּוֹקְעִין. וּבְיַבְנֶה לֹא הָיוּ תוֹקְעִין אֶלָּא בְּבֵית דִּין בִּלְבָד: \n", 4.3. "בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה הַלּוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שִׁבְעָה, וּבַמְּדִינָה יוֹם אֶחָד. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי שֶׁיְהֵא לוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמְּדִינָה שִׁבְעָה זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְשֶׁיְּהֵא יוֹם הָנֵף כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר: \n", 4.1. "If Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbat, they would blow the shofar in the Temple but not in the country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed that it should be blown [on Shabbat] in every place where there was a court. Rabbi Eliezer said: Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed for Yavneh only. They said to him: both Yavneh and any place where there is a court.", 4.2. "There was another way in which Jerusalem was greater than Yavneh, that in every city which could see [Jerusalem] and hear and was near and could get to Jerusalem, they used to blow [on Shabbat], whereas in Yavneh they used to blow in the court only.", 4.3. "In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce].",
70. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 169
3.12. "כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ קִדּוּשִׁין וְאֵין עֲבֵרָה, הַוָּלָד הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַזָּכָר. וְאֵיזֶה, זוֹ כֹהֶנֶת, לְוִיָּה וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִית שֶׁנִּשְּׂאוּ לְכֹהֵן וּלְלֵוִי וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ קִדּוּשִׁין וְיֵשׁ עֲבֵרָה, הַוָּלָד הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַפָּגוּם. וְאֵיזוֹ, זוֹ אַלְמָנָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט, מַמְזֶרֶת וּנְתִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַמְזֵר וּלְנָתִין. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עָלָיו קִדּוּשִׁין אֲבָל יֶשׁ לָהּ עַל אֲחֵרִים קִדּוּשִׁין, הַוָּלָד מַמְזֵר. וְאֵיזֶה, זֶה הַבָּא עַל אַחַת מִכָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לֹא עָלָיו וְלֹא עַל אֲחֵרִים קִדּוּשִׁין, הַוָּלָד כְּמוֹתָהּ. וְאֵיזֶה, זֶה וְלַד שִׁפְחָה וְנָכְרִית: \n", 3.12. "Wherever there is kiddushin and there is no transgression, the child goes after the status of the male. And what case is this? When the daughter of a priest, a Levite or an Israelite is married to a priest, a Levite or an Israelite. And wherever there is kiddushin and there is transgression, the child goes after the status of the flawed parent. And what case is this? When a widow is married to a high priest, or a divorced woman or a halutzah to an ordinary priest, or a mamzeret or a netinah to an Israelite, and the daughter of an Israelite to a mamzer or a natin. And any [woman] who cannot contract kiddushin with that particular person but can contract kiddushin with another person, the child is a mamzer. And what case is this? One who has intercourse with any relation prohibited in the Torah. And any [woman] who can not contract kiddushin with that particular person or with others, the child follows her status. And what case is this? The child issue of a female slave or a gentile woman.",
71. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 1.5, 2.9, 4.2, 4.6, 4.8, 4.12, 8.1, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 3, 9, 24, 318; Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 220, 221; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 152; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 169
1.5. "הָאוֹכֵל אֵצֶל חָמִיו בִּיהוּדָה שֶׁלֹּא בְעֵדִים, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן טַעֲנַת בְּתוּלִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּתְיַחֵד עִמָּהּ. אַחַת אַלְמְנַת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַחַת אַלְמְנַת כֹּהֵן, כְּתֻבָּתָן מָנֶה. בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים הָיוּ גוֹבִין לַבְּתוּלָה אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים: \n", 2.9. "הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנֶּחְבְּשָׁה בִידֵי גוֹיִם עַל יְדֵי מָמוֹן, מֻתֶּרֶת לְבַעְלָהּ. עַל יְדֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, אֲסוּרָה לְבַעְלָהּ. עִיר שֶׁכְּבָשָׁהּ כַּרְכּוֹם, כָּל כֹּהֲנוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בְתוֹכָהּ, פְּסוּלוֹת. וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהֶן עֵדִים, אֲפִלּוּ עֶבֶד, אֲפִלּוּ שִׁפְחָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נֶאֱמָנִין. וְאֵין נֶאֱמָן אָדָם עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי זְכַרְיָה בֶן הַקַּצָּב, הַמָּעוֹן הַזֶּה, לֹא זָזָה יָדָהּ מִתּוֹךְ יָדִי מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ גוֹיִם לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַד שֶׁיָּצָאוּ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין אָדָם מֵעִיד עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ: \n", 4.2. "הַמְאָרֵס אֶת בִּתּוֹ, וְגֵרְשָׁהּ, אֵרְסָהּ וְנִתְאַרְמְלָה, כְּתֻבָּתָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ. הִשִּׂיאָהּ וְגֵרְשָׁהּ, הִשִּׂיאָהּ וְנִתְאַרְמְלָה, כְּתֻבָּתָהּ שֶׁלָּהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל אָב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִשֶּׁהִשִּׂיאָהּ, אֵין לְאָבִיהָ רְשׁוּת בָּהּ: \n", 4.6. "הָאָב אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹת בִּתּוֹ. זֶה מִדְרָשׁ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים בַּכֶּרֶם בְּיַבְנֶה, הַבָּנִים יִירְשׁוּ וְהַבָּנוֹת יִזּוֹנוּ, מָה הַבָּנִים אֵינָן יוֹרְשִׁין אֶלָּא לְאַחַר מִיתַת הָאָב, אַף הַבָּנוֹת אֵינָן נִזּוֹנוֹת אֶלָּא לְאַחַר מִיתַת אֲבִיהֶן: \n", 4.8. "לֹא כָתַב לָהּ, אִם תִּשְׁתַּבָּאִי אֶפְרְקִנָּךְ וְאוֹתְבִנָּךְ לִי לְאִנְתּוּ, וּבְכֹהֶנֶת, אֲהַדְרִנָּךְ לִמְדִינְתָּךְ, חַיָּב, שֶׁהוּא תְנַאי בֵּית דִּין: \n", 4.12. "אַתְּ תְּהֵא יָתְבָא בְּבֵיתִי וּמִתְּזָנָא מִנִּכְסַי, כָּל יְמֵי מִגַּד אַלְמְנוּתִיךְ בְּבֵיתִי, חַיָּב, שֶׁהוּא תְנַאי בֵּית דִּין. כָּךְ הָיוּ אַנְשֵׁי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם כּוֹתְבִין. אַנְשֵׁי גָלִיל הָיוּ כוֹתְבִין כְּאַנְשֵׁי יְרוּשָׁלָיִם. אַנְשֵׁי יְהוּדָה הָיוּ כוֹתְבִין, עַד שֶׁיִּרְצוּ הַיּוֹרְשִׁים לִתֵּן לִיךְ כְּתֻבְּתִיךְ. לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָצוּ הַיּוֹרְשִׁין, נוֹתְנִין לָהּ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ וּפוֹטְרִין אוֹתָהּ: \n", 8.1. "הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לָהּ נְכָסִים עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִתְאָרֵס, מוֹדִים בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל שֶׁמּוֹכֶרֶת וְנוֹתֶנֶת וְקַיָּם. נָפְלוּ לָהּ מִשֶּׁנִּתְאָרְסָה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, תִּמְכֹּר, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֹא תִמְכֹּר. אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מוֹדִים, שֶׁאִם מָכְרָה וְנָתְנָה, קַיָּם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אָמְרוּ לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, הוֹאִיל וְזָכָה בָאִשָּׁה, לֹא יִזְכֶּה בַנְּכָסִים. אָמַר לָהֶם, עַל הַחֲדָשִׁים אָנוּ בוֹשִׁין, אֶלָּא שָׁאַתֶּם מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַיְשָׁנִים. נָפְלוּ לָהּ מִשֶּׁנִּשֵּׂאת, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מוֹדִים שֶׁאִם מָכְרָה וְנָתְנָה שֶׁהַבַּעַל מוֹצִיא מִיַּד הַלָּקוֹחוֹת. עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשֵּׂאת וְנִשֵּׂאת, רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אִם מָכְרָה וְנָתְנָה, קַיָּם. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן עֲקִיבָא, אָמְרוּ לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, הוֹאִיל וְזָכָה בָאִשָּׁה, לֹא יִזְכֶּה בַנְּכָסִים. אָמַר לָהֶם, עַל הַחֲדָשִׁים אָנוּ בוֹשִׁין, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתֶּם מְגַלְגְּלִים עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַיְשָׁנִים: \n", 10.6. "מִי שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים, וּמָכַר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ, וְכָתְבָה רִאשׁוֹנָה לַלּוֹקֵחַ דִּין וּדְבָרִים אֵין לִי עִמָּךְ, הַשְּׁנִיָּה מוֹצִיאָה מֵהַלּוֹקֵחַ, וְרִאשׁוֹנָה מִן הַשְּׁנִיָּה, וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ מִן הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְחוֹזְרוֹת חֲלִילָה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ פְשָׁרָה בֵינֵיהֶם. וְכֵן בַּעַל חוֹב. וְכֵן אִשָּׁה בַעֲלַת חוֹב: \n", 1.5. "He who eats with his father-in-law in Judea without the presence of witnesses cannot raise a claim of non-virginity against his wife because he has been alone with her. It is the same whether [the woman is] an Israelite widow or a priestly widow her kethubah is a maneh. The court of the priests collected for a virgin four hundred zuz, and the sages did not protest.", 2.9. "A woman was imprisoned by non-Jews: if for the sake of money, she is permitted to her husband, and if in order to take her life, she is forbidden to her husband.Rabbi Zechariah ben Ha-katzav said: “By this temple! Her hand did not move out of my hand from the time that the non-Jews entered Jerusalem until they departed.” A town that has been conquered by siege-troops: all the priests’ wives who are in it are prohibited [from their husbands]. If they have witnesses, even a slave, even a female slave, they are believed. However, no one is believed as to himself.They said to him: “No one may testify concerning himself.”", 4.2. "If a man gave his daughter in betrothal and she was divorced, [and then] he gave her [again] in betrothal and she was widowed, her ketubah belongs to him. If he gave her in marriage and she was divorced [and then] he gave her [again] in marriage and she was left a widow, her ketubah belongs to her. Rabbi Judah said: the first belongs to her father. They said to him: as soon as he gives her in marriage, her father loses all control over her.", 4.6. "A father is not obligated to maintain his daughter. This exposition was made by Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah in front of the sages in the vineyard of Yavneh: “The sons shall inherit [their mother’s kethubah] and the daughters shall be maintained [out of their father’s estate” just as the sons do not inherit except after the death of their father, so the daughters are not maintained except after the death of their father.", 4.8. "If he did not write for her, “if you are taken captive I will ransom you and take you again as my wife”, or in the case of a priest’s wife, “I will restore you to your people”, he is liable [to carry out these obligations], because it is a condition laid down by court.", 4.12. "If he did not write for her, “You shall live in my house and be maintained from my estate throughout the duration of your widowhood”, he is nevertheless liable, because [this clause] is a condition laid down by the court. Thus did the men of Jerusalem write. The men of Galilee wrote as did the men of Jerusalem. The men of Judea used to write: “Until the heirs wish to pay you your ketubah”. Therefore if the heirs wish to, they may pay her her ketubah and dismiss her.", 8.1. "If a woman came into the possession of property before she was betrothed, Bet Shammai and Bet Hillel agree that she may sell it or give it away and her act is legally valid. If she came into the possession of property after she was betrothed, Bet Shammai says: she may sell it, and Beth Hillel says: she may not sell it. Both agree that if she had sold it or given it away her act is legally valid. Rabbi Judah said: they argued before Rabban Gamaliel, “Since the man acquires the woman does he not also acquire her property?” If she came into the possession of property after she was married, both agree that, even if she had sold it or given it away, the husband may seize it from the buyers. [If she came into possession] before she married and then she married, Rabban Gamaliel says: if she sold it or gave it away her act is legally valid. Rabbi Hanina ben Akavya said: they argued before Rabban Gamaliel, “Since the man acquires the woman does he not also gain acquires her property?” He replied, “We are embarrassed with regard to her new possessions and you wish to roll over on us her old ones as well?”", 10.6. "If a man who was married to two wives sold his field, and the first wife wrote to the buyer, “I have no claim whatsoever upon you”, the second wife may take [the field] away from the buyer, and the first wife from the second, and the buyer from the first wife; and so they go on in turn until they arrange a compromise between them. The same law applies also to a creditor and to a woman creditor.",
72. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151
2.7. "הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְנָכְרִי, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר פּוֹסֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, אֲפִלּוּ שְׁחָטָהּ שֶׁיֹּאכַל הַנָּכְרִי מֵחֲצַר כָּבֵד שֶׁלָּהּ, פְּסוּלָה, שֶׁסְּתָם מַחֲשֶׁבֶת נָכְרִי לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, קַל וָחֹמֶר הַדְּבָרִים, וּמַה בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁהַמַּחֲשָׁבָה פוֹסֶלֶת, בְּמֻקְדָּשִׁין, אֵין הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אֶלָּא אַחַר הָעוֹבֵד, מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַחֲשָׁבָה פוֹסֶלֶת, בְּחֻלִּין, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אֶלָּא אַחַר הַשּׁוֹחֵט: \n", 2.7. "If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!",
73. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1-2.2, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 140; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
2.1. "אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּפָנִים, וּמַה לְּאָחוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא חָס עַל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ, רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם: \n", 2.2. "יוֹסֵי בֶּן יוֹעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, יוֹסֵי בֶּן יוֹחָנָן אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, נִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. יְהוּדָה בֶּן טַבַּאי אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. שְׁמַעְיָה אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. אַבְטַלְיוֹן אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ. הִלֵּל וּמְנַחֵם לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ. יָצָא מְנַחֵם, נִכְנַס שַׁמַּאי. שַׁמַּאי אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ נְשִׂיאִים, וּשְׁנִיִּים לָהֶם אַב בֵּית דִּין: \n", 2.4. "עֲצֶרֶת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין יוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁאִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁיּוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאֵין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו, וּמֻתָּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד וּבְתַעֲנִית, שֶׁלֹּא לְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִין עֲצֶרֶת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת: \n" 2.1. "They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world.", 2.2. "Yose ben Yoezer says that [on a festival] the laying of the hands [on the head of a sacrifice] may not be performed. Yosef ben Joha says that it may be performed. Joshua ben Perahia says that it may not be performed. Nittai the Arbelite says that it may be performed. Judah ben Tabai says that it may not be performed. Shimon ben Shetah says that it may be performed. Shamayah says that it may be performed. Avtalyon says that it may not be performed. Hillel and Menahem did not dispute. Menahem went out, Shammai entered. Shammai says that it may not be performed. Hillel says that it may be performed. The former [of each] pair were patriarchs and the latter were heads of the court.", 2.4. "Atzeret (Shavuot) which fell on a Friday: Bet Shammai say: the day of the slaughter [of the wholly burnt offerings] is after Shabbat. And Bet Hillel say: the day of the slaughter is not after Shabbat. They agree, however, that if it falls on Shabbat, the day of the slaughter is after Shabbat. The high priest does not [in that case] put on his [special] garments, and mourning and fasting are permitted, in order not to confirm the view of those who say that Atzeret is after Shabbat."
74. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.1, 2.5-2.6, 4.1, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308, 313; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 140
2.1. "כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל דָּן וְדָנִין אוֹתוֹ, מֵעִיד וּמְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ, חוֹלֵץ וְחוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, וּמְיַבְּמִין אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, אֲבָל הוּא אֵינוֹ מְיַבֵּם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בָּאַלְמָנָה. מֵת לוֹ מֵת, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא אַחַר הַמִּטָּה, אֶלָּא הֵן נִכְסִין וְהוּא נִגְלֶה, הֵן נִגְלִין וְהוּא נִכְסֶה, וְיוֹצֵא עִמָּהֶן עַד פֶּתַח הָעִיר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כא) וּמִן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא יֵצֵא. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְנַחֵם אֲחֵרִים, דֶּרֶךְ כָּל הָעָם עוֹבְרִין בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה וְהַמְמֻנֶּה מְמַצְּעוֹ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין הָעָם. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מִתְנַחֵם מֵאֲחֵרִים, כָּל הָעָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אָנוּ כַפָּרָתְךָ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶן תִּתְבָּרְכוּ מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּכְשֶׁמַּבְרִין אוֹתוֹ, כָּל הָעָם מְסֻבִּין עַל הָאָרֶץ וְהוּא מֵסֵב עַל הַסַּפְסָל: \n", 2.5. "אֵין רוֹכְבִין עַל סוּסוֹ, וְאֵין יוֹשְׁבִין עַל כִּסְאוֹ, וְאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בְּשַׁרְבִיטוֹ, וְאֵין רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא מִסְתַּפֵּר וְלֹא כְשֶׁהוּא עָרֹם וְלֹא בְבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ, שֶׁתְּהֵא אֵימָתוֹ עָלֶיךָ: \n", 4.1. "אֶחָד דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת וְאֶחָד דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, בִּדְרִישָׁה וּבַחֲקִירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כד) מִשְׁפַּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם. מַה בֵּין דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת לְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה, וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת פּוֹתְחִין בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת פּוֹתְחִין לִזְכוּת וְאֵין פּוֹתְחִין לְחוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת מַטִּין עַל פִּי אֶחָד בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת מַטִּין עַל פִּי אֶחָד לִזְכוּת וְעַל פִּי שְׁנַיִם לְחוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת מַחֲזִירִין בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת מַחֲזִירִין לִזְכוּת וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין לְחוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת הַכֹּל מְלַמְּדִין זְכוּת וְחוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת הַכֹּל מְלַמְּדִין זְכוּת וְאֵין הַכֹּל מְלַמְּדִין חוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת הַמְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה מְלַמֵּד זְכוּת וְהַמְלַמֵּד זְכוּת מְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת הַמְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה מְלַמֵּד זְכוּת, אֲבָל הַמְלַמֵּד זְכוּת אֵין יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת דָּנִין בַּיּוֹם וְגוֹמְרִין בַּלַּיְלָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת דָּנִין בַּיּוֹם וְגוֹמְרִין בַּיּוֹם. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת גּוֹמְרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת גּוֹמְרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם לִזְכוּת וּבְיוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו לְחוֹבָה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין דָּנִין לֹא בְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְלֹא בְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב: \n", 10.1. "כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס) וְעַמֵּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים לְעוֹלָם יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ נֵצֶר מַטָּעַי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי לְהִתְפָּאֵר. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הָאוֹמֵר אֵין תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין תּוֹרָה מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, וְאֶפִּיקוֹרֶס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אַף הַקּוֹרֵא בַסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים, וְהַלּוֹחֵשׁ עַל הַמַּכָּה וְאוֹמֵר (שמות טו) כָּל הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי ה' רֹפְאֶךָ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, אַף הַהוֹגֶה אֶת הַשֵּׁם בְּאוֹתִיּוֹתָיו: \n", 2.1. "The High Priest can judge and be judged; he can testify and others can testify against him. He can perform halitzah for another’s wife and others can perform halitzah for his wife or contract levirate marriage with his widow, but he cannot contract levirate marriage since he is forbidden to marry a widow. If any of his near kin die he may not follow after the bier, rather when the bearers are not visible, he is visible, when they are visible he is not visible, and he may go out with them as far as the city gate, according to Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says, “He may not leave the Temple, as it says, “Nor shall he go out of the Sanctuary”. And when he comforts other mourners the custom is for all of the people to pass by, the one after the other, while the appointed [priest] stands between him and the people. And when he receives comfort from others, all the people say to him, “Let us be your atonement”, and he says to them, “May you be blessed by Heaven.” When they feed him the funeral meal all the people sit around on the ground and he sits on a stool.", 2.5. "None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you.", 4.1. "Both non-capital and capital cases require examination and inquiry [of the witnesses], as it says, “You shall have one manner of law” (Lev. 24:22). How do non-capital cases differ from capital cases? Non-capital cases [are decided] by three and capital cases by twenty three. Non-capital cases may begin either with reasons for acquittal or for conviction; capital cases begin with reasons for acquittal and do not begin with reasons for conviction. In non-capital cases they may reach a verdict of either acquittal or conviction by the decision of a majority of one; in capital cases they may reach an acquittal by the majority of one but a verdict of conviction only by the decision of a majority of two. In non-capital cases they may reverse a verdict either [from conviction] to acquittal or [from acquittal] to conviction; in capital cases they may reverse a verdict [from conviction] to acquittal but not [from acquittal] to conviction. In non-capital cases all may argue either in favor of conviction or of acquittal; in capital cases all may argue in favor of acquittal but not all may argue in favor of conviction. In non-capital cases he that had argued in favor of conviction may afterward argue in favor of acquittal, or he that had argued in favor of acquittal may afterward argue in favor of conviction; in capital cases he that had argued in favor of conviction may afterward argue in favor of acquittal but he that had argued in favor of acquittal cannot afterward argue in favor of conviction. In non-capital cases they hold the trial during the daytime and the verdict may be reached during the night; in capital cases they hold the trial during the daytime and the verdict also must be reached during the daytime. In non-capital cases the verdict, whether of acquittal or of conviction, may be reached the same day; in capital cases a verdict of acquittal may be reached on the same day, but a verdict of conviction not until the following day. Therefore trials may not be held on the eve of a Sabbath or on the eve of a Festival.", 10.1. "All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases which i brought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”",
75. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.1, 9.2-9.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 152; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 166, 167
5.1. "רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. דַּם נְבֵלוֹת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַמְּאִין. בֵּיצַת הַנְּבֵלָה, אִם יֵשׁ כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהּ נִמְכֶּרֶת בַּשּׁוּק, מֻתֶּרֶת. וְאִם לָאו, אֲסוּרָה, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹסְרִין. וּמוֹדִים בְּבֵיצַת טְרֵפָה שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגָּדְלָה בְאִסּוּר. דַּם נָכְרִית וְדַם טָהֳרָה שֶׁל מְצֹרַעַת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי מְטַהֲרִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כְּרֻקָּהּ וּכְמֵימֵי רַגְלֶיהָ. אוֹכְלִין פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית בְּטוֹבָה וְשֶׁלֹּא בְטוֹבָה, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין אוֹכְלִים אֶלָּא בְטוֹבָה. הַחֵמֶת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, צְרוּרָה עוֹמֶדֶת. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרוּרָה: \n", 5.1. "Rabbi Judah says: there are six instances of lenient rulings by Beth Shammai and stringent rulings by Beth Hillel.The blood of a carcass: Beth Shammai pronounces it clean, And Beth Hillel pronounces it unclean. An egg found in a [bird’s] carcass: if the like of it were sold in the market, it is permitted, and if not, it is forbidden, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai. And Beth Hillel forbids it. But they agree in the case of an egg found in a trefa [bird] that it is forbidden since it had its growth in a forbidden condition. 3+4) The blood of a non-Jewish woman and the blood of purity of a leprous woman: Beth Shammai pronounces clean; And Beth Hillel says: [it is] like her spittle and her urine. One may eat fruits of the seventh year with an expression of thanks and without an expression of thanks [to the owner of the field], according to the opinion of Beth Shammai. But Beth Hillel says: one may not eat with an expression of thanks. Beth Shammai says: a waterskin [is liable to become impure only if it is] tied up and remains unimpaired. And the school of Hillel says: even if it is not tied up.",
76. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.4, 4.3-4.4, 5.5, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba revolt, failure of Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 37; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 115, 528
3.4. "בַּעַל קֶרִי מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, לֹא לְפָנֶיהָ וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. וְעַל הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם: \n", 4.3. "רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, בְּכָל יוֹם מִתְפַּלֵּל אָדָם שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, מֵעֵין שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אִם שְׁגוּרָה תְפִלָּתוֹ בְּפִיו, יִתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה. וְאִם לָאו, מֵעֵין שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה:", 4.4. "רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹשֶׂה תְפִלָּתוֹ קֶבַע, אֵין תְּפִלָּתוֹ תַּחֲנוּנִים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, הַמְהַלֵּךְ בִּמְקוֹם סַכָּנָה, מִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה. אוֹמֵר, הוֹשַׁע הַשֵּׁם אֶת עַמְּךָ אֶת שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּכָל פָּרָשַׁת הָעִבּוּר יִהְיוּ צָרְכֵיהֶם לְפָנֶיךָ. בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה:", 5.5. "הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְטָעָה, סִימָן רַע לוֹ. וְאִם שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הוּא, סִימָן רַע לְשׁוֹלְחָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן דּוֹסָא, כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל הַחוֹלִים וְאוֹמֵר, זֶה חַי וְזֶה מֵת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ. אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם שְׁגוּרָה תְפִלָּתִי בְּפִי, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְקֻבָּל. וְאִם לָאו, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְטֹרָף: \n", 9.5. "חַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו) וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְיָ אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ. בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ, בִּשְׁנֵי יְצָרֶיךָ, בְּיֵצֶר טוֹב וּבְיֵצֶר רָע. וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ. וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מָמוֹנֶךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מִדָּה וּמִדָּה שֶׁהוּא מוֹדֵד לְךָ הֱוֵי מוֹדֶה לוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד. לֹא יָקֵל אָדָם אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקָּדָשִׁים. לֹא יִכָּנֵס לְהַר הַבַּיִת בְּמַקְלוֹ, וּבְמִנְעָלוֹ, וּבְפֻנְדָּתוֹ, וּבְאָבָק שֶׁעַל רַגְלָיו, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ קַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, וּרְקִיקָה מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר. כָּל חוֹתְמֵי בְרָכוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, וְאָמְרוּ, אֵין עוֹלָם אֶלָּא אֶחָד, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ אוֹמְרִים, מִן הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם. וְהִתְקִינוּ, שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם שׁוֹאֵל אֶת שְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בַּשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (רות ב) וְהִנֵּה בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם, וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְיָ עִמָּכֶם, וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ, יְבָרֶכְךָ יְיָ. וְאוֹמֵר (שופטים ו) יְיָ עִמְּךָ גִּבּוֹר הֶחָיִל. וְאוֹמֵר (משלי כג) אַל תָּבוּז כִּי זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ. וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים קיט) עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר, הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ: \n", 3.4. "One who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them.", 4.3. "Rabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen.", 4.4. "Rabbi Eliezer says: if a man makes his prayers fixed, it is not [true] supplication. Rabbi Joshua says: if one is traveling in a dangerous place, he says a short prayer, saying: Save, O Lord, Your people the remt of Israel. In every time of crisis may their needs be before You. Blessed are You, O Lord, who hears prayer.", 5.5. "One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”", 9.5. "One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”",
77. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 2.4, 3.2, 5.2-5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151, 152
2.4. "הַמְקַבֵּל צֹאן בַּרְזֶל מִן הַנָּכְרִי, וְלָדוֹת פְּטוּרִין, וּוַלְדֵי וְלָדוֹת חַיָּבִין. הֶעֱמִיד וְלָדוֹת תַּחַת אִמּוֹתֵיהֶם, וַלְדֵי וְלָדוֹת פְטוּרִין, וּוַלדי וַלְדֵי וְלָדוֹת חַיָּבִין. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ עַד עֲשָׂרָה דוֹרוֹת, פְּטוּרִין, שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּתָן לַנָּכְרִי: \n", 3.2. "רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּהֵמָה מְנִיקָה מִן הַנָּכְרִי, אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא בְנָהּ שֶׁל אַחֶרֶת הָיָה. נִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ עֶדְרוֹ וְרָאָה אֶת הַמַּבְכִּירוֹת מְנִיקוֹת וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינָן מַבְכִּירוֹת מְנִיקוֹת, אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא בְנָהּ שֶׁל זוֹ בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא בְנָהּ שֶׁל זוֹ בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל זוֹ: \n", 5.2. "בֵית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֹא יִמָּנָה יִשְׂרָאֵל עִם הַכֹּהֵן עַל הַבְּכוֹר. בֵּית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין, וַאֲפִלּוּ נָכְרִי. בְּכוֹר שֶׁאֲחָזוֹ דָם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֵת, אֵין מַקִּיזִין לוֹ דָם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יַקִּיז, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בוֹ מוּם. וְאִם עָשָׂה בוֹ מוּם, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׁחֵט עָלָיו. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר יַקִּיז, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בוֹ מוּם: \n", 5.3. "הַצּוֹרֵם בְּאֹזֶן הַבְּכוֹר, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׁחֵט עוֹלָמִית, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כְּשֶׁיִּוָּלֵד לוֹ מוּם אַחֵר, יִשָּׁחֵט עָלָיו. מַעֲשֶׂה בְזָכָר שֶׁל רְחֵלִים זָקֵן וּשְׂעָרוֹ מְדֻלְדָּל, רָאָהוּ קַסְדּוֹר אֶחָד, אָמַר, מַה טִּיבוֹ שֶׁל זֶה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, בְּכוֹר הוּא וְאֵינוֹ נִשְׁחָט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בּוֹ מוּם. נָטַל פִּגְיוֹן וְצָרַם בְּאָזְנוֹ, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהוּ. רָאָה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְהָלַךְ וְצָרַם בְּאָזְנֵי בְכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְאָסָרוּ. פַּעַם אַחַת הָיוּ תִינוֹקוֹת מְשַׂחֲקִין בַּשָּׂדֶה וְקָשְׁרוּ זַנְבוֹת טְלָאִים זֶה לָזֶה, וְנִפְסְקָה זְנָבוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶם וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְכוֹר, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהוּ. רָאוּ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְהָלְכוּ וְקָשְׁרוּ זַנְבוֹת בְּכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְאָסָרוּ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, אָסוּר. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, מֻתָּר: \n", 2.4. "If one receives flock from a non-Jew on “iron terms” their offspring are exempt [from the law of] the first born. But the offspring of their offspring are liable [to the law of the first born]. If [the Israelite] put the offspring in the place of their mothers, then the offspring of the offspring are exempt, but the offspring of the offspring of the offspring are liable. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: even for ten generations the offspring are exempt [from the law of the first born] since they are pledged to the non-Jew.", 3.2. "Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: if one buys a nursing animal from a non-Jew, he need not fear that perhaps the offspring belongs to another [animal]. If he went among his herd and saw animals which had given birth for the first time nursing and animals which had not given birth for the first time nursing, we need not fear that perhaps the offspring of this one came to the other or perhaps the offspring of the other came to this one.", 5.2. "Bet Shammai says: An Israelite must not be invited to share [a blemished first born] with a priest. But Bet Hillel permits this, even in the case of a non-Jew. If a first born has a blood attack, even if it is going to die, its blood may not be let, the words of Rabbi Judah. But the sages say: he may let its blood, as long as he does not make a blemish. And if he made a blemish, he must not slaughter it on account of this. Rabbi Shimon says: he may let blood, even though he makes a blemish.", 5.3. "If one makes a slit in the ear of a firstborn animal, he may never slaughter it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: when another blemish appears, he may slaughter it on account of it. It happened that a quaestor (a Roman official) saw an old male lamb with its long wool hanging down and asked: what is the meaning of this? They replied: “It is a first born and is not to be slaughtered until it has a blemish,” [The quaestor] took a dagger and slit its ear. The matter came before the sages and they permitted it. After they had permitted, he went and sliced the ears of other [first borns]. The [sages] forbade them. Once children were once playing in a field. They tied the tails of sheep one to the other and one tail which belonged to a first born was severed. The matter came before the rabbis and they permitted [the first born]. When the children saw that they had permitted [the first born to be slaughtered], they proceeded to tie the tails of other first borns. The [sages] forbade [the other first borns]. This is the rule: wherever the blemish is caused with the knowledge and consent [of the owner] it is forbidden, but, if it is not with his knowledge and consent, it is permitted.",
78. Mishnah, Beitzah, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141
5.2. "כֹּל שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, מִשּׁוּם רְשׁוּת, מִשּׁוּם מִצְוָה, בְּשַׁבָּת, חַיָּבִין עָלָיו בְּיוֹם טוֹב. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, לֹא עוֹלִין בָּאִילָן, וְלֹא רוֹכְבִין עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה, וְלֹא שָׁטִין עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם, וְלֹא מְטַפְּחִין, וְלֹא מְסַפְּקִין, וְלֹא מְרַקְּדִין. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן מִשּׁוּם רְשׁוּת, לֹא דָנִין, וְלֹא מְקַדְּשִׁין, וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין, וְלֹא מְיַבְּמִין. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן מִשּׁוּם מִצְוָה, לֹא מַקְדִּישִׁין, וְלֹא מַעֲרִיכִין, וְלֹא מַחֲרִימִין, וְלֹא מַגְבִּיהִין תְּרוּמָה וּמַעֲשֵׂר. כָּל אֵלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אָמְרוּ, קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּשַׁבָּת. אֵין בֵּין יוֹם טוֹב לְשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ בִּלְבָד: \n", 5.2. "Every [act] for which one is liable on Shabbat because of mandated rest [shevut], [or] because it is only optional [reshut], [or] even though it is a religious act [mitzvah], he is also liable on Yom Tov.For the following acts he is liable because of shevut: One may not climb a tree, And one may not ride on an animal. And one may not swim in water. And one may not clap hands, nor slap [thighs], nor dance. For the following acts he is liable because they are only optional: One may not judge; And one may not betroth a wife, nor perform halizah, nor perform yibbum [consumate a levirate marriage]. And for the following acts one is liable even though it is a religious act [mitzvah]: One may not dedicate [anything to the Temple], nor vow a personal valuation, nor make a vow of herem, nor set aside terumah or tithes. All these things they [the rabbis said that they are forbidden] on Yom Tov, how much more so [are they forbidden] on Shabbat. There is no difference between Yom Tov and Shabbat except for the preparation of food alone.",
79. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
4.3. "שׁוֹר שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּגַח שׁוֹר שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ, וְשֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנָּגַח לְשׁוֹר שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא) שׁוֹר רֵעֵהוּ, וְלֹא שׁוֹר שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ. שׁוֹר שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּגַח לְשׁוֹר שֶׁל נָכְרִי, פָּטוּר. וְשֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁנָּגַח לְשׁוֹר שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, בֵּין תָּם בֵּין מוּעָד מְשַׁלֵּם נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם: \n", 4.3. "An ox of an Israelite that gored an ox belonging to the Temple, or an ox belonging to the Temple that gored an ox of an Israelite, the owner is exempt, as it says, “The ox belonging to his neighbor” (Exodus 21:35), and not an ox belonging to the Temple. An ox of an Israelite that gores an ox of a gentile, the owner is exempt. And an ox of a gentile that gores the ox of an Israelite, whether the ox is harmless or an attested danger, its owner pays full damages.",
80. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 4.1-4.2, 4.9, 9.10, 10.1-10.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 63; Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 201, 216
4.1. הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַבַּיִת, לֹא מָכַר הַיָּצִיעַ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא פְתוּחָה לְתוֹכוֹ, וְלֹא אֶת הַחֶדֶר שֶׁלִּפְנִים מִמֶּנּוּ, וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּג בִּזְמַן שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ מַעֲקֶה גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם יֶשׁ לוֹ צוּרַת פֶּתַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, אֵינוֹ מָכוּר. 4.2. לֹא אֶת הַבּוֹר, וְלֹא אֶת הַדּוּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּתַב לוֹ עֻמְקָא וְרוּמָא. וְצָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דֶרֶךְ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מֵאֵלּוּ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ. מְכָרָן לְאַחֵר, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיך לִקַּח לוֹ דֶרֶךְ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ. 4.9. אֲבָל לֹא מָכַר לֹא אֶת הָאֲבָנִים שֶׁאֵינָן לְצָרְכָּהּ, וְלֹא אֶת הַקָּנִים שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם שֶׁאֵינָן לְצָרְכּוֹ, וְלֹא אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁהִיא תְלוּשָׁה מִן הַקַּרְקַע. בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ, הִיא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, הֲרֵי כֻלָּן מְכוּרִין. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ, לֹא מָכַר לֹא אֶת מְחִצַּת הַקָּנִים שֶׁהִיא בֵית רֹבַע, וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹמֵרָה שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה בְטִיט, וְלֹא אֶת הֶחָרוּב הַמֻּרְכָּב, וְלֹא אֶת סַדַּן הַשִּׁקְמָה, וְלֹא אֶת הַבּוֹר, וְלֹא אֶת הַגַּת, וְלֹא אֶת הַשּׁוֹבָךְ, בֵּין חֲרֵבִין בֵּין יְשׁוּבִין. וְצָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ חוּץ מֵאֵלּוּ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ. מְכָרָן לְאַחֵר, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, צָרִיךְ לִקַּח לוֹ דָרֶךְ. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמוֹכֵר. אֲבָל בְּנוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה, נוֹתֵן אֶת כֻּלָּם. הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ, זָכוּ בַשָּׂדֶה, זָכוּ בְכֻלָּם. הַמַּחֲזִיק בְּנִכְסֵי הַגֵּר, הֶחֱזִיק בַּשָּׂדֶה, הֶחֱזִיק בְּכֻלָּם. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, הִקְדִּישׁ אֶת כֻּלָּם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, לֹא הִקְדִּישׁ אֶלָּא אֶת הֶחָרוּב הַמֻּרְכָּב וְאֶת סַדַּן הַשִּׁקְמָה. 9.10. נָפַל הַבַּיִת עָלָיו וְעַל אִמּוֹ, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מוֹדִים שֶׁיַּחֲלֹקוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מוֹדֶה אֲנִי בָזֶה שֶׁהַנְּכָסִים בְּחֶזְקָתָן. אָמַר לוֹ בֶן עַזַּאי, עַל הַחֲלוּקִין אָנוּ מִצְטַעֲרִין, אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּאתָ לְחַלֵּק עָלֵינוּ אֶת הַשָּׁוִין. 10.1. גֵּט פָּשׁוּט, עֵדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ. וּמְקֻשָּׁר, עֵדָיו מֵאֲחוֹרָיו. פָּשׁוּט שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֵדָיו מֵאֲחוֹרָיו וּמְקֻשָּׁר שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֵדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִים. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מְקֻשָּׁר שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֵדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ, כָּשֵׁר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ פָשׁוּט. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה. 10.2. גֵּט פָּשׁוּט, עֵדָיו בִּשְׁנָיִם. וּמְקֻשָּׁר, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. פָּשׁוּט שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ עֵד אֶחָד, וּמְקֻשָּׁר שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ שְׁנֵי עֵדִים, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִין. כָּתַב בּוֹ זוּזִין מְאָה דְאִנּוּן סִלְעִין עֶשְׂרִין, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא עֶשְׂרִין. זוּזִין מְאָה דְאִנּוּן תְּלָתִין סִלְעִין, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא מָנֶה. כְסַף זוּזִין דְּאִנּוּן, וְנִמְחַק, אֵין פָּחוּת מִשְּׁתָּיִם. כְּסַף סִלְעִין דְּאִנּוּן, וְנִמְחַק, אֵין פָּחוּת מִשְּׁנָיִם. דַּרְכּוֹנוֹת דְּאִנּוּן, וְנִמְחַק, אֵין פָּחוּת מִשְּׁתָּיִם. כָּתוּב בּוֹ מִלְמַעְלָה מָנֶה וּמִלְּמַטָּה מָאתַיִם, מִלְמַעְלָה מָאתַיִם וּמִלְּמַטָּה מָנֶה, הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַתַּחְתּוֹן. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה כוֹתְבִין אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹן, שֶׁאִם תִּמָּחֵק אוֹת אַחַת מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹן, יִלְמַד מִן הָעֶלְיוֹן. 4.1. "If a man sold a house, he has not sold its side chambers, even though they open into the house, nor the room that is behind [the house], nor the roof, if it has a railing more than ten hand-breadths high. Rabbi Judah says: “If the roof as entrance shaped like a door, even if the railing is not ten hand-breadths high, it is sold.”", 4.2. "Nor [has he sold] the cistern or the cellar, even though he had written in the deed of sale, “the depth and height”. And he [the seller] must buy himself a path [from the new owner to reach the cellar or cistern], according to Rabbi Akiva. But the Sages say: “He need not buy himself a path.” And Rabbi Akiva agrees that if he had said to him, “Excepting these [the cistern or cellar]” that he need not buy himself a path. If he sold them [the cellar or cistern] to another, Rabbi Akiva says: “He need not buy himself a path.” But the Sages say: “He must buy himself a path.”", 4.9. "But [one who sold a field] has not sold the stones that are not necessary to it or the canes in a vineyard that are not necessary to it or the produce that is already picked from the ground. But if he had said, “It and all that is in it” all of these are sold also. But in neither case has he sold any partition of reeds that covers a quarter-kav’s space of ground, or the watchman’s hut if it was not fastened down with mortar, or grafted carob trees or cropped sycamores, or any cistern or winepress or dovecote, whether they are lying waste or in use. And [the seller] must purchase [from the buyer] a way thereto, according to Rabbi Akiva. But the sages say: “He need not.” And Rabbi Akiva agrees that if he had said, “Excepting these”, he need not buy himself a way thereto. If he had sold them (the cistern, winepress or dovecote) to another, Rabbi Akiva says: “He [that bought them] need not buy himself a way thereto. But the Sages say: “He must buy himself a way thereto.” When is this so? With regards to he that sells his field. But if he gives it as a gift, he gives everything that is in it. If brothers who divided [an inheritance] came into possession of a field, they come into possession of everything that is in it. If a man secured title by possession of the property of a convert, and secured title by possession of the [convert’s] field, he secures title to everything that is in it. If a man dedicated a field [to the Temple] he has dedicated everything in it. Rabbi Shimon says: “If a man dedicated a field, he has dedicated only the grafted carob trees and cropped sycamores.”", 9.10. "If the house fell down on a man and his mother, they (the Schools of Shammai and Hillel) agree that the they split the property. Rabbi Akiva said: “I agree here, that the property remains in its former status.” Ben Azzai said to him: “We already are distressed over those things upon which there is disagreement, and you are coming to bring disagreement on the points in which they agree.”", 10.1. "A simple document has the signatures within (at the bottom of the page); a sewn document has signatures behind [each fold]. If in a simple document its witnesses signed behind, or if in a sewn document its witnesses signed within, they are invalid. Rabbi Hanina ben Gamaliel says: “If in a sewn document its witnesses signed within, it is valid, since it can be made into a simple document.” Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “Everything should follow local custom.”", 10.2. "A simple document requires two witnesses; a sewn document requires three. If a simple document has only one witness, or a sewn document has only two, they are both invalid. If it was written in a debt document: “100 zuz which are 20 sela (=80”, he (the creditor) can claim only 20 sela; if [it was written] “100 zuz which are 30 sela (=120” he (the creditor) can claim only 100 zuz. [If there was written in a debt document] “Silver zuzim which are …”, and the rest was erased, [the creditor can claim] at least two zuzim. [If there was written in a debt document] “Silver selas which are …”, and the rest was erased, [the creditor can claim] at least two selas. [If there was written in a debt document] “Darics which are …”, and the rest was erased, [the creditor can claim] at least two darics. If at the top was written a “maneh (100” and at the bottom “200 zuz”, or “200 zuz” at the top and “maneh” at the bottom, everything goes according to the bottom amount. If so, why is the figure written at the top of the document? So that, if a letter of the lower figure was erased, they can learn from the upper figure.",
81. Mishnah, Avot, 1.16, 2.9, 3.2, 3.9-3.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 152; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
1.16. "רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הָיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ רַב, וְהִסְתַּלֵּק מִן הַסָּפֵק, וְאַל תַּרְבֶּה לְעַשֵּׂר אֹמָדוֹת: \n", 2.9. "אָמַר לָהֶם, צְאוּ וּרְאוּ אֵיזוֹהִי דֶרֶךְ יְשָׁרָה שֶׁיִּדְבַּק בָּהּ הָאָדָם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עַיִן טוֹבָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, חָבֵר טוֹב. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, שָׁכֵן טוֹב. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הָרוֹאֶה אֶת הַנּוֹלָד. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, לֵב טוֹב. אָמַר לָהֶם, רוֹאֶה אֲנִי אֶת דִּבְרֵי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲרָךְ מִדִּבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁבִּכְלָל דְּבָרָיו דִּבְרֵיכֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם צְאוּ וּרְאוּ אֵיזוֹהִי דֶרֶךְ רָעָה שֶׁיִּתְרַחֵק מִמֶּנָּה הָאָדָם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עַיִן רָעָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, חָבֵר רָע. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, שָׁכֵן רָע. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַלֹּוֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם. אֶחָד הַלֹּוֶה מִן הָאָדָם, כְּלֹוֶה מִן הַמָּקוֹם בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לז) לֹוֶה רָשָׁע וְלֹא יְשַׁלֵּם, וְצַדִּיק חוֹנֵן וְנוֹתֵן. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, לֵב רָע. אָמַר לָהֶם, רוֹאֶה אֲנִי אֶת דִּבְרֵי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲרָךְ מִדִּבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁבִּכְלָל דְּבָרָיו דִּבְרֵיכֶם:", 3.2. "רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגַן הַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתְפַּלֵּל בִּשְׁלוֹמָהּ שֶׁל מַלְכוּת, שֶׁאִלְמָלֵא מוֹרָאָהּ, אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ חַיִּים בְּלָעוֹ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן תְּרַדְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁנַיִם שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹשַׁב לֵצִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים א) וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב. אֲבָל שְׁנַיִם שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין וְיֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶם דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שְׁכִינָה שְׁרוּיָה בֵינֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג) אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְיָ אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְיָ וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְיָ וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם, מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב וְעוֹסֵק בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא קוֹבֵעַ לוֹ שָׂכָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ג) יֵשֵׁב בָּדָד וְיִדֹּם כִּי נָטַל עָלָיו:", 3.9. "רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן דּוֹסָא אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁיִּרְאַת חֶטְאוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת לְחָכְמָתוֹ, חָכְמָתוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. וְכָל שֶׁחָכְמָתוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת לְיִרְאַת חֶטְאוֹ, אֵין חָכְמָתוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁמַּעֲשָׂיו מְרֻבִּין מֵחָכְמָתוֹ, חָכְמָתוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. וְכָל שֶׁחָכְמָתוֹ מְרֻבָּה מִמַּעֲשָׂיו, אֵין חָכְמָתוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת:", 3.10. "הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁרוּחַ הַבְּרִיּוֹת נוֹחָה הֵימֶנּוּ, רוּחַ הַמָּקוֹם נוֹחָה הֵימֶנּוּ. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין רוּחַ הַבְּרִיּוֹת נוֹחָה הֵימֶנּוּ, אֵין רוּחַ הַמָּקוֹם נוֹחָה הֵימֶנּוּ. רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶן הַרְכִּינַס אוֹמֵר, שֵׁנָה שֶׁל שַׁחֲרִית, וְיַיִן שֶׁל צָהֳרַיִם, וְשִׂיחַת הַיְלָדִים, וִישִׁיבַת בָּתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת שֶׁל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ, מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הָאָדָם מִן הָעוֹלָם:", 1.16. "Rabban Gamaliel used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, avoid doubt, and do not make a habit of tithing by guesswork.", 2.9. "He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the right way to which a man should cleave? Rabbi Eliezer said, a good eye; Rabbi Joshua said, a good companion; Rabbi Yose said, a good neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, foresight. Rabbi Elazar said, a good heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included. He [Rabban Yoha] said unto them: go forth and observe which is the evil way which a man should shun? Rabbi Eliezer said, an evil eye; Rabbi Joshua said, an evil companion; Rabbi Yose said, an evil neighbor; Rabbi Shimon said, one who borrows and does not repay for he that borrows from man is as one who borrows from God, blessed be He, as it is said, “the wicked borrow and do not repay, but the righteous deal graciously and give” (Psalms 37:21). Rabbi Elazar said, an evil heart. He [Rabban Yoha] said to them: I prefer the words of Elazar ben Arach, for in his words your words are included.", 3.2. "Rabbi Hanina, the vice-high priest said: pray for the welfare of the government, for were it not for the fear it inspires, every man would swallow his neighbor alive. R. Haiah ben Teradion said: if two sit together and there are no words of Torah [spoken] between them, then this is a session of scorners, as it is said: “nor sat he in the seat of the scornful…[rather, the teaching of the Lord is his delight]” (Psalms 1:1); but if two sit together and there are words of Torah [spoken] between them, then the Shekhinah abides among them, as it is said: “then they that feared the Lord spoke one with another; and the Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the Lord and that thought upon His name” (Malachi 3:16). Now I have no [scriptural proof for the presence of the Shekhinah] except [among] two, how [do we know] that even one who sits and studies Torah the Holy One, blessed be He, fixes his reward? As it is said: “though he sit alone and [meditate] in stillness, yet he takes [a reward] unto himself” (Lamentations 3:28).", 3.9. "Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa said: anyone whose fear of sin precedes his wisdom, his wisdom is enduring, but anyone whose wisdom precedes his fear of sin, his wisdom is not enduring. He [also] used to say: anyone whose deeds exceed his wisdom, his wisdom is enduring, but anyone whose wisdom exceeds his deeds, his wisdom is not enduring.", 3.10. "He used to say: one with whom men are pleased, God is pleased. But anyone from whom men are displeased, God is displeased. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: morning sleep, midday wine, children’s talk and sitting in the assemblies of the ignorant put a man out of the world.",
82. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.3-1.4, 2.1-2.4, 3.1, 3.3, 4.6, 4.10-4.12, 5.2-5.4, 5.10-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151, 286
1.3. "וְאֵלּוּ אֵידֵיהֶן שֶׁל גּוֹיִם, קָלֶנְדָּא, וּסְטַרְנוּרָא, וּקְרָטֵסִים, וְיוֹם גְּנֻסְיָא שֶׁל מְלָכִים, וְיוֹם הַלֵּידָה, וְיוֹם הַמִּיתָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כָּל מִיתָה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ שְׂרֵפָה, יֶשׁ בָּהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וְשֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שְׂרֵפָה, אֵין בָּה עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. יוֹם תִּגְלַחַת זְקָנוֹ וּבְלוֹרִיתוֹ, יוֹם שֶׁעָלָה בוֹ מִן הַיָּם, וְיוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא בוֹ מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְגוֹי שֶׁעָשָׂה מִשְׁתֶּה לִבְנוֹ, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם וְאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ בִּלְבָד: \n", 1.4. "עִיר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, חוּצָה לָהּ מֻתָּר. הָיָה חוּצָה לָהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, תּוֹכָהּ מֻתָּר. מַהוּ לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם. בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ מְיֻחֶדֶת לְאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם, אָסוּר. וְאִם הָיָה יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, מֻתָּר. עִיר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהָיוּ בָהּ חֲנֻיּוֹת מְעֻטָּרוֹת וְשֶׁאֵינָן מְעֻטָּרוֹת, זֶה הָיָה מַעֲשֶׂה בְּבֵית שְׁאָן, וְאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, הַמְעֻטָּרוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת וְשֶׁאֵינָן מְעֻטָּרוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת: \n", 2.1. "אֵין מַעֲמִידִין בְּהֵמָה בְּפֻנְדְּקָאוֹת שֶׁל גּוֹיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֲשׁוּדִין עַל הָרְבִיעָה. וְלֹא תִתְיַחֵד אִשָּׁה עִמָּהֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֲשׁוּדִין עַל הָעֲרָיוֹת. וְלֹא יִתְיַחֵד אָדָם עִמָּהֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחֲשׁוּדִין עַל שְׁפִיכַת דָּמִים. בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְיַלֵּד אֶת הַנָּכְרִית, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּיַלֶּדֶת בֵּן לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. אֲבָל נָכְרִית מְיַלֶּדֶת בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל. בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תָנִיק בְּנָהּ שֶׁל נָכְרִית, אֲבָל נָכְרִית מְנִיקָה בְנָהּ שֶׁל יִשְׂרְאֵלִית בִּרְשׁוּתָהּ: \n", 2.2. "מִתְרַפְּאִין מֵהֶן רִפּוּי מָמוֹן, אֲבָל לֹא רִפּוּי נְפָשׁוֹת. וְאֵין מִסְתַּפְּרִין מֵהֶן בְּכָל מָקוֹם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מֻתָּר, אֲבָל לֹא בֵינוֹ לְבֵינוֹ: \n", 2.3. "אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁל גּוֹיִם אֲסוּרִין וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה. הַיַּיִן, וְהַחֹמֶץ שֶׁל גּוֹיִם שֶׁהָיָה מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ יַיִן, וְחֶרֶס הַדְרִיָּנִי, וְעוֹרוֹת לְבוּבִין. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַקֶּרַע שֶׁלּוֹ עָגוֹל, אָסוּר. מָשׁוּךְ, מֻתָּר. בָּשָׂר הַנִּכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, מֻתָּר. וְהַיּוֹצֵא, אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְזִבְחֵי מֵתִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. הַהוֹלְכִין לַתַּרְפּוּת, אָסוּר לָשֵׂאת וְלָתֵת עִמָּהֶם. וְהַבָּאִין, מֻתָּרִין: \n" 2.4. "נוֹדוֹת הַגּוֹיִם וְקַנְקַנֵּיהֶן וְיַיִן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּנוּס בָּהֶן, אֲסוּרִין, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין אִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה. הַחַרְצַנִּים וְהַזַּגִּין שֶׁל גּוֹיִם אֲסוּרִין, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לַחִין, אֲסוּרִין, יְבֵשִׁין, מֻתָּרִין. הַמֻּרְיָס וּגְבִינוֹת בֵּית אֻנְיָקִי שֶׁל גּוֹיִם אֲסוּרִין, וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין אִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה: \n", 3.1. "כָּל הַצְּלָמִים אֲסוּרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נֶעֱבָדִין פַּעַם אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה, דִבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא כָל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ מַקֵּל אוֹ צִפּוֹר אוֹ כַדּוּר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ כָל דָּבָר:", 3.3. "הַמּוֹצֵא כֵלִים וַעֲלֵיהֶם צוּרַת חַמָּה, צוּרַת לְבָנָה, צוּרַת דְּרָקוֹן, יוֹלִיכֵם לְיָם הַמֶּלַח. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שֶׁעַל הַמְכֻבָּדִין, אֲסוּרִים. שֶׁעַל הַמְבֻזִּין, מֻתָּרִין. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, שׁוֹחֵק וְזוֹרֶה לָרוּחַ אוֹ מַטִּיל לַיָּם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַף הוּא נַעֲשֶׂה זֶבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יג) וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם:", 4.6. "עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁהִנִּיחוּהָ עוֹבְדֶיהָ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁלוֹם, מֻתֶּרֶת. בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה, אֲסוּרָה. בִּימוֹסְיָאוֹת שֶׁל מְלָכִים, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין אוֹתָם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַמְּלָכִים עוֹבְרִים: \n", 4.10. "גּוֹי שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַבּוֹר שֶׁל יַיִן, אִם יֶשׁ לוֹ עָלָיו מִלְוָה, אָסוּר. אֵין לוֹ עָלָיו מִלְוָה, מֻתָּר. נָפַל לַבּוֹר וְעָלָה, וּמְדָדוֹ בַקָּנֶה, הִתִּיז אֶת הַצִּרְעָה בַקָּנֶה אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַפֵּחַ עַל פִּי חָבִית מְרֻתַּחַת, בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הָיָה מַעֲשֶׂה, וְאָמְרוּ יִמָּכֵר. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר. נָטַל אֶת הֶחָבִית וּזְרָקָהּ בַּחֲמָתוֹ לַבּוֹר, זֶה הָיָה מַעֲשֶׂה וְהִכְשִׁירוּ: \n", 4.11. "הַמְטַהֵר יֵינוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי וְנוֹתְנוֹ בִרְשׁוּתוֹ בְּבַיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בְּעִיר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ גּוֹיִם וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִים, מֻתָּר. בְּעִיר שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ גּוֹיִם, אָסוּר, עַד שֶׁיּוֹשִׁיב שׁוֹמֵר. וְאֵין הַשּׁוֹמֵר צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמֵּר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא וְנִכְנָס, מֻתָּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, כָּל רְשׁוּת גּוֹיִם אַחַת הִיא: \n", 4.12. "הַמְּטַהֵר יֵינוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי וְנוֹתְנוֹ בִרְשׁוּתוֹ, וְהַלָּה כוֹתֵב לוֹ, הִתְקַבַּלְתִּי מִמְּךָ מָעוֹת, מֻתָּר. אֲבָל אִם יִרְצֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ אֶת מְעוֹתָיו, זֶה הָיָה מַעֲשֶׂה בְבֵית שְׁאָן, וְאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים: \n", 5.2. "יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי עֲנָבִים, יְדִיחֵן וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת. וְאִם הָיוּ מְבֻקָּעוֹת, אֲסוּרוֹת. נָפַל עַל גַבֵּי תְאֵנִים אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי תְמָרִים, אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶן בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, אָסוּר. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּבַיְתוֹס בֶּן זוֹנָן שֶׁהֵבִיא גְרוֹגָרוֹת בִּסְפִינָה, וְנִשְׁתַּבְּרָה חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין נֶסֶךְ וְנָפַל עַל גַּבֵּיהֶן, וְשָׁאַל לַחֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּם. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁבַּהֲנָאָתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, אָסוּר. כֹּל שֶׁאֵין בַּהֲנָאָתוֹ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, מֻתָּר, כְּגוֹן חֹמֶץ שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי גְרִיסִין: \n", 5.3. "נָכְרִי שֶׁהָיָה מַעֲבִיר עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, אִם הָיָה בְחֶזְקַת הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר, מֻתָּר. אִם הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתֹּם וְיִסְתֹּם וְיִגֹּב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב: \n", 5.4. "הַמַּנִּיחַ יֵינוֹ בְקָרוֹן אוֹ בִסְפִינָה וְהָלַךְ לוֹ בְקַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, נִכְנַס לַמְּדִינָה וְרָחַץ, מֻתָּר. אִם הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׁתֹּם וְיִסְתֹּם וְיִגֹּב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב. הַמַּנִּיחַ נָכְרִי בַחֲנוּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא וְנִכְנָס, מֻתָּר. וְאִם הוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַפְלִיג, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִשְׁתֹּם וְיִסְתֹּם וְיִגֹּב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְתַּח וְיָגוּף וְתִגֹּב: \n", 5.10. "יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁנָּפַל לְבוֹר, כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, יִמָּכֵר כֻּלּוֹ לְנָכְרִי, חוּץ מִדְּמֵי יֵין נֶסֶךְ שֶׁבּוֹ: \n", 5.11. "גַּת שֶׁל אֶבֶן שֶׁזִּפְּתָהּ גּוֹי, מְנַגְּבָהּ וְהִיא טְהוֹרָה. וְשֶׁל עֵץ, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, יְנַגֵּב. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יִקְלֹף אֶת הַזֶּפֶת. וְשֶׁל חֶרֶס, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּלַף אֶת הַזֶּפֶת, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה: \n", 1.3. "These are the festivities of the idolaters: Kalenda, Saturnalia, Kratesis, the anniversary of accession to the throne and birthdays and anniversaries of deaths, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: a death at which burning [of articles of the dead] takes place is attended by idolatry, but where there is not such burning there is no idolatry. But the day of shaving ones beard and lock of hair, or the day of landing after a sea voyage, or the day of release from prison, or if an idolater holds a banquet for his son the prohibition only applies to that day and that particular person.", 1.4. "When an idolatrous [festival] takes place within a city it is permitted [to conduct business with non-Jews] outside it. If the idolatrous [festival] takes place outside it, [business] is permitted within it. Is it permitted to go there? If the road leads solely to that place, it is forbidden; But if one can go by it to any other place, it is permitted. A city in which an idolatrous festival is taking place, some of its shops being decorated and some not decorated this was the case with Beth-Shean, and the Sages said: in the decorated stores it is forbidden [to buy] but in the undecorated ones it is permitted.", 2.1. "One should not place animals in inns of non-Jews, because they are suspected of bestiality. A woman should not be alone with them, because they are suspected of licentiousness; Nor should a man be alone with them, because they are suspected of shedding blood. A Jewish woman should not act as midwife to a non-Jewish woman, because she would be delivering a child for idolatry. But a non-Jewish woman may act as midwife to a Jewish woman. A Jewish woman should not suckle the child of a non-Jewish woman, But a non-Jewish woman may suckle the child of a Jewish woman in her premises.", 2.2. "We may allow them to heal us when the healing relates to money, but not personal healing; Nor should we have our hair cut by them in any place, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages said: in a public place it is permitted, but not when the two persons are alone.", 2.3. "The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted." 2.4. "Skin-bottles or flasks of non-Jews in which wine of a Jew is kept are forbidden and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit. Grape seeds and grape-skins of non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, when fresh they are forbidden but when dry they are permitted. Fish brine and Bithynian cheese of the non-Jews are forbidden, the prohibition extending to any benefit that may be derived from them, this is the opinion of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say that the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit.", 3.1. "All images are prohibited because they are worshipped once a year, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir; But the Sages say: [an image] is not prohibited except one that has a staff or bird or orb in its hand. Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel says: any [image] which has anything in its hand [is prohibited].", 3.3. "If one finds utensils upon which is the figure of the sun or moon or a dragon, he casts them into the Dead Sea. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: if [one of these figures] is upon precious utensils they are prohibited, but if upon common utensils they are permitted. Rabbi Yose says: he may grind [an idol] to powder and scatter it to the wind or throw it into the sea. They said to him, even so it may then become manure, as it says, “let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)”.", 4.6. "An idol which its worshippers abandoned in time of peace is permitted, in time of war it is prohibited. Pedestals of kings are permitted because they set them up at the time the kings pass by.", 4.10. "If a non-Jew was found standing by the side of a vat of wine, if he had loaned money to the Jew, then [the wine] is prohibited; but should he not have loaned money to the Jew, then it is permitted. If [a non-Jew] fell into a vat and climbed out, or measured it with a reed, or flicked out a hornet with a reed, or tapped on the top of a frothing cask All of these things actually happened, and [the Rabbis] said that the wine may be sold, but Rabbi Shimon permits it [even to be drunk]. If [a non-Jew] took a cask, and in his anger threw it into the vat this actually happened and [the Rabbis] declared it fit [for drinking].", 4.11. "If [an Jew] prepares a non-Jew's wine in a state of ritual purity and leaves it in [the non-Jew’s] domain, in a house which is open to the public domain, should it be in a city where non-Jews and Jews reside, it is permitted. But should it be in a city where only non-Jews reside it is prohibited unless [an Jew] sits and guard. There is no need for the guard to sit and watch [the whole time]; even if he keeps going out and coming in it is permitted. Rabbi Shimon ben Eleazar says: it is all one with the domain of a non-Jew.", 4.12. "If [a Jew] prepares a non-Jew’s wine in a state of ritual purity and leaves it in [the non-Jew’s] domain, and the [non-Jew] writes for him “I have received the money from you,” then [the wine] is permitted. If, however, the Jew wished to remove it and [the non-Jew] refuses to let it go until he paid him this actually happened in Beth-Shan and [the Rabbis] prohibited it.", 5.2. "If yen nesekh fell upon grapes, one may rinse them and they are permitted, but if they were split they are prohibited. If it fell upon figs or upon dates, should there be in them [sufficient wine] to impart a flavor, they are prohibited. It happened with Boethus ben Zpnin that he carried dried figs in a ship and a cask of yen nesekh was broken and it fell upon them; and he consulted the Sages who declared them permitted. This is the general rule: whatever derives advantage [from yen nesekh by its] imparting a flavor is prohibited, but whatever does not derive advantage [from yen nesekh by its] imparting a flavor is permitted, as, for example vinegar which fell upon split beans.", 5.3. "If a non-Jew was transporting jars of wine together with a Jew from place to place, and it was presumed that [the wine] was under guard, it is permitted. But if [the Jew] informed him that he was going away [and he was absent a length of time] sufficient for the other to bore a hole [in a jar], stop it up and [the sealing clay] to become dry, [the wine is prohibited]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: [a length of time] sufficient for him to open a cask, put a new stopper on and [the new stopper] to become dry.", 5.4. "If [a Jew] left his wine in a wagon or on a ship while he went along a short cut, entered a town and bathed, it is permitted. But if [the Jew] informed him that he was going away [and he was absent a length of time] sufficient for the other to bore a hole [in a jar], stop it up and [the sealing clay] to become dry, [the wine is prohibited]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: [a length of time] sufficient for him to open a cask, put a new stopper on and [the new stopper] to become dry. If [a Jew] left a non-Jew in his shop, although he kept going in and out, [the wine there] is permitted. But if [the Jew] informed him that he was going away [and he was absent a length of time] sufficient for the other to bore a hole [in a jar], stop it up and [the sealing clay] to become dry, [the wine is prohibited]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: [a length of time] sufficient for him to open a cask, put a new stopper on and [the new stopper] to become dry.", 5.10. "If yen nesekh fell into a vat, the whole of it is prohibited for use. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: the whole of it may be sold to non-Jews with the exception of [a quantity corresponding to] the value of the yen nesekh in it.", 5.11. "If a none covered a stone wine press with pitch it may be scoured and is then clean; But if it was of wood, Rabbi says that it may be scoured and the Sages say that he must peel off the pitch. If it was of earthenware, even though he peeled off the pitch it is prohibited.",
83. Martial, Epigrams, 7.30.5, 7.35, 11.94 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba war Found in books: Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 473
84. Martial, Epigrams, 7.30.5, 7.35, 11.94 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba war Found in books: Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 473
85. Josephus Flavius, Life, 1, 10-12, 3-9, 2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
86. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.4, 1.37-1.41, 1.179 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 18; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202, 210
1.4. As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary. 1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8. 1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; 1.40. but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. 1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time; 1.179. This man, then [answered Aristotle], was by birth a Jew, and came from Celesyria: these Jews are derived from the Indian philosophers; they are named by the Indians Calami, and by the Syrians Judaei, and took their name from the country they inhabit, which is called Judea; but for the name of their city it is a very awkward one, for they call it Jerusalem.
87. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.1, 2.17.8-2.17.9, 2.152-2.153, 2.567, 3.11, 3.307-3.315, 4.7, 4.402-4.405, 4.439, 4.442, 4.475-4.481, 7.216, 7.417-7.419 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba (bar koziba) •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba), and letters/documents •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( •bar kokhba (bar koziba), and coins Found in books: Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 353; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 168, 169, 177, 220, 262, 269; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
1.1. 1. Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned in the affairs themselves have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.567. Nor did they neglect the care of other parts of the country; but Joseph the son of Simon was sent as general to Jericho, as was Manasseh to Perea, and John, the Essene, to the toparchy of Thamma; Lydda was also added to his portion, and Joppa, and Emmaus. 3.11. This excursion was led on by three men, who were the chief of them all, both for strength and sagacity; Niger, called the Peraite, Silas of Babylon, and besides them John the Essene. 3.307. 32. Nor did the Samaritans escape their share of misfortunes at this time; for they assembled themselves together upon the mountain called Gerizzim, which is with them a holy mountain, and there they remained; which collection of theirs, as well as the courageous minds they showed, could not but threaten somewhat of war; 3.308. nor were they rendered wiser by the miseries that had come upon their neighboring cities. They also, notwithstanding the great success the Romans had, marched on in an unreasonable manner, depending on their own weakness, and were disposed for any tumult upon its first appearance. 3.309. Vespasian therefore thought it best to prevent their motions, and to cut off the foundation of their attempts. For although all Samaria had ever garrisons settled among them, yet did the number of those that were come to Mount Gerizzim, and their conspiracy together, give ground for fear what they would be at; 3.310. he therefore sent thither Cerealis, the commander of the fifth legion, with six hundred horsemen, and three thousand footmen, 3.311. who did not think it safe to go up to the mountain, and give them battle, because many of the enemy were on the higher part of the ground; so he encompassed all the lower part of the mountain with his army, and watched them all that day. 3.312. Now it happened that the Samaritans, who were now destitute of water, were inflamed with a violent heat (for it was summer time, and the multitude had not provided themselves with necessaries), 3.313. insomuch that some of them died that very day with heat, while others of them preferred slavery before such a death as that was, and fled to the Romans, 3.314. by whom Cerealis understood that those which still staid there were very much broken by their misfortunes. So he went up to the mountain, and having placed his forces round about the enemy, he, in the first place, exhorted them to take the security of his right hand, and come to terms with him, and thereby save themselves; and assured them, that if they would lay down their arms, he would secure them from any harm; 3.315. but when he could not prevail with them, he fell upon them and slew them all, being in number eleven thousand and six hundred. This was done on the twenty-seventh day of the month Desius [Sivan]. And these were the calamities that befell the Samaritans at this time. 4.7. On its acclivity, which is straight, houses are built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs so strangely, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itself, so sharp is it at the top. 4.402. and at the feast of unleavened bread, which the Jews celebrate in memory of their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, when they were sent back into the country of their forefathers, they came down by night, without being discovered by those that could have prevented them, and overran a certain small city called Engaddi:— 4.403. in which expedition they prevented those citizens that could have stopped them, before they could arm themselves, and fight them. They also dispersed them, and cast them out of the city. As for such as could not run away, being women and children, they slew of them above seven hundred. 4.404. Afterward, when they had carried everything out of their houses, and had seized upon all the fruits that were in a flourishing condition, they brought them into Masada. 4.405. And indeed these men laid all the villages that were about the fortress waste, and made the whole country desolate; while there came to them every day, from all parts, not a few men as corrupt as themselves. 4.439. He then put his soldiers on board the ships, and slew such as had fled to the lake, insomuch that all Perea had either surrendered themselves, or were taken by the Romans, as far as Macherus. 4.442. while therefore the winter was his hinderance [from going into the field], he put garrisons into the villages and smaller cities for their security; he put decurions also into the villages, and centurions into the cities: he besides this rebuilt many of the cities that had been laid waste; 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation. 4.476. 4. The nature of the lake Asphaltitis is also worth describing. It is, as I have said already, bitter and unfruitful. It is so light [or thick] that it bears up the heaviest things that are thrown into it; nor is it easy for anyone to make things sink therein to the bottom, if he had a mind so to do. 4.477. Accordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, he commanded that some who could not swim should have their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep, when it so happened that they all swam as if a wind had forced them upwards. 4.478. Moreover, the change of the color of this lake is wonderful, for it changes its appearance thrice every day; and as the rays of the sun fall differently upon it, the light is variously reflected. 4.479. However, it casts up black clods of bitumen in many parts of it; these swim at the top of the water, and resemble both in shape and bigness headless bulls; 4.480. and when the laborers that belong to the lake come to it, and catch hold of it as it hangs together, they draw it into their ships; but when the ship is full, it is not easy to cut off the rest, for it is so tenacious as to make the ship hang upon its clods till they set it loose with the menstrual blood of women, and with urine, to which alone it yields. 4.481. This bitumen is not only useful for the caulking of ships, but for the cure of men’s bodies; accordingly, it is mixed in a great many medicines. 7.216. 6. About the same time it was that Caesar sent a letter to Bassus, and to Liberius Maximus, who was the procurator [of Judea], and gave order that all Judea should be exposed to sale; 7.417. whose courage, or whether we ought to call it madness, or hardiness in their opinions, everybody was amazed at. 7.418. For when all sorts of torments and vexations of their bodies that could be devised were made use of to them, they could not get anyone of them to comply so far as to confess, or seem to confess, that Caesar was their lord; but they preserved their own opinion, in spite of all the distress they were brought to, as if they received these torments and the fire itself with bodies insensible of pain, and with a soul that in a manner rejoiced under them. 7.419. But what was most of all astonishing to the beholders was the courage of the children; for not one of these children was so far overcome by these torments, as to name Caesar for their lord. So far does the strength of the courage [of the soul] prevail over the weakness of the body.
88. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 124
10.3. It is monstrous to talk of Jesus Christ and to practise Judaism. For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity, wherein every tongue believed and was gathered together unto God.
89. Mishnah, Gittin, 8.5, 9.3, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 188, 222; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
8.5. "כָּתַב לְשׁוּם מַלְכוּת שְׁאֵינָהּ הוֹגֶנֶת, לְשׁוּם מַלְכוּת מָדַי, לְשׁוּם מַלְכוּת יָוָן, לְבִנְיַן הַבַּיִת, לְחֻרְבַּן הַבַּיִת, הָיָה בַמִּזְרָח וְכָתַב בַּמַּעֲרָב, בַּמַּעֲרָב וְכָתַב בַּמִּזְרָח, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וּצְרִיכָה גֵט מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְאֵין לָהּ לֹא כְתֻבָּה וְלֹא פֵרוֹת וְלֹא מְזוֹנוֹת וְלֹא בְלָאוֹת, לֹא עַל זֶה וְלֹא עַל זֶה. אִם נָטְלָה מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, תַּחֲזִיר. וְהַוָּלָד מַמְזֵר מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה. וְלֹא זֶה וָזֶה מִטַּמְּאִין לָהּ, וְלֹא זֶה וָזֶה זַכָּאִין לֹא בִמְצִיאָתָהּ וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ וְלֹא בַהֲפָרַת נְדָרֶיהָ. הָיְתָה בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, נִפְסֶלֶת מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה. בַּת לֵוִי, מִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. בַּת כֹּהֵן, מִן הַתְּרוּמָה. וְאֵין יוֹרְשָׁיו שֶׁל זֶה וְיוֹרְשָׁיו שֶׁל זֶה יוֹרְשִׁין כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. וְאִם מֵתוּ, אָחִיו שֶׁל זֶה וְאָחִיו שֶׁל זֶה חוֹלְצִין וְלֹא מְיַבְּמִין. שִׁנָּה שְׁמוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ, שֵׁם עִירוֹ וְשֵׁם עִירָהּ, תֵּצֵא מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה, וְכָל הַדְּרָכִים הָאֵלּוּ בָהּ: \n", 9.3. "גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל גֵּט, הֲרֵי אַתְּ מֻתֶּרֶת לְכָל אָדָם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, וְדֵין דְּיֶהֱוֵי לִיכִי מִנַּאי סֵפֶר תֵּרוּכִין וְאִגֶּרֶת שִׁבּוּקִין וְגֵט פִּטּוּרִין, לִמְהָךְ לְהִתְנְסָבָא לְכָל גְּבַר דְּתִצְבַּיִן. גּוּפוֹ שֶׁל גֵּט שִׁחְרוּר, הֲרֵי אַתְּ בַּת חוֹרִין, הֲרֵי אַתְּ לְעַצְמֵךְ: \n", 9.8. "גֵּט שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעֵדָיו יְוָנִית, יְוָנִית וְעֵדָיו עִבְרִית, עֵד אֶחָד עִבְרִי וְעֵד אֶחָד יְוָנִי, כָּתַב סוֹפֵר וְעֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְלֹא כָתַב עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. וְכָךְ הָיוּ נְקִיֵּי הַדַּעַת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם עוֹשִׂין. כָּתַב חֲנִיכָתוֹ וַחֲנִיכָתָהּ, כָּשֵׁר. גֵּט מְעֻשֶּׂה, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּשֵׁר. וּבְגוֹיִם, פָּסוּל. וּבְגוֹיִם, חוֹבְטִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ עֲשֵׂה מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לְךָ, וְכָשֵׁר: \n", 8.5. "If the get was dated by an unfit kingship, by the empire of Medea, by the empire of Greece, by the building of the Temple or by the destruction of the Temple, Or if being in the east he wrote “in the west”, or being in the west he wrote “in the east”, She must leave this one and that one, and she also requires a get from this one and that one. She has no ketubah, no usufruct, no support money or worn clothes, neither from this one nor from that one. If she has taken anything from this one or that one, she must return it. The child from this one or that one is a mamzer. Neither this one nor that one may impurify himself for her. Neither this one and that one has a claim to whatever she may find, nor what she makes with her hands, nor to invalidate her vows. If she was the daughter of an Israelite, she becomes disqualified from marrying a priest; if the daughter of a Levite, from the eating of tithe; and if the daughter of a priest, from the eating of terumah. Neither the heirs of this one nor the heirs of that one are entitled to inherit her ketubah. And if [the husbands] die, the brother of the one and the brother of the other must perform halitzah, but may not contract yibbum. If his name or her name or the name of his town or the name of her town was wrongly given, she must leave both husbands and all the above consequences apply to her.", 9.3. "The body of the get is: “Behold you are permitted to any man.” Rabbi Judah says: [he must add] “And this shall be to you from me a writ of divorce and a letter of release and a bill of dismissal, with which you may go and marry any man that you wish.” The body of a writ of emancipation is: “Behold you are a free woman”, “Behold you belong to yourself.”", 9.8. "A get which was written in Hebrew and whose signatures are in Greek, or was written in Greek and whose signatures are in Hebrew, or which has one Hebrew signature and one Greek signature, or which was written by a scribe and signed by one witness, is valid. [If a man signs], “So-and-so, witness,” it is valid. [If he signs,] “Son of so-and-so, witness, it is valid. [If he signs,] “So-and-so son of so-and-so” and he didn’t write “witness”, it is valid. If he wrote his own family name and hers, the get is valid. And this is how the scrupulous in Jerusalem would do. A get given imposed by court: in the case of a Jewish court is valid, and in the case of a Gentile court is invalid. And with regard to Gentiles, if they beat him and say to him, “Do what the Israelites say to you,” (and it is valid).",
90. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, a b c d\n0 5.15 73 5.15 73 5 15 73 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), and letters/documents •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 269
91. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 4.15, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 163; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
5.1. "גירי וחרורי ממזרי ונתיני שתוקי ואסופי וכל האסורין לבא בקהל מותרים לבא זה בזה דברי ר\"מ ר' יהודה אומר ד' קהלות הן קהל כהנים קהל לוים קהל ישראל קהל גרים והשאר מותרים לבא זה בזה וחכ\"א שלש קהלות הן קהל כהנים קהל לוים קהל ישראל ר' אליעזר אומר כל האסורין בקהל ודאן בודאן מותר ודאן בספקן ספיקן בודאן וספיקן בספיקן אסור.", 5.1. "מתיחדת אשה אחת עם שני אנשים אפילו שניהם כותים אפילו שניהם עבדים אפילו א' כותי וא' עבד חוץ מן הקטן שאינה בושה לשמש כנגדו אחותו [חמותו] ושאר כל עריות שבתורה לא יתיחד עמהן אלא ע\"פ שנים אבל היא לא תתיחד אפילו עם מאה עובדי כוכבים ר' אלעזר אומר אף מי שיש לו אשה ובנים ואין שרוין אצלו לא ילמד סופרים ר' יהודה אומר רווק לא ירעה בהמה דקה ולא ישנו שני רווקים בטלית אחת וחכמים מתירין אמרו לו לא נחשדו ישראל על כך.", 5.1. "Converts, freedmen, mamzerim (bastards), netinim (descendants of temple slaves), shetukim (orphan with no father), asufim (orphan with neither known parent; see Mishnah Kiddushin 4:1), and any [class of people] that are forbidden from marrying into the congregation are permitted to marry each other—words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehudah says: There are 4 congregations [that are all permitted to marry each other]—kohanim, levi'im, yisrael, converts, and anyone else [not in any of those 4 congregations] is allowed to marry each other. But Hakhamim say: There are 3 congregations—kohanim, levi'im, yisrael. Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who is forbidden to marry into the congregation—two people who each have certain status are permitted [to marry each other]; one person with certain status with one person with doubtful status, doubtful with certain and doubtful with doubtful are forbidden [to marry each other].",
92. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 4.1, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
4.1. "שור שחציו של ישראל וחציו של הקדש שהזיק של ישראל מועד משלם נזק שלם ותם משלם חצי נזק של הקדש בין תם ובין מועד פטור הוזק מאחד של ישראל חייב ושל הקדש פטור שור של הקדש הבעלים חייבין באחריותן הבעלים נוטלין את נזקו ונותנין את נזקו שור שחציו של ישראל וחציו של כנעני שהזיק את של ישראל מועד משלם נ\"ש ותם משלם ח\"נ ושל כנעני בין תם ובין מועד משלם נ\"ש שור של כנעני שהזיק שור של אחר חבירו אע\"פ שקבלו עליהם לדון בדיני ישראל משלמין נ\"ש שאין תם ומועד בנזקי הכנעני.", 4.3. "יפה כח הדיוט מכח גבוה וכח גבוה מכח הדיוט יפה כח הדיוט נזקין להדיוט ואין נזקין לגבוה ריבית ואונאה להדיוט ואין ריבית ואונאה לגבוה תשלומי כפל ותשלומי ארבעה וחמשה להדיוט ואין תשלומי כפל ותשלומי ארבעה וחמשה לגבוה נשבע להדיוט משלם קרן וחומש לגבוה אין משלם אלא קרן. יפה כח גבוה מעילה לגבוה ואין מעילה להדיוט אמירתו לגבוה כמסירתו להדיוט קרן וחומש לגבוה ואין קרן וחומש להדיוט הקונה מן הגבוה בכסף מן ההדיוט בכסף בשטר ובחזקה.",
93. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.13, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman persecution, bar kokhba revolt •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 40; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 528
2.13. "בעל קרי שאין לו מים לטבול הרי זה קורא את שמע ואינו משמיע לאזנו ואינו מברך לפניה ולא לאחריה דברי רבי מאיר וחכ\"א קורא את שמע ומשמיע לאזנו ומברך לפניה ולאחריה אמר ר' מאיר פעם אחת היינו יושבין לפני ר' עקיבה בבית המדרש והיינו קורין את שמע ולא היינו משמיעים לאזנינו מפני קסדור אחד שהיה עומד על הפתח אמר לו אין שעת הסכנה ראיה.", 3.7. "א\"ר יהודה כשהיה רבי עקיבה מתפלל עם הצבור היה מקצר בפני כולן כשהיה מתפלל בינו לבין עצמו היה אדם מניחו בצד זה ובא ומצאו בצד אחר מפני הכריעות והשתחויות שהיה עושה.",
94. Tosefta, Demai, 5.2, 6.3, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 158; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 168, 286
5.2. "ישראל שמכר את זיתו בששים לוג טבלים ואמר לו כהן תנם לי בששים לוג מתוקנין [ומעשרות שלי מעשרות שלו ואינו חושש לא משום שביעית ולא משום רבית ולא משום מחלל את הקדשים.", 5.2. "היה מוכר פירות בערב שבת עם חשיכה אמר מתוקנין הן הלוקח ממנו למוצאי שבת לא יאכל עד שיעשר.", 6.3. "החוכר שדה מן הנכרי מעשר ונותן לו לפיכך אם חזר [ישראל ולקחה ממנו] או שמכרה לישראל אחר נוהג בה דמאי.", 6.7. "ישראל שקבל שדה מחבירו לקצור שבלין כרמו לבצור בענבים זיתיו למסוק בזיתים נותן לו כמות שהן שדהו לקצור בחטין כרמו לבצור ביין זיתיו למסוק בשמן מעשר ונותן לו.",
95. Tosefta, Eruvin, 5.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt, rabbinic memory of •time of persecution, referring to bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 44
96. Tosefta, Gittin, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 201
97. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 1.1, 4.4, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt, rabbinic memory of •time of persecution, referring to bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhba Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 44; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 63
1.1. "מפני מה אמרו בתולה נשאת ליום הרביעי שאם היה לו טענת בתולים היה משכים לב\"ד א\"כ תנשא באחד בשבת אלא מפני [שמתקן] צרכיו [כל ימות השבת] התקינו שיהא נושא אותה ברביעי [מן הסכנה ואילך התקינו שיהא נושא בשלישי] ולא מיחו בידם חכמים רצה [לישא] בשני אין שומעין לו אם [מחמת אונס הרי זה מותר מפני מה מפרישין] את החתן מן הכלה לילי שבת תחלה מפני שהוא עושה חבורה מפני מה אמרו אלמנה [ליום החמישי] שאם נושא אותה באחד מכל ימות השבת מניחה והולך למלאכתו התקינו שיהא נושא אותה בחמישי שיהא בטל שלשה ימים חמישי וערב שבת ושבת [שלשה ימי בטלה] נמצא שמח עמה ג' ימים.", 4.4. "נשבית אין חייב לפדותה בד\"א בשבוית מלכות אבל בשבוית [ליסטות] פודה אם רצה לקיים יקיים ואם לאו יוציא ויתן כתובה [מנה] נשבית לאחר מיתת בעלה אין [יבמין] חייבין לפדותה ולא עוד אלא אפילו נשבית בחיי בעלה ולאחר כן מת בעלה אין [יבמין] חייבין לפדותה.", 9.3. "ר' יהודה אומר לעולם הוא אוכל פירי פירות וילקח בהן קרקע והוא אוכל פירות רשב\"ג ור' ישמעאל בן ר' יוחנן בן ברוקה אומרים אם מתה יירשנה שהתנה על מה שכתוב בתורה וכל המתנה על מה שכתוב בתורה תנאו בטל.", 1.1. "Why did they say that a virgin was married on Wednesday? For if he had a virginity claim, he would get up early to go to court. If so, let her be married on Sunday! Rather, because they could attend to all their needs for as many days of the week as possible, they decreed that he should marry her on Wednesday. From the danger and onwards, they decreed that he should marry on Tuesday, and the Sages did not object to them. If he wants to get married on Monday, they do not listen to him. If it is because of factors beyond their control, it is allowed. Why do the groom and bride separate on the first Friday night? Because he would make a bruise [when causing her to lose her virginity, and it is forbidden to cause a wound on Shabbat]. Why did they say that a widow should be married on Thursday? Because, if he married her on Sunday, the rest of the week he would leave her and go back to work; they decreed that he should marry her on Thursday, in order that he should be idle for 3 days (Thursday, Friday, Saturday), and through these idle days, it would result in him being happy with her for 3 days.", 4.4. "If [a wife] is captured, he is not required to redeem her. When does this apply? When she is a captive of the government, but if she is a captive of bandits he redeems her—if he wants to uphold it he can [and pay the bandits to redeem her], or else he divorces her and gives her a ketubah of 100 zuz. If she is captured after the death of her husband, her levirs are not required to redeem her. And that's not all—even if she were captured while her husband was alive and after that he died, the levirs are not required to redeem her.", 9.3. "Rabbi Yehudah says: [The husband] can always eat the fruits' fruit [i.e. the interest's interest, even if he said in the ketubah that he gives up access to the fruit from her property]. How so? He can sell the fruit and buy with [that money] land, and he can eat the fruit. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yoha ben Berokah say: If she dies, he inherits it [the fruit, even if he said he wouldn't have access to it in the ketubah], for she made a stipulation against what was written in the Torah and anyone who stipulates against what is written in the Torah, his stipulation is null and void.",
98. Tosefta, Terumot, 8.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
8.12. "קדירה שבשל בה בשר לא יבשל בה חלב [בישל בה <בשר> חולין לא יבשל בה תרומה] תרומה לא יבשל בה חולין ואם בשלן ה\"ז בנותן טעם.",
99. Tosefta, Megillah, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •roman persecution, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 40
2.4. "הכל חייבין בקריאת [מגילה] כהנים לוים וישראלים [ועבדים] משוחררין חללין נתינים [וממזרים] סריס אדם וסריס חמה פצוע דכא וכרות שפכה כולן חייבין ומוציאין את הרבים י\"ח אנדרוגינוס מוציא מינו ולא את שאינו מינו טומטום אינו מוציא לא את מינו ולא את שאינו מינו מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חורין אין מוציא לא את מינו ולא את שאינו מינו נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורין ואין מוציאין את הרבים ידי חובתן. אמר רבי יהודה קטן הייתי [וקריתי לפני ר' טרפון בלוד וקלסני] א\"ר קטן הייתי וקריתיה [לפני ר' יהודה באושא והיו שם זקנים ולא אמר אחד מהן דבר] אמרו לו אין מביאין ראיה מן המתיר [מכאן ואילך הנהיגו שיהו קטן קורין אותה לרבים].",
100. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
101. Tosefta, Niddah, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
102. Tosefta, Peah, 3.1, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
3.1. "שתי כריכות המובדלות זו מזו שכחה שלש אין שכחה [שני עמרין המובדלין זה מזה שכחה שלשה אין שכחה] שתי גפנים המובדלות זו מזו שכחה שלש אין שכחה שני גרגרין פרט שלשה אינן פרט שתי שבלים המובדלות כדרכן לקט שלש אינן לקט אלו דברי בית הלל [ר' יוסי אומר חנינא בן אחי רבי יהושע אומר כל שבאת רשות עני לאמצע כגון התבואה והכרם אין מצטרפין וכל שלא באת רשות עני לאמצע כגון פירות האילן הרי אלו מצטרפין].", 3.1. "[המקבל שדה לקצור לא ילקט בנו אחריו ר' יוסי אומר] ילקט בנו אחריו האריסין והחכירות והמוכר קמתו לקצור [מלקט בנו אחריו] היו שם עניים שאין ראוין אם יכול בעל הבית למחות בידם ממחה ואם לאו מניחן מפני דרכי שלום.", 4.1. "עני שנתן פרוטה לקופה ופרוסה לתמחוי מקבלין אותה ממנו אם לא נתן אין מחייבין אותו ליתן [נתנו לו חדשים והחזיר להן שחקים מקבלין אותה ממנו אם לא נתן אין מחייבין אותו ליתן] היה משתמש בכלי מילת נותנין לו כלי מילת מטה נותנין לו מטה עיסה נותנין לו <כלי> עיסה פת נותנין לו פת להאכילו בתוך פיו מאכילין לו בתוך פיו שנא' (דברים ט״ו:ח׳) די מחסורו אשר יחסר לו אפי' עבד אפי' סוס לו זו אשה שנא' (בראשית ב׳:י״ח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו מעשה בהלל הזקן שנתן לעני בן טובים סוס שהיה מתעמל בו ועבד שהיה משמשו שוב מעשה באנשי הגליל שהיו מעלין לזקן אחד ליטרא [אחת] בשר ציפורי בכל יום.", 4.1. "רבי יהודה אומר מקום שדורכין את העוללות נאמן עני לומר יין זה של עוללות הוא לקט זה לקטתיו אני ואחי [אני] וקרובי אבל אין נאמן לומר מפלוני נכרי לקחתי מאיש פלוני כותי לקחתי עניי כותים כעניי ישראל אבל עניי נכרים אין מאמינים להם בכל דבר.", 3.1. "[If a poor worker] received [a one time job] to harvest a field, [then] his son cannot glean [the gifts to the poor right] after him [before other poor people will have a chance to glean that field]. Rebbi Yossi says, “His son may glean after him.” But sharecroppers, and [regular] tets, and a person who sells his standing crops to his friend in order [that his friend should] harvest them, [in all of these cases] his (i.e. the sharecropper’s, or tet’s, or friend’s) son can glean [the gifts to the poor right] after him [before other poor people will have a chance to glean that field]. If there were [in the field] poor people who are not fitting [to be allowed] to glean [the gifts to the poor, then] if the owner of the field can prevent them [from gleaning], he is allowed to do so, but if [he is] not [able to prevent them from gleaning, then] he should leave them alone [and let them glean anyway] because of peaceful relations [between people].",
103. Tosefta, Pesahim, 10.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 87
10.12. "מעשה ברבן גמליאל וזקנים שהיו מסובין בבית ביתוס בן זונין בלוד והיו [עוסקין בהלכות הפסח] כל הלילה עד קרות הגבר, הגביהו מלפניהם ונועדו והלכו [להן] לבית המדרש.", 10.12. "Once, Rabban Gamliel and the elders were reclining in the house of Boethus ben Zonin in Lod, and they were occupied in studying the laws of Pesach all that night, until the cock crowed. They lifted the table, made themselves ready and went to the house of study [to pray].",
104. Tosefta, Qiddushin, 4.15, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 163; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
5.1. "גירי וחרורי ממזרי ונתיני שתוקי ואסופי וכל האסורין לבא בקהל מותרים לבא זה בזה דברי ר\"מ ר' יהודה אומר ד' קהלות הן קהל כהנים קהל לוים קהל ישראל קהל גרים והשאר מותרים לבא זה בזה וחכ\"א שלש קהלות הן קהל כהנים קהל לוים קהל ישראל ר' אליעזר אומר כל האסורין בקהל ודאן בודאן מותר ודאן בספקן ספיקן בודאן וספיקן בספיקן אסור.", 5.1. "מתיחדת אשה אחת עם שני אנשים אפילו שניהם כותים אפילו שניהם עבדים אפילו א' כותי וא' עבד חוץ מן הקטן שאינה בושה לשמש כנגדו אחותו [חמותו] ושאר כל עריות שבתורה לא יתיחד עמהן אלא ע\"פ שנים אבל היא לא תתיחד אפילו עם מאה עובדי כוכבים ר' אלעזר אומר אף מי שיש לו אשה ובנים ואין שרוין אצלו לא ילמד סופרים ר' יהודה אומר רווק לא ירעה בהמה דקה ולא ישנו שני רווקים בטלית אחת וחכמים מתירין אמרו לו לא נחשדו ישראל על כך.", 5.1. "Converts, freedmen, mamzerim (bastards), netinim (descendants of temple slaves), shetukim (orphan with no father), asufim (orphan with neither known parent; see Mishnah Kiddushin 4:1), and any [class of people] that are forbidden from marrying into the congregation are permitted to marry each other—words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehudah says: There are 4 congregations [that are all permitted to marry each other]—kohanim, levi'im, yisrael, converts, and anyone else [not in any of those 4 congregations] is allowed to marry each other. But Hakhamim say: There are 3 congregations—kohanim, levi'im, yisrael. Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who is forbidden to marry into the congregation—two people who each have certain status are permitted [to marry each other]; one person with certain status with one person with doubtful status, doubtful with certain and doubtful with doubtful are forbidden [to marry each other].",
105. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.15, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba) •bar kokhba Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 312; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
1.15. "אם [אינן] מכירין אותו משלחין עדיו עמו אפילו בשבת מעשה ברבי נהוראי שבא עם העד [בשבת] לאושא והעיד בו. בראשונה היו משיאין משואות בראשי [ההרים] הגבוהים בהר המשחה בסרטבא [ובצרופנה בתבור בחורן בבית דלתיה] רשב\"א אומר אף [בהרי מכמא ותבור] וחברותיה.",
106. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 2.6, 2.8, 4.5, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah •bar kokhba revolt, r. akiva’s acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah •r. akiva, acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah •bar kokhba •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 178; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 312, 313; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 31; Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 75; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
2.6. "אין מעברין את השנה מפני הטומאה רבי יהודה אומר מעברין את השנה מפני הטומאה אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בחזקיה המלך שעיבר את השנה מפני הטומאה שנאמר (דברי הימים ב ל׳:י״ח) כי מרבית העם רבת מאפרים ומנשה יששכר וזבולון לא הטהרו וגו' ר\"ש אומר אם לעבר אותה מפני הטומאה כבר מעוברת היא אלא עבר ניסן בניסן ואין מעברין אלא אדר ר\"ש בן יהודה אומר משום ר\"ש אף מפני שהעשו את הצבור לעשות פסח שני אין מעברין את השנה אא\"כ היתה צריכה מעברין אותו מפני הצרכים ומפני הדרכים מפני התנורין ומפני הגליות שלא יצאו ממקומם אבל אין מעברין אותה לא מפני הצנה ולא מפני השלגים ולא מפני הגליות שעלו ועדיין לא הגיעו וכולן סעד לשנה ואם עברוה הרי זו מעוברת אין מעברין את השנה אלא ביהודה ואם עברוה בגליל הרי זו מעוברת העיד חנינא איש אונו לפני ר\"ג שאין מעברין את השנה אלא ביהודה ואם עברוה בגליל שהיא מעוברת ומעברין את השנה כל אדר שבראשונה היו אומרים אין מעברין אלא עד הפורים עד שבאו ר' יהושע ור' פפייס והעידו שכל אדר ואדר כשר לעבר רשב\"ג ור' אלעזר בן ר' צדוק אומרים אין מעברין את השנה ואין עושין כל צרכי צבור אלא על תנאי כדי שיקבלו רוב הצבור עליהם.", 2.8. "אין מלך יושב בסנהדרין ולא מלך ולא כהן גדול יושבין בעיבור. ", 4.5. "רבי יוסי אומר ראוי היה עזרא שתינתן תורה על ידו אלמלא קדמו משה נאמרה במשה עליה נאמרה בעזרא עליה נאמרה במשה עליה (שמות יט) ומשה עלה אל האלהים נאמרה בעזרא עליה (עזרא ז) הוא עזרא עלה מבבל מה עליה האמורה במשה למד תורה לישראל שנאמר (דברים ד) ואותי צוה ה' בעת ההיא ללמד אתכם אף העליה האמורה בעזרא לימד תורה לישראל שנאמר (עזרא ז) כי עזרא הכין לבבו לדרוש את תורת ה' ולעשות וללמד בישראל חוק ומשפט ואף הוא נתון על ידו כתב ולשון שנאמר (עזרא ד) וכתב הנשתוון כתוב ארמית ומתורגם ארמית מה תרגומו ארמית אף כתוב ארמית ואומר (דנייאל ה) ולא כהלין כתבא למקרא וגו' מלמד שבאותו היום ניתן ואומר (דברים יז) וכתב לו את משנה התורה הזאת תורה העתידה לשתנות למה נקרא שמו אשורי על שום שעלה עמהן מאשור רבי אומר בכתב אשורי נתנה תורה לישראל וכשחטאו נהפכה להן לשון וכששבו בימי עזרא חזרה להן אשורית שנא' (זכריה ט) שובו לבצרון וגו' ר\"ש בן אלעזר אומר משם ר\"א בן פרטא שאמר משם ר\"א המודעי בכתב זה ניתנה תורה לישראל שנאמר (שמות כז) ווי העמודים ווין שהן דומים לעמודים ואומר (אסתר ח) ואל היהודים ככתבם וכלשונם מה לשונם בלשון הזה אף כתבם בלשון הזה למה נקרא שמו אשורי ע\"ש שהוא מאושר בכתבו א\"כ למה נאמר (דברים יז) וכתב לו את משנה התורה הזאת מלמד ששתי תורות כותב לו אחת שנכנסת ויוצאה עמו ואחת שמונחת לו בתוך הבית זו שנכנסת ויוצאה עמו לא תכנס עמו לא למרחץ ולא לבית המים שנאמר (שם) והיתה עמו וקרא בו כל ימי חייו וגו' במקום הראוי לקרות בו והלא דברים ק\"ו ומה אם מלך ישראל שלא עסק אלא בצרכי צבור נאמר בו והיתה עמו וקרא בו כל ימי חייו שאר בני אדם על אחת כמה וכמה וכיוצא בו (דברים לד) ויהושע בן נון מלא רוח חכמה כי סמך משה את ידיו וגו' וכן הוא אומר (שמות לג) ויהושע בן נון נער וכן הוא אומר (יהושוע א) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך והגית בו יומם ולילה והרי דברים ק\"ו ומה יהושע בן נון שעסק בכיבוש הארץ ועומד לחלקה לישראל נאמר בו לא ימוש וגו' שאר בני אדם עאכו\"כ.",
107. Tosefta, Shabbat, a b c d\n0 7.18 7.18 7 18\n1 16(17).22 16(17).22 16(17) 22\n2 15(16).9 15(16).9 15(16) 9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308
108. Tosefta, Sotah, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
109. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.1, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 286
8.1. "בן תשע שנים ויום אחד עמוני ומואבי מצרי ואדומי ועובד כוכבים נתין וממזר שבא על בת כהן ועל בת לוי ועל בת ישראל פסלה מן הכהונה ר' יוסי אומר כל שזרעו כשר היא כשרה וכל שזרעו פסול היא פסולה רשב\"ג אומר כל שאתה מותר לישא בתו אתה מותר לישא אלמנתו וכל שאי אתה מותר לישא בתו אי אתה מותר לישא אלמנתו לויה שנשבית בתה כשרה לכהונה לוים המזוהמין באמן לא חששו להם חכמים לויה שנשבית ושנבעלה בעילת זנות נותנין לה את המעשר בת לוי מן הנתינה ומן הממזרת אין נותנין לה את המעשר כהן הדיוט שנשא [את] איילונית הרי זה מאכילה בתרומה כהן גדול לא ישא אנוסתו ומפותתו אבל נושא הוא את הממאנת כה\"ג שמת אחיו חולץ אם יש שם אחין אין חולץ [מפני] מה אמרו כהן גדול שעשה מאמר ביבמתו לא יכנוס שאין מאמר קונה קנין גמור.", 12.13. "מצוה בדיינים ולא מצוה בתלמידים ר' יהודה אומר מצוה על כל העומדין לומר חלוץ הנעל [חלוץ הנעל חלוץ הנעל] א\"ר יהודה מעשה והיינו יושבין לפני רבי טרפון ואמר לנו ענו כולכם חלוץ הנעל חלוץ הנעל. ",
110. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
1.8. "איזו היא אצבע צרדה זו אצבע גדולה של ימין בפה [ולא] בנבל ולא בכנור מה היו אומרים (תהילים קכ״ז:א׳) שיר המעלות לשלמה אם ה' לא יבנה בית וגו' לא היו ישנים כל הלילה אלא שקורין כנגד כהן גדול [כדי] לעסקו בתורה כך היו נוהגין בגבולין אחר חורבן הבית זכר למקדש אבל חוטאין [היו].",
111. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 369 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 393
112. Anon., 2 Baruch, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Cohn (2013), The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis, 95
113. Mishnah, Makhshirin, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) Found in books: Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 151
2.10. "הַמּוֹצֵא פֵרוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ, אִם רֹב מַכְנִיסִין לְבָתֵּיהֶן, פָּטוּר. וְלִמְכֹּר בַּשּׁוּק, חַיָּב. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה, דְּמַאי. אוֹצָר שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִים מַטִּילִין לְתוֹכוֹ, אִם רֹב נָכְרִים, וַדַּאי. וְאִם רֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל, דְּמַאי. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה, וַדַּאי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֲפִלּוּ כֻלָּם נָכְרִים וְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶחָד מַטִּיל לְתוֹכוֹ, דְּמַאי: \n", 2.10. "If one found produce on the road: If the majority [of the inhabitants] gathered produce into their homes, he is exempt [from tithes]; If [the majority gathered it] for selling in the market, he is liable [for tithes]; If they were half and half, the produce is demai. A granary into which both Israelites and non-Jews put their produce, If the majority were non-Jews, [the produce must be considered] certainly untithed; If the majority were Israelites, [it must be considered] demai; If they were half and half, [it must be considered] certainly untithed, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: even if they were all non-Jews, and only one Israelite put his produce into the granary, [it must be considered] demai.",
114. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 23.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
115. Tacitus, Histories, 5.1-5.13, 5.5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhba (bar koziba) •bar kokhba war •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Cohn (2013), The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis, 115; Isaac (2004), The invention of racism in classical antiquity, 473; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 177, 183; Williams (2023), Criminalization in Acts of the Apostles Race, Rhetoric, and the Prosecution of an Early Christian Movement. 75
5.1.  At the beginning of this same year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judea, and who had already won distinction as a soldier while both were still private citizens, began to enjoy greater power and reputation, for provinces and armies and vied with one another in enthusiasm for him. Moreover, in his own conduct, wishing to be thought greater than his fortune, he always showed himself dignified and energetic in the field; by his affable address he called forth devotion, and he often mingled with the common soldiers both at work or on the march without impairing his position as general. He found awaiting him in Judea three legions, Vespasian's old troops, the Fifth, the Tenth, and the Fifteenth. He reinforced these with the Twelfth from Syria and with some soldiers from the Twenty-second and the Third which he brought from Alexandria; these troops were accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied infantry, eight squadrons of cavalry, as well as by the princes Agrippa and Sohaemus, the auxiliaries sent by King Antiochus, and by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with all that hatred that is common among neighbours; there were besides many Romans who had been prompted to leave the capital and Italy by the hope that each entertained of securing the prince's favour while he was yet free from engagements. With these forces Titus entered the enemy's land: his troops advanced in strict order, he reconnoitred at every step and was always ready for battle; not far from Jerusalem he pitched camp. 5.2.  However, as I am about to describe the last days of a famous city, it seems proper for me to give some account of its origin. It is said that the Jews were originally exiles from the island of Crete who settled in the farthest parts of Libya at the time when Saturn had been deposed and expelled by Jove. An argument in favour of this is derived from the name: there is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida, and hence the inhabitants were called the Idaei, which was later lengthened into the barbarous form Iudaei. Some hold that in the reign of Isis the superfluous population of Egypt, under the leadership of Hierosolymus and Iuda, discharged itself on the neighbouring lands; many others think that they were an Egyptian stock, which in the reign of Cepheus was forced to migrate by fear and hatred. Still others report that they were Assyrian refugees, a landless people, who first got control of a part of Egypt, then later they had their own cities and lived in the Hebrew territory and the nearer parts of Syria. Still others say that the Jews are of illustrious origin, being the Solymi, a people celebrated in Homer's poems, who founded a city and gave it the name Hierosolyma, formed from their own. 5.3.  Most authors agree that once during a plague in Egypt which caused bodily disfigurement, King Bocchoris approached the oracle of Ammon and asked for a remedy, whereupon he was told to purge his kingdom and to transport this race into other lands, since it was hateful to the gods. So the Hebrews were searched out and gathered together; then, being abandoned in the desert, while all others lay idle and weeping, one only of the exiles, Moses by name, warned them not to hope for help from gods or men, for they were deserted by both, but to trust to themselves, regarding as a guide sent from heaven the one whose assistance should first give them escape from their present distress. They agreed, and then set out on their journey in utter ignorance, but trusting to chance. Nothing caused them so much distress as scarcity of water, and in fact they had already fallen exhausted over the plain nigh unto death, when a herd of wild asses moved from their pasturage to a rock that was shaded by a grove of trees. Moses followed them, and, conjecturing the truth from the grassy ground, discovered abundant streams of water. This relieved them, and they then marched six days continuously, and on the seventh seized a country, expelling the former inhabitants; there they founded a city and dedicated a temple. 5.4.  To establish his influence over this people for all time, Moses introduced new religious practices, quite opposed to those of all other religions. The Jews regard as profane all that we hold sacred; on the other hand, they permit all that we abhor. They dedicated, in a shrine, a statue of that creature whose guidance enabled them to put an end to their wandering and thirst, sacrificing a ram, apparently in derision of Ammon. They likewise offer the ox, because the Egyptians worship Apis. They abstain from pork, in recollection of a plague, for the scab to which this animal is subject once afflicted them. By frequent fasts even now they bear witness to the long hunger with which they were once distressed, and the unleavened Jewish bread is still employed in memory of the haste with which they seized the grain. They say that they first chose to rest on the seventh day because that day ended their toils; but after a time they were led by the charms of indolence to give over the seventh year as well to inactivity. Others say that this is done in honour of Saturn, whether it be that the primitive elements of their religion were given by the Idaeans, who, according to tradition, were expelled with Saturn and became the founders of the Jewish race, or is due to the fact that, of the seven planets that rule the fortunes of mankind, Saturn moves in the highest orbit and has the greatest potency; and that many of the heavenly bodies traverse their paths and courses in multiples of seven. 5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean. 5.6.  Their land is bounded by Arabia on the east, Egypt lies on the south, on the west are Phoenicia and the sea, and toward the north the people enjoy a wide prospect over Syria. The inhabitants are healthy and hardy. Rains are rare; the soil is fertile; its products are like ours, save that the balsam and the palm also grow there. The palm is a tall and handsome tree; the balsam a mere shrub: if a branch, when swollen with sap, is pierced with steel, the veins shrivel up; so a piece of stone or a potsherd is used to open them; the juice is employed by physicians. of the mountains, Lebanon rises to the greatest height, and is in fact a marvel, for in the midst of the excessive heat its summit is shaded by trees and covered with snow; it likewise is the source and supply of the river Jordan. This river does not empty into the sea, but after flowing with volume undiminished through two lakes is lost in the third. The last is a lake of great size: it is like the sea, but its water has a nauseous taste, and its offensive odour is injurious to those who live near it. Its waters are not moved by the wind, and neither fish nor water-fowl can live there. Its lifeless waves bear up whatever is thrown upon them as on a solid surface; all swimmers, whether skilled or not, are buoyed up by them. At a certain season of the year the sea throws up bitumen, and experience has taught the natives how to collect this, as she teaches all arts. Bitumen is by nature a dark fluid which coagulates when sprinkled with vinegar, and swims on the surface. Those whose business it is, catch hold of it with their hands and haul it on shipboard: then with no artificial aid the bitumen flows in and loads the ship until the stream is cut off. Yet you cannot use bronze or iron to cut the bituminous stream; it shrinks from blood or from a cloth stained with a woman's menses. Such is the story told by ancient writers, but those who are acquainted with the country aver that the floating masses of bitumen are driven by the winds or drawn by hand to shore, where later, after they have been dried by vapours from the earth or by the heat of the sun, they are split like timber or stone with axes and wedges. 5.7.  Not far from this lake is a plain which, according to report, was once fertile and the site of great cities, but which was later devastated by lightning; and it is said that traces of this disaster still exist there, and that the very ground looks burnt and has lost its fertility. In fact, all the plants there, whether wild or cultivated, turn black, become sterile, and seem to wither into dust, either in leaf or in flower or after they have reached their usual mature form. Now for my part, although I should grant that famous cities were once destroyed by fire from heaven, I still think that it is the exhalations from the lake that infect the ground and poison the atmosphere about this district, and that this is the reason that crops and fruits decay, since both soil and climate are deleterious. The river Belus also empties into the Jewish Sea; around its mouth a kind of sand is gathered, which when mixed with soda is fused into glass. The beach is of moderate size, but it furnishes an inexhaustible supply. 5.8.  A great part of Judea is covered with scattered villages, but there are some towns also; Jerusalem is the capital of the Jews. In it was a temple possessing enormous riches. The first line of fortifications protected the city, the next the palace, and the innermost wall the temple. Only a Jew might approach its doors, and all save the priests were forbidden to cross the threshold. While the East was under the dominion of the Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, the Jews were regarded as the meanest of their subjects: but after the Macedonians gained supremacy, King Antiochus endeavoured to abolish Jewish superstition and to introduce Greek civilization; the war with the Parthians, however, prevented his improving this basest of peoples; for it was exactly at that time that Arsaces had revolted. Later on, since the power of Macedon had waned, the Parthians were not yet come to their strength, and the Romans were far away, the Jews selected their own kings. These in turn were expelled by the fickle mob; but recovering their throne by force of arms, they banished citizens, destroyed towns, killed brothers, wives, and parents, and dared essay every other kind of royal crime without hesitation; but they fostered the national superstition, for they had assumed the priesthood to support their civil authority. 5.9.  The first Roman to subdue the Jews and set foot in their temple by right of conquest was Gnaeus Pompey; thereafter it was a matter of common knowledge that there were no representations of the gods within, but that the place was empty and the secret shrine contained nothing. The walls of Jerusalem were razed, but the temple remained standing. Later, in the time of our civil wars, when these eastern provinces had fallen into the hands of Mark Antony, the Parthian prince, Pacorus, seized Judea, but he was slain by Publius Ventidius, and the Parthians were thrown back across the Euphrates: the Jews were subdued by Gaius Sosius. Antony gave the throne to Herod, and Augustus, after his victory, increased his power. After Herod's death, a certain Simon assumed the name of king without waiting for Caesar's decision. He, however, was put to death by Quintilius Varus, governor of Syria; the Jews were repressed; and the kingdom was divided into three parts and given to Herod's sons. Under Tiberius all was quiet. Then, when Caligula ordered the Jews to set up his statue in their temple, they chose rather to resort to arms, but the emperor's death put an end to their uprising. The princes now being dead or reduced to insignificance, Claudius made Judea a province and entrusted it to Roman knights or to freedmen; one of the latter, Antonius Felix, practised every kind of cruelty and lust, wielding the power of king with all the instincts of a slave; he had married Drusilla, the grand-daughter of Cleopatra and Antony, and so was Antony's grandson-in‑law, while Claudius was Antony's grandson. 5.10.  Still the Jews' patience lasted until Gessius Florus became procurator: in his time war began. When Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria, tried to stop it, he suffered varied fortunes and met defeat more often than he gained victory. On his death, whether in the course of nature or from vexation, Nero sent out Vespasian, who, aided by his good fortune and reputation as well as by his excellent subordinates, within two summers occupied with his victorious army the whole of the level country and all the cities except Jerusalem. The next year was taken up with civil war, and thus was passed in inactivity so far as the Jews were concerned. When peace had been secured throughout Italy, foreign troubles began again; and the fact that the Jews alone had failed to surrender increased our resentment; at the same time, having regard to all the possibilities and hazards of a new reign, it seemed expedient for Titus to remain with the army. 5.11.  Therefore, as I have said above, Titus pitched his camp before the walls of Jerusalem and displayed his legions in battle array: the Jews formed their line close beneath their walls, being thus ready to advance if successful, and having a refuge at hand in case they were driven back. Some horse and light-armed foot were sent against them, but fought indecisively; later the enemy retired, and during the following days they engaged in many skirmishes before their gates until at last their continual defeats drove them within their walls. The Romans now turned to preparations for an assault; for the soldiers thought it beneath their dignity to wait for the enemy to be starved out, and so they began to clamour for danger, part being prompted by bravery, but many were moved by their savage natures and their desire for booty. Titus himself had before his eyes a vision of Rome, its wealth and its pleasures, and he felt that if Jerusalem did not fall at once, his enjoyment of them was delayed. But the city stands on an eminence, and the Jews had defended it with works and fortifications sufficient to protect even level ground; for the two hills that rise to a great height had been included within walls that had been skillfully built, projecting out or bending in so as to put the flanks of an assailing body under fire. The rocks terminated in sheer cliffs, and towers rose to a height of sixty feet where the hill assisted the fortifications, and in the valleys they reached one hundred and twenty; they presented a wonderful sight, and appeared of equal height when viewed from a distance. An inner line of walls had been built around the palace, and on a conspicuous height stands Antony's Tower, so named by Herod in honour of Mark Antony. 5.12.  The temple was built like a citadel, with walls of its own, which were constructed with more care and effort than any of the rest; the very colonnades about the temple made a splendid defence. Within the enclosure is an ever-flowing spring; in the hills are subterraneous excavations, with pools and cisterns for holding rain-water. The founders of the city had foreseen that there would be many wars because the ways of their people differed so from those of the neighbours: therefore they had built at every point as if they expected a long siege; and after the city had been stormed by Pompey, their fears and experience taught them much. Moreover, profiting by the greed displayed during the reign of Claudius, they had bought the privilege of fortifying the city, and in time of peace had built walls as if for war. The population at this time had been increased by streams of rabble that flowed in from the other captured cities, for the most desperate rebels had taken refuge here, and consequently sedition was the more rife. There were three generals, three armies: the outermost and largest circuit of the walls was held by Simon, the middle of the city by John, and the temple was guarded by Eleazar. John and Simon were strong in numbers and equipment, Eleazar had the advantage of position: between these three there was constant fighting, treachery, and arson, and a great store of grain was consumed. Then John got possession of the temple by sending a party, under pretence of offering sacrifice, to slay Eleazar and his troops. So the citizens were divided into two factions until, at the approach of the Romans, foreign war produced concord. 5.13.  Prodigies had indeed occurred, but to avert them either by victims or by vows is held unlawful by a people which, though prone to superstition, is opposed to all propitiatory rites. Contending hosts were seen meeting in the skies, arms flashed, and suddenly the temple was illumined with fire from the clouds. of a sudden the doors of the shrine opened and a superhuman voice cried: "The gods are departing": at the same moment the mighty stir of their going was heard. Few interpreted these omens as fearful; the majority firmly believed that their ancient priestly writings contained the prophecy that this was the very time when the East should grow strong and that men starting from Judea should possess the world. This mysterious prophecy had in reality pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, as is the way of human ambition, interpreted these great destinies in their own favour, and could not be turned to the truth even by adversity. We have heard that the total number of the besieged of every age and both sexes was six hundred thousand; there were arms for all who could use them, and the number ready to fight was larger than could have been anticipated from the total population. Both men and women showed the same determination; and if they were to be forced to change their home, they feared life more than death. Such was the city and people against which Titus Caesar now proceeded; since the nature of the ground did not allow him to assault or employ any sudden operations, he decided to use earthworks and mantlets; the legions were assigned to their several tasks, and there was a respite of fighting until they made ready every device for storming a town that the ancients had ever employed or modern ingenuity invented.
116. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.1, 2.7, 3.2-3.3, 3.16, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (revolt) •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Ben-Eliyahu (2019), Identity and Territory : Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity. 88; Porton (1988), Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta, 168, 286
2.1. "לוקחין מהן בהמה לנסיון ומחזירין להן כל אותו היום וכשם שלוקחים מהן בהמה לנסיון ומחזירין להן כל אותו היום כך לוקחין מהן עבדים ושפחות לנסיון ומחזירין להן כל אותו היום כל זמן שאתה רשאי להחזיר לישראל אתה רשאי להחזיר לעובדי כוכבים אי אתה רשאי להחזיר לישראל אי אתה רשאי להחזיר לעובדי כוכבים מוכר ישראל בהמתו לעובד כוכבים על מנת לשחוט ישראל עומד על גביו והעובד כוכבים שוחט. לוקחין מהן בהמה לקרבן ואינו חושש משום רובע משום נרבע משום מוקצה משום נעבד וכשם שאין מוכרין להן בהמה גסה כך אין מוכרין להן חיה גסה ואף במקום שמוכרים להן בהמה דקה אין מוכרין להן חיה דקה רשב\"א אומר מוכרין להן כלבים שגורין חולדות סנאין חתולות וקופות דברים המנקין את הבית וכשם שאין מוכרין להם כך אין מחליפין להם לא רעים ביפין ולא יפין ברעים לא שבורין בשלמים ולא שלמים בשבורין ר' יהודה מתיר בשבורה מפני שאינה יכולה להתרפאות אמרו לו והרי הוא מרביעה והיא יולדת רבי יוסי בן בתירה מתיר בסוס שאינו עושה מלאכה בשבת שחייבין עליה חטאת וחכמים אוסרין משום שני דברים משם כלי זיין ומשם בהמה גסה אין מוכרין להם לא כלי זיין ולא זיין ואין משחיזין להם את הזיין ואין מוכרין להם לא סדין ולא כבלין ולא קולרין ולא שלשלאות של ברזל.", 3.2. "לוקחין מן העובדי כוכבים ספרים ותפלין ומזוזות ובלבד שהיו כתובין עליהן כתקנן מעשה בעובד כוכבים אחד שהיה כותב ספרים בצידן ובא מעשה לפני חכמים ואמרו מותר ליקח ממנו מוכרין לעם הארץ ספרים תפלין ומזוזות ואין לוקחין תפלין אלא מן המומחה ואם לקח ממי שאינו מומחה ומצא בידו שתי כריכות של תפלין בודק ממנו תפלה אחת של יד או של ראש בצבת הראשון וכן בשני וכן בשלישי וכן ברביעי.", 3.3. "לוקחין מעם הארץ עבדים ושפחות בין גדולים בין קטנים ומוכרין לעם הארץ עבדים ושפחות בין קטנים בין גדולים ולוקחין מהן בנות קטנות אבל לא גדולות דברי ר' מאיר וחכמים אומרים גדולות ומקבלות עליהן אין נותנין להן בנות לא קטנות ולא גדולות דברי רבי וחכמים אומרים נותן לו גדולה ופוסק עמו על מנת שלא תעשה טהרות על גביו ומעשה ברבן גמליאל הזקן שהשיא את בת בתו לשמעון בן נתנאל הכהן ופסק עמו על מנת שלא תעשה עמו טהרות על גביו רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אינו צריך שאין כופין את החבר שיעשה טהרות על גבי עם הארץ ואיזה הוא עם הארץ כל שאינו אוכל חוליו בטהרה דברי ר\"מ וחכמים אומרים כל שאינו מעשר.", 5.2. "ישרה אדם בארץ ישראל אפילו בעיר שרובה עובדי כוכבים ולא בחו\"ל אפי' בעיר שכולה ישראל מלמד שישיבת ארץ ישראל שקולה כנגד כל מצות שבתורה. והקבור בארץ ישראל כאילו הוא קבור תחת המזבח. לא יצא אדם לחוצה לארץ אא\"כ היו חטין סאתים בסלע אמר רבי שמעון במה דברים אמורין בזמן שאינו מוצא ליקח אבל בזמן שמוצא ליקח אפילו סאה בסלע לא יצא וכן היה ר\"ש אומר אלימלך מגדולי הדור ומפרנסי צבור היה ועל שיצא לחוצה לארץ מת הוא ובניו ברעב והיו כל ישראל קיימין על אדמתן שנאמר (רות א) ותהום כל העיר עליהן מלמד שכל העיר קיימת ומת הוא ובניו ברעב. הרי הוא אומר (בראשית כח) ושבתי בשלום אל בית אבי שאין ת\"ל והיה ה' לי לאלהים ואומר (ויקרא כה) לתת לכם את ארץ כנען להיות לכם לאלהים כל זמן שאתם בארץ כנען הריני לכם אלוה אין אתם בארץ כנען איני לכם לאלוה וכן הוא אומר (יהושוע ד) כארבעים אלף חלוצי הצבא ואומר (יהושוע ב) כי נתן בידי את יושבי הארץ וגו' וכי עלתה על דעתך שישראל מכבשים את הארץ לפני המקום אלא כל זמן שהם עליה כולה נכבשה אינן עליה כולה אינה נכבשת וכן דוד אמר (שמואל א כו) כי גרשוני היום מהסתפח בנחלת ה' וגו' וכי תעלה על דעתך שדוד המלך עובד עבודת כוכבים אלא שהיה דוד דורש ואומר כל המניח את ארץ ישראל בשעת שלום ויוצא כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים דכתיב (ירמיהו לב) ונטעתים בארץ הזאת באמת אינן עליה אין נטועין לפני באמת לא בכל לבי ולא בכל נפשי. ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר ישראל שבחוצה לארץ עובדי עבודת כוכבים בטהרה הן כיצד עובד כוכבים שעשה משתה לבנו והלך וזימן את כל היהודים שבעירו אע\"פ שהן אוכלין משלהן ושותין משלהן ושמש שלהן עומד ע\"ג עובדי עבודת כוכבים הן שנא' (שמות לד) וקרא לך ואכלת מזבחו.",
117. Tosefta, Bava Batra, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 201
11.1. "פשוט שכתב עדיו מאחוריו מקושר שכתב עדיו מתוכו שניהן פסולין רבי חנניא בן גמליאל אומר מקושר שכתב עדיו מתוכו כשר מפני שיכול לעשותו פשוט השיב רבי על רבי חנניא בן גמליאל והלא זמנו של שטר מוכיח עליו אם פשוט הוא ואם אינו פשוט אי זה הוא מקושר כתב שם המלוה ושם הלוה מקום הלוקח מקום המוכר מקום השדה מקום המעות מקום הזמן קושרו מלמעלה והעדים מלמטה כשר.",
118. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 1.5, 2.6, 4.11, 5.7, 6.15, 6.18, 7.3, 13.1, 16.1-16.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 375; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 252, 509, 512
1.5. if it shall be my care to communicate to you some portion of that which I received, it shall turn to my reward for having ministered to such spirits, I was eager to send you a trifle, that along with your faith ye might have your knowledge also perfect. 2.6. These things therefore He annulled, that the new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, being free from the yoke of constraint, might have its oblation not made by human hands. 4.11. For the scripture saith; Woe unto them that are wise for themselves, and understanding in their own sight. Let us become spiritual, let us become a temple perfect unto God. As far as in us lies, let us exercise ourselves in the fear of God, [and] let us strive to keep His commandments, that we may rejoice in His ordices. 5.7. that at the same time He might redeem the promise made to the fathers, and by preparing the new people for Himself might show, while He was on earth, that having brought about the resurrection He will Himself exercise judgment. 6.15. For a holy temple unto the Lord, my brethren, is the abode of our heart. 6.18. Now we have already said above; And let them increase and multiply and rule over the fishes. But who is he that is able [now] to rule over beasts and fishes and fowls of the heaven; for we ought to perceive that to rule implieth power, so that one should give orders and have dominion. 7.3. But moreover when crucified He had vinegar and gall given Him to drink. Hear how on this matter the priests of the temple have revealed. Seeing that there is a commandment in scripture, Whatsoever shall not observe the fast shall surely die, the Lord commanded, because He was in His own person about to offer the vessel of His Spirit a sacrifice for our sins, that the type also which was given in Isaac who was offered upon the alter should be fulfilled. 13.1. Now let us see whether this people or the first people hath the inheritance, and whether the covet had reference to us or to them. 16.1. Moreover I will tell you likewise concerning the temple, how these wretched men being led astray set their hope on the building, and not on their God that made them, as being a house of God. 16.2. For like the Gentiles almost they consecrated Him in the temple. But what saith the Lord abolishing the temple? Learn ye. Who hath measured the heaven with a span, or hath measured the earth with his hand? Have not I, saith the Lord? The heaven is My throne and the earth the footstool of My feet. What manner of house will ye build for Me? Or what shall be my resting place? Ye perceive that their hope is vain. 16.3. Furthermore He saith again; Behold they that pulled down this temple themselves shall build it. 16.4. So it cometh to pass; for because they went to war it was pulled down by their enemies. Now also the very servants of their enemies shall build it up. 16.5. Again, it was revealed how the city and the temple and the people of Israel should be betrayed. For the scripture saith; And it shall be in the last days, that the Lord shall deliver up the sheep of the pasture and the fold and the tower thereof to destruction. And it came to pass as the Lord spake. 16.6. But let us enquire whether there be any temple of God. There is; in the place where he himself undertakes to make and finish it. For it is written And it shall come to pass, when the week is being accomplished, the temple of God shall be built gloriously in the name of the Lord. 16.7. I find then that there is a temple, How then shall it be built in the name of the Lord? Understand ye. Before we believed on God, the abode of our heart was corrupt and weak, a temple truly built by hands; for it was full of idolatry and was a house of demons, because we did whatsoever was contrary to God. 16.8. But it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Give heed then that the temple of the Lord may be built gloriously. 16.9. How? Understand ye. By receiving the remission of our sins and hoping on the Name we became new, created afresh from the beginning. Wherefore God dwelleth truly in our habitation within us. How? The word of his faith, the calling of his promise, the wisdom of the ordices, the commandments of the teaching, He Himself prophesying in us, He Himself dwelling in us, opening for us who had been in bondage unto death the door of the temple, which is the mouth, and giving us repentance leadeth us to the incorruptible temple. 16.10. For he that desireth to be saved looketh not to the man, but to Him that dwelleth and speaketh in him, being amazed at this that he has never at any time heard these words from the mouth of the speaker, nor himself ever desired to hear them. This is the spiritual temple built up to the Lord.
119. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 1.13, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 201, 222
120. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba letters Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 317
121. Anon., Targum Onqelos, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 66
122. Palestinian Talmud, Maaser Sheni, 5.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 221
123. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 16.4, 25.5, 32.3, 93.4, 103.2, 104.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 167; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
80. The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand years. Several Catholics reject it Trypho: I remarked to you sir, that you are very anxious to be safe in all respects, since you cling to the Scriptures. But tell me, do you really admit that this place, Jerusalem, shall be rebuilt; and do you expect your people to be gathered together, and made joyful with Christ and the patriarchs, and the prophets, both the men of our nation, and other proselytes who joined them before your Christ came? Or have you given way, and admitted this in order to have the appearance of worsting us in the controversies? Justin: I am not so miserable a fellow, Trypho, as to say one thing and think another. I admitted to you formerly, that I and many others are of this opinion, and [believe] that such will take place, as you assuredly are aware; but, on the other hand, I signified to you that many who belong to the pure and pious faith, and are true Christians, think otherwise. Moreover, I pointed out to you that some who are called Christians, but are godless, impious heretics, teach doctrines that are in every way blasphemous, atheistical, and foolish. But that you may know that I do not say this before you alone, I shall draw up a statement, so far as I can, of all the arguments which have passed between us; in which I shall record myself as admitting the very same things which I admit to you. For I choose to follow not men or men's doctrines, but God and the doctrines [delivered] by Him. For if you have fallen in with some who are called Christians, but who do not admit this [truth], and venture to blaspheme the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; who say there is no resurrection of the dead, and that their souls, when they die, are taken to heaven; do not imagine that they are Christians, even as one, if he would rightly consider it, would not admit that the Sadducees, or similar sects of Genistæ, Meristæ, Galilæans, Hellenists, Pharisees, Baptists, are Jews (do not hear me impatiently when I tell you what I think), but are [only] called Jews and children of Abraham, worshipping God with the lips, as God Himself declared, but the heart was far from Him. But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned, and enlarged, [as] the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.
124. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 10.7, 26.5, 32.10, 36.8, 53.15, 65.5, 80.1, 81.3, 94.7, 98.14 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhba letters Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 80; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 313; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 317; Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 199, 239; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 278; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 137
10.7. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲפִלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאַתָּה רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן שֶׁהֵן יְתֵירָה בָּעוֹלָם, כְּגוֹן זְבוּבִין וּפַרְעוֹשִׁין וְיַתּוּשִׁין, אַף הֵן בִּכְלַל בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הֵן, וּבַכֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָחָשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יַתּוּשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי צְפַרְדֵּעַ. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מְנַחְמָה, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אַחָא הֲוָה מִשְׁתָּעֵי הָדֵין עוֹבָדָא: חַד בַּר נָשׁ הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל כֵּיף נַהֲרָא, חֲמָא חַד עוּרְדְּעָן טָעֲנָה חָדָא עַקְרָב, וּמְגִיזָה יָתֵיהּ נַהֲרָא, וְכֵיוָן דְּעָבְדַת שְׁלִיחוּתֵיהּ אַחְזַרְתֵּא לְאַתְרֵהּ. רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָנָן דְּצִפּוֹרִין אֲמַר, עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גְּבַר דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים לְמֶחֱצַד בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת בֵּי טַרְפָּא, חֲמָא חַד עֵשֶׂב וְלִקֵּט יָתֵיהּ וַעֲבָדֵיהּ כְּלִילָא לְרֵאשֵׁיהּ, אֲזַלָּא חַד חִוְיָא וּמְחָא יָתֵיהּ, וּקְטִיל יָתֵיהּ. אֲתָא חַד גַּבָּר וְקָם לְמִסְקַר בְּהַהוּא חִוְיָא, אֲמַר תָּמֵהַּ אֲנִי עַל מַן דְּקָטַל הָדֵין חִוְיָא. אֲמַר הַהוּא גַּבְרָא אֲנָא קְטָלִית יָתֵיהּ. תָּלָה אַפּוֹי וַחֲמָא לְהַהוּא עִשְׂבָּא עֲבִידָא כְּלִילָא לְרֵאשֵׁיהּ, אֲמַר מִן קוּשְׁטָא אַתְּ קָטְלִית יָתֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ, אִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, יָכֵיל אַתְּ מֵרִים הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא מִן רֵאשֵׁךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דַּאֲרֵים יָתֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ יָכוֹל קָרֵיב הָכָא וּמֵרִים הָדֵין חִוְיָא בַּהֲדֵין חוּטְרָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דִּקְרַב לְהַהוּא חִוְיָא מִיָּד נָשְׁרוּ אֵבָרָיו. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְדוֹרֵשׁ בְּפֶתַח עִירוֹ, רָאָה נָחָשׁ מַרְתִּיעַ וּבָא, וַהֲוָה מְרַדֵּף לֵיהּ מִן הָדֵין סִטְרָא, וַהֲוָה חָזַר מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא, וְעוֹד הֲוָה רָדֵיף לֵיהּ מִן הָדֵין סִטְרָא וַהֲוָה חָזַר מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא, אֲמַר זֶה הוֹלֵךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ. מִיָּד נָפְלָה הֲבָרָה בָּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ נָחָשׁ וָמֵת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה יָתֵיב מְטַיֵּל בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, אֲתָא חַד רוֹמָאי וְתָרְכֵיהּ וְקָדִים יָתֵיהּ וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵית דֵּין עַל מַגָּן, מִיָּד נְפַק חַד חִוְיָא וּמְחָא יָתֵיהּ וּקְטַל יָתֵיהּ, וְקָרָא עָלָיו (ישעיה מג, ד): וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ, וְאֶתֵּן אֱדוֹם תַּחְתֶּיךָ. רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה קָאֵים וּמְטַיֵּל עַל מְשׁוֹנִיתָא דְּיַמָּא דְּקֵיסָרִין, רָאָה שָׁם קוּלִית אַחַת, וַהֲוָה מַצְנַע לָהּ וַהֲוַת מִתְגַּלְגְּלָא, מַצְנַע לָהּ וַהֲוַת מִתְגַּלְגְּלָא, אֲמַר זֹאת מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָהּ. עֲבַר חַד בַּלְדָּר וְנִכְשַׁל בָּהּ וְנָפַל וָמֵת, אֲזַל פַּשְׁפְּשׁוּנֵיהּ וְאַשְׁכְּחוּנֵיהּ טָעִין כְּתָבִין בִּישִׁין עַל יְהוּדָאֵי דְּקֵסָרִין. טִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע נִכְנַס לְבֵית קָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וְגִדֵּר אֶת שְׁתֵּי הַפָּרוֹכוֹת, וְנָטַל שְׁתֵּי זוֹנוֹת וּבְעָלָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְיָצָא חַרְבּוֹ מְלֵאָה דָּם. אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִדַּם הַקֳּדָשִׁים, וְאִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִדַּם שָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. וְחֵרֵף וְגִדֵּף, וְנָטַל כָּל כְּלֵי בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וַעֲשָׂאָן כְּמִין גּוּרְגּוּתְנִי אַחַת וְהִתְחִיל מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף כְּלַפֵּי מַעֲלָה, וְאָמַר, לָא דָּמֵי הַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בְּמַדְבְּרָא וְנָצַח לֵיהּ, לְהַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בְּגוֹ פָּלָטִין דִּידֵיהּ וְנָצַח לֵיהּ. יָרַד לַסְּפִינָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד מְחָאֵיהּ נַחְשְׁלָא בְּיַמָּא. אֲמַר דּוֹמֶה זֶה שֶׁאֵין כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל אֱלוֹהַּ שֶׁל אֻמָּה זוֹ אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ לֹא פָּרַע מֵהֶן אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל לֹא פָּרַע מֵהֶן אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, פַּרְעֹה וְכָל חֵילוֹ לֹא פָּרַע מֵהֶן אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם. אַף אֲנִי כְּשֶׁהָיִיתִי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וּבִרְשׁוּתוֹ לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בִּי, וְעַכְשָׁיו לְכָאן קִדְמַנִּי. סָבוּר הוּא שֶׁיַּהַרְגֵּנִי בַּמַּיִם. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רָשָׁע, חַיֶּיךָ מִבְּרִיָה שֶׁהִיא פְּחוּתָה מִכָּל הַבְּרִיּוֹת שֶׁבָּרָאתִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, בָּהּ אֲנִי נִפְרַע מֵאוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע. מִיָּד רָמַז הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַשַֹּׂר שֶׁל יָם וְעָמַד מִזַּעְפּוֹ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְרוֹמִי יָצְאוּ כָּל גְּדוֹלֵי רוֹמִי לִקְרָאתוֹ וְקִלְּסוּ אוֹתוֹ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָלָה לְרוֹמִי נִכְנַס לַמֶּרְחָץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא הֵבִיאוּ פְּיָילִי פּוֹטִירִין שֶׁל יַיִן לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ, וְנִכְנַס יַתּוּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ חוֹטְמוֹ, וְהָיָה נוֹקֵר אֶת מֹחוֹ וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה גָּדוֹל כְּמוֹ גּוֹזָל שֶׁל שְׁתֵּי לִיטְרָאוֹת. וְהָיָה מְצַוֶּה וְאוֹמֵר פִּצְעוּ מֹחוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וּדְעוּ בַּמֶּה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם שֶׁל יְהוּדִים נִפְרַע מֵאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ. מִיָּד קָרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וּפָצְעוּ מֹחוֹ, וְהוֹצִיאוּ כְּגוֹזָל שֶׁל שְׁתֵּי לִיטְרָאוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אֲנָא חֲמִיתֵּיהּ בְּרוֹמִי תַּרְתֵּין לִיטְרִין מֵהָכָא וְגוֹזָלָא מֵהָכָא, וּתְקַל חָד לָקֳבֵל חָד. וְנָטְלוּ אוֹתוֹ וְנָתְנוּ אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ קְעָרָה אַחַת, כָּל מַה דַּהֲוָה הָדֵין שַׁנֵּי, הֲוָה הָדֵין שַׁנֵּי, פְּרַח יַתּוּשָׁה, פְּרַחָה נַפְשֵׁיהּ דְּטִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע. 26.5. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים (בראשית ו, ב), רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי קָרֵא לְהוֹן בְּנֵי דַיָּנַיָא, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי מְקַלֵּל לְכָל מַאן דְּקָרֵא לְהוֹן בְּנֵי אֱלָהַיָּא, תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי כָּל פִּרְצָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִן הַגְּדוֹלִים אֵינָהּ פִּרְצָה, כֻּמְרַיָא גָּנְבוּ אֱלָהַיָּא מַאן מוֹמֵי בֵּיהּ אוֹ מַאן מְקָרֵב. וְלָמָּה קוֹרֵא אוֹתָן בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ תַּרְוֵיהוֹן אָמְרִין שֶׁהִרְבּוּ יָמִים בְּלֹא צַעַר וּבְלֹא יִסּוּרִין. רַבִּי חָנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמַר כְּדֵי לַעֲמֹד עַל הַתְּקוּפוֹת וְעַל הַחִשְׁבוֹנוֹת. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטְלוּ שֶׁלָּהֶם וְשֶׁל דּוֹרוֹת הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם. (בראשית ו, ב): כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן טֹבֹת כְּתִיב, מִשֶּׁהָיוּ מְטִיבִין אִשָּׁה לְבַעֲלָהּ הָיָה גָדוֹל נִכְנַס וּבוֹעֲלָהּ תְּחִלָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה, אֵלּוּ הַבְּתוּלוֹת, (בראשית ו, ב): וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ, אֵלּוּ נְשֵׁי אֲנָשִׁים. מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ, זֶה זָכָר וּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אָמַר דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל לֹא נִמּוֹחוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם עַד שֶׁכָּתְבוּ גִּמּוֹמְסִיּוֹת לְזָכָר וְלִבְהֵמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא זְנוּת, אַנְדְּרוֹלוֹמוּסְיָא בָּאָה לָעוֹלָם וְהוֹרֶגֶת טוֹבִים וְרָעִים. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר עַל הַכֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַאֲרִיךְ אַפּוֹ חוּץ מִן הַזְּנוּת, מַאי טַעְמָא וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וגו', וּמַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (בראשית ו, ז): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה אֶת הָאָדָם, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם פְּדָיָה אָמַר כָּל אוֹתוֹ הַלַּיְלָה הָיָה לוֹט מְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל הַסְּדוֹמִיִּים וְהָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין מִיָּדוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמְרוּ לוֹ (בראשית יט, ה): הוֹצִיאֵם אֵלִינוּ וְנֵדְעָה אֹתָם לְתַשְׁמִישׁ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ (בראשית יט, יב): עֹד מִי לְךָ פֹה לְלַמֵּד סָנֵגוֹרְיָא עֲלֵיהֶם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אֵין לְךָ לְלַמֵּד עֲלֵיהֶם סָנֵגוֹרְיָא. 36.8. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם (בראשית ט, כו), אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אַף מִיֶּפֶת עָמְדוּ בְּאָהֳלֵי שֵׁם. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן, יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת, זֶה כֹּרֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא גּוֹזֵר שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי שֵׁם, אֵין שְׁכִינָה שׁוֹרָה אֶלָּא בְּאָהֳלֵי שֵׁם. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר יִהְיוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה נֶאֱמָרִים בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יֶפֶת בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֵי שֵׁם. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר מִכָּאן לְתַרְגּוּם מִן הַתּוֹרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (נחמיה ח, ח): וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים, זֶה הַמִּקְרָא. מְפֹרָשׁ, זֶה תַּרְגּוּם. וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל, אֵלּוּ הַטְּעָמִים. וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא, אֵלּוּ רָאשֵׁי הַפְּסוּקִים. רַבִּי הוּנָא בֶּן לוּלְיָאנִי אוֹמֵר אֵלּוּ הַהַכְרָעוֹת וְהָרְאָיוֹת. רַבָּנָן דְּקֵיסָרִין אָמְרֵי מִיכָּן לַמָּסֹרֶת. רַבִּי זְעִירָא וְרַבִּי חֲנַנְאֵל בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲפִלּוּ אָדָם רָגִיל בַּתּוֹרָה כְּעֶזְרָא, לֹא יְהֵא קוֹרֵא מִפִּיו וְכוֹתֵב, וְהָא תָּנֵי מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי מֵאִיר בְּאַסְיָא וְלֹא הָיָה שָׁם מְגִלַּת אֶסְתֵּר וְקָרָא לוֹ מִפִּיו וּכְתָבָהּ, תַּמָּן אָמְרִין שְׁתֵּי מְגִלּוֹת כָּתַב, גָּנַז אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְקִיֵּם אֶת הַשְּׁנִיָּה. 53.15. וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַנַּעַר וַיִּגְדָּל (בראשית כא, כ), רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשִּׁמַּשְׁתָּ נַחוּם אִישׁ גַּם זוֹ עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם שָׁנָה, אַכִים וְרַקִּים מִעוּטִים, אֶתִין וְגַמִּין רִבּוּיִם, הָדֵין אֶת דִּכְתִיב הָכָא מַהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר וַיְהִי אֱלֹהִים הַנַּעַר, הָיָה הַדָּבָר קָשֶׁה, אֶלָּא אֶת הַנַּעַר. אָמַר לוֹ (דברים לב, מז): כִּי לֹא דָּבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם, וְאִם רֵק מִכֶּם, שֶׁאֵין אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִדְרשׁ, אֶלָא אֶת הַנַּעַר, הוּא וְחַמָּרָיו וְגַמָּלָיו וּבְנֵי בֵיתוֹ. (בראשית כא, כ): וַיְהִי רֹבֶה קַשָּׁת, רָבֶה וְקַשְׁיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ [נסח אחר: וקשיותו אמו], רָבֶה, מִתְלַמֵּד בְּקֶּשֶׁת, רָבֶה עַל כָּל הַמּוֹרִים בַּקֶּשֶׁת. (בראשית כא, כא): וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק זְרוֹק חוּטְרָא לַאֲוִירָא וְעַל עִקְרֵיהּ הוּא קָאֵים, כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁכָּתוּב (בראשית טז, א): וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר, לְפִיכָךְ (בראשית כא, כא): וַתִּקַּח לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם. 65.5. וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק (בראשית כז, א), רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (ישעיה ה, כג): מַצְדִּיקֵי רָשָׁע עֵקֶב שֹׁחַד, כָּל מִי שֶׁנּוֹטֵל שֹׁחַד וּמַצְדִּיק אֶת הָרָשָׁע בְּעֵקֶב, (ישעיה ה, כג): וְצִדְקַת צַדִּיקִים יָסִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, וְצִדְקַת צַדִּיקִים, זֶה משֶׁה. יָסִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, זֶה יִצְחָק, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהִצְדִּיק אֶת הָרָשָׁע כָּהוּ עֵינָיו, וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וגו'. 80.1. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה (בראשית לד, א), (יחזקאל טז, מד): הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה תִּרְגֵּם בִּכְנִישָׁתְהוֹן דִּמְעוֹנָא, (הושע ה, א): שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ, אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִטֹּל אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בַּדִּין וְלֵאמֹר לָהֶם לָמָּה לֹא יְגַעְתֶּם בַּתּוֹרָה, לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נֶהֱנִים מֵאַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לָא יָהֲבִין לָן כְּלוּם. וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לָכֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַל אִלֵּין דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה דַּהֲווֹ נָסְבִין כּוֹלָּא. בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט, שֶׁלָּכֶם הָיָה, (דברים יח, ג): וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים, לְפִיכָךְ לָכֶם וַעֲלֵיכֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין נֶהְפָּכֶת. שָׁמַע רַבִּי וְכָעַס, בְּפַתֵּי רַמְשָׁא סְלֵיק רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שָׁאֵיל שְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי וּפַיְּסֵי עֲלוֹהִי דְּיוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין מוּמָסִין לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קַרְקְסָאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וּמְשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מְשִׂיחִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי קְטָטָה בְּטֵלָה, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה אָמַר מִלָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא וְאַקְפַּדְתְּ עֲלוֹהִי, אָמַר לוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ הוּא בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאוּלְפַן קַבֵּיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין. וְאִי שָׁאֵלְנָא לֵיהּ מְגִיִּיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין, אִם כֵּן יִסַּק לְהָכָא, וּסְלֵיק לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַהוּ דִּכְתִיב: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךָ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כַּבַּת כֵּן אִמָּהּ, כַּדּוֹר כֵּן נָשִׂיא, כַּמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן כֹּהֲנָיו. הָכָא אָמְרֵי לְפוּם גִּנְּתָא גַּנָּנָא. אָמַר לוֹ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עַד כַּדּוּן לָא חֲסֵלִית מִן מְפַיְּסֵיהּ עַל הָדָא וְאַתָּה מַיְיתֵי לָן אוֹחֲרִי, עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית תּוֹרְתָא עֲנִישָׁא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ בְּעִיטָא, לֵית אִתְּתָא זָנְיָא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ זָנְיָא. אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִם כֵּן לֵאָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהֶם (בראשית ל, טז): וַתֵּצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ וגו', יָצָאת מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּזוֹנָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה. 80.1. וַיִּקְּחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי (בראשית לד, כה), מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב הֵם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה מִיַּעֲקֹב. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, שֶׁנָטְלוּ עֵצָה זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲחֵי דִינָה, וְכִי אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אֵלּוּ נַפְשָׁם עָלֶיהָ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָם, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן אַהֲרֹן נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (במדבר כה, יח): וְעַל דְּבַר כָּזְבִּי בַת נְשִׂיא מִדְיָן אֲחֹתָם, וְכִי אֲחוֹתָם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא בַּת אֻמָּתָן הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנָה נַפְשָׁהּ עַל אֻמָּתָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֻמָּתָהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. (בראשית לד, כה): אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל שָׁאַל לְלֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי אָמַר לוֹ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לד, כה): וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח, אָמַר לוֹ בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן, וְלֹא הָיָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב רוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנַי לִפֹּל בְּיַד אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ וְעָמַד לוֹ עַל פִּתְחָהּ שֶׁל שְׁכֶם וְאָמַר אִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם לְבָנַי אֲנִי נִלְחַם כְּנֶגְדָן, הוּא דְּהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְיוֹסֵף (בראשית מח, כב): וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ וגו', וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁנָּטַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ בִּשְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כב): אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּי. (בראשית לד, כו): וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ. 81.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל בֵּיתוֹ (בראשית לה, ב), אָמַר רַבִּי כְּרוּסְפְּדַי אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִים בְּדִקְדוּקֵי עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים כְּיַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ, דִּתְנַן הַמּוֹצֵא כֵּלִים וַעֲלֵיהֶם צוּרַת חַמָּה צוּרַת לְבָנָה צוּרַת הַדְּרָקוֹן, יוֹלִיכֵם לְיַם הַמֶּלַח. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כָּל כְּסוּת בִּכְלַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים. (בראשית לה, ד): וַיִּתְּנוּ אֶל יַעֲקֹב, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי סְלֵיק לְצַלָּאָה בִּירוּשְׁלֵם, עֲבַר בַּהֲדֵין פְּלָטָנוֹס וַחֲמָא יָתֵיהּ חַד שִׁמְרָאי, אָמַר לֵיהּ לְהֵיכָן אַתְּ אָזֵיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְסִיק מְצַלֵּי בַּהֲדָא יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְלָא טַב לָךְ מְצַלֵּי בַּהֲדָא טוּרָא בְּרִיכָא וְלָא בְהַהִיא קַלְקַלְתָּא. אָמַר לוֹ אוֹמַר לָכֶם לְמָה אַתֶּם דּוֹמִים לְכֶלֶב שֶׁהָיָה לָהוּט אַחַר הַנְּבֵלָה, כָּךְ לְפִי שֶׁאַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים טְמוּנָה תַּחְתָּיו, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לה, ב): וַיִּטְמֹן אֹתָם יַעֲקֹב, לְפִיכָךְ אַתֶּם לְהוּטִים אַחֲרָיו. אֲמָרִין דֵּין בָּעֵי מַנְסְבָהּ [פרוש מאחר שזה יודע שעבודת כוכבים טמונה שם ודאי יקחנה], וְנִתְיָעֲצוּ עָלָיו לְהָרְגוֹ, וְקָם וַעֲרַק בְּלֵילְיָא. 94.7. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַבָּאִים מִצְרַיְמָה, וּבְנֵי יִשָׂשכָר תּוֹלָע וּפֻוָּה וְיוֹב וְשִׁמְרֹן (בראשית מו, ח יג), רַבִּי מֵאִיר חֲמָא חַד שַׁמְרָאי אֲמַר לֵיהּ מֵהֵיכָן אֲתֵית, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן דְּיוֹסֵף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי מֵאִיר לָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ שַׁמְרָאי וְאֶלָּא דְמַאן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן דְּיִשָׂשׂכָר. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְנָא לָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ דִּכְתִיב: וּבְנֵי יִשָׂשׂכָר תּוֹלָע וּפֻוָּה וְיוֹב וְשִׁמְרֹן, אֵלִּין שַׁמְרַיָא. אֲזַל לְגַבֵּי אַפְטוֹרִיקַיָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲמַר לִי סָבְהוֹן דִּיהוּדָאי חֲדָא מִלָּא וְהִיא תַמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה הִיא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אָמַר לִי מִן דְּמַאן אֲתֵית, אֲמָרִית לֵיהּ מִן דְּיוֹסֵף, אֲמַר לִי לָא מִן דְּיִשָׂשׂכָר, דִּכְתִיב: וּבְנֵי יִשָׂשׂכָר תּוֹלָע וּפֻוָּה וְיוֹב וְשִׁמְרֹן, אֵלִּין שַׁמְרַיָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ מִן דְּיוֹסֵף אַפְקָךְ מִן דְּיִשָׂשׂכָר לָא אַעֲלָךְ. 98.14. יְהִי דָן נָחָשׁ עֲלֵי דֶרֶךְ (בראשית מט, יז), מַה נָּחָשׁ זֶה מָצוּי בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים, כָּךְ שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ מָצוּי בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים. מַה הַנָּחָשׁ נֶאֱסָר בִּשְׁבוּעָה, כָּךְ שִׁמְשׁוֹן בֶּן מָנוֹחַ נֶאֱסָר בִּשְׁבוּעָה (שופטים טו, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם שִׁמְשׁוֹן הִשָּׁבְעוּ לִי. מַה נָּחָשׁ זֶה כָּל כֹּחוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּרֹאשׁוֹ, כָּךְ שִׁמְשׁוֹן (שופטים טז, יז): אִם גֻּלַּחְתִּי וְסָר מִמֶּנִּי כֹחִי. מָה הַנָּחָשׁ הַזֶּה רִיסוֹ מְחַלְחֵל לְאַחַר הַמִּיתָה, כָּךְ (שופטים טז, ל): וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים אֲשֶׁר הֵמִית בְּמוֹתוֹ וגו'. הַנּשֵׁךְ עִקְּבֵי סוּס, (שופטים טז, כה): קִרְאוּ לְשִׁמְשׁוֹן וִישַׂחֶק לָנוּ, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי כְּתִיב (שופטים טז, כז): וְעַל הַגָּג כִּשְׁלשֶׁת אֲלָפִים, אֵלּוּ מַה שֶּׁהָיוּ עַל שְׂפַת הַגָּג, אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁהָיוּ לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם וְלַאֲחוֹרֵי אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֵין בְּרִיָּה יוֹדַעַת, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ (שופטים טז, לא): וַיֵּרְדוּ אֶחָיו וְכָל בֵּית אָבִיהוּ וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּעֲלוּ וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ וגו' בְּקֶבֶר מָנוֹחַ אָבִיו, אֶלָּא יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ בִּקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים עַל הַדָּבָר. וַיִּפֹּל רֹכְבוֹ אָחוֹר, יַחְזְרוּ דְּבָרִים לַאֲחוֹרֵיהֶם, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ וְסָבוּר בּוֹ שֶׁהוּא מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתוֹ שֶׁמֵּת, אָמַר אַף זֶה מֵת (בראשית מט, יח): לִישׁוּעָתְךָ קִוִּיתִי ה'. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הַכֹּל בְּקִוּוּי, יִסּוּרִין בְּקִוּוּי, קְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם בְּקִוּוּי, זְכוּת אָבוֹת בְּקִוּוּי, תַּאֲוָתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַבָּא בְּקִוּוּי. יִסּוּרִין, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה כו, ח): אַף אֹרַח מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ ה' קִוִּינוּךָ, אֵלּוּ יִסּוּרִין. (ישעיה כו, ח): לְשִׁמְךָ, זוֹ קְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם. (ישעיה כו, ח): וּלְזִכְרְךָ, זוֹ זְכוּת אָבוֹת. (ישעיה כו, ח): תַּאֲוַת נֶפֶשׁ, זוֹ תַּאֲוָתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הַבָּא. חֲנִינָה בְּקִוּוּי (ישעיה לג, ב): ה' חָנֵנוּ לְךָ קִוִּינוּ. סְלִיחָה בְּקִוּוּי (תהלים קל, ד): כִּי עִמְּךָ הַסְּלִיחָה, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (תהלים קל, ה): קִוִּיתִי ה'. לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ וְסוֹבֵר בּוֹ שֶׁגְּאֻלָּה מַגַּעַת בְּיָמָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁמֵּת, מִיָּד אָמַר לִישׁוּעָתְךָ קִוִּיתִי ה'.
125. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 139 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 170
126. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 160, 269, 294, 305-306, 343, 328 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 28
127. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 42, 170
128. Tertullian, Against The Jews, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( •bar kokhba (bar koziba), temple to jupiter capitolinus and •jerusalem, bar kokhba revolt •temple, the, bar kokhba revolt and Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 170
13. Therefore, since the sons of Israel affirm that we err in receiving the Christ, who is already come, let us put in a demurrer against them out of the Scriptures themselves, to the effect that the Christ who was the theme of prediction is come; albeit by the times of Daniel's prediction we have proved that the Christ has come already who was the theme of announcement. Now it behooved Him to be born in Bethlehem of Judah. For thus it is written in the prophet: And you, Bethlehem, are not the least in the leaders of Judah: for out of you shall issue a Leader who shall feed my People Israel. But if hitherto he has not been born, what leader was it who was thus announced as to proceed from the tribe of Judah, out of Bethlehem? For it behooves him to proceed from the tribe of Judah and from Bethlehem. But we perceive that now none of the race of Israel has remained in Bethlehem; and (so it has been) ever since the interdict was issued forbidding any one of the Jews to linger in the confines of the very district, in order that this prophetic utterance also should be perfectly fulfilled: Your land is desert, your cities burnt up by fire,- that is, (he is foretelling) what will have happened to them in time of war your region strangers shall eat up in your sight, and it shall be desert and subverted by alien peoples. And in another place it is thus said through the prophet: The King with His glory you shall see,- that is, Christ, doing deeds of power in the glory of God the Father; and your eyes shall see the land from afar, Isaiah 33:17 - which is what you do, being prohibited, in reward of your deserts, since the storming of Jerusalem, to enter into your land; it is permitted you merely to see it with your eyes from afar: your soul, he says, shall meditate terror, Isaiah 33:18 - namely, at the time when they suffered the ruin of themselves. How, therefore, will a leader be born from Judea, and how far will he proceed from Bethlehem, as the divine volumes of the prophets do plainly announce; since none at all is left there to this day of (the house of) Israel, of whose stock Christ could be born? Now, if (according to the Jews) He is hitherto not come, when He begins to come whence will He be anointed? For the Law enjoined that, in captivity, it was not lawful for the unction of the royal chrism to be compounded. Exodus 30:22-33 But, if there is no longer unction there as Daniel prophesied (for he says, Unction shall be exterminated), it follows that they no longer have it, because neither have they a temple where was the horn from which kings were wont to be anointed. If, then, there is no unction, whence shall be anointed the leader who shall be born in Bethlehem? Or how shall he proceed from Bethlehem, seeing that of the seed of Israel none at all exists in Bethlehem. A second time, in fact, let us show that Christ is already come, (as foretold) through the prophets, and has suffered, and is already received back in the heavens, and thence is to come accordingly as the predictions prophesied. For, after His advent, we read, according to Daniel, that the city itself had to be exterminated; and we recognise that so it has befallen. For the Scripture says thus, that the city and the holy place are simultaneously exterminated together with the leader, Daniel 9:26 - undoubtedly (that Leader) who was to proceed from Bethlehem, and from the tribe of Judah. Whence, again, it is manifest that the city must simultaneously be exterminated at the time when its Leader had to suffer in it, (as foretold) through the Scriptures of the prophets, who say: I have outstretched my hands the whole day unto a People contumacious and gainsaying Me, who walks in a way not good, but after their own sins. And in the Psalms, David says: They exterminated my hands and feet: they counted all my bones; they themselves, moreover, contemplated and saw me, and in my thirst slaked me with vinegar. These things David did not suffer, so as to seem justly to have spoken of himself; but the Christ who was crucified. Moreover, the hands and feet, are not exterminated, except His who is suspended on a tree. Whence, again, David said that the Lord would reign from the tree: for elsewhere, too, the prophet predicts the fruit of this tree, saying The earth has given her blessings, - of course that virgin-earth, not yet irrigated with rains, nor fertilized by showers, out of which man was of yore first formed, out of which now Christ through the flesh has been born of a virgin; and the tree, he says, has brought his fruit, - not that tree in paradise which yielded death to the protoplasts, but the tree of the passion of Christ, whence life, hanging, was by you not believed! For this tree in a mystery, it was of yore wherewith Moses sweetened the bitter water; whence the People, which was perishing of thirst in the desert, drank and revived; just as we do, who, drawn out from the calamities of the heathendom in which we were tarrying perishing with thirst (that is, deprived of the divine word), drinking, by the faith which is on Him, the baptismal water of the tree of the passion of Christ, have revived - a faith from which Israel has fallen away, (as foretold) through Jeremiah, who says, Send, and ask exceedingly whether such things have been done, whether nations will change their gods (and these are not gods!). But My People has changed their glory: whence no profit shall accrue to them: the heaven turned pale thereat (and when did it turn pale? Undoubtedly when Christ suffered), and shuddered, he says, most exceedingly; and the sun grew dark at mid-day: (and when did it shudder exceedingly except at the passion of Christ, when the earth also trembled to her centre, and the veil of the temple was rent, and the tombs were burst asunder? because these two evils has My People done; Me, He says, they have quite forsaken, the fount of water of life, and they have dug for themselves worn-out tanks, which will not be able to contain water. Undoubtedly, by not receiving Christ, the fount of water of life, they have begun to have worn-out tanks, that is, synagogues for the use of the dispersions of the Gentiles, in which the Holy Spirit no longer lingers, as for the time past He was wont to tarry in the temple before the advent of Christ, who is the true temple of God. For, that they should withal suffer this thirst of the Divine Spirit, the prophet Isaiah had said, saying: Behold, they who serve Me shall eat, but you shall be hungry; they who serve Me shall drink, but you shall thirst, and from general tribulation of spirit shall howl: for you shall transmit your name for a satiety to Mine elect, but you the Lord shall slay; but for them who serve Me shall be named a new name, which shall be blessed in the lands. Again, the mystery of this tree we read as being celebrated even in the Books of the Reigns. For when the sons of the prophets were cutting wood with axes on the bank of the river Jordan, the iron flew off and sank in the stream; and so, on Elisha the prophet's coming up, the sons of the prophets beg of him to extract from the stream the iron which had sunk. And accordingly Elisha, having taken wood, and cast it into that place where the iron had been submerged, immediately it rose and swam on the surface, and the wood sank, which the sons of the prophets recovered. Whence they understood that Elijah's spirit was presently conferred upon him. What is more manifest than the mystery of this wood,- that the obduracy of this world had been sunk in the profundity of error, and is freed in baptism by the wood of Christ, that is, of His passion; in order that what had formerly perished through the tree in Adam, should be restored through the tree in Christ? while we, of course, who have succeeded to, and occupy, the room of the prophets, at the present day sustain in the world that treatment which the prophets always suffered on account of divine religion: for some they stoned, some they banished; more, however, they delivered to mortal slaughter, - a fact which they cannot deny. This wood, again, Isaac the son of Abraham personally carried for his own sacrifice, when God had enjoined that he should be made a victim to Himself. But, because these had been mysteries which were being kept for perfect fulfilment in the times of Christ, Isaac, on the one hand, with his wood, was reserved, the ram being offered which was caught by the horns in the bramble; Christ, on the other hand, in His times, carried His wood on His own shoulders, adhering to the horns of the cross, with a thorny crown encircling His head. For Him it behooved to be made a sacrifice on behalf of all Gentiles, who was led as a sheep for a victim, and, like a lamb voiceless before his shearer, so opened not His mouth (for He, when Pilate interrogated Him, spoke nothing ); for in humility His judgment was taken away: His nativity, moreover, who shall declare? Because no one at all of human beings was conscious of the nativity of Christ at His conception, when as the Virgin Mary was found pregt by the word of God; and because His life was to be taken from the land. Why, accordingly, after His resurrection from the dead, which was effected on the third day, did the heavens receive Him back? It was in accordance with a prophecy of Hosea, uttered on this wise: Before daybreak shall they arise unto Me, saying, Let us go and return unto the Lord our God, because Himself will draw us out and free us. After a space of two days, on the third day - which is His glorious resurrection - He received back into the heavens (whence withal the Spirit Himself had come to the Virgin ) Him whose nativity and passion alike the Jews have failed to acknowledge. Therefore, since the Jews still contend that the Christ is not yet come, whom we have in so many ways approved to be come, let the Jews recognise their own fate - a fate which they were constantly foretold as destined to incur after the advent of the Christ, on account of the impiety with which they despised and slew Him. For first, from the day when, according to the saying of Isaiah, a man cast forth his abominations of gold and silver, which they made to adore with vain and hurtful (rites), - that is, ever since we Gentiles, with our breast doubly enlightened through Christ's truth, cast forth (let the Jews see it) our idols - what follows has likewise been fulfilled. For the Lord of Sabaoth has taken away, among the Jews from Jerusalem, among the other things named, the wise architect too, who builds the church, God's temple, and the holy city, and the house of the Lord. For thenceforth God's grace desisted (from working) among them. And the clouds were commanded not to rain a shower upon the vineyard of Sorek, - the clouds being celestial benefits, which were commanded not to be forthcoming to the house of Israel; for it had borne thorns- whereof that house of Israel had wrought a crown for Christ - and not righteousness, but a clamour,- the clamour whereby it had extorted His surrender to the cross. And thus, the former gifts of grace being withdrawn, the law and the prophets were until John, and the fishpool of Bethsaida until the advent of Christ: thereafter it ceased curatively to remove from Israel infirmities of health; since, as the result of their perseverance in their frenzy, the name of the Lord was through them blasphemed, as it is written: On your account the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles: for it is from them that the infamy (attached to that name) began, and (was propagated during) the interval from Tiberius to Vespasian. And because they had committed these crimes, and had failed to understand that Christ was to be found in the time of their visitation, their land has been made desert, and their cities utterly burnt with fire, while strangers devour their region in their sight: the daughter of Sion is derelict, as a watchtower in a vineyard, or as a shed in a cucumber garden,- ever since the time, to wit, when Israel knew not the Lord, and the People understood Him not; but rather quite forsook, and provoked unto indignation, the Holy One of Israel. So, again, we find a conditional threat of the sword: If you shall have been unwilling, and shall not have been obedient, the glaive shall eat you up. Isaiah 1:20 Whence we prove that the sword was Christ, by not hearing whom they perished; who, again, in the Psalm, demands of the Father their dispersion, saying, Disperse them in Your power; who, withal, again through Isaiah prays for their utter burning. On My account, He says, have these things happened to you; in anxiety shall you sleep. Since, therefore, the Jews were predicted as destined to suffer these calamities on Christ's account, and we find that they have suffered them, and see them sent into dispersion and abiding in it, manifest it is that it is on Christ's account that these things have befallen the Jews, the sense of the Scriptures harmonizing with the issue of events and of the order of the times. Or else, if Christ is not yet come, on whose account they were predicted as destined thus to suffer, when He shall have come it follows that they will thus suffer. And where will then be a daughter of Sion to be derelict, who now has no existence? Where the cities to be exust, which are already exust and in heaps? Where the dispersion of a race which is now in exile? Restore to Judea the condition which Christ is to find; and (then, if you will), contend that some other (Christ) is coming.
129. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 2.24 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 322
2.24. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְשַׁבְתָּ עַד ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אֵין לְךָ דָּבָר גָּדוֹל מִן הַתְּשׁוּבָה, מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ בְּרוֹמִי, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, וְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְגָזְרוּ סַנְקְלִיטִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ לוֹמַר מִכָּאן וְעַד שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם לֹא יִהְיֶה בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם יְהוּדִי, וְהָיָה סַנְקְלִיטוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם, בָּא אֵצֶל רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְגִלָּה לוֹ אֶת הַדָּבָר, וְהָיוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ מִצְטַעֲרִים הַרְבֵּה, אָמַר לָהֶם אוֹתוֹ יְרֵא שָׁמַיִם אַל תִּצְטַעֲרוּ, מִכָּאן וְעַד שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם אֱלֹהֵיהֶן שֶׁל יְהוּדִים עוֹמֵד לָהֶם, בְּסוֹף עֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים גִּלָּה לְאִשְׁתּוֹ אֶת הַדָּבָר, אָמְרָה לוֹ וַהֲרֵי שָׁלְמוּ עֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים, אָמַר לָהּ עוֹד חֲמִשָּׁה יָמִים, וְהָיְתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ צַדֶּקֶת מִמֶּנּוּ, אָמְרָה לוֹ אֵין לְךָ טַבַּעַת, מוֹץ אוֹתָה וָמוּת, וְסַנְקְלִיטִין נִטָּל עָלֶיךָ שְׁלשִׁים יָמִים אֲחֵרִים, וְהַגְזֵרָה עוֹבֶרֶת. שָׁמַע לָהּ וּמָץ אֶת טַבַּעְתּוֹ וָמֵת. שָׁמְעוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ וְעָלוּ אֵצֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת לָהּ פָּנִים, אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ חֲבָל לַסְּפִינָה שֶׁהָלְכָה לָהּ וְלֹא נָתְנָה הַמֶּכֶס, כְּלוֹמַר הַצַּדִּיק הַזֶּה לֹא מָל. אָמְרָה לָהֶן אִשְׁתּוֹ יוֹדַעַת אֲנִי מָה אַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, חַיֵּיכֶם לֹא עָבְרָה הַסְּפִינָה עַד שֶׁנָּתְנָה מֶכֶס שֶׁלָּהּ, מִיָּד נִכְנְסָה לְתוֹךְ הַקִּיטוֹן וְהוֹצִיאָה לָהֶן קוּפְסָה שֶׁהָיְתָה הַמִּילָה בְּתוֹכָהּ וּסְמַרְטוּטִים מְלֵאִים דָּם נְתוּנִים עָלֶיהָ, וְקָרְאוּ עָלָיו רַבּוֹתֵינוּ הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה (תהלים מז, י): נְדִיבֵי עַמִּים נֶאֱסָפוּ עַם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם כִּי לֵאלֹהִים מָגִנֵּי אֶרֶץ מְאֹד נַעֲלָה, מַהוּ מָגִנֵּי אֶרֶץ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם נַעֲשֵׂיתִי מָגֵן עֹז, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טו, א): אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ, לָזֶה אֲנִי נַעֲשָׂה מָגִנִּים הַרְבֵּה, כֵּיצַד, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַבְרָהָם (בראשית יב, ב): וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָל, וְזֶה לֹא הִבְטַחְתִּי אוֹתוֹ, מַהוּ מְאֹד נַעֲלָה, זֶה נִתְעַלָּה מְאֹד מֵאַבְרָהָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְשַׁבְתָּ עַד ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל פְּרַגְּרִיטָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה, לְבֶן מֶלֶךְ שֶׁיָּצָא לְתַרְבּוּת רָעָה, וְהָיָה הַמֶּלֶךְ מְשַׁלֵּחַ פַּדְּגוֹגוֹ אַחֲרָיו, וְאָמַר לוֹ חֲזֹר בְּךָ בְּנִי, וְהָיָה הַבֵּן מְשַׁלְּחוֹ וְאָמַר לְאָבִיו בְּאֵלּוּ הַפָּנִים אֲנִי חוֹזֵר בִּי וַאֲנִי מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ לְפָנֶיךָ. וְהָיָה אָבִיו מְשַׁלְּחוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּנִי, יֵשׁ בֵּן מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ לַחֲזֹר אֵצֶל אָבִיו, וְאִם אַתָּה חוֹזֵר, לֹא אֵצֶל אָבִיךָ אַתָּה חוֹזֵר, כָּךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְשַׁלֵּחַ יִרְמְיָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁחָטְאוּ וְאָמַר לוֹ, לֵךְ אֱמֹר לְבָנַי חִזְּרוּ בָכֶם, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ג, יב): הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ אֶת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וגו', וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לְיִרְמְיָה בְּאֵלּוּ הַפָּנִים אָנוּ חוֹזְרִים לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ג, כה): נִשְׁכְּבָה בְּבָשְׁתֵּנוּ וּתְכַסֵּנוּ כְּלִמָּתֵנוּ וגו', וְהָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְשַׁלֵּחַ וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּנַי אִם חוֹזְרִים אַתֶּם לֹא אֵצֶל אֲבִיכֶם אַתֶּם חוֹזְרִים, מִנַּיִן (ירמיה לא, ט): כִּי הָיִיתִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְאָב וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִרְמְיָהוּ לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חַיֵּיכֶם אֵינִי כּוֹפֵר בָּכֶם, אַתֶּם אֲמַרְתֶּם לִי בְּסִינַי (שיר השירים ה, ד): וּמֵעַי הָמוּ עָלָיו, אַף אֲנִי כָּךְ אוֹמֵר לָכֶם, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה לא, ט): הֲבֵן יַקִּיר לִי אֶפְרַיִם וגו'.
130. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 5.8.5, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 80; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 494
5.8.5. וְרַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְרַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא הֲווֹ מְתַנִּין בַּהֲדֵין עוֹבָדַיָא. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים גַּבֵּי נַהֲרָא, חֲמָא חַד אוּרְדְּעָא טְעוּנָה חַד עַקְרָב וּמְגִיזָא יָתֵיהּ נַהֲרָא, אָמַר וַדַּאי זוֹ מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתֵיהּ, אֲגִיזְתֵּיהּ וַעֲבָדַת שְׁלִיחוּתֵהּ וַחֲזָרַת יָתֵהּ לְאַתְרֵהּ, וְנִשְׁמַע קוֹל יְלָלָא בָּעִיר, פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ עַקְרָב וָמֵת. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָנִין דְּצִיפּוֹרִין עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גְּבַר דַּהֲוָה חָצֵיד בְּבִקְעַת בֵּית טוֹפַת וַחֲמָא עִישְׂבָּא עֲבַד כְּלִילָא לְרֵישֵׁיהּ, אֲתָא חַד חִיוְיָא וּמְחָא יָתֵיהּ וּקְטָלֵיהּ, אֲתָא חַד גְּבַר וְקָם לֵיהּ, סְקַר בְּחִיוְיָא, אֲמַר תָּמַהּ אֲנָא עַל מַאן דִּקְטַל הָדֵין חִיוְיָא, אֲמַר הַהוּא גְבַר אֲנָא קְטַלְתֵּיהּ, חֲמָא הַהוּא עִישְׂבָּא בְּרֵישֵׁיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ יָכוֹל אַתְּ לְמִינְסַב הָדֵין כְּלִילָא דְעִישְׂבָּא מִן רֵישָׁךְ, אֲמַר אִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ יָכֵיל אַתְּ קָרֵיב הָדֵין חִיוְיָא בְּהָדֵין חוּטְרָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דִּקְרַב לְהַהוּא חִיוְיָא מִיָּד נָשְׁרִין אֵיבָרֵיהּ. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הֲוָה יָתֵיב מַתְנֵי עַל פְּיָילֵי קַרְתָּא, וְרָאָה נָחָשׁ אֶחָד מַרְתִּיעַ וּבָא, וַהֲוָה מְרַדֵּיף לֵיהּ מִן הָכָא וַהֲוָה חָזַר לֵיהּ מִן הָכָא מִן דֵּין סִיטְרָא, אָמַר זֶה וַדַּאי מוּכָן לַעֲשוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, מִיָּד נָפַל קוֹל הֲבָרָה בָּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי נָשׁוּךְ בַּנָּחָשׁ וָמֵת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה יָתֵיב עַל בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא, אֲתָא חַד רוֹמָא וַאֲקִימֵיהּ וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ, אָמַר לֵיהּ הָדֵין לָא אָתֵי עַל מַגָּן, מִיָּד בָּא נָחָשׁ וּנְשָׁכוֹ וָמֵת, וְקָרָא עָלָיו הַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה (ישעיה מג, ד): וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ. וְאֶתֵּן אֱדוֹם תַּחְתֶּיךָ. רַבִּי יִצְחָק בֶּן רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה מְטַיֵּיל עַל שׁוּנְתָא דְּיַמָא דְּקֵיסָרִין, רָאָה קוּלִית אַחַת מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת וּבָאָה, וַהֲוָה מַצְנַע לַהּ וְהִיא מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת, מַצְנַע לַהּ וְהִיא מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת, אָמַר זוֹ מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָהּ. לְבָתַר יוֹמִין עֲבַר חַד בַּלְדָּר מִן מַלְכוּתָא, אִיתְגַּלְגְּלַת בֵּינֵי רִיגְלוֹהִי וְנִכְשַׁל וְנָפַל וָמֵת, אֲזָלוּן וּפַשְׁפְּשׁוּנֵיהּ בְּשַׂקֵיהּ וְאַשְׁכְּחוּן יָתֵיהּ טָעוּן כְּתָבִין בִּישִׁין עַל יְהוּדָאִין דְּקֵיסָרִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא הֲוָה עוֹסְקָן וַהֲוָה לֵיהּ חַד פַּרְדֵּס וַהֲוָה בֵּיהּ חַד סָדְיָין אֲזַל חַד דּוּכִיפַת וְתַקְּנֵיהּ, קָם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וְסָתְרֵיהּ, מָה עֲבַד אַיְיתֵי לֵיהּ וַעֲבַד בְּאַפֵּיהּ חַד לוּחַ וִיהַב חַד מַסְמְרָא וְתַקְּנֵיהּ, מָה עֲבַד דּוּכִיפַת אֲזַל וְאַיְיתֵי חַד עִישְׂבָּא וִיהַב עַל הַהוּא מַסְמְרָא וְסָתְרֵיהּ. מָה עֲבַד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אֲמַר טַב לִי אֲנָא גָּנֵז הָדֵין דְּלָא יֵלְכוּן גַּנָּבַיָא וְיַעַבְדוּן כְּדֵין וְיַחְרְבוּן בְּרִיָּיתָא. חֲמַרְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יַנַּאי אֲכָלַת עִישְׂבָּא וְאִיסְתַּמְּיַית, אֲכָלָה עִישְׂבָּא חוֹרָן וְאִיתְפַּתְּחַת. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בִּתְרֵין גּוּבְרִין דַּהֲווֹן עָלְלִין בִּשְׁבִילָא דִּטְבֶרְיָא חַד סָמֵי וְחַד פְּתִיחַ, פְּתִיחַ גְּדַשׁ לְסַמְיָא, יָתְבוּן לְמִקְרְטָא בְּאוֹרְחָא, וַאֲרָעַת שַׁעְתָּא וַאֲכָלוּן מִן עִישְׂבָּא, דֵין דַּהֲוָה סַמְיָא אִיתְפַּתַּח וְדֵין דַּהֲוָה פְּתִיחַ אִיסְתַּמֵי, לָא עָלוּן מִן תַּמָּן עַד דִּגְדַשׁ סַמְיָא לִפְתִיחָא. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גְּבַר דִּסְלַק מִן בָּבֶל יָתֵיב לְמִקְרְטָא עַל אוֹרְחָא וַחֲמָא תְּרֵין צִיפּוֹרִין מִתְנַצְיָין הָדָא עִם הָדָא, קָטְלָא הָדָא לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, אֲזָלַת חוֹרִיתָא וְאַיְיתָא עִישְׂבָּא וְיָהֲבָא עַל מִיתָא וְאַחְיָיא, אֲמַר טַב לִי נָסֵב הָדָא עִישְׂבָּא מְחַיֵּי בָּה מִיתָא דְּאַרְעָא דְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, מִיפְרָא וּסְלַק חֲמָא חַד תַּעַל מָיֵית וּמְקַלַּק בְּאוֹרְחָא, אֲמַר טַב לִי מְנַסְּיָא בְּהָדֵין תַּעַל, וִיהַב עֲלוֹי וְאַחְיֵיהּ. הֲוָה מְהַלֵּךְ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסוּלָמָא שֶׁל צוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסוּלָמָא שֶׁל צוֹר חֲמָא חַד אַרְיֵה קְטִיל רְמֵי בְּאוֹרְחָא, אֲמַר טַב לִי מִינַסֵּי בְּהָדֵין, יְהַב עֲלוֹי וְאַחְיֵיהּ, וְקָם עֲלוֹי וְאַכְלֵיהּ. הֲדָא דִּבְרִיָּיתָא אָמְרִין טַב לְבִישׁ לָא תַעֲבֵיד וּבִישְׁתָּא לָא יִמְטֵי לָךְ, וְטַב לְבִישׁ אִין עֲבַדְתְּ, בִּישָׁא עֲבַדְתְּ. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּמֻכֶּה שְׁחִין שֶׁיָּרַד לִטְבֹּל בְּיַמָּהּ שֶׁל טְבֶרְיָא וַאֲרָעַת שַׁעְתָּא וּטְפַת בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם וְאַסְחֵי וְאִיתְּסֵי. וְהֵיכָן הִיא בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם, אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּתִיב (במדבר כא, כ): וְנִשְׁקָפָה עַל פְּנֵי הַיְשִׁימֹן, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁעוֹלֶה עַל הַר יְשִׁימוֹן רוֹאֶה כְּמִין כְּבָרָה קְטַנָּה בְּיַמָּהּ שֶׁל טְבֶרְיָא וְזוֹ הִיא בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שִׁיעֲרוּ אוֹתָהּ רַבָּנָן וְהִיא מְכֻוֶּנֶת כָּל קֳבֵל תַּרְעָא מְצִיעָאָה דִּכְנִשְׁתָּא עַתִּיקְתָּא דִּסְרוֹנְגְּיָא. אָמַר רַבִּי הוּנָא בַּר פַּפָּא בְּאִסּוּר הַבָּמָה הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַקְרִיבִין בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד שֶׁלֹא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן. תָּנֵינַן עַד שֶׁלֹא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת, וּמִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים, וְהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹהֲגִין בְּאִסּוּר בָּמָה בַּמִּדְבָּר, וְהָיוּ פֻּרְעָנֻיּוֹת מְכַלּוֹת אוֹתָם, וְהָיוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם אוֹמְרִין עוֹבְדִין לִשְׁמוֹ וְהוּא הוֹרְגָן בַּמִּדְבָּר, לְפִיכָךְ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה (ויקרא יז, ג): אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ כֶשֶׂב וגו' וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וגו'.
131. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 44
132. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 199
133. Justin, First Apology, 31.6, 32.4-32.6, 35.6, 38.7-38.8, 40.6, 53.2-53.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece (2015), Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent : New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 94; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 167; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 170; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 511
134. Gaius, Instiutiones, 1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 324
135. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba letters Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 317
136. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
137. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 4.22.142 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 133
138. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 57
2.2. אֵיכָה יָעִיב בְּאַפּוֹ ה' אֶת בַּת צִיּוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֵיךְ חַיֵּיב ה' בְּרוּגְזֵיהּ יָת בַּת צִיּוֹן. אִית אַתְרָא דְּצָוְוחִין לְחַיָּיבָא עֲיָיבָא. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר, אֵיךְ כַּיֵּיב ה' בְּרוּגְזֵיהּ. אִית אַתְרָא דְּצַוְוחִין לְכֵיבָא עֵייבָא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֵיךְ שַׁיֵּים ה' בְּרוּגְזֵיהּ יָת בַּת צִיּוֹן. הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בֵּן, בָּכָה וּנְתָנוֹ עַל אַרְכּוּבוֹתָיו, בָּכָה וּנְתָנוֹ עַל זְרוֹעוֹתָיו, בָּכָה וְהִרְכִּיבוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ, טִנֵּף עָלָיו וּמִיָּד הִשְׁלִיכוֹ לָאָרֶץ, וְלָא הֲוַת מְחוּתִיתֵיהּ כִּמְסוּקִיתֵיהּ, מְסוּקִיתֵיהּ צִיבְחַר צִיבְחַר, וּמְחוּתִיתֵיהּ כּוֹלָּא חֲדָא. כָּךְ (הושע יא, ג): וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל זְרוֹעֹתָיו. וְאַחַר כָּךְ (הושע י, יא): אַרְכִּיב אֶפְרַיִם יַחֲרוֹשׁ יְהוּדָה יְשַׂדֶּד לוֹ יַעֲקֹב. וְאַחַר כָּךְ: הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרַבִּי נַחְמָן מָשָׁל לִבְנֵי מְדִינָה שֶׁעָשׂוּ עֲטָרָה לַמֶּלֶךְ, הִקְנִיטוּהוּ וּסְבָלָן, הִקְנִיטוּהוּ וּסְבָלָן, אָחַר כָּךְ אָמַר לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּלוּם אַתֶּם מַקְנִיטִין אוֹתִי אֶלָּא בַּעֲבוּר עֲטָרָה שֶׁעִטַּרְתֶּם לִי, הֵא לְכוֹן טְרוֹן בְּאַפֵּיכוֹן, כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּלוּם אַתֶּם מַקְנִיטִין אוֹתִי אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל אִיקוּנִין שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב שֶׁחֲקוּקָה עַל כִּסְאִי, הֵא לְכוֹן טְרוֹן בְּאַפֵּיכוֹן, הֱוֵי: הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ וגו'.
139. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 4; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
140. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 22.3-22.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 80; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 115
22.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַנְּבִיאִים אִם אֵין אַתֶּם עוֹשִׂין שְׁלִיחוּתִי יֵשׁ לִי שְׁלוּחִין, הֱוֵי: וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ וגו', בַּכֹּל אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתִי. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בַּכֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָחָשׁ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי צְפַרְדֵּעַ וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי עַקְרָב וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יַתּוּשׁ, טִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע נִכְנַס לְבֵית קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְיָדוֹ וְגִדֵּר אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת, וְנָטַל שְׁתֵּי זוֹנוֹת וְהִצִּיעַ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה תַּחְתֵּיהֶן וּבְעָלָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְיָצְאָה חַרְבּוֹ מְלֵאָה דָּם. מַאן דְּאָמַר מִדַּם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר מִן דַם פָּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. הִתְחִיל מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה, אָמַר לָא דָמֵי הַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בַּמִּדְבָּר וְנָצַח לֵיהּ, לְהַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בְּגוֹ פָּלָטִין דִּידֵיהּ וְנָצַח לֵיהּ. מֶה עָשָׂה כִּנֵּס כָּל כְּלֵי בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְנָתַן לְתוֹךְ גַּרְגּוּתְנִי אַחַת וְיָרַד לוֹ לַסְּפִינָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד מָחָא נַחְשׁוֹלָא בְּיַמָּא, אָמַר דּוֹמֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל אֱלוֹהַּ זֶה אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ לֹא פָּרַע מֵהֶם אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, וְכֵן דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, וְכֵן פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ, אַף אֲנִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיִיתִי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וּבִרְשׁוּתוֹ לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בִּי וְעַכְשָׁיו לְכָאן קְדָמָנִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רָשָׁע, חַיֶּיךָ בִּבְרִיָה פְּחוּתָה מִמַּה שֶּׁבָּרָאתִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית אֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ מִמְךָ, מִיָּד רָמַז הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַיָּם וְעָמַד מִזַעְפּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְרוֹמִי יָצְאוּ כָּל בְּנֵי רוֹמִי וְקִלְסוּהוּ, נְקִיטָא בַּרְבָּרַיָיא, מִיָּד הֵסִיקוּ לוֹ אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ וְנִכְנַס וְרָחַץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא מָזְגוּ לוֹ כַּסָּא דְחַמְרָא וְזִמֵּן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד וְנִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ חָטְמוֹ, וְהָיָה אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְמֹחוֹ, הִתְחִיל מְנַקֵּר אֶת מֹחוֹ, אָמַר קִרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וִיפַצְעוּ מֹחוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וּדְעוּ בַּמֶּה אֱלוֹהַּ שֶׁל אֻמָּה זוֹ נִפְרַע מֵאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ, מִיָּד קָרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וּפָצְעוּ אֶת מֹחוֹ וּמָצְאוּ בוֹ כְּמוֹ גּוֹזָל בֶּן יוֹנָה, וְהָיָה בּוֹ מִשְׁקַל שְׁתֵּי לִטְרָאוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַַבִּי יוֹסֵי תַּמָּן הֲוֵינָא וְיַהֲבִין גּוֹזָלָא מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא וְתַרְתֵּין לִיטְרַיָא מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא וְתָקַל חַד כָּל קֳבֵל חַד, וּנְטָלוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּתוֹךְ קְעָרָה אַחַת, כָּל מַאן דַּהֲוָה הָדֵין שָׁנֵי הֲוָה הָדֵין שָׁנֵי, פָרַח יַתּוּשָׁא פָּרַח נִשְׁמָתָא דְּטִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע. 22.4. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ, עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים עַל גַּבֵּי נַהֲרָא וְחָמָא חָדָא אוּרְדְּעָן טָעֲנָא חָדָא עַקְרָב וּמְגִזְתֵּיהּ נַהֲרָא, אָמַר זוֹ מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָא אַגִּיזְתָּא נַהֲרָא וַאֲזָלַת וַעֲבָדַת שְׁלִיחוּתָהּ וַחֲזָרַת יָתָהּ לְאַתְרָהּ, וְנִשְׁמַע קוֹל יְלָלָה בָּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ עַקְרָב וָמֵת. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָנִין דְּצִפּוֹרִי אָמַר עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים וְחָפַר בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת בֵּית שׁוֹפָרֵי, חָמָא חַד עֵשֶׂב וְלָקֵיט יָתֵיהּ וְעָבְדָא כְּלִילָא לְרֵאשֵׁיהּ, אָזַל חַד חִוְיָא וּמָחָא יָתֵיהּ וְקָטַל יָתֵיהּ, אָתָא חַד חָבֵר וְקָם לֵיהּ סָקַר בְּהַהוּא חִוְיָא אָמַר תָּמַהּ אֲנָא עַל מַאן דְּקָטַל הֲדָא חִוְיָא, אֲמַר הַהוּא גַבְרָא אֲנָא קְטָלִית יָתֵיהּ, תָּלָה אַפּוֹי וְחָמָא הַהוּא עִשְׂבָּא עָבֵיד בָּהּ כְּלִילָא עַל רֵישֵׁיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן קוּשְׁטָא אֲנָא קְטָלִית יָתֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ יָכֵיל מֵרִים הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא מִן רֵישָׁא, אָמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דְּאָרֵים יָתֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ יָכֵיל קָרֵב הָדֵין חִוְיָא בְּהָדֵין חוּטְרָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, כֵּיוָן דְּקָרַב לְהַהוּא חִוְיָא מִיָּד נָשְׁלוּ אֵבָרָיו. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הֲוָה יָתֵיב מַתְנֵי עַל תְּרַע קַרְתָּא, וְרָאָה נָחָשׁ אֶחָד מַרְתִּיעַ וּבָא וַהֲוָה מְרַדֵּף לֵיהּ מִן הָדֵין סִטְרָא וְהוּא חָזַר מִן הָדֵין סִטְרָא, אָמַר זֶה מוּכָן לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, מִיָּד נָפְלָה הֲבָרָה בָּעִיר אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי נְשָׁכוֹ נָחָשׁ וָמֵת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה יָתֵיב וּמְטַיֵּיל בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, אָתָא חַד רוֹמִי וּמְקִים יָתֵיהּ וִיתֵיב, אֲמַר הֲדָא לָא עַל מַגָּן, מִיָּד נָפְקָא חַד חִוְיָא וּמָחָא יָתֵיהּ וְקָטְלֵיהּ, קָרֵי עֲלֵיהּ (ישעיה מג, ד): וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל חָדָא שׁוּנִיתָא דְּיַמָּא דְקֵיסָרִין וְרָאָה קוּלְיָא אַחַת שֶׁהָיְתָה מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת וּבָאָה וַהֲוָה מַצְנַע לָהּ וְהָא מִתְגַּלְגְּלָא, אָמַר זוֹ מוּכֶנֶת לַעֲשׂוֹת שְׁלִיחוּתָא, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין עָבַר חַד בַּלְדָּר, אִתְגַּלְגְּלַת בֵּין רַגְלָיו וְנִכְשַׁל בָּהּ וְנָפַל וּמֵת, אָזְלִין וּפַשְׁפְּשׁוּנֵיהּ וְאַשְׁכְּחוּן יָתֵיהּ טָעַן כְּתָבִין בִּישִׁין עַל יְהוּדָאי דְקֵיסָרִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הֲוָה עַסְקָן בִּדְבָרִים, הֲוָה לֵיהּ חַד פַּרְדֵּס, חַד זְמַן הֲוָה יָתֵיב בֵּיהּ וַהֲוָה בֵּיהּ חַד סַדָּן, חָמָא הֲדָא דוּכִיפַת דְּעָבֵיד לֵיהּ קֵן בְּגַוָּהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה בָּעֵי הָדֵין עוֹפָא מְסָאֲבָא בַּהֲדֵין פַּרְדֵּס, אָזַל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וְסָתְרֵיהּ לְהַהוּא קִנָּא, אָזַל הַהוּא דוּכִיפַת וְתַקְנֵיהּ, מָה עֲבַד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָזַל אַיְיתֵי חַד לוּחַ וְיַהֲבָהּ בְּאַפּוֹי דְהַהוּא קִנָּא וִיהַב בֵּיהּ חַד מַסְמֵר. מָה עֲבַד הַהוּא דוּכִיפַת אָזַל אַיְיתֵי חַד עֵשֶׂב וְיַהֲבֵיהּ עַל הַהוּא מַסְמְרָא וְשָׂרְפֵהּ. מָה עֲבַד רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אָמַר טוֹב לְמִגְנְזָא הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא דְּלָא יֵילְפוּן גַּנָּבַיָא לְמֶעְבַּד כֵּן וְיַחְרְבוּן בְּרִיָּיתָא. חֲמַרְתָּא דְּרַבִּי יַנַּאי אֲכָלַת עִשְׂבָּא וְאִיסְתַּמֵּית וַאֲכָלַת עִשְׂבָּא אָחֳרִי וְאִתְפַּתְּחַת. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בִּתְרֵין גַּבְרֵי דַּהֲווֹ עָיְלִין בְּאִילֵין שְׁבִילַיָּא דִּטְבֶרְיָא, חַד סַמְיָא וְחַד מְפַתַּח, וַהֲוָה הַהִיא פְּתִיחָה גָּדֵישׁ לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא סַמְיָא, יָתְבוּן לְמִקַרְטָא בְּאוֹרְחָא וַאֲרָעַת שַׁעְתָּא וְאָכְלִין מִן עִשְׂבָּא, דֵין דַּהֲוָה סַמֵּי אִתְפַּתַּח וְדֵין דַּהֲוָה פָּתִיחַ אִסְתַּמֵּי, וְלָא עָלוּן מִן תַּמָּן עַד דִּגְדַשׁ הַהוּא סַמְיָא לִפְתִיחָא. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחַד גַּבְרָא דַּהֲוָה סָלֵיק מִן בָּבֶל, יָתֵיב לְמִקַרְטָא בְּאוֹרְחָא, וְחָמָא תַּרְתֵּין צִפֳּרִין מִתְנַצְיָין חָדָא עִם חָדָא, וְקָטְלַת חָדָא מִנְּהוֹן חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, אָזְלַת הַהִיא אַחְרִיתֵּי וְאַתְיָא עִשְׂבָּא וִיהַב עֲלָהּ וְאַחְיַית יָתָהּ, אֲמַר טַב לִי נְסַב מִן הָדֵין עִשְׂבָּא וְאַחְיֵה בֵּיהּ מֵתַיָא דְאַרְעָא דְיִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּי פָרֵי וְסָלַק חָמָא חַד תַּעֲלָא מִית מִקְלַק בְּאוֹרְחָא, אֲמַר טַב לִי מְנַסְיָא בַּהֲדֵין תַּעֲלָא, וִיהַב עֲלֵיהּ וְאַחְיֵיהּ, וְסָלֵיק עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסוּלַמֵּי צוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְסוּלַמֵּי צוֹר חָמֵי חַד אֲרִי קְטֵיל וּמִקְלַק בְּאָרְחָא, אֲמַר טַב לִי מְנַסְיָא בַּהֲדֵין אֲרִי, וִיהַב עֲלוֹהִי מִן עִשְׂבָּא וַחֲיָה, וְקָם וַאֲכַל יָתֵיהּ, הוּא דִּבְרִיָּתָא אָמְרֵי טַב לְבִישׁ עֲבַדְתְּ בִּישָׁא עֲבַדְתְּ, טַב לְבִישׁ לָא תַעֲבֵיד וּבִישׁ לָא מָטֵי לָךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּמֻכֶּה שְׁחִין אֶחָד שֶׁיָּרַד לִטְבֹּל בִּטְבֶרְיָא וַאֲרָעַת שַׁעְתָּא וְטָפַת לְבֵירָא דְמִרְיָם וְאַסְחֵי וְאִתְּסֵי, וְהֵיכָן הִיא בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כְּתִיב (במדבר כא, כ): וְנִשְׁקָפָה עַל פְּנֵי הַיְשִׁימֹן, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹלֶה עַל רֹאשׁ הַר יְשִׁימוֹן וְרוֹאֶה כְּמִין כְּבָרָה קְטַנָּה בְּיַם טְבֶרְיָא, זוֹ הִיא בְּאֵרָהּ שֶׁל מִרְיָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי שַׁעֲרוּתָא רַבָּנָן וְהוּא מְכַוְּנָא כָּל קְבֵיל תַּרְעֵי מְצִיעַיָא דִכְנִשְׁתָּא עַתִּיקָא דִטְבֶרְיָא. 22.3. "...The wicked Titus entered the sanctum of the Holy of Holies, and with his sword brandished in his hand he slashed the two curtains, and taking two whores he spread out a scroll of the Law beneath them and ravished them on top of the altar, and his sword came out full of blood, and some say from the blood of Yom Kippur [sprinkled by the Kohen Gadol on the curtains]. He [Titus] began to revile and blaspheme saying, “He who wages battle with a king in the desert and triumphs is different from him who wages battle in the king's own palace and vanquishes him.” What did he [Titus] do? He gathered all of the Temple vessels and put them in a sack and descended to a ship. At sea, a wave rose up to drown him. He said, “It would appear that this nation's god has power only on water. He [God] only punished the generation of Enosh with water, likewise He could only punish the generation of the flood with water, the generation of the Dispersal and Pharaoh and his army were only punished with water. So I, when I was in His house and domain He had no power to stand against me, and now he opposes me here!” The Holy One said, “By your life, I will punish you with the most insignificant of my creatures.” Immediately God hinted to the sea and it stayed its anger. When he arrived in Rome, all of the citizens came out and acclaimed him: “Conqueror of the Barbarians.” Immediately they heated the bath-house and he entered and washed himself. When he came out they poured for him the double glass for after the bath, and God appointed a mosquito for him and it entered his nose and gnawed its way up until it reached his brain. He said, “Call for the doctors to split open the head of that man [Titus] so I can know with what the God of that nation has punished him.” Forthwith they summoned the doctors, and they split open his brain and found in it the likeness of a young dove and its weight was two litras. R. Elazar son of R. Yosi said: I was there, and they put the young bird on one side [of the scales], and two litras on the other, and they balances one another. They took it and put it in a bowl, and as the mosquito withered so Titus deteriorated. The mosquito flew away, and away flew the soul of the wicked Titus....",
141. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 12.1-12.2, 37.16.6, 66.15, 68.32.1-68.32.3, 69.12-69.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohn (2013), The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis, 95
142. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
143. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 177
144. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 58
145. Palestinian Talmud, Yevamot, 8.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 18
146. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
34b. כהן גדול בסוף כל ברכה וברכה והמלך תחלת כל ברכה וברכה וסוף כל ברכה וברכה,אמר רבי יצחק בר נחמני לדידי מפרשא לי מיניה דריב"ל הדיוט כמו שאמרנו כהן גדול תחלת כל ברכה וברכה המלך כיון שכרע שוב אינו זוקף שנאמר (מלכים א ח, נד) ויהי ככלות שלמה להתפלל וגו' קם מלפני מזבח ה' מכרוע על ברכיו:,ת"ר קידה על אפים שנאמר (מלכים א א, לא) ותקד בת שבע אפים ארץ כריעה על ברכים שנאמר מכרוע על ברכיו השתחואה זו פשוט ידים ורגלים שנאמר (בראשית לז, י) הבא נבא אני ואמך ואחיך להשתחות לך ארצה,אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דמצלו אצלויי,תני חדא הכורע בהודאה הרי זה משובח ותניא אידך הרי זה מגונה,לא קשיא הא בתחלה הא לבסוף,רבא כרע בהודאה תחלה וסוף אמרי ליה רבנן אמאי קא עביד מר הכי אמר להו חזינא לרב נחמן דכרע וחזינא ליה לרב ששת דקא עבד הכי,והתניא הכורע בהודאה הרי זה מגונה,ההיא בהודאה שבהלל,והתניא הכורע בהודאה ובהודאה של הלל הרי זה מגונה,כי תניא ההיא בהודאה דברכת המזון:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המתפלל וטעה סימן רע לו ואם שליח צבור הוא סימן רע לשולחיו מפני ששלוחו של אדם כמותו אמרו עליו על ר' חנינא בן דוסא שהיה מתפלל על החולים ואומר זה חי וזה מת אמרו לו מנין אתה יודע אמר להם אם שגורה תפלתי בפי יודע אני שהוא מקובל ואם לאו יודע אני שהוא מטורף:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אהייא,א"ר חייא אמר רב ספרא משום חד דבי רבי באבות,איכא דמתני לה אברייתא המתפלל צריך שיכוין את לבו בכולן ואם אינו יכול לכוין בכולן יכוין את לבו באחת,א"ר חייא אמר רב ספרא משום חד דבי רבי באבות,אמרו עליו על רבי חנינא וכו': מנא הני מילי א"ר יהושע בן לוי דאמר קרא (ישעיהו נז, יט) בורא ניב שפתים שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב אמר ה' ורפאתיו,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא למשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם ולעושה פרקמטיא לת"ח ולמהנה ת"ח מנכסיו אבל תלמידי חכמים עצמן (ישעיהו סד, ג) עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך יעשה למחכה לו,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לימות המשיח אבל לעולם הבא עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך,ופליגא דשמואל דאמר שמואל אין בין העוה"ז לימות המשיח אלא שעבוד מלכיות בלבד שנאמר (דברים טו, יא) כי לא יחדל אביון מקרב הארץ,וא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לבעלי תשובה אבל צדיקים גמורים עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך,ופליגא דר' אבהו דא"ר אבהו מקום שבעלי תשובה עומדין צדיקים גמורים אינם עומדין שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, יט) שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב לרחוק ברישא והדר לקרוב,ורבי יוחנן אמר לך מאי רחוק שהיה רחוק מדבר עבירה מעיקרא ומאי קרוב שהיה קרוב לדבר עבירה ונתרחק ממנו השתא,מאי עין לא ראתה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי זה יין המשומר בענביו מששת ימי בראשית רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר זה עדן שלא שלטה בו עין כל בריה,שמא תאמר אדם הראשון היכן היה בגן,ושמא תאמר הוא גן הוא עדן תלמוד לומר (בראשית ב, י) ונהר יוצא מעדן להשקות את הגן גן לחוד ועדן לחוד:,ת"ר מעשה שחלה בנו של ר"ג שגר שני ת"ח אצל רבי חנינא בן דוסא לבקש עליו רחמים כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ובקש עליו רחמים בירידתו אמר להם לכו שחלצתו חמה אמרו לו וכי נביא אתה אמר להן לא נביא אנכי ולא בן נביא אנכי אלא כך מקובלני אם שגורה תפלתי בפי יודע אני שהוא מקובל ואם לאו יודע אני שהוא מטורף ישבו וכתבו וכוונו אותה שעה וכשבאו אצל ר"ג אמר להן העבודה לא חסרתם ולא הותרתם אלא כך היה מעשה באותה שעה חלצתו חמה ושאל לנו מים לשתות,ושוב מעשה ברבי חנינא בן דוסא שהלך ללמוד תורה אצל ר' יוחנן בן זכאי וחלה בנו של ריב"ז אמר לו חנינא בני בקש עליו רחמים ויחיה הניח ראשו בין ברכיו ובקש עליו רחמים וחיה אמר רבי יוחנן בן זכאי אלמלי הטיח בן זכאי את ראשו בין ברכיו כל היום כולו לא היו משגיחים עליו אמרה לו אשתו וכי חנינא גדול ממך אמר לה לאו אלא הוא דומה כעבד לפני המלך ואני דומה כשר לפני המלך:,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן אל יתפלל אדם אלא בבית שיש שם חלונות שנאמר (דניאל ו, יא) וכוין פתיחן ליה בעליתיה (לקבל) [נגד],ירושלם אמר רב כהנא חציף עלי מאן דמצלי בבקתא,ואמר רב כהנא חציף עלי מאן דמפרש חטאיה שנאמר (תהלים לב, א) אשרי נשוי פשע כסוי חטאה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אין עומדין /strong /big br br
147. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 221
85b. אמרו חכמים ולא פירשוהו אמרו נביאים ולא פירשוהו עד שפירשו הקב"ה בעצמו שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, יב) ויאמר ה' על עזבם את תורתי אשר נתתי לפניהם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלא ברכו בתורה תחילה,אמר רב חמא מאי דכתיב (משלי יד, לג) בלב נבון תנוח חכמה ובקרב כסילים תודע בלב נבון תנוח חכמה זה ת"ח בן ת"ח ובקרב כסילים תודע זה ת"ח בן ע"ה אמר עולא היינו דאמרי אינשי אסתירא בלגינא קיש קיש קריא,אמר ליה ר' ירמיה לר' זירא מאי דכתיב (איוב ג, יט) קטן וגדול שם הוא ועבד חפשי מאדניו אטו לא ידעינן דקטן וגדול שם הוא אלא כל המקטין עצמו על דברי תורה בעוה"ז נעשה גדול לעוה"ב וכל המשים עצמו כעבד על דברי תורה בעוה"ז נעשה חפשי לעוה"ב,ריש לקיש הוה מציין מערתא דרבנן כי מטא למערתיה דר' חייא איעלמא מיניה חלש דעתיה אמר רבש"ע לא פלפלתי תורה כמותו יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו תורה כמותו פלפלת תורה כמותו לא ריבצת,כי הוו מינצו ר' חנינא ור' חייא אמר ליה ר' חנינא לר' חייא בהדי דידי קא מינצית ח"ו אי משתכחא תורה מישראל מהדרנא לה מפילפולי אמר ליה ר' חייא לר' חנינא בהדי דידי קא מינצית דעבדי לתורה דלא תשתכח מישראל,מאי עבידנא אזלינא ושדינא כיתנא וגדילנא נישבי וציידנא טבי ומאכילנא בשרייהו ליתמי ואריכנא מגילתא וכתבנא חמשה חומשי וסליקנא למתא ומקרינא חמשה ינוקי בחמשה חומשי ומתנינא שיתא ינוקי שיתא סדרי ואמרנא להו עד דהדרנא ואתינא אקרו אהדדי ואתנו אהדדי ועבדי לה לתורה דלא תשתכח מישראל,היינו דאמר רבי כמה גדולים מעשי חייא אמר ליה ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי אפי' ממר אמר ליה אין אפי' מאבא אמר ליה ח"ו לא תהא כזאת בישראל,אמר ר' זירא אמש נראה לי ר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמרתי לו אצל מי אתה תקוע אמר לי אצל ר' יוחנן ור' יוחנן אצל מי אצל ר' ינאי ור' ינאי אצל מי אצל ר' חנינא ור' חנינא אצל מי אצל ר' חייא אמרתי לו ור' יוחנן אצל ר' חייא לא אמר לי באתר דזקוקין דנורא ובעורין דאשא מאן מעייל בר נפחא לתמן,אמר רב חביבא אשתעי לי רב חביבא בר סורמקי חזי ליה ההוא מרבנן דהוה שכיח אליהו גביה דלצפרא הוו שפירן עיניה ולאורתא דמיין כדמיקלין בנורא אמרי ליה מאי האי ואמר לי דאמרי ליה לאליהו אחוי לי רבנן כי סלקי למתיבתא דרקיע אמר לי בכולהו מצית לאסתכולי בהו לבר מגוהרקא דר' חייא דלא תסתכל ביה מאי סימנייהו בכולהו אזלי מלאכי כי סלקי ונחתי לבר מגוהרקא דר' חייא דמנפשיה סליק ונחית,לא מצאי לאוקמא אנפשאי אסתכלי בה אתו תרי בוטיטי דנורא ומחיוהו לההוא גברא וסמינהו לעיניה למחר אזלי אשתטחי אמערתיה אמינא מתנייתא דמר מתנינא ואתסאי,אליהו הוה שכיח במתיבתא דרבי יומא חד ריש ירחא הוה נגה ליה ולא אתא א"ל מאי טעמא נגה ליה למר אמר ליה אדאוקימנא לאברהם ומשינא ידיה ומצלי ומגנינא ליה וכן ליצחק וכן ליעקב ולוקמינהו בהדי הדדי סברי תקפי ברחמי ומייתי ליה למשיח בלא זמניה,א"ל ויש דוגמתן בעולם הזה אמר ליה איכא ר' חייא ובניו גזר רבי תעניתא אחתינהו לר' חייא ובניו אמר משיב הרוח ונשבה זיקא אמר מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא כי מטא למימר מחיה המתים רגש עלמא,אמרי ברקיעא מאן גלי רזיא בעלמא אמרי אליהו אתיוהו לאליהו מחיוהו שתין פולסי דנורא אתא אידמי להו כדובא דנורא על בינייהו וטרדינהו,שמואל ירחינאה אסייה דרבי הוה חלש רבי בעיניה א"ל אימלי לך סמא א"ל לא יכילנא אשטר לך משטר [א"ל] לא יכילנא הוה מותיב ליה בגובתא דסמני תותי בי סדיה ואיתסי,הוה קא מצטער רבי למסמכיה ולא הוה מסתייעא מילתא א"ל לא לצטער מר לדידי חזי לי סיפרא דאדם הראשון וכתיב ביה שמואל ירחינאה 85b. b was stated by the Sages, /b i.e., the wise man mentioned in the verse, b and /b yet b they /b could b not explain it. /b It b was stated by the prophets, /b i.e., those to whom the mouth of the Lord has spoken, b and /b yet b they /b could b not explain it, until the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself explained it, as it is stated /b in the next verse: b “And the Lord says: Because they have forsaken My Torah which I set before them” /b (Jeremiah 9:12). b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b This does not mean b that /b the Jewish people ceased Torah study altogether; rather, b they did not recite a blessing on the Torah prior /b to its study, as they did not regard Torah study as a sacred endeavor., b Rav Ḥama says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “In the heart of him that has discernment wisdom rests; but in the inward part of fools it makes itself known” /b (Proverbs 14:33)? b “In the heart of him who has discernment wisdom rests”; this /b is b a Torah scholar, son of a Torah scholar. “But in the inward part of fools it makes itself known”; this /b is b a Torah scholar, son of an ignoramus, /b as his wisdom stands out in contrast to the foolishness of the rest of his family. b Ulla said: This /b explains the adage b that people say: /b A small b coin in /b an empty b barrel calls: i Kish /i , i kish /i , /b i.e., it rattles loudly, whereas a coin in a barrel full of coins is not heard., b Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written /b with regard to the World-to-Come: b “The humble and great are there; and the servant is free from his master” /b (Job 3:19)? b Is that to say /b that b we do not know that the humble and the great are there /b in the World-to-Come? b Rather, /b this is the meaning of the verse: b Anyone who humbles himself over matters of Torah in this world becomes great in the World-to-Come; and anyone who establishes himself as a servant over matters of Torah in this world becomes free in the World-to-Come. /b ,§ The Gemara continues discussing the greatness of the Sages. b Reish Lakish was demarcating /b burial b caves of the Sages. When he arrived at the cave of Rabbi Ḥiyya, /b the precise location of his grave b eluded him. /b Reish Lakish b became distressed, /b as he was apparently unworthy of finding the grave. b He said: Master of the Universe! Did I not analyze the Torah like /b Rabbi Ḥiyya? b A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: You did analyze the Torah like him, /b but b you did not disseminate Torah like him. /b ,The Gemara relates: b When Rabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Ḥiyya would debate /b matters of Torah, b Rabbi Ḥanina /b would b say to Rabbi Ḥiyya: /b Do you think b you can debate with me? Heaven forbid! If the Torah were forgotten from the Jewish people, I /b could b restore it with my /b powers of b analysis /b and intellectual acumen. b Rabbi Ḥiyya said to Rabbi Ḥanina: /b Do you think b you can debate with me? /b You cannot compare yourself to me, b as I am acting /b to ensure that b the Torah /b will b not be forgotten by the Jewish people. /b ,Rabbi Ḥiyya elaborated: b What do I do /b to this end? b I go and sow flax /b seeds b and twine nets /b with the flax, b and /b then b I hunt deer and feed their meat to orphans. /b Next b I prepare parchment /b from their hides b and I write the five books /b of the Torah on them. b I go to a city and teach five children the five books, /b one book per child, b and I teach six /b other b children the six orders /b of the Mishna, b and I say to them: Until I return and come /b here, b read each other /b the Torah b and teach each other /b the Mishna. This is how b I act /b to ensure that b the Torah will not be forgotten by the Jewish people. /b ,The Gemara notes that b this is what Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: How great are the deeds of /b Rabbi b Ḥiyya! Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Are his deeds b even greater than the Master’s, /b i.e., yours? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Yes. /b Rabbi Yishmael persisted: Are they b even /b greater b than /b those of my b father, /b Rabbi Yosei? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Heaven forbid! Such /b a statement b shall not be /b heard b among the Jewish people, /b that someone is greater than your father, Rabbi Yosei.,The Gemara continues discussing the greatness of Rabbi Ḥiyya. b Rabbi Zeira said: Last night, Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, appeared to me /b in a dream. b I said to him: Near whom are you placed /b in the upper realms? b He said to me: Near Rabbi Yoḥa. /b I asked: b And Rabbi Yoḥa is near whom? /b He replied: b Near Rabbi Yannai. And Rabbi Yannai is near whom? Near Rabbi Ḥanina. And Rabbi Ḥanina is near whom? Near Rabbi Ḥiyya. /b Rabbi Zeira added: b I said to /b Rabbi Yosei: b But isn’t Rabbi Yoḥa /b worthy of being placed b near Rabbi Ḥiyya? He said to me: In a place of fiery sparks and burning fires, who can bring /b Rabbi Yoḥa, b son of Nappaḥa, there? /b , b Rav Ḥaviva said: Rav Ḥaviva bar Surmakei told me: I /b once b saw one of the Sages whom Elijah /b the prophet b would visit, /b and b his eyes /b looked b beautiful /b and healthy b in the morning, but appeared to be charred by fire in the evening. I said to him: What is this /b phenomenon? b And he said to me: I said to Elijah: Show me the Sages upon their ascension to the heavenly academy. /b Elijah b said to me: You may gaze at all of them except for /b those in b the chariot [ i miguharka /i ] of Rabbi Ḥiyya, upon whom you may not gaze. /b I asked Elijah: b What are the signs /b of Rabbi Ḥiyya’s chariot, so I will know when not to look? He said: b Angels accompany all /b of the other Sages’ chariots b as they ascend and descend, except for the chariot of Rabbi Ḥiyya, which ascends and descends of its own accord, /b due to his greatness.,The Sage relating this story continued: b I was unable to restrain myself, /b and b I gazed upon /b Rabbi Ḥiyya’s chariot. b Two fiery flames came and struck that man, /b i.e., me, b and blinded his eyes. The next day, I went and prostrated on /b Rabbi Ḥiyya’s burial b cave /b in supplication. b I said: I study the i baraitot /i of the Master, /b Rabbi Ḥiyya; please pray on my behalf. b And /b my vision b was healed, /b but my eyes remained scorched.,The Gemara relates another incident involving Elijah the prophet. b Elijah was /b often b found in the academy of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. b One day it was a New Moon, /b the first of the month, and Elijah b was delayed and did not come /b to the academy. Later, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b Elijah: b What is the reason /b that b the Master was delayed? /b Elijah b said to him: I /b had b to wake up Abraham, wash his hands, and /b wait for him to b pray, and /b then b lay him down /b again. b And similarly, /b I followed the same procedure b for Isaac, and similarly for Jacob /b in turn. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi asked Elijah: b And let /b the Master b wake them /b all b together. /b Elijah responded: b I maintain /b that if I were to wake all three to pray at the same time, b they /b would b generate powerful prayers and bring the Messiah prematurely. /b ,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b Elijah: b And is there anyone /b alive b in this world /b who is b comparable to them /b and can produce such efficacious prayers? Elijah b said to him: There are Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b decreed a fast, /b and the Sages b brought Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons down /b to the pulpit to pray on behalf of the congregation. Rabbi Ḥiyya b recited /b the phrase in the i Amida /i prayer: b Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blew. /b Rabbi Ḥiyya b recited /b the next phrase: b Who makes the rain fall, and rain fell. When he was about to say /b the phrase: b Who revives the dead, the world trembled. /b , b They said in heaven: Who is the revealer of secrets in the world? They said /b in response: It is b Elijah. Elijah was brought /b to heaven, whereupon b he was beaten with sixty fiery lashes. /b Elijah b came /b back down to earth b disguised as a bear of fire. He came among /b the congregation b and distracted them /b from their prayers, preventing Rabbi Ḥiyya from reciting the phrase: Who revives the dead.,§ The Gemara relates: b Shmuel Yarḥina’a was the physician of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. One time, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b felt a pain in his eye. /b Shmuel b said to him: I will place a medication in /b your eye. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: I cannot /b have the medication placed directly in my eye, as I am afraid it will cause me too much pain. Shmuel b said to him: I will apply a salve /b above your eye, not directly in it. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: /b Even that b I cannot /b bear. Shmuel b placed /b the medication b in a tube of herbs beneath his pillow, and /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b was healed. /b , b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b made efforts to ordain /b Shmuel Yarḥina’a as a rabbi b but was unsuccessful, /b as Shmuel always demurred. Shmuel Yarḥina’a b said to him: The Master should not be upset /b about my refusal, as I know that I am not destined to be ordained as a rabbi. b I myself saw the book of Adam the first /b man, which contains the genealogy of the human race, b and it is written in it /b that b Shmuel Yarḥina’a /b
148. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 242
3b. בשנים ואיתא להא ואיתא להא,וניעבדו תלתין אמין בבנין ואידך ניעביד פרוכת כי קאי תלתין אמהתא נמי אגב תקרה ומעזיבה הוה קאי בלא תקרה ומעזיבה לא הוה קאי,וליעביד מה דאפשר בבנין וליעביד אידך פרוכת אמר אביי גמירי אי כולהו בבנין אי כולהו בפרוכת אי כולהו בבנין ממקדש אי כולהו בפרוכת ממשכן ,איבעיא להו הן וסידן או דילמא הן בלא סידן אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא הן וסידן דאי ס"ד הן בלא סידן ליתנייה לשיעוריה אלא לאו ש"מ הן וסידן לא לעולם אימא לך הן בלא סידן וכיון דלא הוי טפח לא תני,והא קתני בלבינין זה נותן טפח ומחצה וזה נותן טפח ומחצה התם חזי לאיצטרופי,ת"ש הקורה שאמרו רחבה כדי לקבל אריח והאריח חצי לבינה של ג' טפחים,התם ברברבתא דיקא נמי דקתני של שלשה טפחים מכלל דאיכא זוטרא ש"מ:,אמר רב חסדא לא ליסתור איניש בי כנישתא עד דבני בי כנישתא אחריתי איכא דאמרי משום פשיעותא ואיכא דאמרי משום צלויי,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאיכא (בי כנישתא אחריתי) מרימר ומר זוטרא סתרי ובנו בי קייטא בסיתווא ובנו בי סיתווא בקייטא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי גבו זוזי ומחתי מאי אמר ליה דילמא מיתרמי להו פדיון שבויים ויהבי להו,שריגי ליבני והדרי הודרי ומחתי כשורי מאי אמר ליה זמנין דמתרמי להו פדיון שבויים מזבני ויהבי להו א"ה אפילו בנו נמי אמר ליה דירתיה דאינשי לא מזבני,ולא אמרן אלא דלא חזי בה תיוהא אבל חזי בה תיוהא סתרי ובני כי הא דרב אשי חזא בה תיוהא בכנישתא דמתא מחסיא סתריה ועייל לפורייה להתם ולא אפקיה עד דמתקין ליה שפיכי,ובבא בן בוטא היכי אסביה ליה עצה להורדוס למיסתריה לבית המקדש והאמר רב חסדא לא ליסתור איניש בי כנישתא עד דבני בי כנישתא אחריתא אי בעית אימא תיוהא חזא ביה איבעית אימא מלכותא שאני דלא הדרא ביה דאמר שמואל אי אמר מלכותא עקרנא טורי עקר טורי ולא הדר ביה ,הורדוס עבדא דבית חשמונאי הוה נתן עיניו באותה תינוקת יומא חד שמע ההוא גברא בת קלא דאמר כל עבדא דמריד השתא מצלח קם קטלינהו לכולהו מרותיה ושיירה לההיא ינוקתא כי חזת ההיא ינוקתא דקא בעי למינסבה סליקא לאיגרא ורמא קלא אמרה כל מאן דאתי ואמר מבית חשמונאי קאתינא עבדא הוא דלא אישתיירא מינייהו אלא ההיא ינוקתא וההיא ינוקתא נפלה מאיגרא לארעא,טמנה שבע שנין בדובשא איכא דאמרי בא עליה איכא דאמרי לא בא עליה דאמרי לה בא עליה הא דטמנה ליתוביה ליצריה ודאמרי לה לא בא עליה האי דטמנה כי היכי דנאמרו בת מלך נסב,אמר מאן דריש (דברים יז, טו) מקרב אחיך תשים עליך מלך רבנן קם קטלינהו לכולהו רבנן שבקיה לבבא בן בוטא למשקל עצה מניה 3b. that it will be greater b in years, /b meaning that the Second Temple will stand for a longer period of time than the First Temple. b And /b the Gemara comments that b this is /b true b and that is /b true, meaning that the Second Temple was taller than the First Temple and also stood for a longer period of time.,The Gemara asks: If so, if the Second Temple building was taller, then to separate between the Holy of Holies and the Sanctuary in the Second Temple b they should have made a wall thirty cubits /b high b and /b then b made a curtain /b for b the rest /b of the height, the seventy-cubit difference in height between the First and Second Temples. The Gemara answers: This would have been impossible, as b even when a thirty-cubit /b wall that is six handbreadths thick b stands, it is due to the ceiling and plaster /b which attaches it to the ceiling that b it stands. /b But b without a ceiling and plaster /b holding it in place, b it does not stand. /b ,The Gemara continues: b But they should have made a wall /b as high b as /b can b possibly /b stand by itself, b and /b then should have b made a curtain /b for b the rest /b of the height. b Abaye said: /b The Sages b learned /b as a tradition that the partition separating the Holy of Holies from the Sanctuary should be built b either entirely as a wall or entirely as a curtain. /b It should be built b either entirely as a wall, /b as is learned b from /b the First b Temple, or /b it should be built b entirely as a curtain, /b as is learned b from /b the b Tabernacle. /b At no time, however, was there a partition that combined a wall and a curtain.,§ b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: Do the measurements given in the mishna apply to b them, /b the thickness of the materials themselves, b and the plaster /b with which the materials were coated, b or perhaps /b just to b them without their plaster? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable /b to say the measurements refer to b them and their plaster, as, if /b it should b enter your mind /b to say they refer to b them without their plaster, /b then the i tanna /i b should have taught the measurements /b of the plaster as well. b Rather, isn’t it /b correct to b conclude from here /b that the measurements refer to b them and their plaster? /b The Gemara rejects this conclusion: b No, actually I /b could b say to you /b that they apply to b them without their plaster, and since /b the plaster b does not have /b the thickness of b one handbreadth /b the i tanna /i b did not teach /b such a small measurement.,The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t /b the i tanna /i b teach with regard to bricks /b that b this /b one b provides one and a half handbreadths, and that /b one b provides one and a half handbreadths? /b Evidently, the i tanna /i lists even an amount less than one handbreadth. The Gemara answers: b There /b mention is made of half-handbreadths because b they are fit to be combined /b into a full handbreadth.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a solution to the question, from a mishna ( i Eiruvin /i 13b) in which it is taught: b The /b cross b beam, which /b the Sages b stated /b may be used to render an alleyway fit for one to carry within it on Shabbat, must be b wide enough to receive /b and hold b a small brick. And /b this b small brick /b is b half a large brick, /b the width b of /b which is b three handbreadths. /b That mishna is referring to a brick without the plaster.,The Gemara answers: b There, /b the mishna in i Eiruvin /i is referring to b large bricks /b that measure three full handbreadths, whereas here the mishna is referring to bricks that measure slightly less than three handbreadths, and the measurement of three handbreadths includes the plaster with which they are coated. The Gemara comments: The language of the mishna there b is also precise, as it teaches /b about a brick b of three handbreadths, /b from which one can conclude b by inference that there exists /b also b a smaller- /b sized brick. The Gemara affirms: b Learn from here /b that the mishna there is referring to large bricks.,§ b Rav Ḥisda says: A person may not demolish a synagogue until he /b first b builds another synagogue /b to take its place. b There are /b those b who say /b that the reason for this i halakha /i is b due to /b potential b negligence, /b lest he fail to build a new structure after the old one has been razed. b And there are /b those b who say /b that the reason for this i halakha /i is b due to /b the disruption of b prayer, /b for in the meantime there will be nowhere to pray.,The Gemara asks: b What is /b the practical difference b between /b these two explanations? The Gemara answers that b there is /b a difference b between them /b in a situation b where there is another synagogue. /b Even though the community has an alternative place to pray there is still a concern that the new synagogue will never get built. It is related that b Mareimar and Mar Zutra demolished and built a summer synagogue in the winter, and, /b in like manner, b they built a winter synagogue in the summer, /b so that the community would never be left without a synagogue., b Ravina said to Rav Ashi: What /b is the i halakha /i if b money /b for the construction of a new synagogue b has /b already b been collected and it rests /b before us for that purpose? Is it then permitted to demolish the old synagogue before building the new one? Rav Ashi b said to him: /b Even if the money has been collected there is still concern that b perhaps /b an opportunity for b redeeming captives will present itself, and they will hand over /b the money for that urgent requirement, and the community will be left without a synagogue.,Ravina continues: b What /b is the i halakha /i if b the bricks /b to be used for the construction of the new synagogue b are piled up, the boards are prepared, and the beams are ready? /b Is it permitted to demolish the old synagogue before building the new one? Rav Ashi b said to him: /b Even so, b sometimes /b an opportunity for b redeeming captives will present itself, and they will sell /b the building materials b and hand over /b the proceeds for this purpose. Ravina raises an objection: b If so, /b that is, if you are concerned that they will sell the materials to redeem captives, then b even /b in a case where b they /b already b built /b the synagogue there should be a concern that they might come to sell the structure for that purpose, and therefore one should never be permitted to destroy an old synagogue. Rav Ashi b said to him: People do not sell their residences, /b and certainly not their synagogues.,The Gemara comments: b And we said /b that an old synagogue must not be razed before its replacement is built b only /b in a case b where cracks are not seen /b in the old synagogue. b But if cracks are seen they may /b first b demolish /b the old synagogue b and /b then b build /b the new one. b This is like /b the incident involving b Rav Ashi, /b who b saw cracks in the synagogue /b in his town b of Mata Meḥasya /b and immediately b demolished it. He /b then b brought his bed in there, /b to the building site, so that there should be no delays in the construction, as he himself required shelter from the rain, b and he did not remove /b his bed from there b until they /b finished building the synagogue and even b affixed drainpipes /b to the structure.,The Gemara asks: b How could Bava ben Buta have advised Herod to raze the Temple /b and build another in its place, as will be described later? b But doesn’t Rav Ḥisda say /b that b a person must not demolish a synagogue unless he /b first b builds another synagogue /b to take its place? The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that b he saw cracks in /b the old Temple structure. And b if you wish, say /b that actions taken by b the government are different, as /b the government b does not go back /b on its decisions. Therefore, there is no need to be concerned about negligence, as there is in the case of ordinary people. b As Shmuel says: If the government says /b it will b uproot mountains, it will uproot mountains and not retract /b its word.,§ The Gemara elaborates on the episode involving Bava ben Buta. b Herod was a slave in the house of the Hasmoneans. He set his eyes upon a certain young girl /b from the house of the Hasmoneans. b One day that man, /b Herod, b heard a Divine Voice that said: Any slave who rebels now will succeed. He rose up /b and b killed all his masters, but spared that girl. When that girl saw that he wanted to marry her, she went up to the roof and raised her voice, /b and b said: Whoever comes and says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneans, is a slave, since only that girl, /b i.e., I, b remained from them. And that girl fell from the roof to the ground /b and died.,It is related that Herod b preserved /b the girl’s body b in honey for seven years /b to prevent it from decaying. b There are /b those b who say /b that b he engaged in necrophilia with her /b corpse and b there are /b those b who say he did not engage in necrophilia with her /b corpse. According to those b who say he engaged in necrophilia with her /b corpse, the reason b that he preserved her /b body was b to gratify his /b carnal b desires. And /b according to those b who say he did not engage in necrophilia with her /b corpse, the reason b that he preserved her /b body was b so that /b people b would say he married a king’s daughter. /b ,Herod b said /b to himself: b Who expounds /b the verse: b “One from among your brothers you shall set as king over you” /b (Deuteronomy 17:15) as meaning that he who is appointed as king must come from a Jewish family and cannot be an emancipated slave or a convert? It is b the Sages /b who expound the verse in this manner, insisting that a king must have Jewish roots. b He /b then b rose up and killed all the Sages, /b but b spared Bava ben Buta in order to take counsel with him. /b
149. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 312
60a. מי קוראין לא הוה בידיה אתא ושייליה לרבי יצחק נפחא א"ל אחריהן קוראין ת"ח הממונין פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ת"ח הראויין למנותם פרנסים על הציבור ואחריהן בני ת"ח שאבותיהן ממונים פרנסים על הצבור ואחריהן ראשי כנסיות וכל אדם,שלחו ליה בני גליל לר' חלבו מהו לקרות בחומשים בבהכ"נ בציבור לא הוה בידיה אתא שייליה לר' יצחק נפחא לא הוה בידיה אתא שאיל בי מדרשא ופשטוה מהא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יוחנן ס"ת שחסר יריעה אחת אין קורין בו,ולא היא התם מחסר במילתיה הכא לא מחסר במילתיה רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו אין קוראין בחומשין בבית הכנסת משום כבוד צבור,ורבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו האי ספר אפטרתא אסור למקרי ביה בשבת מאי טעמא דלא ניתן ליכתב,מר בר רב אשי אמר לטלטולי נמי אסור מ"ט דהא לא חזי למיקרי ביה ולא היא שרי לטלטולי ושרי למיקרי ביה,דר' יוחנן ור"ש בן לקיש מעייני בספרא דאגדתא בשבתא והא לא ניתן ליכתב אלא כיון דלא אפשר (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך ה"נ כיון דלא אפשר עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,בעא מיניה אביי מרבה מהו לכתוב מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה תיבעי למאן דאמר תורה חתומה ניתנה,תיבעי למ"ד תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה כיון דמגילה מגילה ניתנה כותבין או דילמא כיון דאידבק אידבק,תיבעי למ"ד תורה חתומה ניתנה כיון דחתומה ניתנה אין כותבין או דילמא כיון דלא אפשר כתבינן א"ל אין כותבין ומה טעם לפי שאין כותבין,איתיביה אף היא עשתה טבלא של זהב שפרשת סוטה כתובה עליה א"ר שמעון בן לקיש משום ר' ינאי באל"ף בי"ת,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא אימא כמה שכתוב בטבלא,איתיביה כשהוא כותב רואה בטבלא וכותב מה שכתוב בטבלא מה הוא כתוב בטבלא (במדבר ה, יט) אם שכב אם לא שכב הכא במאי עסקינן בסירוגין,כתנאי אין כותבין מגילה לתינוק להתלמד בה ואם דעתו להשלים מותר ר' יהודה אומר בבראשית עד דור המבול בתורת כהנים עד ויהי ביום השמיני,א"ר יוחנן משום רבי בנאה תורה מגילה מגילה ניתנה שנא' (תהלים מ, ח) אז אמרתי הנה באתי במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ר"ש בן לקיש אומר תורה חתומה ניתנה שנאמר (דברים לא, כו) לקוח את ספר התורה הזאת,ואידך נמי הכתיב לקוח ההוא לבתר דאידבק,ואידך נמי הכתיב במגילת ספר כתוב עלי ההוא דכל התורה כולה איקרי מגילה דכתיב (זכריה ה, ב) ויאמר אלי מה אתה רואה ואומר אני רואה מגילה עפה,אי נמי לכדרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי שמנה פרשיות נאמרו ביום שהוקם בו המשכן אלו הן פרשת כהנים ופרשת לוים ופרשת טמאים ופרשת שילוח טמאים ופרשת אחרי מות 60a. b who reads /b from the Torah? An answer b was not /b readily b available to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, /b who b said to him: After them read /b the b Torah scholars who are appointed as leaders [ i parnasim /i ] of the community. And after them /b read b Torah scholars who are fit to be appointed as leaders of the community, /b even if in practice they received no such appointment. The Sages said that a Torah scholar who knows how to answer any question asked of him is fit to be appointed as leader of the community. b And after them /b read b the sons of Torah scholars whose fathers were appointed as leaders of the community. And after them /b read b the heads of synagogues, and /b after them b any person. /b , b The people of the Galilee sent /b a question b to Rabbi Ḥelbo: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard b to reading from i ḥumashim /i , /b i.e., scrolls containing only one of the five books of the Torah, b in the synagogue in public? /b Is this permitted, or is it necessary to read from a complete Torah scroll? An answer b was not /b readily b available to him. He came and asked Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, /b but an answer b was not /b readily b available to him /b either. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa b came and asked /b this question b in the study hall, and they resolved /b the difficulty b from that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b With regard to b a Torah scroll that is missing /b even b one sheet /b of parchment, b one may not read from it /b in public. This indicates that an incomplete Torah scroll may not be used for a public Torah reading.,The Gemara rejects this argument: b But /b that b is not so, /b i.e., this cannot serve as a proof to the matter at hand. b There, /b it is b lacking /b part b of the matter /b it is addressing, as a sheet of parchment is missing, whereas b here, it is not lacking /b part b of the matter /b it is addressing, as it contains a complete book. b Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: One does not read from i ḥumashim /i in the synagogue out of respect for the community. /b , b And Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: It is prohibited to /b publicly b read /b the i haftara /i , the portion from the Prophets that is read after the weekly Torah portion, b on Shabbat, from a scroll /b containing only b the i haftarot /i . What is the reason /b for this? It is b because /b this type of scroll b may not be written, /b as the words of the Prophets must also be written as complete books., b Mar bar Rav Ashi said: To handle /b such a scroll on Shabbat b is also prohibited. What is the reason /b for this? It is b because it is not fit to be read. /b Consequently, it is treated as set-aside [ i muktze /i ] on Shabbat. The Gemara rejects this argument: b But /b that b is not so; /b rather, b it is permitted to handle /b such a scroll b and it is permitted to read from it. /b ,And a proof for this is b that Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish used to read from a scroll of i aggada /i /b containing the words of the Sages b on Shabbat. But /b such a scroll b may not be written, /b for in principle, the statements of the Oral Law may not be committed to writing. b Rather, since it is not possible /b to remember the Oral Law without writing it down, it is permitted to violate the i halakha /i , as indicated by the verse: b “It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah” /b (Psalms 119:126). b Here too, /b in the case of a i haftara /i scroll, b since it is not /b always b possible /b to write complete books of the Bible, due to the expense, it is permitted to apply the reasoning of b “It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified your Torah.” /b , b Abaye raised a dilemma before Rabba: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard to whether it is permitted b to write a scroll /b containing only one portion of the Torah b for /b the purpose of enabling b a child to study it? /b The Gemara notes: b Let the dilemma be raised according to the one who says /b that b the Torah was given /b from the outset b scroll by scroll, /b meaning that Moses would teach the Jewish people one portion of the Torah, and then write it down, and then teach them the next portion of the Torah, and then write that down, and continue in this way until he committed the entire Torah to writing. And b let the dilemma /b also b be raised according to the one who says /b that b the Torah was given /b as b a complete /b book, meaning that the Torah was not written down incrementally, but rather, after teaching the Jewish people the entire Torah, Moses committed it to writing all at once.,The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma according to each opinion: b Let the dilemma be raised according to the one who says /b that b the Torah was given scroll by scroll. /b On the one hand it is possible to say that b since /b the Torah b was /b originally b given scroll by scroll, /b today as well b one may write /b the Torah in separate scrolls. b Or /b on the other hand, b perhaps /b one should say that b since it was /b ultimately b joined /b together to form a single scroll, b it was joined /b together and can no longer be written in separate scrolls.,And b let the dilemma /b also b be raised according to the one who says /b that b the Torah was given /b as b a complete /b book. On the one hand it is possible to say that b since it was given /b from the outset as b a complete /b book, b one may not write /b it today in separate scrolls. b Or /b on the other hand, b perhaps /b one could say that b since it is not /b always b possible /b to write a complete Torah, b one may write /b it in separate scrolls. Rabba b said to him: One may not write /b the Torah in separate scrolls. b And what is the reason? Because one may not write /b a scroll that is only part of the Torah.,Abaye b raised an objection to his /b opinion from a mishna ( i Yoma /i 37b) where it was taught: Queen Helene b also fashioned a golden tablet /b as a gift for the Temple b on which the /b Torah b portion /b discussing b a i sota /i was written. /b When the priest would write the scroll of a i sota /i in the Temple, he would copy this Torah portion from the tablet, so that a Torah scroll need not be taken out for that purpose. This indicates that it is permitted for one to write a single portion of the Torah. b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says in the name of Rabbi Yannai: /b There is no proof from this mishna, as the tablet prepared by Queen Helene was not written in an ordinary manner, but rather it consisted of the letters b of /b the b i alef-beit /i , /b i.e., only the first letter of each word was written on the tablet, and by looking at it the priest writing the i sota /i scroll would remember what to write.,The Gemara b raised an objection /b from a i baraita /i that teaches: b When /b the priest b writes /b the i sota /i scroll, b he looks /b at b and writes that which is written on the tablet, /b which indicates that the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara rejects this argument: Emend the i baraita /i and b say /b that it should read as follows: He looks at and writes b like that which is written on the tablet. /b The tablet aids the priest in remembering the text that must actually be written.,The Gemara b raised an objection /b from a different i baraita /i : b When he writes, he looks at the tablet and writes that which is written on the tablet. /b And b what is written on the tablet? “If /b a man b lay /b with you…and b if he did not lay /b with you” (see Numbers 5:19). Apparently, the full text of the passage was written on the tablet. The Gemara answers: b With what are we dealing here? /b The tablet fashioned by Queen Helene was written b by alternating /b complete words and initials. The first words of each verse were written there, but the rest of the words in the verse were represented by initials. Therefore, this contribution of Queen Helene does not resolve the question of whether writing a scroll for a child is permitted.,The Gemara comments: The question of whether or not writing a scroll for a child is permitted is b subject to /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i , /b as it is taught in the following i baraita /i : b One may not write a scroll /b containing only one portion of the Torah b for /b the purpose of enabling b a child to study, but if /b the writer’s b intention is to complete /b the scroll, b it is permitted. Rabbi Yehuda says: In /b the book of b Genesis /b he may write a scroll from the beginning b until the generation of the flood. In i Torat Kohanim /i , /b the book of Leviticus, he may write a scroll from the beginning b until “And it came to pass on the eighth day” /b (Leviticus 9:1).,The Gemara returns to discuss the previously mentioned dispute. b Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Bana’a: The Torah was given /b from the outset b scroll by scroll, as it is stated: “Then I said, behold, I come with the scroll of the book that is written for me” /b (Psalms 40:8). King David is saying about himself that there is a section of the Torah, “the scroll of the book,” that alludes to him, i.e., “that is written for me.” This indicates that each portion of the Torah constitutes a separate scroll. b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The Torah was given /b as b a complete /b book, b as it is stated: “Take this scroll of the Torah” /b (Deuteronomy 31:26), which teaches that from the outset the Torah was given as a complete unit.,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b the other /b Sage, Rabbi Yoḥa, b as well, isn’t it written “take,” /b indicating that the Torah scroll was given whole? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: b That /b verse is speaking about the Torah b after it was joined /b together to form a single unit.,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b the other /b Sage, Reish Lakish, b as well, isn’t it written: “With the scroll of the book that is written for me,” /b indicating that the Torah was given scroll by scroll? How does he explain this verse? The Gemara answers: b That /b verse teaches that b the entire Torah is called a scroll. /b This is indicated in another verse as well, b as it is written: “And He said to me: What do you see? And I said: I see a flying scroll” /b (Zechariah 5:2)., b Alternatively, /b this verse serves to allude b to /b the sections of the Torah discussed in b that /b statement b of Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says: Eight sections were said on the day that the Tabernacle was erected, /b on the first of Nisan. b They are: The section of the priests /b (Leviticus 21:1–22:26); b the section of the Levites /b (Numbers 8:5–26); b the section of the impure /b (Leviticus 13:1– 14:57); b the section of the sending away of the impure /b (Numbers 5:1–4); b the section /b beginning with the words b “After the death” /b (Leviticus, chapter 16);
150. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhbah Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
16b. הראשונים היו נשיאים ושניים להם אב ב"ד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר שלשה מזוגות הראשונים שאמרו שלא לסמוך ושנים מזוגות האחרונים שאמרו לסמוך (הראשונים) היו נשיאים ושניים להם אבות ב"ד דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד ושמעון בן שטח נשיא,מאן תנא להא דתנו רבנן אמר רבי יהודה בן טבאי אראה בנחמה אם לא הרגתי עד זומם להוציא מלבן של צדוקין שהיו אומרים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיהרג הנידון,אמר לו שמעון בן שטח אראה בנחמה אם לא שפכת דם נקי שהרי אמרו חכמים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין לוקין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין משלמין ממון עד שיזומו שניהם,מיד קבל עליו יהודה בן טבאי שאינו מורה הלכה אלא בפני שמעון בן שטח,כל ימיו של יהודה בן טבאי היה משתטח על קברו של אותו הרוג והיה קולו נשמע כסבורין העם לומר שקולו של הרוג הוא אמר להם קולי הוא תדעו שלמחר הוא מת ואין קולו נשמע,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי ודלמא פיוסי פייסיה או בדינא תבעי',מני הא אי אמרת בשלמא רבי מאיר דאמר שמעון בן שטח אב ב"ד ר"י בן טבאי נשיא היינו דקא מורי הלכה בפני שמעון בן שטח אלא אי אמרת רבנן דאמרי יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד שמעון בן שטח נשיא אב ב"ד בפני נשיא מי מורה הלכה,לא מאי קבל עליו דקאמר לאצטרופי דאפי' אצטרופי נמי לא מצטריפנא:,יצא מנחם ונכנס שמאי כו': להיכן יצא אביי אמר יצא לתרבות רעה רבא אמר יצא לעבודת המלך תניא נמי הכי יצא מנחם לעבודת המלך ויצאו עמו שמונים זוגות תלמידים לבושין סיריקון,אמר רב שמן בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לעולם אל תהא שבות קלה בעיניך שהרי סמיכה אינה אלא משום שבות ונחלקו בה גדולי הדור,פשיטא שבות מצוה אצטריכא ליה,הא נמי פשיטא לאפוקי ממאן דאמר בסמיכה גופה פליגי קא משמע לן בשבות הוא דפליגי,אמר רמי בר חמא שמע מינה סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן דאי ס"ד לא בעינן בכל כחו מאי קא עביד ליסמוך,מיתיבי (ויקרא א, ב) דבר אל בני ישראל וסמך בני ישראל סומכין ואין בנות ישראל סומכות רבי יוסי ור' (ישמעאל) [שמעון] אומרים בנות ישראל סומכות רשות,אמר רבי יוסי סח לי אבא אלעזר פעם אחת היה לנו עגל של זבחי שלמים והביאנוהו לעזרת נשים וסמכו עליו נשים לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים אלא כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים ואי ס"ד סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן משום נחת רוח דנשים עבדינן עבודה בקדשים אלא לאו ש"מ לא בעינן בכל כחו,לעולם אימא לך בעינן בכל כחו דאמר להו אקפו ידייכו אי הכי לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים תיפוק ליה דאינה לסמיכה כלל,א"ר אמי חדא ועוד קאמר חדא דליתא לסמיכה כלל ועוד כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה צדדין אסורין דאי ס"ד צדדין מותרין לסמוך לצדדין אלא לאו שמע מינה צדדין אסורין 16b. b The first /b members of each pair b served as i Nasi /i , and their counterparts /b served as b deputy i Nasi /i . /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: Three of the first pairs who say not to place hands and two of the last pairs who say to place hands served as i Nasi /i , and their counterparts /b served as b deputy i Nasi /i ; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say /b the opposite: b Yehuda ben Tabbai /b was b deputy i Nasi /i and Shimon ben Shataḥ /b was the b i Nasi /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b Who is the i tanna /i /b who taught b that which the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai said: /b I swear that b I will /b not b see the consolation /b of Israel b if I did not kill a conspiring witness. /b This means that Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai sentenced a conspiring witness to death, in order b to counter the views of the Sadducees, who would say: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless the sentenced one has been executed. /b Their views opposed the traditional view, which maintains that conspiring witnesses are executed only if the one sentenced by their testimony has not yet been executed., b Shimon ben Shataḥ said to him: /b I swear that b I will /b not b see the consolation /b of Israel b if you did not shed innocent blood, as the Sages said: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless they are both found to be conspirators; /b if only one is found to be a conspirator, he is not executed. b And they are not flogged /b if they are liable to such a penalty, b unless they are both found to be conspirators. And /b if they testified falsely that someone owed money, b they do not pay money unless they are both found to be conspirators. /b ,Hearing this, b Yehuda ben Tabbai immediately accepted upon himself not to rule /b on any matter of b law unless he was in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ, /b as he realized he could not rely on his own judgment.,The i baraita /i further relates: b All of Yehuda ben Tabbai’s days, he would prostrate himself on the grave of that executed /b individual, to request forgiveness, b and his voice was heard /b weeping. b The people thought that it was the voice of that executed /b person, rising from his grave. Yehuda ben Tabbai b said to them: It is my voice, /b and b you /b shall b know /b that it is so, b for tomorrow, /b i.e., sometime in the future, b he will die, and his voice will no /b longer b be heard. /b Yehuda ben Tabbai was referring to himself, but he did not want to mention something negative about himself in direct terms., b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: /b This provides no conclusive proof that the voice was not that of the executed man, as b perhaps /b ben Tabbai b appeased /b the executed individual in the World-to-Come. b Or, /b alternatively, the latter may have b prosecuted him by the law /b of Heaven, and that is why his voice can no longer be heard.,The Gemara returns to its original question: b Whose /b opinion does b this /b i baraita /i follow? b Granted, if you say /b it is in accordance b with /b that of b Rabbi Meir, /b who b said /b that b Shimon ben Shataḥ was deputy i Nasi /i /b while b Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai was i Nasi /i , that /b explains why b he /b had previously b issued a halakhic ruling in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ /b to execute the conspiring witness, and only after that unfortunate incident did he undertake to issue rulings only in the presence of his colleague. b But if you say /b that the i baraita /i is in accordance with b the Sages, who said: Yehuda ben Tabbai /b was b deputy i Nasi /i /b and b Shimon ben Shataḥ /b the b i Nasi /i , /b why did he need to make such a commitment? b May /b the b deputy i Nasi /i issue a halakhic ruling in the presence of /b the b i Nasi /i ? /b ,The Gemara refutes this: b No; what /b did he mean by b accepting upon himself /b not to rule on his own? b He spoke /b with regard b to joining /b the ruling of others: b Even /b with regard to b joining /b the ruling of others, b I will also not join /b until I have first heard the view of Shimon ben Shataḥ.,§ It is taught in the mishna: b Menaḥem departed and Shammai entered. /b The Gemara asks: b To where did /b Menaḥem b depart? Abaye said: He departed and went astray. /b Therefore, the mishna did not wish to delve into the details of his case. b Rava said: He departed for the king’s service. /b He received a post from the king and had to leave the court. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Menaḥem departed for the king’s service, and eighty pairs of students dressed in silk robes left with him /b to work for the king, and that they no longer studied Torah.,§ b Rav Shemen bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: A rabbinic decree [ i shevut /i ] should never be taken lightly in your eyes, since placing hands /b on the head of an offering on a Festival b is prohibited only as a rabbinic decree /b because it is considered making use of an animal, which is not considered a prohibited labor but merely resembles one, and yet b the greatest /b scholars b of each generation disputed it. /b ,The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: This b is obvious. /b Since it is an accepted rabbinic decree, why should people take it lightly? The Gemara answers: It was b necessary for him /b to state it because it is b a rabbinic decree related to a mitzva. /b In other words, although this rabbinic decree of placing the hands on an animal is not performed for one’s own sake but for the purpose of a mitzva, it was nevertheless a serious matter in the eyes of the Sages.,The Gemara remains puzzled: b This too is obvious. /b In that case as well, the act is prohibited by the Sages. The Gemara responds: Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement comes b to exclude /b the opinion b of the one who said /b that b they disagree with regard to the actual /b obligation of b placing hands, /b i.e., whether or not obligatory peace-offerings require placing the hands. b He /b therefore b teaches us /b that b it is a rabbinic decree /b that is the subject b of their dispute, /b not the requirement itself., b Rami bar Ḥama said: /b You can b learn from here, /b from this dispute, that the mitzva of b placing hands /b requires not only placing one’s hands on the animal’s head, but b we also require /b that one places his hands b with all his strength. For if it enters your mind /b that b we do not require all his strength, what /b prohibition b does one violate /b by placing his hands? b Let him place /b them on a Festival as well, as this does not resemble a prohibited action at all., b The Gemara raises an objection /b to this from a i baraita /i : b “Speak to the children of [ i benei /i ] Israel” /b (Leviticus 1:2). The word i benei /i literally means: Sons of. And it states nearby: b “And he shall place /b his hand on the head of the burnt-offering” (Leviticus 1:4), from which we learn that b the sons of Israel place /b their hands, b but the daughters of Israel do not place /b them. b Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yishmael say: It is optional for the daughters of Israel to place /b their hands. They may place their hands if they so choose, although they are not obligated to do so., b Rabbi Yosei said: /b The Sage b Abba Elazar related to me /b the following incident: b On one occasion, we had a calf for a peace-offering, and we brought it to the Women’s Courtyard, and women placed /b their hands b on it. /b We did this b not because there /b is an obligation of b placing hands in /b the case of b women, but in order to please the women, /b by allowing them to sacrifice an offering, in all of its particulars, as men do. Now, b if it enters your mind /b that b we require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength, /b would b we perform work with consecrated /b offerings b in order to please /b the b women? /b Placing one’s hands forcefully on an animal is considered performing work with it, and if one does it without being obligated to do so, he has thereby performed work with an offering. b Rather, isn’t it /b correct to b conclude from this /b that b we do not require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength? /b ,The Gemara rejects this: b Actually, I /b could b say to you /b that b we do require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength, /b but here they allowed women to place their hands b by saying to them: Ease your hands /b and do not press forcefully, so that their hand placing should not constitute work. The Gemara retorts: b If so, /b then the reason formulated as: b Not because there /b is an obligation to b place hands in /b the case of b women, /b is irrelevant to this law. b Let him derive /b the permission for women to do so from the reason that b it is not /b considered b placing hands at all. /b If placing hands must be performed with all one’s strength, this action the women are performing does not constitute placing hands., b Rabbi Ami said: He stated one /b reason b and another. One /b reason is b that it is not /b considered b placing hands at all, /b as it is not performed with all of one’s strength; b and another /b reason is that they allowed it b in order to please the women. /b , b Rav Pappa said: Learn from this /b that anything upon which one may not place objects or upon which one may not sit on Shabbat, its b sides are /b likewise b prohibited, for if it enters your mind /b to say that the b sides are permitted, /b they could have told the women b to place /b their hands b on the sides, /b i.e., on the head of the animal rather than on its back, as the head of the animal is considered as if it were one of its sides. b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from this /b that the b sides are prohibited? /b
151. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 221
86a. לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא צא נחור דלאו שחיטה היא כלל אבל צא טרוף אימא שחיטה שאינה ראויה שמה שחיטה וליבעי כסוי קמ"ל כדר' חייא בר אבא,ולמ"ד צא נחור מ"ט לא אמר צא טרוף וכי תימא קסבר שחיטה שאינה ראויה שמה שחיטה והא א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן ראה רבי דבריו של רבי שמעון בכסוי הדם ושנאו בלשון חכמים,לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא צא טרוף דשחיטה שאינה ראויה לא שמה שחיטה אבל צא נחור אימא אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה ונחירתו זו היא שחיטתו וליבעי כסוי קמ"ל כאשר צויתיך,ומי נפל ליה יאניבא בכיתניה והאמר רבין בר אבא ואמרי לה אמר רבי אבין בר שבא משעלו בני הגולה פסקו הזיקין והזועות והרוחות והרעמים ולא החמיץ יינם ולא לקה פשתנם ונתנו חכמים עיניהם ברבי חייא ובניו,כי מהניא זכותייהו אעלמא אדידהו לא כדרב יהודה אמר רב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב בכל יום ויום בת קול יוצאת ואומרת כל העולם כולו ניזון בשביל חנינא בני וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין מערב שבת לערב שבת:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big חרש שוטה וקטן ששחטו ואחרים רואין אותם חייב לכסות בינן לבין עצמן פטור מלכסות,וכן לענין אותו ואת בנו ששחטו ואחרים רואין אותן אסור לשחוט אחריהם בינן לבין עצמן רבי מאיר מתיר לשחוט אחריהן וחכמים אוסרים ומודים שאם שחט שאינו סופג את הארבעים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן מאי שנא רישא דלא פליגי ומאי שנא סיפא דפליגי,רישא אי אמרינן חייבין לכסות אמרי שחיטה מעלייתא היא ואתי למיכל משחיטתן,סיפא נמי כיון דקאמרי רבנן אסור לשחוט אחריהם אמרי שחיטה מעלייתא היא ואתי למיכל משחיטתן,סיפא אמרי בשרא דלא קא מיבעיא ליה רישא נמי אמרי לנקר חצירו הוא צריך,שחט באשפה מאי איכא למימר בא לימלך מאי איכא למימר,וליטעמיך סיפא נמי בא לימלך מאי איכא למימר,אלא רבנן אכולה מילתא פליגי ונטרי ליה לר' מאיר עד דמסיק לה למילתא והדר פליגי עילויה,בשלמא רבנן לחומרא אלא רבי מאיר מאי טעמא,אמר רבי יעקב אמר רבי יוחנן מחייב היה רבי מאיר על שחיטתן משום נבלה מאי טעמא אמר רבי אמי הואיל ורוב מעשיהן מקולקלים,אמר ליה רב פפא לרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע ואמרי לה רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע לרב פפא מאי איריא רוב אפילו מיעוט נמי דהא רבי מאיר חייש למיעוטא סמוך מיעוטא לחזקה ואתרע ליה רובא,דתנן תינוק שנמצא בצד העיסה ובצק בידו רבי מאיר מטהר וחכמים מטמאין מפני שדרכו של תינוק לטפח ואמרינן מאי טעמא דרבי מאיר קסבר רוב תינוקות מטפחין ומיעוט אין מטפחין ועיסה זו בחזקת טהרה עומדת 86a. The Gemara responds: Rav Dimi b is speaking /b utilizing the style of: b It is not necessary. /b That is, b it is not necessary /b to teach: b Go out /b and b tear loose, since /b it is obvious that b this is not /b considered b slaughter at all /b and one is not required to cover the blood. b But /b with regard to the instruction: b Go out /b and b render /b the bird b a i tereifa /i , I would say /b that an act of b slaughter that is not fit /b to render the meat permitted b is /b nevertheless b considered /b an act of b slaughter, and /b the blood of this bird b should require covering. /b Therefore, Rav Dimi b teaches us in accordance with /b the statement b of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba /b (85a), that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds with regard to the mitzva of covering the blood that an act of slaughter that is not fit to render the meat permitted is not considered an act of slaughter, and one is therefore not required to cover the blood of this bird.,The Gemara asks: b And according to the one who says /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: b Go out /b and b tear loose /b the windpipe and gullet, b what is the reason /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b did not say: Go out /b and b render /b the bird b a i tereifa /i ? And if you would say /b the reason is because Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds that an act of b slaughter that is not fit /b to render the meat permitted b is /b considered an act of b slaughter, /b and one would be required to cover the blood, this is untenable. As b doesn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba say /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b saw /b as correct b the statement of Rabbi Shimon, /b that an ineffective slaughter is not considered an act of slaughter b with regard to /b the mitzva of b covering the blood, and taught it /b in the mishna here b using the term: The Rabbis? /b ,The Gemara responds: Ravin b is speaking /b utilizing the style of: b It is not necessary. /b That is, b it is not necessary /b to teach: b Go out /b and b render /b the bird b a i tereifa /i , since /b an act of b slaughter that is not fit /b to render the meat permitted b is not /b considered b slaughter /b and one would not be required to cover the blood of the bird. b But /b with regard to the instruction: b Go out /b and b tear loose /b the windpipe and gullet, b I would say /b that the b slaughter of a bird is not /b obligatory b by Torah law /b to render it permitted for consumption, b and /b consequently, b the tearing loose /b of b its /b windpipe and gullet b is /b considered b its slaughter and /b the blood of this bird b should require covering. /b Therefore, Ravin b teaches us /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi holds that the slaughter of a bird is obligatory by Torah law, as he himself derives from the verse: b “As I have commanded you” /b (Deuteronomy 12:21).,§ The Gemara questions the very occurrence of the incident involving Rabbi Ḥiyya: b And could moths have infested his flax? But doesn’t Ravin bar Abba say, and some say Rabbi Avin bar Sheva says: From when the people of the Exile ascended /b from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael b there ceased /b to be b meteors, earthquakes, /b storm b winds, and thunder; and their wine did not sour, and their flax was not stricken /b with an infestation of moths; b and the Sages placed their eyes, /b i.e., attributed these phenomena, b to /b the merit of b Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons, /b who ascended from Babylonia? If so, how was Rabbi Ḥiyya’s flax affected?,The Gemara responds: b When their merit is effective, /b it is effective b for the /b rest of the b world but not for themselves. /b And this is b in accordance with /b the statement b that Rav Yehuda says /b in the name of b Rav, as Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Each and every day a Divine Voice emerges and says: The entire world is sustained in the merit of Ḥanina /b ben Dosa, b My son, and /b yet for b Ḥanina, My son, a i kav /i of carobs, /b i.e., a very small amount of inferior food, b is sufficient /b to sustain him b from /b one b Shabbat eve to /b the next b Shabbat eve. /b Similarly, the merit of Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons was effective for others but not for themselves., strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor who slaughtered /b an undomesticated animal or a bird, b and others saw them /b and ensured that the slaughter was properly performed, in which case the slaughter is valid (see 2a), one who oversaw the slaughter is b obligated to cover /b the blood. If they slaughtered the animals b among themselves /b without supervision, one is b exempt /b from the obligation to cover the blood., b And likewise with regard to the matter of /b slaughtering b a mother and its offspring /b on the same day, if a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor b slaughtered /b an undomesticated mother animal b and others saw them, /b it is b prohibited to slaughter /b its offspring b after them. /b If they slaughtered the mother animal b among themselves, Rabbi Meir deems /b it b permitted to slaughter /b its offspring b after them and the Rabbis deem /b it b prohibited. And /b the Rabbis b concede that if one slaughtered /b the offspring thereafter b that he does not incur the forty /b lashes, as it is possible the mother was not properly slaughtered., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b And /b as for b the Rabbis, what is different /b about b the first clause /b of the mishna that discusses the covering of the blood, b where they do not disagree /b with the statement that if a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor slaughtered an animal without supervision one is exempt from the obligation to cover the blood, which indicates the Rabbis hold that such an act of slaughter is not considered an act of slaughter; b and what is different /b about b the latter clause /b of the mishna that discusses the prohibition against slaughtering a mother and its offspring on the same day, b where they disagree /b with Rabbi Meir and hold that if a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor slaughtered a mother animal without supervision one is prohibited to subsequently slaughter its offspring, indicating they hold that such an act of slaughter is in fact considered an act of slaughter?,The Gemara responds: Actually, it is uncertain whether this slaughter is valid or not. With regard to b the first clause, if we say one is obligated to cover /b the blood from an unsupervised slaughter, people might b say /b this is because b the slaughter /b performed by these people b is proper, and they will come to eat /b meat b from their slaughter, /b and it is in fact forbidden to eat from their slaughter. Therefore, the Rabbis did not require the covering of the blood.,The Gemara challenges: If so, then with regard to b the latter clause /b of the mishna b as well, since the Rabbis say /b it is b prohibited to slaughter /b the offspring of the mother b after them, /b people might b say /b this is because b the slaughter /b performed by these people b is proper, and they will come to eat /b meat b from their slaughter. /b ,The Gemara rejects this: With regard to b the latter clause, /b prohibiting the slaughter of the offspring will not cause people to conclude the unsupervised slaughter of the mother by disqualified people was valid. Rather, b they will say: /b The reason the offspring is not slaughtered is b because /b the owner b does not need the meat. /b The Gemara asks: But with regard to b the first clause as well, /b covering the blood will not lead one to conclude that the unsupervised slaughter was valid, as people b will say: /b He is covering the blood b because he needs to clean his courtyard /b of the blood. If so, let the Rabbis deem one obligated to cover the blood.,The Gemara rejects this: But if a disqualified person b slaughtered /b the animal b in a garbage dump, what can be said /b to allow the covering of the blood? Obviously, people will not assume one covers the blood in order to clean a garbage dump. Similarly, if one b comes to consult /b the court, b what can be said? /b That is, if one sees from a distance that a disqualified person slaughtered an animal and the blood is uncovered, and he comes to consult the court with regard to the obligation to cover the blood, if the court tells him to cover the blood he might conclude that this is because the unsupervised slaughter was valid. Accordingly, since there are scenarios in which one might mistakenly conclude that the unsupervised slaughter of inept people is valid, the Rabbis concede that one is exempt from covering the blood of such an act of slaughter in all cases.,The Gemara asks: b But according to your reasoning /b that the Rabbis are concerned for the aforementioned scenarios, then with regard to b the latter clause as well, /b if one b comes to consult /b the court with regard to the slaughter of the offspring, b what can be said? /b That is, if one sees a disqualified person slaughter the mother, and he comes to ask the court whether he may slaughter the offspring on the same day, if the court prohibits him from slaughtering it he might conclude that this is because the slaughter of the mother was valid. Why, then, do the Rabbis prohibit one from slaughtering the offspring?,The Gemara concludes: b Rather, /b it must be that b the Rabbis disagree concerning the entire matter, /b i.e., they disagree with regard to covering the blood as well, and hold that if a disqualified person slaughtered an animal while unsupervised, one must cover the blood; b and /b the Rabbis b waited for Rabbi Meir until he concluded his statement, and then they disagreed with him /b on both accounts.,The Gemara asks: If so, b granted, /b the opinion of the b Rabbis /b is understandable, as they consistently rule b stringently. /b That is, although it is prohibited to consume the meat of an unsupervised slaughter performed by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, the Rabbis require one to cover the blood and prohibit one to slaughter the offspring, due to concern that the person may have performed a valid slaughter. b But /b with regard to the opinion of b Rabbi Meir /b that one is exempt from covering the blood and that one may slaughter the offspring on the same day, b what is the reason /b he does not rule stringently due to uncertainty?, b Rabbi Ya’akov says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir would deem /b one b liable /b to receive lashes b for /b eating from b the slaughter of /b a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, b due to /b violation of the prohibition against eating from b an animal carcass. /b According to Rabbi Meir there is no uncertainty with regard to such slaughter, and it is not considered an act of slaughter at all. Consequently, one may become liable to receive lashes for its consumption. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason? Rabbi Ami says: Since the majority of actions /b of a deaf-mute, imbecile, and a minor b are bungled, /b i.e., they are performed incompetently, it can be assumed that their slaughter was performed improperly as well., b Rav Pappa said to Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, and some say /b that b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, /b said b to Rav Pappa: Why /b did Rabbi Ami b specifically /b state that the reasoning of Rabbi Meir is based on the assumption that the b majority /b of their actions are bungled? b Even /b if only b a minority /b of their actions are bungled and the majority are performed competently, Rabbi Meir would b also /b maintain that the animal is considered a carcass, b as Rabbi Meir is concerned for a minority /b when it can be combined with a presumptive status. If so, b append the minority to the presumptive status /b of an animal prior to its slaughter, i.e., that it is prohibited for consumption, b and the majority /b of competent acts of slaughter b is /b thereby b weakened. /b ,The Gemara proves that Rabbi Meir is concerned for the minority: b As we learned /b in a mishna ( i Teharot /i 3:8): In the case of a ritually impure b child who is found alongside /b ritually pure b started dough, and /b he has b risen dough in his hand /b that may have been removed from the larger portion of started dough, b Rabbi Meir deems /b the started dough b pure. /b This is because there is no proof the child touched it; he might have been given the piece by someone else. b And the Rabbis deem it impure, /b as they assume he touched the started dough. The child is presumed to be impure b because it is the manner of a child to handle /b items. b And we say /b with regard to this mishna: b What is the reasoning of Rabbi Meir? He holds /b that b a majority of children handle /b items, in this case the dough, that are within reach, b and a minority do not handle /b items within reach, b and /b the b dough /b itself b retains a presumptive status of purity /b since its impurity has not been definitively determined.
152. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
82b. מהו דתימא מצוה דרמא רחמנא עליה עבדה והשתא תיקום עליה באיסור אשת אח קא משמע לן,ואימא הכי נמי אמר קרא (דברים כה, ה) ולקחה לו לאשה כיון שלקחה נעשית כאשתו:,בלבד שתהא כתובתה על נכסי בעלה הראשון: מאי טעמא אשה הקנו לו מן השמים,ואי לית לה מראשון אית לה משני כדי שלא תהא קלה בעיניו להוציאה:,לא יאמר לה הרי כתובתיך: מאי וכן,מהו דתימא התם הוא דלא כתב לה דקנאי ודקנינא אבל הכא דכתב לה דקנאי ודקנינא אימא סמכה דעתה קמ"ל:,גרשה אין לה אלא כתובתה: גרשה אין לא גרשה לא קא משמע לן כדרבי אבא:,החזירה הרי היא ככל הנשים ואין לה אלא כתובתה: החזירה מאי קא משמע לן תנינא המגרש את האשה ומחזירה על מנת כתובה ראשונה מחזירה,מהו דתימא אשתו הוא דאיהו כתב לה כתובה מיניה אבל יבמתו דלא איהו כתב לה היכא דגרשה ואהדרה אימא כתובתה מיניה קא משמע לן:,אמר רב יהודה בראשונה היו כותבין לבתולה מאתים ולאלמנה מנה והיו מזקינין ולא היו נושאין נשים עד שבא שמעון בן שטח ותיקן כל נכסיו אחראין לכתובתה:,תניא נמי הכי בראשונה היו כותבין לבתולה מאתים ולאלמנה מנה והיו מזקינין ולא היו נושאין נשים התקינו שיהיו מניחין אותה בבית אביה ועדיין כשהוא כועס עליה אומר לה לכי אצל כתובתיך,התקינו שיהיו מניחין אותה בבית חמיה עשירות עושות אותה קלתות של כסף ושל זהב עניות היו עושות אותה עביט של מימי רגלים,ועדיין כשכועס עליה אומר לה טלי כתובתיך וצאי עד שבא שמעון בן שטח ותיקן שיהא כותב לה כל נכסי אחראין לכתובתה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך האשה /strong /big br br
153. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 58
39b. and he was careful to plant b four /b different species b along the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle, /b so that there would be space between them, it works out b well. /b This would show that Rav was cautious not to plant diverse kinds together. b But here, /b where Rav actually planted each species in its own bed, he did so b due to beautification, /b i.e., to improve the appearance of the garden in front of the study hall. b Alternatively, /b the reason Rav planted this way b is due to the trouble /b that would be caused to b the attendant. /b When his attendant would be sent to fetch a certain type of vegetable from the garden he would not need to search for it, but would know where the different vegetables were planted. Therefore, this does not prove that Rav was concerned about diverse kinds outside of Eretz Yisrael., strong MISHNA: /strong b Anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him, his life is lengthened, and he inherits the land, /b i.e., life in the World-to-Come. b And anyone who does not perform one mitzva does not have goodness bestowed upon him, his life is not lengthened, and he does not inherit the land /b of the World-to-Come., strong GEMARA: /strong b And /b the Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a mishna ( i Pe’a /i 1:1): b These /b are the b matters that a person /b engages in and b enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal /b reward b remains for him for the World-to-Come, /b and b they are: Honoring one’s father and mother, acts of loving kindness, hospitality /b toward b guests, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them. /b This indicates that one is rewarded in this world only for fulfilling these mitzvot, but not for fulfilling all mitzvot., b Rav Yehuda said /b that b this is what /b the mishna b is saying: Anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his /b other b merits, /b and thereby tips the scale of all his deeds to the side of righteousness, b has goodness bestowed upon him and is compared to one who fulfills the entire Torah. /b The Gemara asks: One can learn b by inference /b from here b that /b with regard to b those /b mitzvot listed in the mishna in i Pe’a /i one is rewarded b even for one /b of them, notwithstanding the fact that overall his sins are more numerous. b Rav Shemaya said: /b The other mishna serves b to say that if /b one’s sins and merits b were /b of b equal /b balance, i.e., he has accrued an equal amount of merit and sin, one of these mitzvot b tilts /b the scale in his favor.,The Gemara further asks: b And /b does b anyone who performs one mitzva in addition to his /b other b merits have goodness bestowed upon him /b in this world? The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i : b Anyone whose merits are greater than his sins is punished with suffering /b in order to cleanse his sins in this world and enable him to merit full reward for his mitzvot in the World-to-Come. b And /b due to this punishment b he appears /b to observers b like one who burned the entire Torah without leaving even one letter remaining of it. /b Conversely, b anyone whose sins are greater than his merits has goodness bestowed upon him /b in this world, b and he appears like one who has fulfilled the entire Torah without lacking /b the fulfillment of b even one letter of it. /b , b Abaye said: /b When b the mishna /b said that he is rewarded, it means b that he has one good day and one bad day. /b He is rewarded for the mitzvot he performs; nevertheless, occasionally he also has bad days which cleanse him of his sins, and the i baraita /i is referring to those days. b Rava said /b that the mishna and this i baraita /i represent two different opinions. In accordance with b whose /b opinion b is this /b i baraita /i ? b It is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Ya’akov, who says: There is no reward /b for performance of b a mitzva in this world, /b as one is rewarded for mitzvot only World-to-Come., b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Ya’akov says: There is not a single mitzva written in the Torah whose reward /b is stated b alongside it, which is not dependent on the resurrection of the dead, /b i.e., the reward is actually bestowed in the World-to-Come, after the resurrection of the dead. How so? b With regard to honoring one’s father and mother it is written: “That your days may be long, and that it may go well with you” /b (Deuteronomy 5:16). b With regard to /b the b dispatch /b of the mother bird from b the nest it is written: “That it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days” /b (Deuteronomy 22:7).,Despite this, it occurred that b there was /b one b whose father said to him: Climb to /b the top of b the building and fetch me chicks. And he climbed to /b the top of b the building and dispatched the mother /b bird b and took the young, /b thereby simultaneously fulfilling the mitzva to dispatch the mother bird from the nest and the mitzva to honor one’s parents, b but upon his return he fell and died. Where is the goodness of the days of this one, and where is the length of days of this one? Rather, /b the verse b “that it may be well with you” /b means b in the world where all is well, and “that your days may be long” /b is referring b to the world that is entirely long. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But perhaps this /b incident b never occurred? /b It is possible that everyone who performs these mitzvot is rewarded in this world, and the situation described by Rabbi Ya’akov never happened. The Gemara answers: b Rabbi Ya’akov /b himself b saw an incident /b of this kind. The Gemara asks: b But perhaps /b that man b was contemplating sin /b at the time, and he was punished for his thoughts? The Gemara answers that there is a principle that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link a bad thought to an action, /b i.e., one is not punished for thoughts alone.,The Gemara asks: b But perhaps he was contemplating idol worship /b at the time, b and it is written /b with regard to idol worship: b “So I may take the house of Israel in their own heart” /b (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one is punished for idolatrous thoughts. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ya’akov b was saying this as well: If it enters your mind /b that there is b reward for /b performing b a mitzva in this world, why didn’t /b these b mitzvot protect him so that he should not come to contemplate /b idol worship? Since that man was not protected from thoughts of idol worship at the time, this indicates that the performance of mitzvot does not entitle one to merit reward in this world.,The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say /b that b those on the path to perform a mitzva are not /b susceptible to b harm? /b How is it possible that this individual, who was sent by his father to perform a mitzva, could have died? The Gemara answers: b There, /b Rabbi Elazar is referring those b on their way /b to perform a mitzva, which b is different, /b as one is not susceptible to harm when he is on his way to fulfill a mitzva. In this case the individual was harmed on his return, and one is not afforded protection after having performed a mitzva.,The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Rabbi Elazar say /b that b those on the path to perform a mitzva are not /b susceptible to b harm, neither /b when they are b on their way /b to perform the mitzva b nor when they are returning /b from performing the mitzva? The Gemara answers: In that case it b was a rickety ladder, /b and therefore b the danger was established; and anywhere that the danger is established one may not rely on a miracle, as it is written /b with regard to God’s command to Samuel to anoint David as king in place of Saul: b “And Samuel said: How will I go, and Saul will hear and kill me; /b and God said: Take in your hand a calf and say: I have come to sacrifice an offering to God” (I Samuel 16:2). Although God Himself issued the command, there was concern with regard to the established dangers., b Rav Yosef said: Had Aḥer, /b literally Other, the appellation of the former Sage Elisha ben Avuya, b interpreted this /b aforementioned b verse: /b “That it may go well with you” (Deuteronomy 5:16), b homiletically, /b as referring to the World-to-Come, b as /b did b Rabbi Ya’akov, son of his daughter, /b he would b not have sinned. /b The Gemara asks: b And what /b caused b Aḥer /b to sin? b There are /b those b who say he saw a case like this, /b where a son went up to the roof on his father’s command, dispatched the mother bird, and then died. It was witnessing this episode that led Elisha ben Avuya astray., b And there are /b those b who say /b that b he saw the tongue of Ḥutzpit the disseminator /b after the latter was executed by the government, thrown in the street, and b dragged /b along b by something else, /b a euphemism for a pig. b He said: Shall a mouth that produced pearls lap /b up b dirt? /b For this reason b he went out /b and b sinned. /b ,§ b Rav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna raises a contradiction to Rava /b and asked: b We learned /b in the mishna that b anyone who performs one mitzva has goodness bestowed upon him. /b This indicates that if one actually b performed /b the b mitzva, yes, /b he is rewarded, but if he b did not perform /b the mitzva, b no, /b he does not receive a reward. He b raises a contradiction /b based on the following statement: If b one sits and does not transgress, he receives a reward as one who performs a mitzva, /b despite the fact that he does not actually perform a mitzva. Rava b said to him: There, /b when it is referring to one who sits and does not transgress, it does not mean that he was merely sitting; rather, it is speaking of a case b where /b an opportunity to commit b a sinful act presents itself /b to him b and he is saved from it. /b ,This is b like /b an incident involving b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi, who was enticed by a certain noblewoman [ i matronita /i ] /b to engage in sexual intercourse with her. b He said a formula /b of an incantation b and was covered with boils and scabs /b so as to render himself unattractive to her. b She performed an act /b of magic b and he was healed. He fled and hid in a bathhouse /b that was so dangerous, due to the demons that frequented the place, b that when two people entered /b together b even during the day they would be harmed. The next day the Sages said to him: Who protected you /b in that dangerous place? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi b said to them: /b There were angels who appeared like b two /b
154. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 494
27a. גמר בשולייהו חזו להו,אמר ליה אביי ולטעמיך תקשי לך קדרות דעלמא דהא סתם קדרות דעלמא בין השמשות רותחות הן ולאורתא אכלינן מינייהו,אלא גמרו בידי אדם לא קא מבעיא לן כי קא מבעיא לן גמרו בידי שמים,ר' יהודה נשיאה הוה ליה ההוא בוכרא שדריה לקמיה דר' אמי סבר דלא למחזייה א"ל רבי זריקא ואיתימא רבי ירמיה ר' יהודה ור' שמעון הלכה כר' יהודה הדר שדריה לקמיה דרבי יצחק נפחא סבר דלא למחזייה א"ל ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' זריקא ר' יהודה ור' שמעון הלכה כר' יהודה,א"ל רבי אבא מאי טעמא לא שבקתינהו לרבנן למעבד עובדא כר' שמעון א"ל ואת מה בידך א"ל הכי אמר ר' זירא הלכה כר' שמעון,אמר מאן דהוא אזכי ואסק להתם ואגמרה לשמעתא מפומיה דמרה כי סליק להתם אשכחיה לר' זירא א"ל אמר מר הלכה כרבי שמעון א"ל לא אנא מסתברא אמרי,מדקתני במתניתין ר' שמעון אומר כל שאין מומו ניכר מבעוד יום אין זה מן המוכן וקתני לה בברייתא בלשון חכמים ש"מ מסתברא כוותיה,מאי הוי עלה אמר רב יוסף ת"ש דתליא באשלי רברבי דאמר רבי שמעון בן פזי א"ר יהושע בן לוי א"ר יוסי בן שאול אמר רבי משום קהלא קדישא דבירושלים ר' שמעון וחבריו אמרו הלכה כרבי מאיר,אמרו והא אינהו קשישי מניה טובא אלא בשיטת ר' מאיר אמרוה,דתנן השוחט את הבכור ואחר כך הראה את מומו ר' יהודה מתיר ורבי מאיר אומר הואיל ונשחט שלא על פי מומחה אסור אלמא קסבר ר' מאיר ראיית בכור לאו כראיית טרפה ראיית בכור מחיים ראיית טרפה לאחר שחיטה,ומינה ראיית טרפה אפילו בי"ט ראיית בכור מערב י"ט,א"ל אביי אטו התם ברואין מומין פליגי בקנסא פליגי דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בדוקין שבעין כולי עלמא לא פליגי דאסור משום דמשתנין,כי פליגי במומין שבגוף רבי מאיר סבר גזרינן מומין שבגוף אטו מומין שבעין ור' יהודה סבר לא גזרינן,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מתניתין נמי דיקא דקתני ר' מאיר אומר הואיל ונשחט שלא על פי מומחה אסור שמע מינה קנסא הוא דקא קניס שמע מינה,אמי ורדינאה חזי בוכרא דבי נשיאה הוה ביומא טבא לא הוה חזי אתו ואמרו ליה לרבי אמי אמר להו שפיר קא עביד דלא חזי איני והא רבי אמי גופיה חזי רבי אמי כי חזי מאתמול הוה חזי
155. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
16a. ששמשי מוחק וגבריאל כותב אמר רבי אסי דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא ומה כתב שלמטה שלזכותן של ישראל אינו נמחק כתב שלמעלה לא כל שכן,(אסתר ו, ג) לא נעשה עמו דבר אמר רבא לא מפני שאוהבין את מרדכי אלא מפני ששונאים את המן,(אסתר ו, ד) הכין לו תנא לו הכין,ועשה כן למרדכי אמר ליה מנו מרדכי אמר ליה (אסתר ו, י) היהודי אמר ליה טובא מרדכי איכא ביהודאי אמר ליה (אסתר ו, י) היושב בשער המלך,אמר ליה סגי ליה בחד דיסקרתא אי נמי בחד נהרא אמר ליה הא נמי הב ליה אל תפל דבר מכל אשר דברת,ויקח המן את הלבוש ואת הסוס אזל אשכחיה דיתבי רבנן קמיה ומחוי להו הלכות קמיצה לרבנן כיון דחזייה מרדכי דאפיק לקבליה וסוסיה מיחד בידיה מירתת אמר להו לרבנן האי רשיעא למיקטל נפשי קא אתי זילו מקמיה די לא תכוו בגחלתו בההיא שעתא נתעטף מרדכי וקם ליה לצלותא אתא המן ויתיב ליה קמייהו ואוריך עד דסליק מרדכי לצלותיה,אמר להו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה בזמן שבית המקדש קיים מאן דמנדב מנחה מייתי מלי קומציה דסולתא ומתכפר ליה אמר להו אתא מלי קומצי קמחא דידכו ודחי עשרה אלפי ככרי כספא דידי אמר ליה רשע עבד שקנה נכסים עבד למי ונכסים למי,אמר ליה קום לבוש הני מאני ורכוב האי סוסיא דבעי לך מלכא אמר ליה לא יכילנא עד דעיילנא לבי בני ואשקול למזייא דלאו אורח ארעא לאשתמושי במאני דמלכא הכי,שדרה אסתר ואסרתינהו לכולהו בי בני ולכולהו אומני עייליה איהו לבי בני ואסחיה ואזיל ואייתי זוזא מביתיה וקא שקיל ביה מזייה בהדי דקא שקיל ליה אינגד ואיתנח אמר ליה אמאי קא מיתנחת אמר ליה גברא דהוה חשיב ליה למלכא מכולהו רברבנוהי השתא לישוייה בלאני וספר אמר ליה רשע ולאו ספר של כפר קרצום היית תנא המן ספר של כפר קרצום היה עשרים ושתים שנה,בתר דשקלינהו למזייה לבשינהו למאניה אמר ליה סק ורכב אמר ליה לא יכילנא דכחישא חילאי מימי תעניתא גחין וסליק כי סליק בעט ביה אמר ליה לא כתיב לכו (משלי כד, יז) בנפל אויבך אל תשמח אמר ליה הני מילי בישראל אבל בדידכו כתיב (דברים לג, כט) ואתה על במותימו תדרוך,(אסתר ו, יא) ויקרא לפניו ככה יעשה לאיש אשר המלך חפץ ביקרו כי הוה נקיט ואזיל בשבילא דבי המן חזיתיה ברתיה דקיימא אאיגרא סברה האי דרכיב אבוה והאי דמסגי קמיה מרדכי שקלה עציצא דבית הכסא ושדיתיה ארישא דאבוה דלי עיניה וחזת דאבוה הוא נפלה מאיגרא לארעא ומתה,והיינו דכתיב וישב מרדכי אל שער המלך אמר רב ששת ששב לשקו ולתעניתו והמן נדחף אל ביתו אבל וחפוי ראש אבל על בתו וחפוי ראש על שאירע לו,ויספר המן לזרש אשתו ולכל אוהביו וגו' קרי להו אוהביו וקרי להו חכמיו אמר רבי יוחנן כל האומר דבר חכמה אפילו באומות העולם נקרא חכם,אם מזרע היהודים מרדכי וגו' אמרו ליה אי משאר שבטים קאתי יכלת ליה ואי משבט יהודה ובנימין ואפרים ומנשה לא יכלת ליה יהודה דכתיב (בראשית מט, ח) ידך בערף אויביך אינך דכתיב בהו (תהלים פ, ג) לפני אפרים ובנימין ומנשה עוררה את גבורתך,(אסתר ו, יג) כי נפל תפול לפניו דרש ר' יהודה בר אלעאי שתי נפילות הללו למה אמרו לו אומה זו משולה לעפר ומשולה לכוכבים כשהן יורדין יורדין עד עפר וכשהן עולין עולין עד לכוכבים,(אסתר ו, יד) וסריסי המלך הגיעו ויבהילו מלמד שהביאוהו בבהלה,כי נמכרנו אני ועמי וגו' אין הצר שוה בנזק המלך אמרה לו צר זה אינו שוה בנזק של מלך איקני בה בושתי וקטלה השתא איקני בדידי ומבעי למקטלי,ויאמר המלך אחשורוש ויאמר לאסתר המלכה ויאמר ויאמר למה לי אמר רבי אבהו בתחלה על ידי תורגמן כיון דאמרה ליה מדבית שאול קאתינא מיד ויאמר לאסתר המלכה:,ותאמר אסתר איש צר ואויב המן הרע הזה אמר ר' אלעזר מלמד שהיתה מחווה כלפי אחשורוש ובא מלאך וסטר ידה כלפי המן:,והמלך קם בחמתו וגו' והמלך שב מגנת הביתן מקיש שיבה לקימה מה קימה בחימה אף שיבה בחימה דאזל ואשכח למלאכי השרת דאידמו ליה כגברי וקא עקרי לאילני דבוסתני ואמר להו מאי עובדייכו אמרו ליה דפקדינן המן,אתא לביתיה והמן נופל על המטה נופל נפל מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שבא מלאך והפילו עליה אמר ויי מביתא ויי מברא ויאמר המלך הגם לכבוש את המלכה עמי בבית,ויאמר חרבונה וגו' אמר רבי אלעזר אף חרבונה רשע באותה עצה היה כיון שראה שלא נתקיימה עצתו מיד ברח והיינו דכתיב (איוב כז, כב) וישלך עליו ולא יחמול מידו ברוח יברח,וחמת המלך שככה שתי שכיכות הללו למה אחת של מלכו של עולם ואחת של אחשורוש ואמרי לה אחת של אסתר ואחת של ושתי,(בראשית מה, כב) לכלם נתן לאיש חליפות שמלות ולבנימן נתן חמש חליפות אפשר דבר שנצטער בו אותו צדיק 16a. b that Shimshai, /b the king’s scribe who hated the Jews (see Ezra 4:17), b was erasing /b the description of Mordecai’s saving the king, b and /b the angel b Gavriel was writing /b it again. Therefore, it was indeed being written in the present. b Rabbi Asi said: Rabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, taught: If something written /b down b below /b in this world b that is for the benefit of the Jewish people cannot be erased, is it not all the more so /b the case b that something written /b up b above /b in Heaven cannot be erased?,The verse states that Ahasuerus was told with regard to Mordecai: b “Nothing has been done for him” /b (Esther 6:3). b Rava said: It is not because they love Mordecai /b that the king’s servants said this, b but rather because they hate Haman. /b ,The verse states: “Now Haman had come into the outer court of the king’s house, to speak to the king about hanging Mordecai on the gallows that he had b prepared for him” /b (Esther 6:4). A Sage b taught /b in a i baraita /i : This should be understood to mean: On the gallows that b he had prepared for himself. /b ,The verse relates that Ahasuerus ordered Haman to fulfill his idea of the proper way to honor one who the king desires to glorify by parading him around on the king’s horse while wearing the royal garments: “And do so to Mordecai the Jew who sits at the king’s gate, let nothing fail of all that you have spoken” (Esther 6:10). The Gemara explains that when Ahasuerus said to Haman: b “And do so to Mordecai,” /b Haman b said to him /b in an attempt to evade the order: b Who is Mordecai? /b Ahasuerus b said to him: “The Jew.” /b Haman then b said to him: There are several /b men named b Mordecai among the Jews. /b Ahasuerus then b said to him: /b I refer to the one b “who sits at the king’s gate.” /b ,Haman b said to him: /b Why award him such a great honor? b It would /b certainly b be enough for him /b to receive b one village [ i disekarta /i ] /b as an estate, b or one river /b for the levy of taxes. Ahasuerus b said to him: This too you must give him. “Let nothing fail of all that you have spoken,” /b i.e., provide him with all that you proposed and spoke about in addition to what I had said.,The Gemara describes what occurred as Haman went to follow the king’s orders, as the verse states: b “Then Haman took the apparel and the horse” /b (Esther 6:11). When b he went, he found /b Mordecai b as the Sages were sitting before him, and he was demonstrating to them the i halakhot /i of the handful, /b i.e., the scooping out of a handful of flour from the meal-offering in order to burn it on the altar. b Once Mordecai saw him coming toward him with his horse’s /b reins b held in his hands, he became frightened, /b and b he said to the Sages: This evil man has come to kill me. Go away from him so that you should not get burnt from his coals, /b i.e., that you should not suffer harm as well. b At that moment Mordecai wrapped himself /b in his prayer shawl b and stood up to pray. Haman came /b over to where they were b and sat down before them and waited until Mordecai finished his prayer. /b ,In the interim, as he waited, Haman b said to /b the other Sages: b With what were you occupied? They said to him: When the Temple is standing, one who pledges a meal-offering would bring a handful of fine flour and achieve atonement with it. He said to them: Your handful of fine flour has come and cast aside my ten thousand pieces of silver, /b which I had pledged toward the destruction of the Jewish people. When Mordecai finished praying, b he said to /b Haman: b Wicked man, /b when b a slave buys property, to whom belongs the slave and to whom belongs the property? /b As I once bought you as a slave, what silver can be yours?,Haman b said to him: Stand up, put on these garments and ride on this horse, for the king wants you /b to do so. Mordecai b said to him: I cannot /b do so b until I enter the bathhouse /b [ b i bei vanei /i /b ] b and trim my hair, for it is not proper conduct to use the king’s garments in this state /b that I am in now.,In the meantime, b Esther sent /b messengers and b closed all the bathhouses and all /b the shops of b the craftsmen, /b including the bloodletters and barbers. When Haman saw that there was nobody else to do the work, b he /b himself b took /b Mordecai b into the bathhouse and washed him, and /b then b he went and brought scissors [ i zuza /i ] from his house and trimmed his hair. /b While b he was trimming /b his hair b he injured himself and sighed. /b Mordecai b said to him: Why do you sigh? /b Haman b said to him: The man whom the king had /b once b regarded above all his /b other b ministers is now made a bathhouse attendant /b [ b i balanei /i /b ] b and a barber. /b Mordecai b said to him: Wicked man, were you not /b once b the barber of the village of Kartzum? /b If so, why do you sigh? You have merely returned to the occupation of your youth. It b was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Haman was the barber of the village of Kartzum for twenty-two years. /b , b After /b Haman b trimmed his hair, /b Haman b dressed /b Mordecai in b the /b royal b garments. /b Haman then b said to him: Mount /b the horse b and ride. /b Mordecai b said to him: I am unable, as my strength has waned from the days of fasting /b that I observed. Haman then b stooped down /b before him b and /b Mordecai b ascended /b on him. b As he was ascending /b the horse, Mordecai b gave /b Haman b a kick. /b Haman b said to him: Is it not written for you: “Do not rejoice when your enemy falls” /b (Proverbs 24:17)? Mordecai b said to him: This /b statement b applies /b only to b Jews, but with regard to you it is written: “And you shall tread upon their high places” /b (Deuteronomy 33:29).,The verse states: b “And he proclaimed before him: Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delights to honor” /b (Esther 6:11). b As /b Haman b was taking /b Mordecai b along the street of Haman’s house, /b Haman’s b daughter was standing on the roof and saw /b the spectacle. b She thought /b to herself that b the one who is riding /b on the horse must be b her father, and the one walking before him /b must be b Mordecai. She /b then b took a chamber pot /b full of feces b and cast its /b contents b onto the head of her father, /b whom she mistakenly took as Mordecai. When Haman b raised his eyes /b in disgust afterward, and looked up at his daughter, b she saw that he was her father. /b In her distress, b she fell from the roof to the ground and died. /b , b And this is as it is written: “And Mordecai returned to the king’s gate” /b (Esther 6:12). b Rav Sheshet said: /b This means b that he returned to his sackcloth and his fasting /b over the troubles of the Jewish people. Simultaneously, b “but Haman hastened to his house, mourning, and having his head covered” /b (Esther 6:12). b “Mourning”; over /b the death of b his daughter. “And having his head covered”; due to what had happened to him, /b as his head was full of filth.,The following verse states: b “And Haman recounted to Zeresh his wife and to all his friends /b everything that had befallen him. Then his wise men and Zeresh his wife said to him: If Mordecai, before whom you have begun to fall, be of the seed of the Jews, then you will not prevail over him, but you shall fall before him” (Esther 6:13). The Gemara comments: At the beginning of the verse b it calls them “his friends,” and /b in the continuation of the verse b it calls them “his wise men.” Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whoever says something wise, even if /b he is b from the nations of the world, is called /b a b wise /b man.,The Gemara explains that their wise remark, which earned them their distinction, is contained in their advice: b “If Mordecai be of the seed of the Jews [ i Yehudim /i ], /b then you will not prevail over him” (Esther 6:13). The word i Yehudim /i can also refer to people from the tribe of Judah. Haman’s wise men thereby b said to him: If he descends from the other tribes, you can /b still b prevail over him, but if he /b descends b from the tribe of /b either b Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, or Manasseh, you cannot prevail over him. /b With regard to b Judah, /b the proof of this is b as it is written: “Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies” /b (Genesis 49:8), indicating that Judah will emerge victorious over his enemies. And the proof that Haman cannot prevail over b the others /b that were mentioned is b as it is written with regard to them: “Before Ephraim and Benjamin and Manasseh, stir up Your might” /b (Psalms 80:3).,The wise men continued: b “But you shall fall [ i nafol tippol /i ] before him” /b (Esther 6:13). b Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai interpreted /b a verse b homiletically: Why are these two fallings, /b i nafol /i and i tippol /i , mentioned here? The wise men b said to /b Haman: b This /b Jewish b nation is compared /b in the Bible b to the dust /b of the earth b and it is /b also b compared to the stars /b in heaven. This teaches you that b when they descend, they descend to the dust, and when they rise, they rise to the stars. /b Accordingly, when Mordecai is on the rise, you will be utterly incapable of prevailing over him.,The next verse states: b “The king’s chamberlains came, and they hastened [ i vayavhilu /i ] /b to bring Haman” (Esther 6:14). b This teaches that they brought him in disarray [ i behala /i ], /b not even giving him a chance to wash himself from the filth.,During the banquet Esther said to Ahasuerus: b “For we are sold, I and my people, /b to be destroyed, to be slain, and to be annihilated. But if we had been sold merely for bondmen and bondwomen, I would have held my tongue, b since the affliction [ i tzar /i ] would not have been worth [ i eino shoveh /i ] the damage to the king” /b (Esther 7:4). The Gemara explains that b she said to him: This adversary [ i tzar /i ] is not concerned [ i eino shoveh /i ] about the damage /b that he is constantly causing b to the king. First he was jealous of Vashti and killed her, /b as it has been explained that Memucan, who suggesting killing Vashti, was Haman; b now he is jealous of me and desires to kill me. /b ,The verse states: b “Then said the king Ahasuerus and said to Esther the queen” /b (Esther 7:5). The Gemara asks: b Why do I /b need it to say b “said” /b and again b “said”? Rabbi Abbahu said: At first /b he spoke to her b through the translator, /b who would interpret on his behalf, because he thought that she was a common woman of lowly ancestry. b Once she told him that she came from the house of Saul, immediately /b it says: b “And said to Esther the queen.” /b Ahasuerus himself spoke to her, as if she had royal lineage, she was a woman befitting his status.,The next verse states: b “And Esther said: An adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman” /b (Esther 7:6). b Rabbi Elazar said: /b This b teaches that she was /b in fact b pointing toward Ahasuerus, /b indicating that in fact he was an adversary and enemy, b and an angel came and pushed her hand toward Haman. /b ,The verse states: b “And the king arose /b from the banquet of wine b in his wrath /b and went into the palace garden” (Esther 7:7), and the next verse states: b “Then the king returned out of the palace garden /b to the place of the wine drinking” (Esther 7:8). The Gemara comments: The verses here b compare his returning to his arising: Just as his arising /b was b in wrath, so too, his returning /b was b in wrath. /b And why did he return in wrath? b For /b when b he went /b out b he found ministering angels who appeared to him as people and they were uprooting trees from the garden, and he said to them: What are you doing? They said to him: Haman commanded us /b to do this.,And when b he entered his house /b he saw that b “Haman was falling upon the bed” /b (Esther 7:8). The Gemara asks: Why does it say b “was falling” [ i nofel /i ] /b in the present tense, implying that he was currently falling? b It should have said “fell” [ i nafal /i ] /b in the past tense. b Rabbi Elazar said: This teaches that an angel came and pushed him down on it, /b and every time he would try to stand up, the angel would push him down again. Ahasuerus b said: Woe unto /b me b in the house and woe /b unto me b outside, /b as the verse continues: b “Then the king said: Will he even force the queen before me in the house?” /b (Esther 7:8)., b “And Harbonah, /b one of the chamberlains, b said /b before the king, Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman has made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, stands in the house of Haman” (Esther 7:9). b Rabbi Elazar said: Harbonah was also wicked and involved in that plot, /b as he too wanted Mordecai executed. b Once he saw that his plot had not succeeded, he immediately fled /b and joined Mordecai’s side. b And this is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “It hurls itself at him, and does not spare; he would fain flee out of its hand” /b (Job 27:22), indicating that when God sends calamity upon a wicked person, his friends immediately flee from him.,The verse states: b “Then the king’s wrath was assuaged [ i shakhakha /i ]” /b (Esther 7:10). The Gemara asks: b Why are there two assuagings here? /b The term i shakhakha /i is used rather than i shaka /i and indicates doubled wrath. There was b one /b assuaging of the wrath b of the King of the universe, and one /b of the wrath b of Ahasuerus. And some say: /b Ahasuerus’s wrath burned within him for two reasons; b one due to /b Haman’s involvement with b Esther, and one due to /b his involvement with b Vashti, /b and now they were both assuaged.,Before continuing its midrashic interpretation of the rest of the book of Esther, the Gemara expounds a verse concerning Joseph that relates to the Megilla: b “To all of them he gave each man changes of clothing, but to Benjamin he gave /b three hundred pieces of silver, and b five changes /b of clothing” (Genesis 45:22). The Gemara asks: b Is it possible that in the /b very b thing from which that righteous man /b Joseph b had suffered, /b as his father’s show of favoritism toward him aroused the enmity of his brothers,
156. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 221
20a. והכי קאמר מחצלת הקנים גדולה עשאה לשכיבה מקבלת טומאה ואין מסככין בה טעמא דעשאה לשכיבה הא סתמא נעשה כמי שעשאה לסיכוך מסככין בה (קטנה עשאה לסיכוך מסככין בה טעמא דעשאה לסיכוך הא סתמא נעשה כמי שעשאה לשכיבה ואין מסככין בה) ואתא ר' אליעזר למימר אחת קטנה ואחת גדולה סתמא כשרה לסיכוך,אמר ליה אביי אי הכי ר' אליעזר אומר אחת קטנה ואחת גדולה אחת גדולה ואחת קטנה מיבעי ליה,ועוד כי פליגי בגדולה הוא דפליגי ורבי אליעזר לחומרא דתניא מחצלת הקנים בגדולה מסככין בה ר' אליעזר אומר אם אינה מקבלת טומאה מסככין בה,אלא אמר רב פפא בקטנה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דסתמא לשכיבה כי פליגי בגדולה ת"ק סבר סתם גדולה לסיכוך ורבי אליעזר סבר סתם גדולה נמי לשכיבה,ומאי עשאה לשכיבה דקאמר הכי קאמר סתם עשייתה נמי לשכיבה עד דעביד לסיכוך,ת"ר מחצלת של שיפה ושל גמי גדולה מסככין בה קטנה אין מסככין בה של קנים ושל חילת גדולה מסככין בה ארוגה אין מסככין בה,רבי ישמעאל בר' יוסי אומר משום אביו אחת זו ואחת זו מסככין בה וכן היה רבי דוסא אומר כדבריו,תנן התם כל החוצלות מטמאין טמא מת דברי ר' דוסא וחכמים אומרים מדרס,מדרס אין טמא מת לא והא אנן תנן כל המטמא מדרס מטמא טמא מת אימא אף מדרס,מאי חוצלות אמר רב אבדימי בר המדורי מרזובלי מאי מרזובלי אמר ר' אבא מזבלי ר' שמעון בן לקיש אומר מחצלות ממש,ואזדא ריש לקיש לטעמיה דאמר ריש לקיש הריני כפרת רבי חייא ובניו שבתחלה כשנשתכחה תורה מישראל עלה עזרא מבבל ויסדה חזרה ונשתכחה עלה הלל הבבלי ויסדה חזרה ונשתכחה עלו רבי חייא ובניו ויסדוה וכן אמר רבי חייא ובניו לא נחלקו רבי דוסא וחכמים על מחצלות של אושא 20a. b And this is what /b the mishna b is saying: /b With regard to b a large mat of reeds, /b if b one produced it for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it, b it is susceptible to ritual impurity, and one /b may b not roof /b a i sukka /i b with it. /b The b reason /b is that b one produced it /b specifically b for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it; however, by inference, a mat that one produced b without designation becomes as /b a mat b produced for roofing, /b and one may b roof /b a i sukka /i b with it. /b With regard to b a small mat of reeds, /b if b one produced it for roofing, one /b may b roof /b a i sukka /i b with it. /b The b reason /b is that b one produced it /b specifically b for roofing; /b however, by inference, a mat that one produced b without designation becomes as /b a mat b produced for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it, b and /b one may b not roof /b a i sukka /i b with it. And Rabbi Eliezer comes to say /b that b both a small /b mat b and a large /b one produced b without designation /b are b fit /b for roofing., b Abaye said to him: If so, /b if their dispute is only with regard to a small mat, then instead of saying: b Rabbi Eliezer says: Both a small /b mat b and a large /b mat, the mishna b needed /b to say: b Both a large /b mat b and a small /b mat. In a phrase with the format: Both this and that, one typically mentions the more obvious item first. Why then, does Rabbi Eliezer mention the small mat first, if it is with regard to the small mat that they disagree?, b And furthermore, /b there is proof that b when they disagree, /b it b is with regard to a large /b mat, b and Rabbi Eliezer’s /b opinion is b a stringency /b and not a leniency, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b a reed mat, with a large /b mat b one /b may b roof /b a i sukka /i . b Rabbi Eliezer says: If it is not susceptible to ritual impurity, one /b may b roof /b his i sukka /i b with it. /b Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer holds that without designation, one may not roof his i sukka /i with a large mat., b Rather, Rav Pappa said: /b Rava’s proposed resolution is rejected. Rather, b with regard to a small /b mat, b everyone agrees that /b if it was produced b without designation, /b presumably it is b for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it. b When they disagree, is with regard to a large /b mat: b The first i tanna /i holds /b that b a large /b mat produced b without designation /b is presumably b for roofing, and Rabbi Eliezer holds /b that b a large /b mat produced b without designation /b is b also /b presumably b for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it., b What, /b then, is the meaning of: If b one produced it for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it, b that /b Rabbi Eliezer b states? This is what /b he b is saying: Making mats without designation is also for /b the purpose of b lying /b upon it, b until one makes /b it specifically b for roofing. /b ,§ b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : In the case of b a mat [ i maḥatzelet /i ] /b woven b of papyrus or bulrushes, /b if it is b a large /b mat, b one /b may b roof /b a i sukka /i b with it, /b as it is not typically produced for the purpose of lying upon it. If it is b a small /b mat, b one /b may b not roof /b a i sukka /i b with it, /b as it is typically produced for the purpose of lying upon it. However, with regard to a mat produced b of /b ordinary b reeds or reeds /b specifically used b for plaiting, /b if the mat is plaited with b a large, /b coarse weave, b one /b may b roof /b a i sukka /i b with it, /b as it was certainly not produced for the purpose of lying upon it. If it is b woven /b with a small, fine weave, b one /b may b not roof /b the i sukka /i b with it, /b as typically mats of this sort are woven only for the purpose of lying upon them., b Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said in the name of his father: Both with this /b plaited mat b and with that /b woven mat, b one /b may b roof /b a i sukka /i , as without specific designation otherwise they are not produced for the purpose of lying upon them, and therefore they are ritually pure. b And likewise, Rabbi Dosa would say in accordance with his statement. /b , b We learned /b in a mishna b there: All /b types of b i ḥotzalot /i can become ritually impure /b with b impurity /b imparted by b a corpse. /b Since their legal status is that of a vessel, they become a primary source of ritual impurity. This is b the statement of Rabbi Dosa. And the Rabbis say: /b They become impure with the impurity imparted by b treading. /b If a i zav /i lies or sits on one of the i ḥotzalot /i , they become a primary source of ritual impurity, like a chair or bed of a i zav /i .,The Gemara asks: Impurity imparted by b treading, yes; impurity /b imparted by b a corpse, no? But didn’t we learn /b in a mishna: b Any item that becomes ritually impure /b with impurity imparted b by treading /b also b becomes ritually impure /b with other types of impurity, including impurity b imparted by a corpse, /b although the reverse is not necessarily so. The opinion of the Rabbis is difficult. The Gemara explains: Emend the mishna and b say: /b They become ritually impure b even /b with the impurity imparted by b treading. /b These mats are not merely nondescript vessels, which become primary sources of ritual impurity through exposure to a corpse, they are vessels designated for sitting and lying upon them, and therefore they also become primary sources of ritual impurity if a i zav /i sits or lies upon them.,The Gemara asks about the term used in the mishna: b What /b is the meaning of b i ḥotzalot /i ? Rav Avdimi bar Hamduri said: /b They are b i marzovelei /i . /b The Gemara is unfamiliar with the term and asks: b What /b is the meaning of b i marzovelei /i ? Rabbi Abba said: /b They are called b i mezablei /i /b in Babylonia. They are leather sacks used by shepherds to feed their animals. Shepherds place them under their heads when lying down. b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: /b i Ḥotzalot /i are a different term for b actual mats. /b ,The Gemara notes: b And Reish Lakish follows his /b line of b reasoning /b stated elsewhere, b as Reish Lakish said: I am the atonement for Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons, as initially, when /b some of the b Torah /b laws were b forgotten from /b the b Jewish people /b in Eretz Yisrael, b Ezra ascended from Babylonia and reestablished /b the forgotten laws. Parts of the Torah were b again forgotten /b in Eretz Yisrael, and b Hillel the Babylonian ascended and reestablished /b the forgotten sections. When parts of the Torah were b again forgotten /b in Eretz Yisrael, b Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons ascended and reestablished /b the forgotten sections. This expression of deference toward Rabbi Ḥiyya introduces the i halakha /i that Reish Lakish is citing in his name. b And so said Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons: Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis did not disagree concerning the /b soft b mats of Usha, /b
157. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 5.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 124
158. Babylonian Talmud, Tamid, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 494
27b. הניחא למ"ד אבנטו של כ"ג לא זהו אבנטו של כהן הדיוט אלא למ"ד אבנטו של כהן הדיוט זהו אבנטו של כ"ג מאי איכא למימר,וכי תימא כלאים בעליה ולבישה הוא דאסור אבל מימך תותיה שפיר דמי והתניא (ויקרא יט, יט) לא יעלה עליך אבל אתה מציעו תחתיך אבל אמרו חכמים אסור לעשות כן שמא תיכרך נימא אחת על בשרו,וכי תימא דמפסיק מידי והאמר ר"ש א"ר יהושע בן לוי א"ר יוסי בן שאול משום קהלא קדישא שבירושלים אפילו עשר מצעות זו על גב זו וכלאים תחתיהן אסור לישן עליהן אלא ש"מ נגד ראשיהן,ואי בעית אימא באותן שאין בהן כלאים רב אשי אמר בגדי כהונה קשין הן דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע הא נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא,ת"ש בגדי כהונה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור במקדש בין בשעת עבודה ובין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן ש"מ,ובמדינה לא והתניא בכ"א בו יום הר גריזים דלא למיספד כדאיתא ביומא פרק בא לו כ"ג קרוב וכו',עד איבעית אימא ראויין הן לבגדי כהונה,ואי בעית אימא (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך:,אירע קרי באחד מהן [וכו']:,מסייע ליה לר' יוחנן דאמר מחילות לא נתקדשו ובעל קרי משתלח חוץ לשני מחנות:,והנרות דולקין מכאן ומכאן כו': רב ספרא הוה יתיב בבית הכסא אתא ר' אבא נחר ליה א"ל ליעול מר,בתר דנפיק א"ל ר' אבא ע"כ לא סליקת לשעיר גמרת מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם למימרא דלא מיבעי ליה למיעל,ורב ספרא סבר דלמא מסוכן הוא כדתני' רשב"ג אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון,א"ל רב לחייא בריה וכן א"ל רב הונא לרבה בריה חשיך תקין נפשך וקדים תקין נפשך כי היכי דלא תרחק תוב וגלי כסי וקום,שטוף ושתי [שטוף] ואחית וכשאתה שותה מים שפוך מהן ואח"כ תן לתלמידך,כדתניא לא ישתה אדם מים ויתן לתלמידו אלא אם כן שפך מהן ומעשה באחד ששתה מים ולא שפך מהן ונתן לתלמידו ואותו תלמיד איסטניס היה ולא רצה לשתות ומת בצמא באותה שעה אמרו לא ישתה אדם מים ויתן לתלמידו אא"כ שפך מהן רב אשי אמר הילכך האי תלמידא דשפיך קמי רביה לית ביה משום אפקירותא,כל מילי לא תיפלוט באפי רבך בר מקרא ודייסא דכפתילה של אבר דמו,תנן התם איש הר הבית היה מחזר על כל משמר ומשמר ואבוקות דולקות לפניו וכל משמר שאינו עומד וא"ל איש הר הבית 27b. The Gemara explains the difficulty: If one maintains that the mishna permits the priests to place the vestments beneath their heads, b this works out well according to the one who said /b that b the belt of the High Priest is not the same as the belt of an ordinary priest. /b Although the belt of the High Priest was made of both wool and linen, the belt of ordinary priests, like the rest of their vestments, were made entirely of linen and did not contain diverse kinds. b But according to the one who said /b that b the belt of an ordinary priest is the same as the belt of the High Priest, what is there to say? /b Since the belt contained diverse kinds, how could the mishna possibly permit the priests to sleep upon their vestments?, b And if you would say /b that with regard to b diverse kinds it is /b only b placing /b the garment b upon /b oneself b or wearing /b it b that is prohibited, but /b as for b spreading /b it b beneath you, /b it is b permitted, /b this explanation is difficult. b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “Neither shall there come upon you /b a garment of diverse kinds” (Leviticus 19:19). One should infer as follows: b But you may spread /b a garment of diverse kinds b beneath you, /b in order to lie upon it. The i baraita /i continues: This is the i halakha /i by Torah law, b but the Sages said /b that b it is prohibited to do so, lest a single fiber wrap /b itself b upon his flesh, /b which would cause him to be in transgression of the Torah prohibition. Accordingly, the priests should not be permitted to place vestments made of diverse kinds beneath their heads., b And if you would say /b that the priests could place the vestments beneath their heads in such a manner b that something separates /b between their flesh and the vestments, as the fibers could not wrap themselves upon their flesh, such conduct would still be prohibited. b Doesn’t Rabbi Shimon say /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says /b that b Rabbi Yosei ben Shaul says in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem: Even /b if there are b ten mattresses /b piled b one atop the other and /b a garment of b diverse kinds /b is placed b beneath /b all of b them, it is prohibited to sleep upon them? /b This is because the rabbinic decree applies equally to all cases, irrespective of whether the concern that motivated the decree exists. b Rather, /b one may b conclude from /b here that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only b next to their heads. /b ,The Gemara suggests alternative solutions: b And if you wish, say /b instead that the mishna does permit the priests to place the vestments beneath their heads, as it is referring b to those /b vestments b that do not contain diverse kinds. Rav Ashi says: /b The mishna permits the priests to place even the belt that contains diverse kinds beneath their heads. This is because the b priestly vestments, /b and specifically the belt, b are stiff, /b and therefore it is not prohibited to lie on them. b As Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Yehoshua, said: This stiff felt [ i namta /i ], /b which is manufactured b in /b the city of b Neresh /b and is made of diverse kinds, b is permitted. /b The prohibition of diverse kinds applies only to items that are similar to garments, which one derives pleasure from wearing. A stiff garment does not provide warmth, and is therefore not included in this prohibition.,The Gemara returns to discuss the earlier dilemma, of whether it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. b Come /b and b hear /b a i baraita /i : With regard to the b priestly vestments, /b the act of b one who leaves /b the Temple dressed b in them /b and goes out b to the country, /b i.e., outside the Temple, is b prohibited. But in the Temple, both at the time of /b the Temple b service and not at the time of /b the b service, /b wearing the vestments is b permitted, as it is permitted to derive benefit from the priestly vestments. /b The Gemara concludes: One may b conclude from /b the i baraita /i that it is permitted to derive benefit from the priestly vestments.,According to the i baraita /i , the priestly vestments may not be worn outside the Temple. The Gemara asks: b And /b is it b not /b permitted to wear the priestly vestments b in /b the rest of b the country, /b outside the Temple? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i , in connection with a date mentioned in i Megillat Ta’anit /i : b On the twenty-first of /b Tevet, this is b the day of Mount Gerizim, which /b was established as a festive day, and therefore it is b not /b permitted b to eulogize. /b This date was established as a festive day because the Temple was saved from destruction on that day, due to the actions of Shimon HaTzaddik, the High Priest, b as it is /b related b in /b tractate b i Yoma /i /b (69a), in the seventh b chapter, /b which begins: b The High Priest came close /b to read the Torah.,The i baraita /i relates that Shimon HaTzaddik went to greet Alexander the Macedonian wearing the priestly vestments. The Gemara in i Yoma /i cites the complete i baraita /i , b up to /b the Gemara’s explanation as to why Shimon HaTzaddik wore the priestly vestments outside the Temple: b If you wish, say /b that Shimon HaTzaddik did not wear consecrated priestly vestments. Rather, he wore garments that were b fit to be priestly vestments, /b i.e., they were made of the same material and design., b And if you wish, say /b instead that he did in fact wear consecrated priestly vestments. Although this is usually prohibited, in this instance it was permitted due to the principle: b “It is time to act for the Lord; they have nullified Your Torah” /b (Psalms 119:126). In times of great need, such as when one seeks to prevent the destruction of the Temple, it is permitted to violate the i halakha /i for the sake of Heaven, and the actions of Shimon HaTzaddik indeed averted the destruction.,§ The mishna teaches (25b): If b a seminal emission befell one of /b the priests and rendered him ritually impure, he would leave the Chamber of the Hearth and he would walk through the circuitous passage that extended beneath the Temple, as he could not pass through the Temple courtyard, due to his impurity.,The Gemara notes that this mishna b supports /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoḥa, who says: /b The b tunnels /b beneath the Temple Mount b were not sanctified, /b neither with the sanctity of the Temple courtyard nor with the sanctity of the Temple Mount. The Gemara cites a related statement of Rabbi Yoḥa: b A man who experienced a seminal emission is sent outside of two camps, /b the camp of the Divine Presence and the camp of the Levites. Accordingly, he may not remain in the Temple courtyard, which has the status of the camp of the Divine Presence, nor on the Temple Mount, which has the status of the camp of the Levites.,The mishna teaches: b And the lamps were burning on this /b side b and on that /b side of the passage…and there was a bathroom of honor in the Chamber of Immersion. This was its honor: If one found the door closed, he would know that there was a person there, and he would wait for him to exit before entering. The Gemara relates: b Rav Safra was sitting in the bathroom /b when b Rabbi Abba came /b along. Since there was no door, Rabbi Abba b coughed /b outside b to /b alert anyone within of his presence and thereby inquire whether he could enter. Rav Safra b said to /b Rabbi Abba: b Enter, Master, /b and Rabbi Abba therefore entered the bathroom., b When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to /b Rav Safra: b Until now, /b although you have traveled widely, b you have never entered Seir, /b the land of the Edomites, who behave immodestly. Nevertheless, b you have learned the ways of Seir. Didn’t we learn this /b in the mishna: If one b found /b the door b closed, it was known that there was a person there, /b and one would wait for him to exit before entering. This serves b to say that /b a person b should not enter /b the bathroom while another person is inside. Therefore, Rav Safra should not have told Rabbi Abba to enter.,The Gemara explains that b Rav Safra /b told Rabbi Abba to enter because he b thought: Perhaps /b Rabbi Abba b is in danger. /b Rav Safra was concerned that if Rabbi Abba waited for him to exit, Rabbi Abba might jeopardize his health, b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A column /b of feces b that is held back, /b because one refrains from relieving himself, b causes a person to /b suffer from b edema [ i hidrokan /i ]. A stream /b of urine b that is held back causes a person to /b suffer from b jaundice [ i yerakon /i ]. /b , b Rav said to his son Ḥiyya, and likewise Rav Huna said to his son Rabba: Relieve yourself /b when it b gets dark, and relieve yourself before /b daybreak, even if you have no particular need to do so. The reason is that the streets are mostly empty at these times, and one can relieve himself near his home without concern that he might be seen. This is important, b so that /b you b will not /b have to relieve yourself during the day, when the streets are full, and you will be compelled to retain your feces while you b distance yourself, /b which is liable to jeopardize your health. Furthermore, when relieving yourself, you should behave modestly. b Sit /b down first b and /b only then b uncover /b yourself; afterward, b cover /b yourself first b and /b only then b stand up. /b ,With regard to drinking, these i amora’im /i instructed their sons: When you drink wine, b rinse /b the cup first b and /b only then b drink /b from it; after you drink, b rinse /b the cup b and /b only then b set /b it back in its place. b But when you drink water, /b it is not necessary to rinse the cup afterward; rather, b pour /b out some b of the /b water to rinse the rim of the cup, b and afterward you may give /b the cup b to your student, /b if he wants to drink., b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A person should not drink water and give /b the remaining water b to his student, unless he /b first b poured /b some b of it /b out. b And /b there was b an incident involving a certain /b individual b who drank water and did not pour /b some b of it /b out, b and he gave /b the cup b to his student. And that student was a delicate person [ i istenis /i ], and /b due to his sensitivity b he did not want to drink /b from the cup, b and he died of thirst. At that time, /b the Sages b said: A person should not drink water and give /b the remaining water b to his student unless /b he first b poured /b some b of it /b out. b Rav Ashi said: Therefore, /b in the case of b this student who pours /b water from the cup that his teacher drank from first, even if he does so b in the presence of his teacher, /b his actions b are not /b prohibited b due to disrespect [ i afkiruta /i ]. /b ,With regard to eating, these i amora’im /i instructed their sons: In the case of b anything /b that you are eating, if the food causes you to salivate and you need to spit out the saliva, b do not spit /b it b out in the presence of your teacher, /b as it is disrespectful, b except /b in the case b of /b a dish of b gourd or porridge. /b If one is eating gourds or porridge he may spit out the saliva even in the presence of his teacher, b as /b the saliva generated by these items is b like /b a molten b bar of lead, /b and refraining from spitting it out would be dangerous.,§ b We learned /b in a mishna b elsewhere /b ( i Middot /i 1:2): b The man [ i ish /i ] /b in charge of overseeing the watches b of the Temple Mount would circulate /b nightly b among each and every watch post, /b to ascertain that the watchmen were awake and performing their duty properly. b And /b there were b lit torches /b carried b before him, /b so that the watchmen would see him approaching. b And /b at b every watch post where /b the watchman would b not stand /b up, the man would test whether the watchman was sleeping; b and the man of the Temple Mount /b would b say to him: /b
159. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308
41b. מאתחלתא דמועד,וחזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנו לראש הכנסת שמעת מינה חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דמלך,והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב אגריפס המלך עמד וקיבל וקרא עומד עומד מכלל דיושב והאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנא' (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר וגו' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,ושבחוהו חכמים שבחוהו מכלל דשפיר עבד האמר רב אשי אפי' למ"ד נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנא' (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך,מצוה שאני,וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת תנא משמיה דרבי נתן באותה שעה נתחייבו שונאי ישראל כלייה שהחניפו לו לאגריפס,אמר ר' שמעון בן חלפתא מיום שגבר אגרופה של חנופה נתעוותו הדינין ונתקלקלו המעשים ואין אדם יכול לומר לחבירו מעשי גדולים ממעשיך,דרש ר' יהודה בר מערבא ואיתימא ר' שמעון בן פזי מותר להחניף לרשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (ישעיהו לב, ה) לא יקרא עוד לנבל נדיב ולכילי לא יאמר שוע מכלל דבעולם הזה שרי,ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, י) כראות פני אלהים ותרצני,ופליגא דרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי משל של יעקב ועשו למה הדבר דומה לאדם שזימן את חבירו והכיר בו שמבקש להורגו אמר לו טעם תבשיל זה שאני טועם כתבשיל שטעמתי בבית המלך אמר ידע ליה מלכא מיסתפי ולא קטיל ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה מביא אף לעולם שנא' (איוב לו, יג) וחנפי לב ישימו אף ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (איוב לו, יג) לא ישועו כי אסרם,סימן א"ף עוב"ר גיהנ"ם ביד"ו ניד"ה גול"ה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמן מקללין אותו שנא' (משלי כד, כד) אומר לרשע צדיק אתה יקבוהו עמים יזעמוהו לאומים ואין קוב אלא קללה שנא' (במדבר כג, ח) לא קבה אל ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנא' (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה נופל בגיהנם שנא' (ישעיהו ה, כ) הוי האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע וגו' מה כתיב אחריו לכן כאכל קש לשון אש וחשש להבה ירפה וגו',ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחניף לחבירו סוף נופל בידו ואם אינו נופל בידו נופל ביד בניו ואם אינו נופל ביד בניו נופל ביד בן בנו שנא' (ירמיהו כח, ה) ויאמר ירמיה לחנניה אמן כן יעשה ה' יקם ה' את דבריך וכתי' 41b. implying that the assembly takes place b at the beginning of the Festival, /b when the entire Jewish people comes to Jerusalem.,§ It is taught in the mishna: b And the synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue, /b until it is eventually passed to the king. The Gemara suggests: b You can learn from /b the fact that all of these dignitaries receive the Torah scroll before the king that b honor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher. Abaye said: /b A proof may not be adduced from here, as the b entire /b process b is for the honor of the king, /b to show that he is removed from ordinary people by many ranks.,It is taught in the mishna: b And the king stands, and receives /b the Torah scroll, b and reads /b from it while b sitting. King Agrippa arose, and received /b the Torah scroll, b and read /b from it while b standing. /b The Gemara asks: b By inference, /b until that point he had been b sitting. But didn’t the Master say /b ( i Tosefta /i , i Sanhedrin /i 4:4) that b sitting in the /b Temple b courtyard /b is permitted b only for kings from the house of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in, and sat before the Lord; and he said: /b Who am I?” (II Samuel 7:18). The Gemara answers: b As Rav Ḥisda said /b in a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but b in the women’s courtyard. Here too, /b the assembly was b in the women’s courtyard. /b ,It is stated in the mishna that King Agrippa read from the Torah while standing, b and the Sages praised him /b for this. The Gemara asks: b From the fact /b that b they praised him, /b can it be concluded b that he acted appropriately? Didn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who says /b with regard to b a i Nasi /i who relinquished /b the b honor /b due b him, his honor is relinquished, /b i.e., he may do so, with regard to b a king who relinquished /b the b honor /b due b him, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall place a king over you” /b (Deuteronomy 17:15). This is interpreted to mean b that his awe shall be upon you. /b The Torah establishes that awe is an essential component of kingship, and it is not the prerogative of the king to relinquish it.,The Gemara answers: Since he relinquished his honor for the sake of b a mitzva, /b this situation b is different /b and does not dishonor him.,The mishna continues: b And when /b Agrippa b arrived at /b the verse: b “You may not appoint /b a foreigner over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), tears flowed from his eyes because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation said to him: You are our brother. It is b taught in the name of Rabbi Natan: At that moment the enemies of the Jewish people, /b a euphemism for the Jewish people, b were sentenced to destruction for flattering Agrippa. /b , b Rabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta says: From the day that the power of flattery prevailed, the judgment has become corrupted, and /b people’s b deeds have become corrupted, and a person cannot say to another: My deeds are greater than your deeds, /b as everyone flatters one another and people no longer know the truth., b Rabbi Yehuda of the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b and some say Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught: It is permitted to flatter wicked people in this world, as it is stated /b concerning the future: b “The vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall the churl be said to be noble” /b (Isaiah 32:5). b By inference, /b this indicates b that in this world it is permitted /b to flatter them., b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said /b that this can be proven b from here. /b Jacob said to Esau: “I have seen your face, b as one sees the face of angels, and you were pleased with me” /b (Genesis 33:10). Jacob flattered him by comparing seeing him to seeing a divine vision.,The Gemara notes: b And /b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, in interpreting Jacob’s statement, b disagrees with Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says: /b With regard to the interaction between b Jacob and Esau, to what is this matter comparable? To a person who invited another /b to his home b and /b the guest b realized that he wants to kill him. /b The guest b said to him: The flavor of this dish that I taste is like a dish that I tasted in the king’s house. /b The host then b said /b to himself: b The king /b must b know him. /b Therefore, b he was afraid and did not kill him. /b Similarly, when Jacob told Esau that his face is like the face of an angel, he intended to let him know that he had seen angels, in order to instill fear in him so that Esau would not seek to harm him., b Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him brings wrath to the world, as it is stated: “But those with flattery in their hearts bring about wrath” /b (Job 36:13). b And moreover, his prayer is not heard, as it is stated /b in that same verse: b “They do not cry for help when He binds them.” /b ,The Gemara cites b a mnemonic /b device for the statements of Rabbi Elazar: b Wrath, fetus, Gehenna, in his hands, menstruating woman, exiled. /b , b And Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him, even fetuses in their mothers’ wombs curse him, as it is stated: “He who says to the wicked: You are righteous, peoples shall curse him [ i yikkevuhu /i ], nations [ i leummim /i ] shall execrate him” /b (Proverbs 24:24); b and i kov /i , /b the linguistic root of the word i yikkevuhu /i , means b only a curse, as it is stated: /b Balaam explained that he did not curse the Jewish people, as he said: “How can I curse [ i ekkov /i ] b whom God has not cursed [ i kabbo /i ]?” /b (Numbers 23:8). b And i le’om /i /b is homiletically interpreted to mean b only fetuses, as it is stated /b with regard to Jacob and Esau, when they were still in Rebecca’s womb: b “And one people [ i le’om /i ] shall be stronger than the other people [ i le’om /i ]” /b (Genesis 25:23)., b And Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil” /b (Isaiah 5:20). b What is written afterward? “Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours straw, and as the chaff is consumed by the flame” /b (Isaiah 5:24), meaning that the people described in the earlier verse will end up burning like straw in the fires of Gehenna., b And Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who flatters another ultimately falls into his hands. And if he does not fall into his hands, he falls into his children’s hands. And if he does not fall into his children’s hands, he falls into his grandchild’s hands, as it is stated: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Haiah…Amen, the Lord should do so, the Lord should perform your words” /b (Jeremiah 28:5–6). This was a form of flattery, as Jeremiah did not explicitly say that Haiah was a false prophet. b And it is written: /b
160. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
161. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49
146a. שבא נחש על חוה הטיל בה זוהמא ישראל שעמדו על הר סיני פסקה זוהמתן עובדי כוכבי' שלא עמדו על הר סיני לא פסקה זוהמתן א"ל רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי גרים מאי א"ל אע"ג דאינהו לא הוו מזלייהו הוו דכתיב (דברים כט, יד) את אשר ישנו פה עמנו עומד היום לפני ה' אלהינו ואת אשר איננו פה וגו',ופליגא דר' אבא בר כהנא דא"ר אבא בר כהנא עד שלשה דורות לא פסקה זוהמא מאבותינו אברהם הוליד את ישמעאל יצחק הוליד את עשו יעקב הוליד י"ב שבטים שלא היה בהן שום דופי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שובר אדם את החבית לאכול הימנה גרוגרות ובלבד שלא יתכוין לעשות כלי ואין נוקבין מגופה של חבית דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים מתירין ולא יקבנה מצדה ואם היתה נקובה לא יתן עליה שעוה מפני שהוא ממרח אמר ר' יהודה מעשה בא לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בערב ואמר חוששני לו מחטאת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אושעיא ל"ש אלא דרוסות אבל מפורדות לא ומפורדות לא,מיתיבי ר' שמעון בן גמליאל אומר מביא אדם את החבית של יין ומתיז ראשה בסייף ומניחה לפני האורחים בשבת ואינו חושש ההיא רבנן מתני' רבי נחמיה היא,ומאי דוחקיה דרבי אושעיא לאוקמי מתניתין כרבי נחמיה ובדרוסות לוקמה במפורדות ורבנן אמר רבא מתני' קשיתיה מאי איריא דתני גרוגרות ליתני פירות אלא ש"מ בדרוסות,תניא חדא חותלות של גרוגרות ושל תמרים מתיר ומפקיע וחותך ותניא אידך מתיר אבל לא מפקיע ולא חותך לא קשיא הא רבנן הא ר' נחמיה דתניא ר' נחמיה אומר אפי' תרווד ואפילו טלית ואפילו סכין אין ניטלין אלא לצורך תשמישן,בעו מיניה מרב ששת מהו למיברז חביתא בבורטיא בשבתא לפיתחא קמיכוין ואסיר או דילמא לעין יפה קמיכוין ושרי א"ל לפיתחא קא מכוין ואסיר,מיתיבי רשב"ג אומר מביא אדם חבית של יין ומתיז ראשה בסייף התם ודאי לעין יפה קמיכוין הכא אם איתא דלעין יפה קמיכוין לפתוחי מיפתח:,אין נוקבין מגופה וכו': אמר רב הונא מחלוקת למעלה אבל מן הצד דברי הכל אסור והיינו דקתני לא יקבנה מצדה ורב חסדא אמר מחלוקת מן הצד אבל על גבה דברי הכל מותר והא דקתני לא יקבנה מצדה התם בגופה דחבית,תנו רבנן אין נוקבין נקב חדש בשבת ואם בא להוסיף מוסיף ויש אומרים אין מוסיפין ושוין שנוקבין נקב ישן לכתחילה ותנא קמא מאי שנא מנקב חדש דלא דקא מתקן פיתחא אוסופי נמי קא מתקן פיתחא,אמר רבה דבר תורה כל פתח שאינו עשוי להכניס ולהוציא אינו פתח ורבנן הוא דגזור משום לול של תרנגולין דעביד לעיולי אוירא ולאפוקי הבלא ואם בא להוסיף מוסיף אוסופי ודאי בלול של תרנגולים לא אתי לאוסופי 146a. b the snake came upon Eve, /b i.e., when it seduced her to eat from the Tree of Knowledge, b it infected her with /b moral b contamination, /b and this contamination remained in all human beings. When the b Jewish people stood at Mount Sinai, their contamination ceased, /b whereas b gentiles did not stand at Mount Sinai, /b and b their contamination never ceased. Rav Aḥa, the son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What /b about b converts? /b How do you explain the cessation of their moral contamination? Rav Ashi b said to him: Even though they /b themselves b were not /b at Mount Sinai, b their guardian angels were /b present, b as it is written: /b “It is not with you alone that I make this covet and this oath, but b with he that stands here with us today before the Lord our God, and with he that is not here /b with us today” (Deuteronomy 29:13–14), and this includes converts.,The Gemara points out that this opinion b disagrees with Rabbi Abba bar Kahana, as Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: Until three generations /b passed, the moral b contamination did not cease from our forefathers: Abraham fathered Ishmael, /b who was of lowly moral stature; b Isaac fathered Esau; /b finally, b Jacob fathered twelve tribes in whom there was no flaw. /b Rabbi Abba bar Kahana holds that the moral contamination ceased in the Patriarchs long before the Revelation at Sinai., strong MISHNA: /strong b A person may break a barrel /b on Shabbat in order b to eat dried figs from it, provided he does not intend to make a vessel. And one may not perforate the plug of a barrel /b to extract wine from it; rather, one must remove the plug entirely to avoid creating a new opening for the barrel. This is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis permit /b puncturing the plug, but they too restrict this leniency and say that b one may not perforate /b the plug of the barrel b on its side. And if it was /b already b perforated, one may not apply wax to it /b to seal the hole, b because /b in doing so b he spreads /b the wax evenly on the barrel and thereby violates the prohibited labor of smoothing. b Rabbi Yehuda said: An incident /b of that kind b came before Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai in /b the city of b Arav, and he said: I am concerned for him, /b because he may be liable b to /b bring b a sin-offering /b as a result of this., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rabbi Oshaya said: They only taught /b that it is permitted to break open a barrel when the figs were b pressed /b together. This is because in that case it is permissible to use a utensil to separate the figs, that utensil may also be utilized to break open the barrel. b However, /b if the figs were already b separated, /b it is b not /b permitted to handle a utensil for the sole purpose of breaking the barrel. The Gemara asks: b And /b is it b not /b permitted to break the barrel for b separated /b figs?,The Gemara b raises an objection /b based on a i baraita /i : b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A person may bring a barrel of wine and cut off /b the b top /b of the barrel b with a sword and place it before the guests on Shabbat without concern /b that it is prohibited to move the sword or that doing so constitutes the creation of a new vessel, which is prohibited. Apparently, it is permitted to move a sword in order to open a barrel on Shabbat even if it is not needed to cut the contents of the barrel. The Gemara answers for Rabbi Oshaya: b That /b i baraita /i , which cites the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b whereas b our mishna is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Neḥemya, /b who said that it is prohibited to move any utensil on Shabbat for any purpose other than that for which the utensil is designated.,The Gemara asks: b And what forced Rabbi Oshaya to establish the mishna in accordance with /b the minority opinion of b Rabbi Neḥemya /b and to say that it is referring only b to /b the case of a b pressed /b dried figs? b Let him establish /b that the mishna is referring even b to separated /b figs b and /b is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis. Rava said: The mishna /b posed a b difficulty for him; why did /b the i tanna /i b teach particularly /b about b dried figs? Let him teach /b a more general i halakha /i with regard to b fruit. Rather, learn from here that /b the mishna is referring specifically to b pressed /b dried figs, and it is because one requires a utensil to separate them that he may use it to open the barrel as well., b It was taught in one /b i baraita /i : If one has sealed, wicker b baskets of dried figs or of dates, one may untie /b the basket’s knot on Shabbat, and b unbraid /b the basket b and cut /b it open. b And it was taught in another /b i baraita /i : b One may untie /b the knot, b but one may not unbraid or cut /b the basket. There is a contradiction between these two i baraitot /i . The Gemara resolves this contradiction: This is b not difficult. This /b i baraita /i , which permits all of these actions, is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis. That /b i baraita /i , which prohibits unbraiding and cutting, is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Neḥemya. As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Neḥemya says: Even a large spoon and even a cloak and even a knife may only be taken /b on Shabbat b for their /b designated b use, /b and it is therefore prohibited to take a knife to cut open baskets of fruit.,The students b raised a dilemma before Rav Sheshet: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard to whether or not it is permitted b to perforate a barrel with a spear [ i burtiya /i ] on Shabbat? /b Is the assumption that b one intends to /b make b an opening /b in the barrel b and /b it is therefore b prohibited, or perhaps /b is the assumption that b one /b merely b intends to /b display b generosity and it is permitted? /b Rav Sheshet b said to them: He intends to /b make b an opening /b in the barrel b and it is prohibited. /b ,The Gemara b raises an objection /b based on that which was taught in the i baraita /i that b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may bring a barrel of wine /b on Shabbat b and cut off its top with a sword. /b This contradicts Rav Sheshet’s opinion that opening a barrel with a spear is prohibited? He answered them: b There, /b in the case of the sword, since one essentially destroys the barrel by cutting off its top, b he certainly intends to /b display b generosity /b by breaking the barrel open in his guests’ honor. However, b here, /b in the case of spearing a hole in the barrel, b if it were /b true that b he intends /b to display b generosity, let him open /b the top of the barrel by removing its plug. By perforating the barrel, he indicates that he specifically wants there to be a small hole.,We learned in the mishna: b And one may not perforate the plug /b of a barrel; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, and the Rabbis permit it. b Rav Huna said: /b This b dispute /b is only with regard to a case where one seeks to make a perforation b on top /b of the plug; b however, /b if he seeks to perforate it b from the side, everyone agrees that it is prohibited, /b because people sometimes puncture a barrel beneath the plug in this way. b And that is /b what the mishna b is teaching: One may not perforate it on its side. /b Whereas b Rav Ḥisda said: /b This b dispute /b is with regard to a case where one seeks to perforate it b from the side; however, /b if one seeks to perforate it b on top, everyone agrees that it is permitted, and /b with regard to b that which /b the mishna b is teaching: One may not perforate it on its side, there /b it is referring to perforating b the barrel itself, /b not the plug., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may not create a new hole /b in a vessel b on Shabbat. And if one seeks to add /b to and widen an already existing hole, b one may add /b to it; b and some say /b that b one may not /b even b add /b to an already existing hole. b And /b all opinions, even those who generally prohibit creating new holes, agree b that one may perforate /b the seal over b an old hole, /b even b i ab initio /i . And /b with regard to the opinion of b the first i tanna /i , /b the Gemara asks: b What is different /b about perforating the seal over an old hole that makes it permitted, whereas b creating a new hole is not /b permitted? Is it because in creating the new hole b he is creating an opening? /b If so, by b adding /b to an already existing hole b he is also creating an opening. /b , b Rabba said: /b Actually, even creating a new hole is not prohibited, because b by Torah law, any opening that is not made to /b both b insert and to remove is not /b considered b an opening, /b and a hole that one perforates in a barrel is intended exclusively to remove the contents of the barrel. b And it was the Sages who issued a decree /b that one may not perforate a vessel b because /b it is similar to perforating b a chicken coop, /b which is designated for use in both directions, e.g., b to let in air and to let out heat, /b and it is therefore prohibited by Torah law. b And /b therefore we learned that b if one seeks to add /b to an existing hole b one may add /b to it. There is no reason to prohibit this due to concern that one may do so in a chicken coop, because b one will certainly not come to add to /b an already existing hole b in a chicken coop, /b
162. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
59b. מתני׳ big strongהאשה /strong /big שהיא עושה צרכיה וראתה דם רבי מאיר אומר אם עומדת טמאה ואם יושבת טהורה ר' יוסי אומר בין כך ובין כך טהורה,איש ואשה שעשו צרכיהן לתוך הספל ונמצא דם על המים רבי יוסי מטהר ורבי שמעון מטמא שאין דרך האיש להוציא דם אלא שחזקת דמים מן האשה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי שנא עומדת דאמרינן מי רגלים הדור למקור ואייתי דם יושבת נמי נימא מי רגלים הדור למקור ואייתי דם,אמר שמואל במזנקת מזנקת נמי דלמא בתר דתמו מיא אתא דם,אמר ר' אבא ביושבת על שפת הספל ומזנקת בתוך הספל ונמצא דם בתוך הספל דאם איתא דבתר דתמו מיא אתא על שפת הספל איבעי ליה לאשתכוחי,אמר שמואל ואמרי לה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כר' יוסי וכן אורי ליה רבי אבא לקלא הלכה כרבי יוסי,איש ואשה [כו'] איבעיא להו איש ואשה עומדין מה לי א"ר מאיר,כי אמר רבי מאיר בחד ספקא אבל בספק ספקא לא מטמא או דלמא לא שנא,אמר ריש לקיש היא היא ממאי מדלא קתני ר' מאיר ורבי יוסי מטהרין,א"ה השתא רבי מאיר בספק ספקא מטמא בחד ספקא מיבעיא להודיעך כחו דרבי יוסי דאפילו בחד ספקא מטהר,ואדמיפלגי בחד ספק להודיעך כחו דר' יוסי ליפלגו בספק ספקא להודיעך כחו דר' מאיר כח דהיתרא עדיף ליה,ור' יוחנן אמר כי קאמר רבי מאיר בחד ספקא אבל בספק ספקא לא אמר אם כן ליתני ר"מ ור' יוסי מטהרין אין הכי נמי ואיידי דסליק מרבי יוסי פתח בדרבי יוסי,ורבי יוסי בחד ספקא מטהר בספק ספקא מיבעיא מהו דתימא הני מילי דיעבד אבל לכתחלה לא קא משמע לן,תניא כוותיה דרבי יוחנן איש ואשה שעשו צרכיהן לתוך הספל ונמצא דם על המים רבי מאיר ורבי יוסי מטהרין ור' שמעון מטמא,איבעיא להו אשה יושבת מה לי אמר רבי שמעון כי אמר רבי שמעון בעומדת דדחיק לה עלמא אבל יושבת לא או דלמא לא שנא,ת"ש דתניא יושבת תולה עומדת אינה תולה דברי ר"מ רבי יוסי אומר בין כך ובין כך תולה ר"ש אומר בין כך ובין כך אינה תולה,איבעיא להו איש ואשה יושבין מה לי א"ר שמעון כי אמר רבי שמעון עומדת דדחיק לה עלמא ויושבת דחד ספק אבל בספק ספקא לא אמר או דלמא לא שנה ,ת"ש כיון דא"ר שמעון חזקת דמים מן האשה ל"ש עומדין ולא שנא יושבין, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big השאילה חלוקה לנכרית או לנדה הרי זו תולה בה,ג' נשים שלבשו חלוק אחד או שישבו על ספסל אחד ונמצא עליו דם כולן טמאות,ישבו על ספסל של אבן או על האיצטבא של מרחץ רבי נחמיה מטהר שהיה רבי נחמיה אומר כל דבר שאינו מקבל טומאה אינו מקבל כתמים, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב בנכרית 59b. strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b a woman who is urinating and saw blood /b intermingled with the urine, b Rabbi Meir says: If /b she urinated while b standing /b she is b ritually impure, /b as the blood could have originated in the uterus. b And if she is sitting, /b she is b ritually pure, /b as it is clear that the blood is from a wound. b Rabbi Yosei says: Whether /b she urinates in b this /b manner, i.e., standing, b or whether /b she urinates in b that /b manner, i.e., sitting, she is b ritually pure. /b ,In the case of b a man and a woman who urinated into a basin [ i hasefel /i ], and blood is found on the water /b in the basin, b Rabbi Yosei deems her ritually pure. /b Even when it is clear that it is the blood of a woman who urinated, and there is only one uncertainty, Rabbi Yosei deems her ritually pure. In this case, there is a compound uncertainty: Did the blood originate with the man or with the woman, and did the blood come from the uterus or from a wound? b And Rabbi Shimon deems her ritually impure, /b because there is only one uncertainty, b as it is not /b the typical b manner of the man to discharge blood /b with his urine; b rather, the presumptive status of /b the b blood /b is that it was discharged b from the woman. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that in a case where a woman finds blood in her urine Rabbi Meir distinguishes between a case where she is standing and a case where she is sitting. The Gemara asks: b What is different /b about a situation where she is b standing? /b The difference is b that we say /b that while she was urinating the b urine returned to the uterus and brought blood /b from there, which renders her impure. But if so, when she is b sitting as well, let us say /b that the b urine returns to the uterus and brings blood. /b Why does Rabbi Meir deem her ritually pure in that case?, b Shmuel says, /b in answer to this question: This mishna is referring specifically to a case b where /b the urine b flows /b in a steady stream, without the woman straining. In such a situation, when she is sitting and the urine flows in a steady stream, the stream of urine does not return to the uterus and bring blood. By contrast, if she is standing the urine does not flow in a steady stream, and she must strain to urinate. When she strains to urinate, the urine can bring blood from the uterus with it, whether she is standing or sitting. The Gemara objects: But in a case where she is sitting b as well, /b when the urine b flows /b in a steady stream, b perhaps after the urine has finished, blood will come /b naturally from the uterus, and the flow of blood will mix with the urine?, b Rabbi Abba says: /b This is no concern, as the mishna is referring to a case b where she is sitting on the edge of the basin and /b urinates in a steady b flow into the basin, and /b the b blood is found /b only b inside the basin. As, if it is so that after /b the stream of b urine finished /b the blood b came /b naturally from her uterus, the blood b should have been found on the edge of the basin. /b Since the blood is found only inside the basin it is clear that it came with the urine, not separately., b Shmuel said, and some say /b that b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei. And similarly, Rabbi Abba ruled for /b a Sage called b Kala, /b who inquired into this matter, that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: In the case of b a man and a woman /b who urinated into a basin, and blood is found on the water in the basin, Rabbi Yosei deems her ritually pure. b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: In a case where b a man and a woman were standing /b and they urinated into the same basin, and blood was found in the basin, b what /b would b Rabbi Meir, /b who distinguishes between a woman who was sitting and a woman who was standing, b say /b the i halakha /i is?,The Gemara clarifies the dilemma: b When Rabbi Meir said /b that a woman who sees blood in her urine while standing is impure, does this apply b when /b there is only b one uncertainty, /b i.e., whether the blood came from a wound or from the uterus? b Whereas /b in a case b of a compound uncertainty, /b i.e., whether the blood came from the man or from the woman, and even if it came from the woman, whether it came from a wound or from her uterus, perhaps Rabbi Meir b does not deem /b her b impure? Or perhaps there is no difference /b between the two cases according to Rabbi Meir., b Reish Lakish said: /b Rabbi Meir would rule in b this /b case of a compound uncertainty exactly as he rules in b that /b case of a single uncertainty, i.e., there is no difference between the two cases. Reish Lakish clarifies: b From where /b do I know that this is Rabbi Meir’s opinion? b From /b the fact b that /b the latter clause of the mishna b does not teach: Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei deem her pure. /b Instead, the mishna states merely that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure. This indicates that Rabbi Meir deems her impure even if a man and a woman both urinated into the same basin where the blood was found.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Reish Lakish’s opinion: b If so, /b i.e., if according to Rabbi Meir a woman is impure even when a man also urinates into the same basin, b now /b that b Rabbi Meir deems her impure in /b a case of b compound uncertainty, is it necessary /b for the mishna to teach his opinion b in /b a case of b one uncertainty? /b The Gemara answers: The mishna formulated the i halakha /i in that manner b to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei, /b i.e., b that he deems her pure even in /b a case of b one uncertainty. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b if so, b rather than /b stating the b dispute in /b a case of b one uncertainty, /b which serves b to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei, let /b the i tanna /i teach the b dispute in /b a case of b compound uncertainty, /b in order b to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of Rabbi Meir. /b The Gemara answers: It is b preferable for the /b i tanna /i to teach b the strength of a lenient /b ruling. If a i tanna /i can formulate a dispute in a manner that emphasizes the extent of the more lenient opinion, he will do so., b And Rabbi Yoḥa /b disagreed with Reish Lakish, and b said: When Rabbi Meir says /b that the woman is impure, that applies only to a case b of one uncertainty, but /b in a case b of compound uncertainty /b Rabbi Meir b did not say /b that she is impure. The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion: b If so, /b i.e., if Rabbi Meir deems her pure when both a man and a woman urinate into the same basin, b let /b the mishna b teach: Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei deem her pure. /b Why does the i tanna /i mention only Rabbi Yosei? The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so, /b that Rabbi Meir agrees with this ruling, b but since /b the mishna b left off /b with the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei /b at the end of the first clause of the mishna, the i tanna /i b opened /b the latter clause b with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei /b as well.,The Gemara asks: b But /b as b Rabbi Yosei deems /b her b pure /b in a case b of one uncertainty, is it necessary /b for the mishna to teach his opinion a case b of a compound uncertainty? /b The Gemara answers: It is necessary for the i tanna /i to state that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure in a case of compound uncertainty, b lest you say /b that b this statement, /b that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure, applies only b after the fact, /b if the woman has already touched pure items, b but /b he does b not /b deem her pure b i ab initio /i . /b Therefore, the i tanna /i b teaches us /b that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure even i ab initio /i .,It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yoḥa: /b In the case of b a man and a woman who urinated into a basin, and blood is found on the water /b in the basin, b Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei deem her ritually pure, and Rabbi Shimon deems her ritually impure, /b as there is only one uncertainty.,§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon deems her ritually impure because there is only one uncertainty, as it is not the typical manner of the man to discharge blood with his urine. b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: In a case where b a woman /b was b sitting /b and she urinated into a basin, and blood was found in the basin, b what /b would b Rabbi Shimon say? /b The Gemara explains the dilemma: b When Rabbi Shimon stated /b his opinion, was he referring specifically b to /b a woman who b is standing, who in general must strain /b to urinate in such a position, and perhaps as a result the blood came from the uterus? b Whereas /b if b she /b is b sitting /b without straining, in which case Rabbi Meir deems her pure, perhaps Rabbi Shimon agrees that she is b not /b impure. b Or perhaps there is no difference /b between the two cases according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.,The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : If a woman urinates while b sitting /b and blood is found in the basin, she can b attribute /b the blood to a wound and she is pure, but if she is b standing she cannot attribute /b the blood to a wound, and therefore she is impure; this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei said: Both /b in b this /b case b and /b in b that /b case b she /b can b attribute /b the blood to a wound and she is pure. b Rabbi Shimon said: Both /b in b this /b case b and /b in b that /b case b she cannot attribute /b the blood to a wound, and she is impure.,Another b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon: In a case where b a man and a woman /b were b sitting /b and urinated into the same basin, and blood was found in the basin, b what /b would b Rabbi Shimon say? /b The Gemara clarifies the dilemma: b When Rabbi Shimon stated /b his opinion, was he referring to a woman who b is standing, who in general must strain /b to urinate in such a position and perhaps as a result the blood came from the uterus, b or /b to a case where b she /b alone b is sitting, which /b are cases of only b one uncertainty? Whereas /b in a case of b compound uncertainty, /b i.e., uncertainty whether the blood came from the man or from the woman, and even if it did come from the woman, whether it was from a wound or from her uterus, perhaps b he does not say /b that she is impure. b Or perhaps there is no difference /b between the cases, as it is entirely atypical for a man to discharge blood.,The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear /b the mishna: b Since Rabbi Shimon said /b that b the presumptive status of /b the b blood /b is that it was discharged b from the woman, /b evidently there b is no difference /b in his opinion whether she was b standing or /b whether she was b sitting. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong In a case where a woman b lent her garment to a gentile woman or to a menstruating /b Jewish b woman, /b and after the borrower returned the garment the owner wore it and then discovered a blood stain, she b attributes /b the blood stain b to /b the gentile or the menstruating woman.,In a case of b three women who wore one garment or who sat on one bench [ i safsal /i ], /b one after the other, and the garment, or bench, was examined before the first of them donned it, or sat on it, and it was clean, and after the third one removed the garment, or stood up, b a blood /b stain b was discovered on /b the garment or on the bench, b all /b the women b are ritually impure. /b ,If b they sat on a stone bench or on the bench [ i ha’itzteva /i ] of a bathhouse, /b neither of which can become ritually impure, the first because it is stone and the second because it is attached to the floor of the bathhouse, and a blood stain was found on one of those benches, b Rabbi Neḥemya deems /b all three women b ritually pure, as Rabbi Neḥemya would say: Any item that is not susceptible to ritual impurity is not susceptible to /b ritual impurity due to blood b stains. /b The decree of impurity due to blood stains was limited to items susceptible to ritual impurity., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rav says: /b The ruling of the mishna is stated b with regard to a gentile woman /b
163. Anon., Protevangelium of James, 382, 381 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 393
164. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 57
97a. את סוכת דוד הנופלת א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן דור שבן דוד בא בו תלמידי חכמים מתמעטים והשאר עיניהם כלות ביגון ואנחה וצרות רבות וגזרות קשות מתחדשות עד שהראשונה פקודה שניה ממהרת לבא,ת"ר שבוע שבן דוד בא בו שנה ראשונה מתקיים מקרא זה (עמוס ד, ז) והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר שניה חיצי רעב משתלחים שלישית רעב גדול ומתים אנשים ונשים וטף חסידים ואנשי מעשה ותורה משתכחת מלומדיה ברביעית שובע ואינו שובע בחמישית שובע גדול ואוכלין ושותין ושמחין ותורה חוזרת ללומדיה בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות במוצאי שביעית בן דוד בא,אמר רב יוסף הא כמה שביעית דהוה כן ולא אתא אמר אביי בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות מי הוה ועוד כסדרן מי הוה,(תהלים פט, נב) (אשר חרפו אויביך ה' אשר חרפו עקבות משיחך) תניא ר' יהודה אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו בית הוועד יהיה לזנות והגליל יחרב והגבלן יאשם ואנשי גבול יסובבו מעיר לעיר ולא יחוננו וחכמת הסופרים תסרח ויראי חטא ימאסו ופני הדור כפני כלב,והאמת נעדרת שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, טו) ותהי האמת נעדרת (וסר מרע משתולל) מאי ותהי האמת נעדרת אמרי דבי רב מלמד שנעשית עדרים עדרים והולכת לה מאי וסר מרע משתולל אמרי דבי ר' שילא כל מי שסר מרע משתולל על הבריות,אמר רבא מריש הוה אמינא ליכא קושטא בעלמא אמר לי ההוא מרבנן ורב טבות שמיה ואמרי לה רב טביומי שמיה דאי הוו יהבי ליה כל חללי דעלמא לא הוה משני בדבוריה זימנא חדא איקלעי לההוא אתרא וקושטא שמיה ולא הוו משני בדיבורייהו ולא הוה מיית איניש מהתם בלא זימניה נסיבי איתתא מינהון והוו לי תרתין בנין מינה,יומא חד הוה יתבא דביתהו וקא חייפא רישה אתאי שיבבתה טרפא אדשא סבר לאו אורח ארעא אמר לה ליתא הכא שכיבו ליה תרתין בנין אתו אינשי דאתרא לקמיה אמרו ליה מאי האי אמר להו הכי הוה מעשה א"ל במטותא מינך פוק מאתרין ולא תגרי בהו מותנא בהנך אינשי,תניא ר' נהוראי אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו נערים ילבינו פני זקנים וזקנים יעמדו לפני נערים ובת קמה באמה וכלה בחמותה ופני הדור כפני כלב ואין הבן מתבייש מאביו,תניא ר' נחמיה אומר דור שבן דוד בא בו העזות תרבה והיוקר יעות והגפן יתן פריו והיין ביוקר ונהפכה כל המלכות למינות ואין תוכחה מסייע ליה לר' יצחק דא"ר יצחק אין בן דוד בא עד שתתהפך כל המלכות למינות אמר רבא מאי קרא (ויקרא יג, יג) כולו הפך לבן טהור הוא,ת"ר (דברים לב, לו) כי ידין ה' עמו [וגו'] כי יראה כי אזלת יד ואפס עצור ועזוב אין בן דוד בא עד שירבו המסורות ד"א עד שיתמעטו התלמידים ד"א עד שתכלה פרוטה מן הכיס ד"א עד שיתייאשו מן הגאולה שנאמר ואפס עצור ועזוב כביכול אין סומך ועוזר לישראל,כי הא דר' זירא כי הוה משכח רבנן דמעסקי ביה אמר להו במטותא בעינא מנייכו לא תרחקוה דתנינא ג' באין בהיסח הדעת אלו הן משיח מציאה ועקרב,אמר רב קטינא שית אלפי שני הוו עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא אביי אמר תרי חרוב שנאמר (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים ביום השלישי יקימנו ונחיה לפניו,תניא כותיה דרב קטינא כשם שהשביעית משמטת שנה אחת לז' שנים כך העולם משמט אלף שנים לשבעת אלפים שנה שנאמר ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא ואומר (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת יום שכולו שבת ואומר (תהלים צ, ד) כי אלף שנים בעיניך כיום אתמול כי יעבור,תנא דבי אליהו ששת אלפים שנה הוי עלמא שני אלפים תוהו שני אלפים תורה שני אלפים ימות המשיח 97a. b the Tabernacle of David that is fallen [ i hanofelet /i ]” /b (Amos 9:11). That is why the Messiah is called i bar nifli /i . Rabbi Yitzḥak b said to him /b that b this /b is what b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b During b the generation in which /b the Messiah, b son of David, comes, Torah scholars decrease; and /b as for b the rest /b of the people, b their eyes fail with sorrow and grief, and troubles increase. And the harsh decrees will be introduced; before the first passes the second quickly comes. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b the seven-year /b period, i.e., the Sabbatical cycle, b during which /b the Messiah, b son of David, comes: /b During b the first year, this verse will be fulfilled: “And I will cause it to rain upon one city and cause it not to rain upon another city” /b (Amos 4:7). During the b second /b year of that period, b arrows of famine will be shot, /b indicating that there will be famine only in certain places. During the b third /b year b there will be a great famine, and men, women, children, the pious, and men of action will die, and the Torah is forgotten by those who study it. During the fourth /b year there will be b plenty but not /b great b plenty. During the fifth /b year there will be b great plenty and they will eat, and drink, and rejoice, and the Torah will return to those who study it. During the sixth /b year, heavenly b voices /b will be heard. b During the Sabbatical /b Year, b wars, /b e.g., the war of Gog and Magog, will be waged involving the Jewish people. b During /b the year after b the conclusion of the Sabbatical /b Year, b the son of David will come. /b , b Rav Yosef said: Haven’t there been several Sabbatical /b cycles during b which /b events b transpired /b in b that /b manner b and /b nevertheless, the Messiah b did not come? Abaye said: Have /b the phenomena: b During the sixth /b year, heavenly b voices, /b and b during the Sabbatical /b Year, b wars, transpired? And furthermore, have /b all these phenomena b transpired in /b the b order /b in which they were listed in the i baraita /i ?,The verse states: b “That Your enemies taunted, Lord, that they have taunted the footsteps of Your anointed” /b (Psalms 89:52). b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda says: During the generation that the son of David comes, the hall of the assembly /b of the Sages b will be /b designated b for prostitution, and the Galilee will be destroyed, and the Gavlan, /b i.e., Bashan, b will be desolate, and the residents of the border /b who flee the neighboring gentiles b will circulate from city to city and will receive no sympathy. The wisdom of scholars will diminish, and sin-fearing /b people b will be despised. And the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog /b in its impudence and shamelessness., b And the truth will be lacking, as it is stated: “And the truth is lacking [ i ne’ederet /i ], and he who departs from evil is negated” /b (Isaiah 59:15). b What /b is the meaning of the phrase: b And the truth is lacking [ i ne’ederet /i ]? /b The Sages of b the study hall of Rav said: /b This b teaches that /b truth b will become like /b so many b flocks [ i adarim /i ] and walk /b away. b What /b is the meaning of the phrase: b “And he that departs from evil is negated”? /b The Sages of b the study hall of Rabbi Sheila said: Anyone who deviates from evil is deemed insane by the people. /b ,§ Concerning the lack of truth, b Rava says: Initially I would say /b that b there is no truth /b anywhere b in the world. /b There was b a certain one of the Sages, and Rav Tavut is his name, and some say Rav Tavyomei is his name, /b who was so honest b that if they were /b to b give him the entire world, he would not deviate /b from the truth b in his statement. /b He said to me: b One time I happened /b to come b to a certain place, and Truth is its name, and /b its residents b would not deviate /b from the truth b in their statements, and no person from there would die prematurely. I married a woman from /b among b them, and I had two sons from her. /b , b One day his wife was sitting and washing the /b hair on her b head. Her neighbor came /b and b knocked on the door. He thought: /b It is b not proper conduct /b to tell the neighbor that his wife is bathing. b He said to her: She is not here. /b Since he deviated from the truth b his two sons died. The people /b residing b in /b that b place came before him /b and b said to him: What /b is the meaning of b this? He said to them: This was /b the nature of the b incident, /b and told them what happened. b They said to him: Please leave our place and do not provoke /b premature b death upon these people. /b ,The Gemara resumes its discussion of the messianic period. b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Nehorai says: During the generation /b in b which the son of David comes, youths will humiliate elders and elders will stand /b in deference b before youths, and a daughter will rebel against her mother, and a bride against her mother-in-law, and the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, and a son will not be ashamed before his father. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Neḥemya says: During the generation that the son of David comes, arrogance will proliferate and the cost /b of living b will corrupt /b people so they will engage in deceit. b The vine will produce its fruit, and /b nevertheless, b the wine /b will be b costly. And the entire /b gentile b monarchy will be converted to /b the b heresy /b of Christianity, b and there will be no /b inclination among the people to accept b rebuke. /b This i baraita /i b supports /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The son of David will not come until the entire kingdom will be converted to heresy. Rava says: What is the verse /b from which this statement is derived? It is the verse: b “It is all turned white; he is ritually pure” /b (Leviticus 13:13). One is a leper and ritually impure only if he has a leprous mark, however small, but not if his skin is completely leprous. Similarly, the world will be redeemed only when the Jewish people reach their lowest point., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “For the Lord shall judge His people /b and atone for His servants, b when He sees that their power is gone and there is none shut up or left” /b (Deuteronomy 32:36). From the phrase “their power is gone” it is derived that b the son of David will not come until informers will proliferate. Alternatively, /b the Messiah will not come b until the /b number of b students /b of Torah b diminishes. Alternatively, /b the Messiah will not come b until /b the b i peruta /i will cease from the purse. Alternatively, /b the Messiah will not come b until they despair from the redemption, as it is stated: “And there is none shut up or left,” as though there were no supporter or helper for the Jewish people. /b ,This is b as /b in b that /b practice b of Rabbi Zeira, /b who, b when he would find Sages who were engaging in /b discussions about the coming of the Messiah, b said to them: Please, I ask of you, do not delay /b his coming by calculating the end of days. b As we learn /b in a i baraita /i : There are b three /b matters that b come /b only b by means of diversion of attention /b from those matters, b and these are they: /b The b Messiah, a lost item, and a scorpion. /b ,§ b Rav Ketina says: Six thousand years is /b the duration of b the world, /b and b it is in ruins /b for b one /b thousand years. The duration of the period during which the world is in ruins is derived from a verse, b as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day” /b (Isaiah 2:11), and the day of God lasts one thousand years. b Abaye says: It is in ruins /b for b two /b thousand years, b as it is stated: “After two days He will revive us; in the third day He will revive us, and we shall live in His presence” /b (Hosea 6:2)., b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rav Ketina: Just as the Sabbatical /b Year b abrogates /b debts b once in seven years, so too, the world abrogates /b its typical existence for b one thousand years in /b every b seven thousand years, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day,” and it states: “A psalm, a song for the Shabbat day” /b (Psalms 92:1), meaning b a day, /b i.e., one thousand years, b that is entirely Shabbat. And it says /b in explanation of the equation between one day and one thousand years: b “For a thousand years in Your eyes are but like yesterday when it is past, /b and like a watch in the night” (Psalms 90:4)., b The school of Eliyahu taught: Six thousand years is /b the duration of b the world. Two thousand /b of the six thousand years are characterized by b chaos; two thousand /b years are characterized by b Torah, /b from the era of the Patriarchs until the end of the mishnaic period; and b two thousand years /b are b the period of /b the coming of b the Messiah. /b
165. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.17, 4.2.1-4.2.5, 4.3, 4.6, 4.6.1-4.6.4, 4.8.4, 4.22, 6.14.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( •bar kokhba •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba), temple to jupiter capitolinus and •jerusalem, bar kokhba revolt •temple, the, bar kokhba revolt and •bar kokhba revolt •messianism, bar kokhba revolt •revolts against rome, bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 4; Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 28, 29; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 29; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 377; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 170, 178, 183; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 252, 494, 510, 511
4.2.1. The teaching and the Church of our Saviour flourished greatly and made progress from day to day; but the calamities of the Jews increased, and they underwent a constant succession of evils. In the eighteenth year of Trajan's reign there was another disturbance of the Jews, through which a great multitude of them perished. 4.2.2. For in Alexandria and in the rest of Egypt, and also in Cyrene, as if incited by some terrible and factious spirit, they rushed into seditious measures against their fellow-inhabitants, the Greeks. The insurrection increased greatly, and in the following year, while Lupus was governor of all Egypt, it developed into a war of no mean magnitude. 4.2.3. In the first attack it happened that they were victorious over the Greeks, who fled to Alexandria and imprisoned and slew the Jews that were in the city. But the Jews of Cyrene, although deprived of their aid, continued to plunder the land of Egypt and to devastate its districts, under the leadership of Lucuas. Against them the emperor sent Marcius Turbo with a foot and naval force and also with a force of cavalry. 4.2.4. He carried on the war against them for a long time and fought many battles, and slew many thousands of Jews, not only of those of Cyrene, but also of those who dwelt in Egypt and had come to the assistance of their king Lucuas. 4.2.5. But the emperor, fearing that the Jews in Mesopotamia would also make an attack upon the inhabitants of that country, commanded Lucius Quintus to clear the province of them. And he having marched against them slew a great multitude of those that dwelt there; and in consequence of his success he was made governor of Judea by the emperor. These events are recorded also in these very words by the Greek historians that have written accounts of those times. 4.6.1. As the rebellion of the Jews at this time grew much more serious, Rufus, governor of Judea, after an auxiliary force had been sent him by the emperor, using their madness as a pretext, proceeded against them without mercy, and destroyed indiscriminately thousands of men and women and children, and in accordance with the laws of war reduced their country to a state of complete subjection. 4.6.2. The leader of the Jews at this time was a man by the name of Barcocheba (which signifies a star), who possessed the character of a robber and a murderer, but nevertheless, relying upon his name, boasted to them, as if they were slaves, that he possessed wonderful powers; and he pretended that he was a star that had come down to them out of heaven to bring them light in the midst of their misfortunes. 4.6.3. The war raged most fiercely in the eighteenth year of Hadrian, at the city of Bithara, which was a very secure fortress, situated not far from Jerusalem. When the siege had lasted a long time, and the rebels had been driven to the last extremity by hunger and thirst, and the instigator of the rebellion had suffered his just punishment, the whole nation was prohibited from this time on by a decree, and by the commands of Hadrian, from ever going up to the country about Jerusalem. For the emperor gave orders that they should not even see from a distance the land of their fathers. Such is the account of Aristo of Pella. 4.6.4. And thus, when the city had been emptied of the Jewish nation and had suffered the total destruction of its ancient inhabitants, it was colonized by a different race, and the Roman city which subsequently arose changed its name and was called Aelia, in honor of the emperor Aelius Hadrian. And as the church there was now composed of Gentiles, the first one to assume the government of it after the bishops of the circumcision was Marcus. 4.8.4. The same writer, speaking of the Jewish war which took place at that time, adds the following: For in the late Jewish war Barcocheba, the leader of the Jewish rebellion, commanded that Christians alone should be visited with terrible punishments unless they would deny and blaspheme Jesus Christ. 6.14.1. To sum up briefly, he has given in the Hypotyposes abridged accounts of all canonical Scripture, not omitting the disputed books, — I refer to Jude and the other Catholic epistles, and Barnabas and the so-called Apocalypse of Peter.
166. Nag Hammadi, Apocalypse of Peter, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bremmer (2017), Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays, 282; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece (2015), Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent : New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 94, 96; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 377
167. Eusebius of Caesarea, Martyrs of Palestine, 8.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 189
168. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 163
65a. אמצעית שבכת שניה תשתרי הכא במאי עסקינן בשאין שם אלא גדולה וקטנה,והכי נמי מסתברא דאם איתא דאיכא ליתנייה ולטעמיך אמצעית שבכת ראשונה דודאי ספיקא ואסירא ליה מי קתני לה,הכי השתא התם תנא קטנה דידה לאיסורא והוא הדין להך דקשישא מינה,הכא אם איתא דאיכא ניתנייה,אמר ליה רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע לרבא הא פסח דכי כת אחת דמי ופליגי,אמר ליה התם בלישנא דעלמא קמיפלגי מר סבר עד פני הפסח עד קמי פיסחא ומר סבר עד דמיפני פיסחא, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר לאשה קדשתיך והיא אומרת לא קדשתני הוא אסור בקרובותיה והיא מותרת בקרוביו היא אומרת קדשתני והוא אומר לא קדשתיך הוא מותר בקרובותיה והיא אסורה בקרוביו,קידשתיך והיא אומרת לא קידשת אלא בתי הוא אסור בקרובות גדולה וגדולה מותרת בקרוביו הוא מותר בקרובות קטנה וקטנה מותרת בקרוביו,קדשתי את בתך והיא אומרת לא קדשת אלא אותי הוא אסור בקרובות קטנה וקטנה מותרת בקרוביו הוא מותר בקרובות גדולה וגדולה אסורה בקרוביו, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big האומר לאשה קדשתיך וכו' וצריכא דאי אשמעינן גביה דידיה משום דגברא לא איכפת ליה ומיקרי אמר,אבל איהי אימא אי לאו דקים לה בדיבורה לא הות אמרה וליתסר איהו בקרובותיה קמ"ל,קידשתיך והיא אומרת וכו' הא תו למה לי איצטריך ס"ד אמינא מדאורייתא הימניה רחמנא לאב מדרבנן הימנוה לדידה ותיתסר ברתה בדיבורה קא משמע לן,קידשתי את בתך וכו' הא תו למה לי איידי דתנא הא תנא נמי הא,איתמר רב אמר כופין ושמואל אמר מבקשין אהייא אילימא ארישא לאו כופין איכא ולא מבקשין איכא אלא אסיפא,בשלמא מבקשין לחיי אלא כופין אמאי אמר לא ניחא לי דאיתסר בקריבה,אלא שמעתתא אהדדי איתמר אמר שמואל מבקשין ממנו ליתן גט אמר רב אם נתן גט מעצמו כופין אותו ליתן כתובה,איתמר נמי אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב המנונא אמר רב כופין ומבקשין תרתי ה"ק מבקשין ממנו ליתן גט ואם נתן מעצמו כופין אותו ליתן כתובה,אמר רב יהודה המקדש בעד אחד אין חוששין לקידושיו בעו מיניה מרב יהודה שניהם מודים מאי אין ולא ורפיא בידיה איתמר אמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל המקדש בעד אחד אין חוששין לקידושיו ואפי' שניהם מודים,איתיביה רבא לרב נחמן האומר לאשה קדשתיך והיא אומרת לא קדשתני הוא אסור בקרובותיה והיא מותרת בקרוביו אי דאיכא עדים אמאי מותרת בקרוביו ואי דליכא עדים אמאי אסור בקרובותיה אלא לאו בעד אחד,הכא במאי עסקינן כגון דאמר לה קידשתיך בפני פלוני ופלוני והלכו להם למדינת הים,איתיביה המגרש את אשתו ולנה עמו בפונדקי ב"ש אומרים אינה צריכה הימנו גט שני וב"ה אומרים צריכה הימנו גט שני היכי דמי אי דאיכא עדים מאי טעמייהו דב"ש ואי דליכא עדים מאי טעמייהו דבית הלל אלא לאו בעד אחד,וליטעמיך אימא סיפא ומודים בנתגרשה מן האירוסין שאין צריכה הימנו גט שני מפני שאין לבו גס בה ואי סלקא דעתך עד אחד מהימן מה לי מן האירוסין מה לי מן הנשואין,אלא הכא במאי עסקינן כגון דאיכא עדי יחוד וליכא עדי ביאה בית שמאי סברי לא 65a. with regard to one who said: I betrothed my elder daughter, b the middle /b daughter b of the /b younger b second group should be permitted, /b as he would have called her by name rather than referring to her as: The elder one. The Gemara answers: b Here we are dealing with /b a case b where there are only /b two daughters, b an adult woman and a minor girl, /b but no middle daughter.,The Gemara adds: b And so too, it is reasonable /b that this is the case, b as, if it is so, that there is /b a middle daughter, b let /b the mishna b teach /b its i halakha /i with a direct reference to b her /b as well, as the uncertainty also applies to this daughter. In other words, the mishna should have stated: And I do not know if it was the middle of the younger group of daughters. The fact that the mishna does not refer to this daughter indicates that there are only two women in each group. The Gemara rejects this suggestion: b But according to your reasoning, the middle one of the first group is definitely /b included in the b uncertainty and is forbidden to /b the prospective husband, and yet b does /b the mishna b teach /b its i halakha /i with a direct reference to b her? /b ,The Gemara questions this argument: b How can /b these cases b be compared? There it taught /b its i halakha /i with a direct reference to a daughter who is b younger than /b the middle daughter of the older group, and that daughter is mentioned b for a prohibition, /b as the mishna states that the uncertainty applies even to the youngest of the older group; b and /b if so, b the same is true of this /b middle daughter, b who is older than /b the youngest of the older group, i.e., it is evident that the same uncertainty applies to her, and therefore there is no reason to mention the middle daughter of the older group.,Conversely, b here, /b with regard to the younger group, b if it is so that there is /b uncertainty with regard to the middle daughter and she is forbidden, the mishna b should teach /b its i halakha /i with a direct reference to b her, /b as one might think she is excluded from the uncertainty because she is not the eldest. Consequently, the fact that the mishna omits all reference to the middle daughter from the second group proves that the second wife has only two daughters., b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said to Rava: /b But there is the case of b Passover, which is comparable to one group /b of daughters, as all the days of the Festival are part of a single group, b and /b yet Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei b disagree /b with regard to it. This apparently contradicts Abaye’s opinion that everyone agrees in the case of a single group.,Rava b said to him: There they disagree with regard to the general /b usage of b language. /b In other words, their dispute in that case does not concern the basic issue of whether or not one places himself in a position of uncertainty. Rather, they disagree over the way people speak. One b Sage, /b Rabbi Yosei, b holds /b that the phrase: b Until before Passover, /b means: b Until /b just b before Passover, and /b one b Sage, /b Rabbi Meir, b holds /b that it means b until Passover passes /b and ends., strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to b one who says to a woman: I betrothed you, and she says: You did not betroth me, he is forbidden to her relatives, /b as his claim that he has betrothed her renders himself forbidden to her relatives. b And she is permitted to his relatives, /b in accordance with her stance that she is not betrothed to him. If b she says: You betrothed me, and he says: I did not betroth you, he is permitted to her relatives and she is forbidden to his relatives /b by the same reasoning.,If a man says to a woman: b I betrothed you, and she says: You betrothed only my daughter, he is forbidden to the relatives of the older /b woman, the mother, whom he claims to have betrothed, b and the older /b woman b is permitted to his relatives. He is permitted to the relatives of the younger /b woman, the daughter, as he maintains that he did not betroth her, b and the younger /b woman b is permitted to his relatives, /b since her mother’s statement is insufficient to render her forbidden.,Similarly, if he says: b I betrothed your daughter, and she, /b the mother, b says: You betrothed only me, he is forbidden to the relatives of the younger /b woman, b and the younger /b woman b is permitted to his relatives; he is permitted to the relatives of the older /b woman, b and the older /b woman b is forbidden to his relatives. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna taught that with regard to b one who says to a woman: I betrothed you, /b and she denies his claim, he is forbidden to her relatives while she remains permitted to his. The mishna then provides several examples illustrating the same principle. The Gemara comments: b And /b it is b necessary /b for the mishna to specify all these cases. The Gemara elaborates: b As, had /b the mishna b taught us /b the i halakha /i only b with regard to himself, /b i.e., the case where he claims to have betrothed the woman, one might have said that he is not deemed credible at all, b because a man does not care /b if b he happens to say /b that he betrothed a woman even if he did not do so, as he can betroth another woman., b But /b in a case where b she /b claims to have been betrothed by him, one might b say /b that b if her statement was not certain to her she would not have said /b it. Since her claim that he betrothed her renders her forbidden to everyone else, it is likely that it is true, b and /b therefore one might think that b he should /b also b be forbidden to her relatives /b on the basis of this assumption. The mishna therefore b teaches us /b that this is not the case.,Likewise, with regard to one who says: b I betrothed you, and she says: /b You betrothed only my daughter, in which case he is forbidden to her relatives but she is permitted to his, the Gemara asks: b Why do I /b need b this as well? /b The principle has already been established. The Gemara answers: It b was necessary /b to state this case too, as it might b enter your mind to say: /b Since b by Torah law, the Merciful One deems credible a father /b who claims to have betrothed his daughter to a particular person, perhaps the Sages b deem /b a mother b credible by rabbinic law, and /b therefore b her daughter should be forbidden /b based b on her statement. /b The mishna therefore b teaches us /b that a mother is not believed with regard to her daughter.,The Gemara continues this line of questioning. With regard to the case where a man says: b I betrothed your daughter, /b and she replies: You betrothed only me, b why do I /b need b this as well? /b What novelty is taught in this case? The Gemara answers: b Since /b the mishna b taught this /b other case, of a man claiming he betrothed a woman and the woman replying that it was her daughter, b it also taught this /b last case, so that it mentions all the permutations, despite the fact that this particular case provides no novelty.,§ b It was stated /b that i amora’im /i disagreed over how the court should proceed in practice with regard to the cases described in the mishna. b Rav says: /b The court b forces /b the man to give her a bill of divorce, b and Shmuel says: /b The court b requests /b that he give a bill of divorce. The Gemara asks: b With regard to which /b case of the mishna is this referring? b If we say /b it is referring b to the first clause, /b where he says: I betrothed you, and she replies: You did not betroth me, b no /b ruling of: The court b forces, is /b relevant here, b nor is /b the ruling: The court b requests, /b relevant. Since she is permitted to marry even his relatives, she is certainly permitted to marry anyone else. Why, then, would it be necessary for him to give her a bill of divorce? b Rather, /b the dispute applies b to the latter clause /b of the mishna, where he denies her claim that he betrothed her. To allow her to marry somebody else, the court either forces or requests of him to give her a bill of divorce.,The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b according to the opinion that the court b requests /b that he give a bill of divorce, b it is well. /b Since she has rendered herself forbidden to everyone, one can ask him to release her. b But why /b should the court b force /b him to issue a bill of divorce? Can’t he b say: It is not satisfactory for me to be forbidden to her relatives? /b His giving her a bill of divorce is an admission that he betrothed her, which means that he may not marry her relatives., b Rather, /b the Gemara offers a different explanation: These b i halakhot /i were stated together, /b as follows: b Shmuel says /b that the court b requests of him to give a bill of divorce. Rav says: If he gave a bill of divorce of his own accord, /b without being asked to do so but merely in response to her claim, the court b forces him to give /b her payment for her b marriage contract /b as well. By giving her a bill of divorce of his own volition, he has effectively admitted that he betrothed her, despite the fact that he has not said so explicitly. Consequently, he must also provide her with payment for her marriage contract., b It was also stated: Rav Aḥa bar Adda says /b that b Rav says, and some say Rav Aḥa bar Adda says /b that b Rav Hamnuna says /b that b Rav says: /b The court b forces /b him b and requests /b of him. The Gemara expresses puzzlement at this statement: How can these b two /b statements be reconciled? Rather, it must be that b this is /b what Rav Aḥa bar Adda b is saying: /b The court b requests of him to give a bill of divorce, and if he gave a bill of divorce of his own accord /b the court b forces him to give /b her payment for b her marriage contract. /b ,§ b Rav Yehuda says: /b With regard to b one who betroths /b another b with, /b i.e., in the presence of, b one witness, one /b need b not be concerned that his betrothal /b has taken effect. The students b raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: /b If b both /b the man and the woman b concede /b that it was a betrothal, b what /b is the i halakha /i ? Is the betrothal valid? Rav Yehuda did not provide a clear answer. He said: b Yes and no, and /b the matter was b uncertain to him. It was stated /b that i amora’im /i discussed this point. b Rav Naḥman says /b that b Shmuel says: /b With regard to b one who betroths /b a woman b with one witness, one /b need b not be concerned that his betrothal /b has taken effect, b and /b this is the i halakha /i b even if both /b parties b concede /b that there was a betrothal., b Rava raised an objection to /b the opinion of b Rav Naḥman /b from the mishna: With regard to b one who says to a woman: I betrothed you, and she says: You did not betroth me, he is forbidden to her relatives and she is permitted to his relatives. /b Rava proceeds to analyze the exact circumstances of this case. b If /b the case is one b where there are witnesses, why /b is b she permitted to his relatives? /b It is a full-fledged betrothal performed in the presence of witnesses. b And if there are no witnesses /b at all, b why /b is b he forbidden to her relatives /b without any testimony to that effect? b Rather, is it not /b referring b to /b a case where there was b one witness? /b ,The Gemara answers: b Here we are dealing with /b a case b where he said to her: I betrothed you in the presence of so-and-so and so-and-so, /b i.e., there were two witnesses, b but they went overseas /b and there is no way of clarifying what really occurred. Consequently, there are only the conflicting accounts of the man and woman, and therefore he is prohibited from marrying her relatives while she is permitted to marry his.,Rava b raised an objection to /b the opinion of Rav Naḥman from a mishna ( i Eduyyot /i 4:7): If b one divorces his wife, and she /b subsequently b lodged with him in an inn, Beit Shammai say: She does not require a second bill of divorce from him, and Beit Hillel say: She requires a second bill of divorce from him. /b The Gemara clarifies: b What are the circumstances /b of this case? b If there are witnesses /b who saw them engage in sexual inter-course for the purpose of betrothal, b what is the reason that Beit Shammai /b do not require a second bill of divorce? b If there are no witnesses, what is the reason that Beit Hillel /b require a second bill of divorce? b Rather, is it not /b referring b to /b a case where there was b one witness /b who saw them engage in intercourse for the purpose of betrothal?,Rav Naḥman responds: b And according to your reasoning, /b that there was one witness, b say the latter clause /b of that mishna: b And /b Beit Hillel b concede with regard to /b a woman b who was divorced after betrothal that she does not require a second bill of divorce from him, due to /b the fact that b he is not accustomed to her. /b Since he had not previously been intimate with her, there is no concern that they engaged in intercourse, even though they lodged together at the inn. b And if it enters your mind /b that b one witness is deemed credible /b in this case, b what /b difference is it b to me /b whether it was b after /b her b betrothal, /b and b what /b difference is it b to me /b if it occurred b after /b her b marriage? /b , b Rather, /b it is clear that the mishna is not referring to when there is one witness, and b here we are dealing with /b a case b where there are witnesses to /b their b seclusion, but there are no witnesses to /b their engaging in b intercourse. /b The dispute is based on the implications of this seclusion. b Beit Shammai hold: /b One does b not /b
169. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 49; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 242
23a. בעתם בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות,שכן מצינו בימי שמעון בן שטח שירדו להם גשמים בלילי רביעיות ובלילי שבתות עד שנעשו חטים ככליות ושעורים כגרעיני זיתים ועדשים כדינרי זהב וצררו מהם דוגמא לדורות להודיע כמה החטא גורם שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, כה) עונותיכם הטו אלה וחטאתיכם מנעו הטוב מכם,וכן מצינו בימי הורדוס שהיו עוסקין בבנין בהמ"ק והיו יורדין גשמים בלילה למחר נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם למלאכתן וידעו שמלאכת שמים בידיהם:,מעשה ששלחו לחוני המעגל וכו': ת"ר פעם אחת יצא רוב אדר ולא ירדו גשמים שלחו לחוני המעגל התפלל וירדו גשמים התפלל ולא ירדו גשמים עג עוגה ועמד בתוכה כדרך שעשה חבקוק הנביא שנאמר (חבקוק ב, א) על משמרתי אעמדה ואתיצבה על מצור וגו',אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בניך שמו פניהם עלי שאני כבן בית לפניך נשבע אני בשמך הגדול שאיני זז מכאן עד שתרחם על בניך התחילו גשמים מנטפין אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא להתיר שבועתך,אמר לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי בורות שיחין ומערות ירדו בזעף עד שכל טפה וטפה כמלא פי חבית ושיערו חכמים שאין טפה פחותה מלוג אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי ראינוך ולא נמות כמדומין אנו שאין גשמים יורדין אלא לאבד העולם,אמר לפניו לא כך שאלתי אלא גשמי רצון ברכה ונדבה ירדו כתיקנן עד שעלו כל העם להר הבית מפני הגשמים אמרו לו רבי כשם שהתפללת שירדו כך התפלל וילכו להם אמר להם כך מקובלני שאין מתפללין על רוב הטובה,אעפ"כ הביאו לי פר הודאה הביאו לו פר הודאה סמך שתי ידיו עליו ואמר לפניו רבש"ע עמך ישראל שהוצאת ממצרים אינן יכולין לא ברוב טובה ולא ברוב פורענות כעסת עליהם אינן יכולין לעמוד השפעת עליהם טובה אינן יכולין לעמוד יהי רצון מלפניך שיפסקו הגשמים ויהא ריוח בעולם מיד נשבה הרוח ונתפזרו העבים וזרחה החמה ויצאו העם לשדה והביאו להם כמהין ופטריות,שלח לו שמעון בן שטח אלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נידוי שאילו שנים כשני אליהו שמפתחות גשמים בידו של אליהו לא נמצא שם שמים מתחלל על ידך,אבל מה אעשה לך שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא על אביו ועושה לו רצונו ואומר לו אבא הוליכני לרחצני בחמין שטפני בצונן תן לי אגוזים שקדים אפרסקים ורמונים ונותן לו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,תנו רבנן מה שלחו בני לשכת הגזית לחוני המעגל (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך ועל דרכיך נגה אור,ותגזר אומר אתה גזרת מלמטה והקדוש ברוך הוא מקיים מאמרך מלמעלה ועל דרכיך נגה אור דור שהיה אפל הארת בתפלתך,כי השפילו ותאמר גוה דור שהיה שפל הגבהתו בתפלתך ושח עינים יושיע דור ששח בעונו הושעתו בתפלתך ימלט אי נקי דור שלא היה נקי מלטתו בתפלתך ונמלט בבור כפיך מלטתו במעשה ידיך הברורין,אמר ר' יוחנן כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מצטער על מקרא זה (תהלים קכו, א) שיר המעלות בשוב ה' את שיבת ציון היינו כחולמים אמר מי איכא דניים שבעין שנין בחלמא,יומא חד הוה אזל באורחא חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה נטע חרובא אמר ליה האי עד כמה שנין טעין אמר ליה עד שבעין שנין אמר ליה פשיטא לך דחיית שבעין שנין אמר ליה האי [גברא] עלמא בחרובא אשכחתיה כי היכי דשתלי לי אבהתי שתלי נמי לבראי,יתיב קא כריך ריפתא אתא ליה שינתא נים אהדרא ליה משוניתא איכסי מעינא ונים שבעין שנין כי קם חזייה לההוא גברא דהוה קא מלקט מינייהו אמר ליה את הוא דשתלתיה א"ל בר בריה אנא אמר ליה שמע מינה דניימי שבעין שנין חזא לחמריה דאתיילידא ליה רמכי רמכי,אזל לביתיה אמר להו בריה דחוני המעגל מי קיים אמרו ליה בריה ליתא בר בריה איתא אמר להו אנא חוני המעגל לא הימנוהו אזל לבית המדרש שמעינהו לרבנן דקאמרי נהירן שמעתתין כבשני חוני המעגל דכי הוי עייל לבית מדרשא כל קושיא דהוו להו לרבנן הוה מפרק להו אמר להו אנא ניהו לא הימנוהו ולא עבדי ליה יקרא כדמבעי ליה חלש דעתיה בעי רחמי ומית אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברותא או מיתותא,אבא חלקיה בר בריה דחוני המעגל הוה וכי מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוו משדרי רבנן לגביה ובעי רחמי ואתי מיטרא זימנא חדא איצטריך עלמא למיטרא שדור רבנן זוגא דרבנן לגביה למבעי רחמי דניתי מיטרא אזול לביתיה ולא אשכחוהו אזול בדברא ואשכחוהו דהוה קא רפיק יהבו ליה שלמא 23a. b “In their season” /b means b on Wednesday eves, /b i.e., Tuesday nights, b and on Shabbat eves, /b i.e., Friday nights, because at these times people are not out in the streets, either due to fear of demonic forces that were thought to wander on Tuesday nights or due to the sanctity of Shabbat., b As we found /b in b the days of Shimon ben Shetaḥ that rain /b invariably b fell for them on Wednesday eves and on Shabbat eves, until wheat grew /b as big b as kidneys, and barley /b as big b as olive pits, and lentils as golden dinars. And they tied /b up some b of /b these crops as b an example [ i dugma /i ] for /b future b generations, to convey /b to them b how much /b damage b sin causes, as it is stated: /b “The Lord our God, Who gives rain, the former rain and the latter rain, in its season that keeps for us the appointed weeks of the harvest. b Your iniquities have turned away these things, and your sins have withheld the good from you” /b (Jeremiah 5:24–25)., b And we likewise found /b that b in the days of Herod /b that b they were occupied in the building of the Temple, and rain would fall at night. And the next day the wind would blow, the clouds would disperse, the sun would shine, and the people would go out to their work. And /b as rain would fall only at a time when it would not interfere with their labor, the nation b knew /b that b the work of Heaven /b was being performed b by their hands. /b ,§ The mishna taught: b An incident /b occurred in b which /b the people b sent /b a message b to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. /b This event is related in greater detail in the following i baraita /i . b The Sages taught: Once, most of /b the month of b Adar had passed but rain had /b still b not fallen. They sent /b this message b to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: Pray, and rain will fall. He prayed, but no rain fell. He drew a circle /b in the dust b and stood inside it, in the manner that the prophet Habakkuk did, as it is stated: “And I will stand upon my watch and set myself upon the tower, /b and I will look out to see what He will say to me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved” (Habakkuk 2:1). This verse is taken to mean that Habakkuk fashioned a kind of prison for himself where he sat.,Ḥoni b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, Your children have turned their faces toward me, as I am like a member of Your household. /b Therefore, b I take an oath by Your great name that I will not move from here until you have mercy upon Your children /b and answer their prayers for rain. b Rain began to trickle /b down, but only in small droplets. b His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen /b that b you /b can perform great wonders, b but /b this quantity of rain is not enough to ensure that b we will not die. It appears to us that /b a small amount of b rain is falling only /b to enable you b to dissolve your oath, /b but it is not nearly enough to save us.,Ḥoni b said /b to God: b I did not ask for this, but /b for b rain to /b fill the b cisterns, ditches, and caves. /b Rain b began to fall furiously, until each and every drop /b was as big b as the mouth of a barrel, and the Sages estimated that no drop was less than a i log /i /b in size. b His students said to him: Rabbi, we have seen /b that b you /b can call on God to perform miracles b and we will not die, /b but now b it appears to us that rain is falling only to destroy the world. /b ,Ḥoni again b said before /b God: b I did not ask for this /b harmful rain either, b but /b for b rain of benevolence, blessing, and generosity. /b Subsequently, the rains b fell in their standard manner, until all of the people /b sought higher ground and b ascended to the Temple Mount due to the rain. They said to him: Rabbi, just as you prayed that /b the rains b should fall, so too, pray that they should stop. He said to them: This is /b the tradition that b I received, that one does not pray over an excess of good. /b ,Ḥoni continued: b Nevertheless, bring me a bull. /b I will sacrifice it as b a thanks-offering /b and pray at the same time. b They brought him a bull /b for b a thanks-offering. He placed his two hands on its /b head b and said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, Your nation Israel, whom You brought out of Egypt, cannot /b bear b either an excess of good or an excess of punishment. You grew angry with them /b and withheld rain, b and they are unable to bear /b it. b You bestowed upon them /b too much b good, and they were /b also b unable to bear /b it. b May it be Your will that the rain stop and that there be relief for the world. Immediately, the wind blew, the clouds dispersed, the sun shone, and everyone went out to the fields and gathered for themselves truffles and mushrooms /b that had sprouted in the strong rain., b Shimon ben Shetaḥ relayed to /b Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: b If you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you. For were /b these b years like the years of Elijah, when the keys of rain /b were entrusted b in Elijah’s hands, /b and he swore it would not rain, b wouldn’t the name of Heaven have been desecrated by your /b oath not to leave the circle until it rained? Once you have pronounced this oath, either yours or Elijah’s must be falsified., b However, what can I do to you, as you nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and /b his father b does his bidding. And /b the son b says to /b his father: b Father, take me to be bathed in hot water; wash me with cold water; give me nuts, almonds, peaches, and pomegranates. And /b his father b gives him. About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice” /b (Proverbs 23:25)., b The Sages taught: What /b message did b the members of the Chamber of the Hewn Stone, /b the Great Sanhedrin, b send to Ḥoni HaMe’aggel? /b About you, the verse states: b “You shall also decree a matter, and it shall be established for you; and the light shall shine upon your ways. /b When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up, for He saves the humble person. He will deliver the one who is not innocent and he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands” (Job 22:28–30).,They interpreted: b “You shall also decree a matter”; you, /b Ḥoni, b decree from below, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, fulfills your statement from above. “And the light shall shine upon your ways”; a generation that was in darkness, you have illuminated /b it b with your prayer. /b , b “When they cast down, you will say: There is lifting up”; a generation that was cast down, you lifted it up with your prayer. “For He saves the humble person”; a generation that was humble in its transgression, you saved it through your prayer. “He will deliver the one who is not innocent”; a generation that was not innocent, you have delivered it through your prayer. “And he will be delivered through the cleanness of your hands”; you have delivered /b an undeserving generation b through the clean work of your hands. /b ,§ The Gemara relates another story about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: All the days /b of the life b of that righteous man, /b Ḥoni, b he was distressed over /b the meaning of b this verse: “A song of Ascents: When the Lord brought back those who returned to Zion, we were like those who dream” /b (Psalms 126:1). b He said /b to himself: b Is there /b really a person b who can sleep and dream for seventy years? /b How is it possible to compare the seventy-year exile in Babylonia to a dream?, b One day, he was walking along the road /b when b he saw a certain man planting a carob tree. /b Ḥoni b said to him: This /b tree, b after how many years /b will it b bear /b fruit? The man b said to him: /b It will not produce fruit b until seventy years /b have passed. Ḥoni b said to him: Is it obvious to you that you will live seventy years, /b that you expect to benefit from this tree? b He said to him: That man /b himself b found a world /b full b of carob trees. Just as my ancestors planted for me, I too am planting for my descendants. /b ,Ḥoni b sat and ate bread. Sleep overcame him and he slept. A cliff formed around him, and he disappeared from sight and slept for seventy years. When he awoke, he saw a certain man gathering /b carobs from that tree. Ḥoni b said to him: /b Are b you the one who planted /b this tree? The man b said to him: I am his son’s son. /b Ḥoni b said to him: /b I can b learn from this that I /b have b slept for seventy years, /b and indeed b he saw that his donkey had sired several herds /b during those many years.,Ḥoni b went home and said to /b the members of the household: b Is the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel alive? They said to him: His son is no /b longer with us, but b his son’s son is /b alive. b He said to them: I am Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. They did not believe him. He went to the study hall, /b where he b heard the Sages say /b about one scholar: b His i halakhot /i are as enlightening /b and as clear b as in the years of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, for when /b Ḥoni HaMe’aggel b would enter the study hall he would resolve for the Sages any difficulty they had. /b Ḥoni b said to them: I am he, but they did not believe him and did not pay him proper respect. /b Ḥoni b became very upset, prayed for mercy, and died. Rava said: This /b explains the folk saying b that people say: Either friendship or death, /b as one who has no friends is better off dead.,§ The Gemara relates another story, this time about Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s descendants, who were also renowned for their righteous deeds. b Abba Ḥilkiyya was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s son. And when the world was in need of rain they would send Sages to him, and he would pray for mercy, and rain would fall. Once the world was in need of rain, /b and b the Sages sent a pair of Sages to him /b so b that he would pray for mercy and rain would fall. They went to his house but they did not find him /b there. b They went to the field and found him hoeing /b the ground. b They greeted him, /b
170. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
19b. מי איכא מידי דאנן לא מצינן למעבד ושלוחי דידן מצו עבדי הכי קאמרי ליה משביעין אנו עליך על דעתינו ועל דעת בית דין,הוא פורש ובוכה והן פורשין ובוכין וכו' הוא פורש ובוכה שחשדוהו צדוקי והם פורשין ובוכין דא"ר יהושע בן לוי כל החושד בכשרים לוקה בגופו,וכל כך למה שלא יתקן מבחוץ ויכניס כדרך שהצדוקין עושין,ת"ר מעשה בצדוקי אחד שהתקין מבחוץ והכניס ביציאתו היה שמח שמחה גדולה פגע בו אביו אמר לו בני אף על פי שצדוקין אנו מתיראין אנו מן הפרושים אמר לו כל ימי הייתי מצטער על המקרא הזה (ויקרא טז, ב) כי בענן אראה על הכפורת אמרתי מתי יבוא לידי ואקיימנו עכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטין עד שמת והוטל באשפה והיו תולעין יוצאין מחוטמו ויש אומרים ביציאתו ניגף דתני רבי חייא כמין קול נשמע בעזרה שבא מלאך וחבטו על פניו ונכנסו אחיו הכהנים ומצאו ככף רגל עגל בין כתפיו שנאמר (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה וכף רגליהם ככף רגל עגל,א"ר זכריה בן קבוטל וכו' מתני ליה רב חנן בר רבא לחייא בר רב קמיה דרב א"ר זכריה בן קפוטל ומחוי ליה רב בידיה קבוטל ונימא ליה מימר ק"ש הוה קרי,וכי האי גוונא מי שרי והא"ר יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא הקורא את שמע לא ירמוז בעיניו ולא יקרוץ בשפתותיו ולא יורה באצבעותיו ותניא רבי אלעזר חסמא אומר הקורא את שמע ומרמז בעיניו ומקרץ בשפתותיו ומראה באצבעו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מג, כב) ולא אותי קראת יעקב,לא קשיא הא בפרק ראשון הא בפרק שני,ת"ר (דברים ו, ז) ודברת בם בם ולא בתפלה ודברת בם בם יש לך רשות לדבר ולא בדברים אחרים,רבי אחא אומר ודברת בם עשה אותן קבע ואל תעשם עראי אמר רבא השח שיחת חולין עובר בעשה שנאמר ודברת בם בם ולא בדברים אחרים רב אחא בר יעקב אמר עובר בלאו שנאמר (קהלת א, ח) כל הדברים יגעים לא יוכל איש לדבר, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בקש להתנמנם פרחי כהונה מכין לפניו באצבע צרדא ואומרים לו אישי כ"ג עמוד והפג אחת על הרצפה ומעסיקין אותו עד שיגיע זמן השחיטה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי צרדא אמר רב יהודה צרתה דדא מאי היא גודל מחוי רב הונא ואזל קלא בכולי בי רב,ואומרים לו אישי כ"ג הפג אחת על הרצפה וכו' אמר רב יצחק על חדת מאי היא אמרי ליה אחוי קידה,ומעסיקין אותו עד שיגיע זמן שחיטה (וכו') תנא לא היו מעסיקין אותו לא בנבל ולא בכנור אלא בפה ומה היו אומרין (תהלים קכז, א) אם ה' לא יבנה בית שוא עמלו בוניו בו,מיקירי ירושלים לא היו ישנין כל הלילה כדי שישמע כ"ג קול הברה ולא תהא שינה חוטפתו תניא אבא שאול אמר אף בגבולין היו עושין כן זכר למקדש אלא שהיו חוטאין,אמר אביי ואיתימא ר"נ בר יצחק תרגומא נהרדעא דא"ל אליהו לרב יהודה אחוה דרב סלא חסידא אמריתו אמאי לא אתי משיח והא האידנא יומא דכיפורי הוא ואבעול כמה בתולתא בנהרדעא אמר ליה הקב"ה מאי אמר אמר ליה 19b. b is there any matter that we are unable to perform and our agents are able to perform? /b The role of the agent is to perform a task on behalf of the one who commissioned him. The agent cannot perform a task that the one who commissioned him is unable to perform. Since it is prohibited for Israelites to enter the priests’ courtyard and to perform the sacrificial rites, clearly the priests are not agents representing the Israelites. The language of the mishna in which the court Elders address the High Priest as their agent apparently contradicts that understanding. The Gemara answers: b This is what they say to him: We administer an oath to you according to our understanding and the understanding of the court, /b cautioning him that he cannot rationalize violating the oath by claiming that he took the oath based on his own interpretation. He is bound by the understanding of the court. The mishna does not address the nature of the High Priest’s agency.,§ The mishna continues: After this oath, b he would leave /b them b and cry and they would leave /b him b and cry. /b The Gemara explains: b He turned aside and cried /b due to the indignity b that they suspected him /b of being b a Sadducee; and they turned aside and cried, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who suspects the innocent /b of indiscretion b is afflicted in his body. /b The High Priest might in fact be beyond reproach and they may have suspected him falsely.,The Gemara asks: b And why /b were the Elders b so /b insistent that the High Priest take an oath? The Gemara explains: So that b he would not prepare /b the incense and light it b outside /b in the Sanctuary, before entering the Holy of Holies, b and bring /b the coal pan with the incense already burning on it b into /b the Holy of Holies b in the manner /b that b the Sadducees did. /b Since the High Priest is alone inside the Sanctuary and there is no way to ascertain whether he is in fact performing the service in the proper manner, the Elders insisted that he take an oath to perform it according to their instructions., b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : There was b an incident involving a /b certain b Sadducee /b who was appointed as High Priest, b who prepared the incense outside /b and then b brought /b it into the Holy of Holies. b Upon his emergence he was overjoyed /b that he had succeeded. b The father of /b that Sadducee b met him and said to him: My son, although we are Sadducees /b and you performed the service in accordance with our opinion, b we fear the Pharisees /b and do not actually implement that procedure in practice. The son b said to his /b father: b All my days I have been troubled over this verse: “For I will appear in the cloud above the Ark cover” /b (Leviticus 16:2). The Sadducees interpreted this verse to mean that God will appear above the Ark cover, i.e., will enter the Holy of Holies, only after the incense cloud is already there. b I said: When will /b the opportunity b become available to me, and I will fulfill it /b according to the Sadducee interpretation? b Now that /b the opportunity b has become available to me, /b will b I not fulfill it? /b ,The Sages b said: Not /b even b a few days /b passed b until he died and was laid out in the garbage /b dump, b and worms were coming out of his nose /b in punishment for his actions. b And some say /b that b he was struck /b as soon b as he emerged /b from the Holy of Holies, b as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: A type of sound was heard in the /b Temple b courtyard, as an angel came and struck him in the face. And his fellow priests came in /b to remove him from there b and they found the likeness of a footprint of a calf between his shoulders. /b That is the mark left by an angel striking, b as it is stated /b with regard to angels: b “And their feet were straight feet, and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot” /b (Ezekiel 1:7).,§ It was taught in the mishna that b Rabbi Zekharya ben Kevutal /b says: Many times I read before the High Priest from the book of Daniel. b Rav Ḥa bar Rava taught this to Ḥiyya bar Rav before Rav /b in the following manner: b Rabbi Zekharya bar Kefutal said, and Rav demonstrated with his hand /b that the name should be pronounced b Kevutal. /b The Gemara asks: Why did Rav demonstrate his point with a gesture? b Let him /b simply b say it. /b The Gemara answers: Rav b was reciting i Shema /i /b at that moment and could not interrupt i Shema /i by speaking.,The Gemara asks: b And is /b interrupting in a manner b of that sort, /b by gesturing, b permitted /b during i Shema /i ? b Didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta say: One who is reciting i Shema /i should neither make allusions with his eyes, nor open and close /b his mouth b with his lips /b to convey a message, b nor gesture with his fingers? And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Elazar Ḥisma says: Concerning one who recites i Shema /i and makes allusions with his eyes, or opens and closes /b his mouth b with his lips, or gestures with his fingers, the verse says: “And you did not call out to Me, O Jacob” /b (Isaiah 43:22). By signaling while reciting i Shema /i he behaves contemptuously toward God, and it is tantamount to not having recited i Shema /i before Him. How, then, could Rav gesture while reading i Shema /i ?,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b prohibition to interrupt one’s recitation of i Shema /i with a gesture applies b in /b the course of reciting the b first paragraph /b of i Shema /i , which is more fundamental; b that /b case where Rav gestured was b in /b the course of reciting the b second paragraph /b of i Shema /i , where gesturing to convey a significant message is permitted.,Apropos interruptions in the course of reciting i Shema /i , the Gemara cites a i baraita /i in which b the Sages taught: /b “And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently unto your children, b and you shall talk of them /b when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you arise” (Deuteronomy 6:6–7). This means that in the course b of /b reciting b them, /b the study of Torah and the recitation of i Shema /i , it is permitted to interrupt to state a significant matter, b but not /b in the course b of /b reciting the i Amida /i b prayer, /b which may not be interrupted for any kind of speech. Another interpretation of the verse is: b And you shall talk of them /b is to emphasize that b it is permitted /b to interrupt i Shema /i b to speak these matters /b of Torah, but not to speak b other matters /b that may lead to levity., b Rabbi Aḥa says: Talk of them /b means one must b render them, /b the words of Torah, b a permanent /b fixture, b and not render them a temporary /b exercise. b Rava said: One who engages in idle chatter /b without Torah or any particular purpose b violates /b a b positive /b commandment, b as it is stated: And you shall talk of them; /b talk b of them and not of other matters. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: /b Furthermore, b one /b even b violates a negative /b commandment, b as it is stated: “All these matters are wearisome; no man can ever state them” /b (Ecclesiastes 1:8). The phrase: No man can ever state them, is understood as a prohibition against engaging in idle chatter., strong MISHNA: /strong If the High Priest b sought to sleep /b at night, b the young priests /b would b snap the middle [ i tzerada /i ] finger /b against the thumb b before him, and they /b would b say to him /b every so often: b My Master, High Priest. Stand /b from your bed b and chill /b yourself b once on the floor /b and overcome your drowsiness. b And they /b would b engage him /b in various ways b until the time would arrive to slaughter the /b daily offering., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What /b is the b i tzerada /i /b finger mentioned in the mishna? b Rav Yehuda said: It is the rival [ i tzara /i ] of that [ i da /i ] /b one. Which finger b is it? /b i Tzerada /i is the rival of b the thumb; /b it is the middle finger. The middle finger would be strongly positioned against the thumb, and when one separates them, the finger hits the palm, creating a sound. b Rav Huna demonstrated /b the loud noise that could be achieved by snapping with the middle finger, and b the sound traveled throughout Rav’s study hall. /b The sound created was loud enough to keep the High Priest awake.,It was taught in the mishna that b they said to him: My Master, High Priest. /b Stand from your bed and b chill /b yourself b once on the floor /b and overcome your drowsiness. b Rav Yitzḥak said /b that they said to the High Priest: b Introduce something new. /b The Gemara asks: b What is it /b that they asked him to introduce? b They say to him: Demonstrate /b how to perform the ceremonial b bowing /b [ b i kidda /i ]. /b This was a form of bowing that was difficult to perform, in which the High Priest was expert. The thought was that the exercise would keep him awake.,The mishna continues: b And they /b would b engage him /b in different ways b until the time to slaughter the /b daily offering b would arrive. /b It was b taught: They would not occupy him with a harp or a lyre, /b which may not be played on a Festival, b but /b would sing b with /b their b mouths. And what would they say? /b They would say this verse: b “Unless the Lord builds the house, its builders labor in vain on it; /b unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchman keeps vigil in vain” (Psalms 127:1). The message to the High Priest was that his service must be performed for the sake of Heaven for it to be accepted by God; otherwise his efforts would be in vain.,The Gemara relates that b the prominent /b men b of Jerusalem would not sleep the entire night /b but instead engaged in Torah study, b so that /b the b High Priest would hear /b the b sound of noise /b in the city b and sleep would not overcome him /b in the silence of the sleeping city. b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Abba Shaul said: They would do so even in the outlying areas /b and stay awake all night b in acknowledgment of the Temple; however, /b the result was b that they would sin, /b as the men and women would participate in games together to pass the time, leading to transgression., b Abaye said, and some say /b it was b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak /b who said: b Interpret /b that statement as referring to b Neharde’a, as Elijah /b the Prophet b said to Rav Yehuda, brother /b of b Rav Salla Ḥasida: You have said /b and wondered: b Why has the Messiah not come? /b Why is that surprising? b Isn’t today Yom Kippur, and relations were had with several virgins in Neharde’a, /b as the men and women stayed awake all night and that led to promiscuity? Rav Yehuda b said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, say /b about those sins committed by the Jewish people? b He said: /b This is what God said:
171. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
57a. נימא תלתא תנאי הוו לא תרי תנאי הוו ותנא קמא דר' שמעון היינו ר' יוסי ותנא קמא דר' יוסי היינו ר' שמעון ומאי אף אקמייתא,ת"ר בן בוהיין נתן פיאה לירק ובא אביו ומצאן לעניים שהיו טעונין ירק ועומדין על פתח הגינה אמר להם בני השליכו מעליכם ואני נותן לכם כפליים במעושר לא מפני שעיני צרה אלא מפני שאמרו חכמים אין נותנין פיאה לירק,למה ליה למימרא להו לא מפני שעיני צרה כי היכי דלא לימרו דחויי קא מדחי לן,ת"ר בראשונה היו מניחין עורות קדשים בלשכת בית הפרוה לערב היו מחלקין אותן לאנשי בית אב והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע התקינו שיהיו מחלקין אותן מערב שבת לע"ש דאתיין כולהו משמרות ושקלן בהדדי,ועדיין היו גדולי כהונה נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שחיפו את ההיכל כולו בטבלאות של זהב שהן אמה על אמה כעובי דינר זהב ולרגל היו מקפלין אותן ומניחין אותן על גב מעלה בהר הבית כדי שיהו עולי רגלים רואין שמלאכתם נאה ואין בה דלם,תנא אבא שאול אומר קורות של שקמה היו ביריחו והיו בעלי זרועות נוטלין אותן בזרוע עמדו בעלים והקדישום לשמים,עליהם ועל כיוצא בהם אמר אבא שאול בן בטנית משום אבא יוסף בן חנין אוי לי מבית בייתוס אוי לי מאלתן אוי לי מבית חנין אוי לי מלחישתן אוי לי מבית קתרוס אוי לי מקולמוסן אוי לי מבית ישמעאל בן פיאכי אוי לי מאגרופן שהם כהנים גדולים ובניהן גיזברין וחתניהם אמרכלין ועבדיהן חובטין את העם במקלות,תנו רבנן ארבע צווחות צוחה עזרה ראשונה צאו מכאן בני עלי שטימאו היכל ה' ועוד צווחה צא מיכן יששכר איש כפר ברקאי שמכבד את עצמו ומחלל קדשי שמים דהוה כריך ידיה בשיראי ועביד עבודה,ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס ישמעאל בן פיאכי תלמידו של פנחס וישמש בכהונה גדולה ועוד צווחה העזרה שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס יוחנן בן נרבאי תלמידו של פנקאי וימלא כריסו מקדשי שמים,אמרו עליו על יוחנן בן נרבאי שהיה אוכל ג' מאות עגלים ושותה ג' מאות גרבי יין ואוכל ארבעים סאה גוזלות בקינוח סעודה אמרו כל ימיו של יוחנן בן נרבאי לא נמצא נותר במקדש מאי סלקא ביה ביששכר איש כפר ברקאי אמרי מלכא ומלכתא הוו יתבי מלכא אמר גדיא יאי ומלכתא אמרה אימרא יאי אמרו מאן מוכח כהן גדול דקא מסיק קרבנות כל יומא אתא איהו 57a. b Let us say /b that b there are three i tanna’im /i /b who dispute this point: The two unattributed opinions, each of which is referring to two vegetables, and the opinion common to Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Shimon that includes all three vegetables. The Gemara rejects this: b No, there are /b only b two i tanna’im /i /b who dispute the point, b and the first i tanna /i /b whose opinion appears before the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon is Rabbi Yosei. And the first i tanna /i /b whose opinion appears before the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei is Rabbi Shimon. And what /b is the meaning of the word b even /b in both their statements? They agree with regard to b the first /b vegetable, turnips; however, they disagree with regard to the second, and replace it with another vegetable.,The Gemara cites an episode from the i Tosefta /i . b The Sages taught: The son /b of a man named b Bohayan designated /b for the poor b the /b produce in the b corner /b in a garden b of vegetables, and his father /b Bohayan b found the poor laden /b with b vegetables and standing at the opening of the garden /b on their way out. b He said to them: My sons, cast /b the vegetables that you have gathered b from upon yourselves and I will give you twice /b the amount in b tithed /b produce, and you will be no worse off. b Not because I begrudge /b you what you have taken. b Rather, it is because the Sages say: One does not designate /b for the poor b the /b produce in the b corner /b in a garden b of vegetables. /b Therefore, the vegetables that you took require tithing.,The Gemara asks: b Why /b was it necessary b for him to say to them: Not because I begrudge /b you what you have taken? It would have been sufficient to offer them tithed produce. The Gemara answers that he said it b so they would not say: He is putting us off, /b taking what we collected now, but later he will not fulfill his commitment.,Apropos the people of Jericho, the Gemara relates that powerful people would steal wood from them. b The Sages taught: Initially, /b the priests b would place the hides /b that were flayed from animals b consecrated /b as offerings of the most sacred order, which were given to the priests, b in the Parva chamber. In the evening, they would distribute them to the members of the family /b of priests serving in the Temple that day. b And the powerful /b priests among them would b take them by force /b before they could be distributed. The Rabbis b decreed that they would distribute them each Shabbat eve, /b because then b all the /b families of both priestly b watches came and took /b their part b together. /b All the families from both the watch that was beginning its service and the one ending its service were together when they divided the hides. The powerful priests were unable to take the hides by force., b Yet still the prominent priests /b by virtue of their lineage b would take them by force. /b Due to their prominence, the members of the rest of the watch dared not challenge them. When they realized that there was no equitable distribution, b the owners /b of the sacrifices ( i Me’iri /i ) b arose and consecrated /b the hides b to Heaven /b so the priests could not take them.,The Sages b said: Not a few days passed before they had plated the entire sanctuary with golden tablets /b with the proceeds from the redemption and sale of the hides. These plates b were one cubit by one cubit and as thick as a golden dinar. And /b when the people assembled b for the /b Festival b pilgrimage they would remove /b the tablets b and place them on a stair of the Temple Mount so that the pilgrims would see that the craftsmanship /b of the tablets b was beautiful and without flaw [ i dalam /i ]. /b Afterward they replaced the tablets in the Sanctuary., b It was /b similarly b taught /b that b Abba Shaul says: There were sycamore tree trunks in Jericho, and powerful people would take them /b from their owners b by force. The owners stood and consecrated /b these trunks b to Heaven. /b It was with regard to these trunks and the branches that grew from them that the residents of Jericho acted against the will of the Sages., b With regard to /b the prominent priests b and those like them, Abba Shaul ben Batnit said in the name of Abba Yosef ben Ḥanin: Woe is me due to /b the High Priests of b the house of Baitos, woe is me due to their clubs. Woe is me due to /b the High Priests of b the house of Ḥanin; woe is me due to their whispers /b and the rumors they spread. b Woe is me due to /b the High Priests of b the house of Katros; woe is me due to their pens /b that they use to write lies. b Woe is me due to /b the servants of the High Priests of b the house of Yishmael ben Piakhi; woe is me due to their fists. /b The power of these households stemmed from the fact b that /b the fathers b were High Priests, and their sons were /b the Temple b treasurers, and their sons-in-law were /b Temple b overseers [ i amarkalin /i ]. And their servants strike the people with clubs, /b and otherwise act inappropriately.,Apropos the critique of several prominent priests, the Gemara relates that b the Sages taught: /b The people in b the /b Temple b courtyard /b all b cried four cries, /b as they were in agreement over various issues ( i Pardes Rimonim /i ). The b first /b cry was: b Leave here, sons of Eli, who defiled God’s Sanctuary /b (see I Samuel 2:22). Subsequently the priesthood was transferred to the house of Zadok. b And an additional cry: Leave here, Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai, who honors himself and desecrates /b the items b consecrated /b to b Heaven. /b Due to his delicate nature and his disrespect for the Temple service, he would b wrap /b his hands b in silk [ i shirai /i ] and perform the service. /b This would invalidate the service because the silk was an interposition between his hands and the Temple vessels. Furthermore, his conduct demeaned the Temple service, as he demonstrated that he was unwilling to dirty his hands for it., b And /b the people in b the /b Temple b courtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and let /b the righteous b Yishmael ben Piakhi, the student of Pinehas /b ben Elazar the priest, b enter and serve as High Priest, /b although the members of this family were violent. b And /b the people in b the /b Temple b courtyard cried additionally: Lift your heads, O gates, and let Yoḥa ben Narbbai, the student of Pinkai, enter and fill his belly with /b meat b of offerings /b consecrated to b Heaven, /b as he is worthy to eat offerings., b They said about Yoḥa ben Narbbai that he /b and his household b would eat three hundred calves, and drink three hundred jugs of wine, and eat forty i se’a /i of doves for dessert. They said: /b Throughout b all the days of Yoḥa ben Narbbai there was no leftover /b sacrificial meat b in the Temple, /b as he would make certain that someone ate it. The Gemara asks: b What /b ultimately b happened to Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai? They said: The king and the queen were sitting /b and talking. b The king said /b that b goat /b meat b is better /b food, b and the queen said lamb /b meat is b better /b food. b They said: Who can prove /b which one of us is correct? b The High Priest /b can, b as he offers sacrifices all day /b and tastes their meat. The High Priest had the right to take a portion from any sacrifice offered in the Temple, and therefore was well acquainted with the tastes of different meat. Yissakhar of Kfar Barkai b came, /b and when they asked him this question,
172. Orosius Paulus, Historiae Adversum Paganos, 7.12.6-7.12.8, 7.13.4-7.13.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 28, 29
173. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 7.38.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •avitus, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 354
174. Rufinus of Aquileia, In Suam Et Eusebii Caesariensis Latinam Ab Eo Factam Historiam, 10.38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 140
175. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 21.8, 31.11 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhba •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 181; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 494
21.8. רַבִּי אַבְטוֹלִיס הַזָּקֵן אָמַר מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בֵּן וְהִכְעִיסוֹ, וְגָזַר עָלָיו גְּזֵרָה קָשָׁה, וְהָיָה הַפֶּדָגוֹג מְבַקֵּשׁ עַל יָדוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ כְּלוּם אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנִּי אֶלָּא עַל בְּנִי, כְּבָר הִתְרַצֵּיתִי לִבְנִי. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, אָמַר לוֹ אֱמֶשׁ הָיִיתָ אוֹמֵר (שמות ה, כג): וּמֵאָז בָּאתִי אֶל פַּרְעֹה, וְעַכְשָׁו אַתָּה עוֹמֵד וּמַרְבֶּה בִּתְפִלָּה, מַה תִּצְעַק אֵלָי, אֱמֶשׁ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שמות יד, יא): הֲמִבְּלִי אֵין קְבָרִים, וְעַכְשָׁו אַתָּה מַרְבֶּה בִּתְפִלָּה, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִסָּעוּ, יַסִּיעוּ דָּבָר מִלִּבָּן. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּדַי הִיא הַאֲמָנָה שֶׁהֶאֱמִינוּ בִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאֶקְרַע לָהֶם הַיָּם, שֶׁלֹא אָמְרוּ לְמשֶׁה הֵיאַךְ נַחְזֹר לַאֲחוֹרֵינוּ, שֶׁלֹא לִשְׁבֹּר לֵב טַף וְנָשִׁים שֶׁעִמָּנוּ, אֶלָּא הֶאֱמִינוּ בִּי וְהָלְכוּ אַחַר משֶׁה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה, עֵת לְקַצֵּר וְעֵת לְהַאֲרִיךְ, בָּנַי שְׁרוּיִם בְּצַעַר וְהַיָּם סוֹגֵר וְהָאוֹיֵב רוֹדֵף, וְאַתָּה עוֹמֵד וּמַרְבֶּה בִּתְפִלָּה, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִסָּעוּ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה אֵין לָהֶם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא לִסַּע בִּלְבָד, וְיִסָּעוּ, יַסִּיעוּ רַגְלֵיהֶם מִן הַיַּבָּשָׁה לַיָּם וְאַתָּה רוֹאֶה נִסִּים שֶׁאֶעֱשֶׂה לָהֶם. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה, אֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לְפָנַי, וּמַה אִם אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהָיָה יְחִידִי עָשִׂיתִי יַבָּשָׁה בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, ט): יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם, בִּשְׁבִיל עֵדָה קְדוֹשָׁה שֶׁעֲתִידָה לוֹמַר לְפָנַי (שמות טו, ב): זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. רַבִּי בְּנָיָא אוֹמֵר, בִּזְכוּת אַבְרָהָם אֲנִי בּוֹקֵעַ לָהֶם אֶת הַיָּם, בַּעֲבוּר מַה שֶּׁעָשָׂה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה כב, ג): וַיְבַקַּע עֲצֵי עֹלָה, וְאוֹמֵר (שמות יד, כא): וַיִּבָּקְעוּ הַמָּיִם. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר בִּזְכוּת יַעֲקֹב אֲנִי קוֹרֵעַ לָהֶם אֶת הַיָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כח, יד): וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כְּבָר הִכְתַּבְתִּי עָלֶיךָ (במדבר יב, ז): בְּכָל בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא, וְאַתָּה בִּרְשׁוּתִי וְהַיָּם בִּרְשׁוּתִי, כְּבָר עֲשִׂיתִיךָ גִּזְבָּר עָלָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְאַתָּה הָרֵם אֶת מַטְךָ. 31.11. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת עַמִּי, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי כח, ח): מַרְבֶּה הוֹנוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית לְחוֹנֵן דַּלִּים יְקַבְּצֶנּוּ, יֵשׁ אָדָם שֶׁהוּא עָשִׁיר וּמַלְוֶה בְּרִבִּית וּמְכַנֵּס מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה וְהוּא מֵת בְּלֹא בָנִים וְכָל הַמָּמוֹן שֶׁלּוֹ נִכְנַס לְטִמְיוֹן, מָה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹשֶׂה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָמוֹן, בּוֹנֶה בִּימְסָאוֹת וּמֶרְחֲצָאוֹת וְאִיצְטַבָּאוֹת וּבָתֵּי כִסְאוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְהֵא לְצָרְכֵי הָעֲנִיִּים, הֱוֵי: לְחוֹנֵן דַּלִּים יְקַבְּצֶנּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מַרְבֶּה הוֹנוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ, זֶה עֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע שֶׁהוּא מַלְוֶה בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית, וּלְמִי הוּא מַכְנִיס כָּל הַמָּמוֹן, לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: לְחוֹנֵן דַּלִּים, וְנֶאֱמַר (יחזקאל לט, י): וְשָׁלְלוּ אֶת שֹׁלְלֵיהֶם וּבָזְזוּ אֶת בֹּזְזֵיהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ הִזְהִיר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹא יַלְווּ בְּרִבִּית כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יֹאכְלוּ אֲחֵרִים אֶת נִכְסֵיהֶם, הֲרֵי אִם כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת עַמִּי אֶת הֶעָנִי.
176. Julian (Emperor), Against The Galileans, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 140
177. Ephrem, Hymns Against Julian, 1.16, 2.7 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 140
178. Epiphanius, Panarion, (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
179. Augustine, Enarrationes In Psalmos, 196 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 124
180. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 23.1.2-23.1.3 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 140
23.1.2. And although he weighed every possible variety of events with anxious thought, and pushed on with burning zeal the many preparations for his campaign, yet turning his activity to every part, and eager to extend the memory of his reign by great works, he planned at vast cost to restore the once splendid temple at Jerusalem, which after many mortal combats during the siege by Vespasian and later by Titus, had barely been stormed. He had entrusted the speedy performance of this work to Alypius of Antioch, who had once been vice-prefect of Britain. 23.1.3. But, though this Alypius pushed the work on with vigour, aided by the governor of the province, terrifying balls of flame kept bursting forth near the foundations of the temple, and made the place inaccessible to the workmen, some of whom were burned to death; and since in this way the element persistently repelled them, the enterprise halted.
181. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 6.5-6.6 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba) Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 178
182. Justinian, Digest, 48.8.11.1 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 4
183. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 5, 24 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009), Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature, 58
184. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 7 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 28
185. Mishnah, Hor., 2.5, 3.3  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308
187. Procopius of Gaza, Ad Gen 18 190, None  Tagged with subjects: •rent, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 126
188. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q264A (Halakha B), None  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 141
190. Anon., 4 Ezra, 12, 11  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 28
191. Digesta, Digesta, 48.8.11.1  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 4
194. Epigraphy, Ogis, None  Tagged with subjects: •rent, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 126
197. Papyri, P.Cair.Zen., 4  Tagged with subjects: •rent, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 126
198. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 4.4, 4.12  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba letters Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 313; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 317
4.4. רֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ. שְׁתֵּי מִשְׁפָּחוֹת הָיוּ נִכְנָסוֹת אֵצֶל רַבִּי, אַחַת שֶׁל רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא וְאַחַת שֶׁל בֵּית רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פַּזִּי, כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַתֵּן רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פַּזִּי לְרַבִּי בִּקְּשׁוּ לִכָּנֵס תְּחִלָּה וְלֹא הִנִּיחָן רַבִּי אַמֵּי, אָמַר לָהֶם כְּתִיב (שמות כו, ל): וַהֲקֵמֹתָ אֶת הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּמִשְׁפָּטוֹ אֲשֶׁר הָרְאֵיתָ, וְכִי יֵשׁ מִשְׁפָּט לָעֵצִים, אֶלָּא קֶרֶשׁ שֶׁזָּכָה לִנָּתֵן בַּצָּפוֹן יִנָּתֵן בַּצָּפוֹן, וְשֶׁזָּכָה לִנָּתֵן בַּדָּרוֹם יִנָּתֵן בַּדָּרוֹם. בְּעוֹן דִּימַנּוּן מֵאֵיכָן, אֲמַר לוֹן רַבִּי סִימוֹן מִן דָּרוֹמָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים א, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' יְהוּדָה יַעֲלֶה. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי מָנֵי הֲדָא בַּמִּלְחָמָה בְּרַם בְּמִנּוּי רוֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַיּוֹשְׁבִים רִאשׁוֹנָה, אַף הָכָא כֵּן רֹאֵי פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ. 4.12. וַיִּשְׁלַח סְפָרִים אֶל כָּל מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ (אסתר א, כב), אָמַר רַב הוּנָא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ דַּעַת סְרוּחָה הָיְתָה לוֹ, מִנְהָג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם אָדָם מְבַקֵּשׁ לֶאֱכֹל עֲדָשִׁים וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מְבַקֶּשֶׁת לֶאֱכֹל אֲפוּנִים, יָכוֹל הוּא לְכוּפָהּ, לָא מַה דְּהִיא בָּעְיָא עָבְדָה. אָמַר רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה שְׂחוֹק בָּעוֹלָם, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מָדִיִּי נוֹשֵׂא פַּרְסִית וְהִיא מְדַבֶּרֶת בְּלָשׁוֹן מָדִיִּי, פַּרְסִי נוֹשֵׂא מָדִיִּית וְהִיא מְדַבֶּרֶת בְּלָשׁוֹן פַּרְסִי, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דִּבֶּר עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁלָּמְדוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, לָשׁוֹן יָחֳנָךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי נָתָן דְּבֵית גּוּבְרִין, אַרְבַּע לְשׁוֹנוֹת נָאִין הֵן שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עוֹלָם, לַעַז לְזֶמֶר, פַּרְסִי לְאֶלְיָה, עִבְרִי לְדִבּוּר, רוֹמִים לְקָרֵב. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אַף אַשּׁוּרִית לִכְתָב. עִבְרִית, יֵשׁ לָהּ דִּבּוּר וְאֵין לָהּ כְּתָב. אַשּׁוּרִית. יֵשׁ לָהּ כְּתָב וְאֵין לָהּ דִּבּוּר, בָּחֲרוּ לָהֶם כְּתַב אַשּׁוּרִית וְלָשׁוֹן עִבְרִית. בּוּרְגָנִי אֶחָד אָמַר בָּרְרוּ לְהוֹן לָשׁוֹן רוֹמִי מִלָּשׁוֹן יְוָנִי. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר גְּנַאי הוּא לָהּ שֶׁחוֹתֶמֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁלָּה. וְרַב חָנִין בַּר אָדָא אָמַר אַף עַל פִּי כֵן (דניאל ז, יט): וְטִפְרַהּ דִּי נְחָשׁ, אֵינָהּ חוֹתֶמֶת אֶלָּא בִּלְשׁוֹנָהּ. אָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מִכָּאן אָדָם צָרִיךְ לִשְׁנוֹת אֶת פָּרָשִׁיּוֹתָיו, אִלּוּ לֹא שָׁנָה לָנוּ משֶׁה אֶת הַתּוֹרָה מֵהֵיכָן אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין (דברים יד, ז): הַשְּׁסוּעָה, וְאִלּוּ לֹא שָׁנָה לָנוּ דָּנִיֵּאל אֶת הַחֲלוֹם, מֵהֵיכָן אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין וְטִפְרַהּ דִּי נְחָשׁ.
199. Sozomenus, Ecclesiastical History, 6.32  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 183
6.32. Many monastical institutions flourished in Palestine. Many of those whom I enumerated under the reign of Constantius were still cultivating the science. They and their associates attained the summit of philosophical perfection, and added still greater reputation to their monasteries; and among them Hesycas, a companion of Hilarion, and Epiphanius, afterwards bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, deserve to be particularly noticed. Hesycas devoted himself to a life of philosophy in the same locality where his master had formerly resided; and Epiphanius fixed his abode near the village of Besauduc, which was his birthplace, in the government of Eleutheropolis. Having been instructed from his youth by the most celebrated ascetics, and having on this account passed the most of his time in Egypt, Epiphanius became most celebrated in Egypt and Palestine by his attainments in monastic philosophy, and was chosen by the inhabitants of Cyprus to act as bishop of the metropolis of their island. Hence he is, I think, the most revered man under the whole heaven, so to speak; for he fulfilled his priesthood in the concourse of a large city and in a seaport; and when he threw himself into civil affairs, he conducted them with so much virtue that he became known in a little while to all citizens and every variety of foreigner; to some, because they had seen the man himself, and had experience of his manner of living; and to others, who had learned it from these spectators. Before he went to Cyprus, he resided for some time, during the present reign, in Palestine. At the same period in the monasteries, Salamines, Phuscon, Malachion, and Crispion, four brethren, were highly distinguished: they practiced philosophy near Bethelia, a village of Gaza; they were of a resident noble family, and had been instructed in philosophy by Hilarion. It is related that the brothers were once journeying homewards, when Malachion was suddenly snatched away and became invisible; soon afterwards, however, he reappeared and continued the journey with his brothers. He did not long survive this occurrence, but died in the flower of his youth. He was not behind men of advanced age in the philosophy of virtuous life and of piety. Ammonius lived at a distance of ten stadia from those last mentioned; he dwelt near Capharcobra, the place of his birth, a town of Gaza. He was very exact and courageous in carrying through asceticism. I think that Silvanus, a native of Palestine, to whom, on account of his high virtue, an angel was once seen to minister, practiced philosophy about the same time in Egypt. Then he lived at Mount Sinai, and afterwards founded at Gerari, in the wady, a very extensive and most noted cœnobium for many good men, over which the excellent Zacharias subsequently presided.
202. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q350=4Qacc Gr, 0  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), and coins •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( •dead sea scrolls, and the bar kokhba period Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 299
203. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q460-4Qnarrwpr, None  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba (bar koziba), and coins •bar kokhba (bar koziba), revolt ( •dead sea scrolls, and the bar kokhba period Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 299
205. Anon., Historia Augusta, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 29
206. Papyri, P.Oxy., 50.3593  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 60, 91
207. Papyri, P.Murabba'T, 42  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 18; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 573
208. Papyri, P.Jud.Des.Misc., 4  Tagged with subjects: •rent, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 126
209. Papyri, P.Hever, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 135; Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 60
210. Dead Sea Scrolls, Murabba’At, 44  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Grabbe (2010), Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus, 79
212. Papyri, P.Yadin, 11.1-11.7, 42.1-42.2, 43.4, 43.8, 44.6-44.7, 45.10-45.13  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohn (2013), The Memory of the Temple and the Making of the Rabbis, 96, 97; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 572; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 7; Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 93, 165; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 269
217. Anon., Song Rabbah, 7.2  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 170
218. Epigraphy, Ijo 1, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 354
219. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 4.7  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba •bar kokhba revolt, rabbinic memory of Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 241; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 133
220. Eusebius, Martyrs of Palestine, Short Recension, 11.5-11.7  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 189
221. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.3.2, 1.11, 2.7.1  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt, rabbinic memory of •time of persecution, referring to bar kokhba revolt •bar kokhba revolt •roman persecution, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 35, 45; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 31
1.3.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים, רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בְּרַבִּי חִיָּא, שְׁנֵי שְׁמָנִים הֵם, שֶׁמֶן כְּהֻנָּה וְשֶׁמֶן מַלְכוּת. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שְׁתֵּי תוֹרוֹת הֵן, תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב וְשֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ שֶׁמֶן מִתְגַּדֵּל עַל כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹסֵק בְּשַׁמְנָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, הִיא דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוּדָן, דְּאָמַר (ישעיה י, כז): וְחֻבַּל עֹל מִפְּנֵי שָׁמֶן, חֻבַּל עֻלּוֹ שֶׁל סַנְחֵרִיב מִפְּנֵי חִזְקִיָּהוּ וְסִיעָתוֹ, שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹסְקִין בְּשַׁמְנָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ, מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה מַר מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ וְסוֹפוֹ מָתוֹק, כָּךְ (איוב ח, ז): וְהָיָה רֵאשִׁיתְךָ מִצְעָר וְאַחֲרִיתְךָ יִשְׂגֶּה מְאֹד. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה אֵין מִשְׁתַּבֵּחַ אֶלָא עַל יְדֵי כְּתִישָׁה, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין עוֹשִׂין תְּשׁוּבָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי יִסּוּרִין. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה אֵין מִתְעָרֵב בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין מִתְעָרְבִים בְּאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, דִּכְתִיב (דברים ז, ג): וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה כּוֹס מָלֵא אֵינוֹ מְזַרְזֵיף כִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִים, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה אֵין מְזַרְזְפִים בְּדִבְרֵי לֵיצָנוּת. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה כּוֹס מָלֵא שֶׁמֶן בְּיָדְךָ וְנָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ טִפָּה שֶׁל מַיִם וְיָצָאת כְּנֶגְדָּהּ טִפָּה שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן, כָּךְ אִם נִכְנַס דָּבָר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה לַלֵּב יָצָא כְּנֶגְדּוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁל לֵיצָנוּת, נִכְנַס לַלֵּב דָּבָר שֶׁל לֵיצָנוּת, יָצָא כְּנֶגְדּוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה מֵבִיא אוֹרָה לָעוֹלָם, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹרָה לָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס, ג): וְהָלְכוּ גוֹיִם לְאוֹרֵךְ. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן הַזֶּה עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין, כָּךְ הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל עֶלְיוֹנִים עַל כָּל הָאֻמּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כח, א): וּנְתָנְךָ ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן. מָה הַשֶּׁמֶן אֵין לוֹ בַּת קוֹל, כָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין לָהֶם בַּת קוֹל בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, אֲבָל לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא כְּתִיב (ישעיה כט, ד): וְשָׁפַלְתְּ מֵאֶרֶץ תְּדַבֵּרִי. 2.7.1. הִשְׁבַּעְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, בַּמֶּה הִשְׁבִּיעָן, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר הִשְׁבִּיעָן בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ, בִּצְבָאוֹת, בְּצָבָא שֶׁל מַעְלָה וּבְצָבָא שֶׁל מַטָּה, בִּשְׁתֵּי צְבָאוֹת, הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר בִּצְבָאוֹת אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָֹּׂדֶה, זוֹ חַיַּת הַשָֹּׂדֶה, הָאֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב ה, כג): כִּי עִם אַבְנֵי הַשָֹּׂדֶה בְרִיתֶךָ וְחַיַּת הַשָֹּׂדֶה הָשְׁלְמָה לָּךְ. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר הִשְׁבִּיעָן בָּאָבוֹת וּבָאִמָּהוֹת, בִּצְבָאוֹת אֵלּוּ אָבוֹת שֶׁעָשׂוּ צִבְיוֹנִי וְעָשִׂיתִי צִבְיוֹנִי בָּם. אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָֹּׂדֶה, אֵלּוּ הַשְּׁבָטִים, הָאֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (בראשית מט, כא): נַפְתָּלִי אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר הִשְׁבִּיעָן בַּמִּילָה, בִּצְבָאוֹת, בְּצָבָא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ אוֹת. אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָֹּׂדֶה, שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין דָּמָם כְּדַם צְבִי וְאַיָּל. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי הִשְׁבִּיעָן בְּדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, בִּצְבָאוֹת, שֶׁעָשׂוּ צִבְיוֹנִי בָּעוֹלָם וְשֶׁעָשִׂיתִי צִבְיוֹנִי בָּהֶן. אוֹ בְּאַיְלוֹת הַשָֹּׂדֶה, שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין דָּמָן עַל קְדֻשַּׁת שְׁמִי כְּדַם הַצְּבִי וְדַם הָאַיָּל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אִם יֹאמַר לִי אָדָם תֵּן נַפְשְׁךָ עַל קְדֻשַּׁת שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אֲנִי נוֹתֵן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּהַרְגוּנִי מִיָּד, אֲבָל בְּדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד אֵינִי יָכוֹל לִסְבֹּל. וּמָה הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים בְּדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, הָיוּ מְבִיאִין כַּדּוּרִיּוֹת שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל וּמְלַבְּנִין אוֹתָן בָּאֵשׁ וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתָן תַּחַת שֵׁיחֵיהֶן וּמַשִֹּׂיאִין נַפְשׁוֹתָם מֵהֶם וּמְבִיאִין קְרוֹמִיּוֹת שֶׁל קָנִים וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתָן תַּחַת צִפָּרְנָן וּמַשִֹּׂיאִין נַפְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם מֵהֶם, הוּא שֶׁאָמַר דָּוִד (תהלים כה, א): אֵלֶיךָ ה' נַפְשִׁי אֶשָֹּׂא, אַשִֹּׂיא כְּתִיב, שֶׁהָיוּ מַשִֹּׂיאִין נַפְשָׁם עַל קְדֻשַּׁת שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אָמַר רַבִּי אוֹשַׁעְיָא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, הַמְתִּינוּ לִי וַאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אֶתְכֶם כְּצָבָא שֶׁל מַעְלָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִם תִּשְׁמְרוּ שְׁבוּעָתִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶתְכֶם כְּצָבָא שֶׁל מַעְלָה, וְאִם לָאו אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶתְכֶם כְּצָבָא שֶׁל מַטָּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר שְׁתֵּי שְׁבוּעוֹת יֵשׁ כָּאן, אַחַת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַחַת לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, נִשְׁבַּע לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹא יִמְרְדוּ עֹל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת, וְנִשְׁבַּע לַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת שֶׁלֹא יַקְשׁוּ עֹל עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁאִם מַקְשִׁים עֹל עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵן גּוֹרְמִין לַקֵּץ לָבוֹא שֶׁלֹא בְּעוֹנָתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי כְּתִיב (ישעיה לב, א): הֵן לְצֶדֶק יִמְלָךְ מֶלֶךְ, אֵין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַעֲמִיד מֶלֶךְ חָנֵף עַל אֻמָּתוֹ עַד שֶׁגּוֹבֶה דִּיקֵי שֶׁלָּהּ וְגוֹמְרָהּ תְּחִלָּה. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם אָמַר מַה שּׁוֹטְרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִין לְפַרְעֹה הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות ה, טז): תֶּבֶן אֵין נִתָּן לַעֲבָדֶיךָ וגו' וְחָטָאת עַמֶּךָ, אַתְּ חָטֵי עַל עַמָּךְ וְאַתְּ חָטֵי עַל אֻמָּתָךְ וְאַתְּ גּוֹרֵם לְעַצְמְךָ שֶׁתִּסְתַּלֵּק הַמַּלְכוּת מִמְּךָ וְתִנָּתֵן לְאֻמָּה אַחֶרֶת. רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אוֹמֵר אַרְבַּע שְׁבוּעוֹת יֵשׁ כָּאן, הִשְׁבִּיעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹא יִמְרְדוּ עֹל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת, וְשֶׁלֹא יִדְחֲקוּ עַל הַקֵּץ, וְשֶׁלֹא יְגַלּוּ מַסְטִירִין שֶׁלָּהֶם לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁלֹא יַעֲלוּ חוֹמָה מִן הַגּוֹלָה. אִם כֵּן לָמָּה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בָּא, לְקַבֵּץ גָּלֻיּוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. רַבִּי אוֹנְיָא אָמַר אַרְבַּע שְׁבוּעוֹת הִשְׁבִּיעָן כְּנֶגֶד אַרְבָּעָה דּוֹרוֹת שֶׁדָּחֲקוּ עַל הַקֵּץ וְנִכְשְׁלוּ, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: אֶחָד בִּימֵי עַמְרָם, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי דֵּינַיי, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי בֶּן כּוֹזֵבָא, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי שׁוּתֶלַח בֶּן אֶפְרָיִם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים עח, ט): בְּנֵי אֶפְרַיִם נוֹשְׁקֵי רוֹמֵי קָשֶׁת. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֶחָד בִּימֵי עַמְרָם, וְאֶחָד בְּדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמַד, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי בֶּן כּוֹזֵבָא, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי שׁוּתֶלַח בֶּן אֶפְרָיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר; בְּנֵי אֶפְרַיִם נוֹשְׁקֵי רוֹמֵי קָשֶׁת, וְהֵן הָיוּ מְחַשְּׁבִין בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְגַּזְּרָה גְּזֵרָה כְּשֶׁדִּבֵּר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עִם אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בֵּין הַבְּתָרִים וּמִשֶּׁנּוֹלַד יִצְחָק הִתְחִיל, מֶה עָשׂוּ נִתְקַבְּצוּ וְיָצְאוּ לַמִּלְחָמָה וְנָפְלוּ מֵהֶן חֲלָלִים הַרְבֵּה, מִפְּנֵי מָה, שֶׁלֹא הֶאֱמִינוּ בַּה' וְלֹא בָטְחוּ בִּישׁוּעָתוֹ, עַל שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל הַקֵּץ וְעָבְרוּ עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה. אִם תָּעִירוּ וְאִם תְּעוֹרְרוּ, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר אַהֲבָה שֶׁאָהַב יִצְחָק אֶת עֵשָׂו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כה, כח): וַיֶּאֱהַב יִצְחָק אֶת עֵשָׂו, מַהוּ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ, עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה חֶפְצוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר אַהֲבָה שֶׁאָהַב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי א, ב): אָהַבְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אָמַר ה', מַהוּ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ, מַלְכוּת שֶׁל מַעֲלָן, לִכְשֶׁתַּחְפֹּץ מִדַּת הַדִּין מֵאֵלֶיהָ, אֲנִי הוּא מְבִיאָהּ בְּקוֹלֵי קוֹלוֹת וְלֹא אֶתְעַכֵּב, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: עַד שֶׁתֶּחְפָּץ.
222. Anon., Leges Publicae, 2.2, 2.4, 58.2.19, 84.1.5  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 199; Neusner (2003), The Perfect Torah. 170; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 57
223. Anon., Apocalypse of Peter, 1.4-1.5, 2.4, 2.7-2.13, 7.2, 9.1-9.4, 16.5  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece (2015), Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent : New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 94, 96; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 377
224. Papyri, Cpr, 1  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 24
225. Anon., Shemoneh Esreh, 0  Tagged with subjects: •revolt/war, under hadrian/bar kokhba Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 528
226. Anon., Ijo, 2.196  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 206
227. Anon., Life of Barsauma, 190-198, 200-201, 199  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 356
228. Anon., Tanhuma, 14  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 239
229. Anon., Semahot, 8.6, 8.9-8.16  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba •bar kokhba revolt, r. akiva’s acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah •r. akiva, acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah Found in books: Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg (2023), Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity, 177; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308
230. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 308
11a. נתפרדה חבילה,אונקלוס בר קלונימוס איגייר שדר קיסר גונדא דרומאי אבתריה משכינהו בקראי איגיור הדר שדר גונדא דרומאי [אחרינא] אבתריה אמר להו לא תימרו ליה ולא מידי,כי הוו שקלו ואזלו אמר להו אימא לכו מילתא בעלמא ניפיורא נקט נורא קמי פיפיורא פיפיורא לדוכסא דוכסא להגמונא הגמונא לקומא קומא מי נקט נורא מקמי אינשי אמרי ליה לא אמר להו הקב"ה נקט נורא קמי ישראל דכתיב (שמות יג, כא) וה' הולך לפניהם יומם וגו' איגיור [כולהו],הדר שדר גונדא אחרינא אבתריה אמר להו לא תשתעו מידי בהדיה כי נקטי ליה ואזלי חזא מזוזתא [דמנחא אפתחא] אותיב ידיה עלה ואמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה אימא לן את,אמר להו מנהגו של עולם מלך בשר ודם יושב מבפנים ועבדיו משמרים אותו מבחוץ ואילו הקב"ה עבדיו מבפנים והוא משמרן מבחוץ שנאמר (תהלים קכא, ח) ה' ישמר צאתך ובואך מעתה ועד עולם איגיור תו לא שדר בתריה,(בראשית כה, כג) ויאמר ה' לה שני גוים בבטנך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אל תקרי גוים אלא גיים זה אנטונינוס ורבי שלא פסקו מעל שולחנם לא חזרת ולא קישות ולא צנון לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים דאמר מר צנון מחתך אוכל חזרת מהפך מאכל קישות מרחיב מעיים,והא תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל למה נקרא שמן קישואין מפני שקשין לגופו של אדם כחרבות לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי:,יום הלידה ויום המיתה: מכלל דר"מ סבר לא שנא מיתה שיש בה שריפה ולא שנא מיתה שאין בה שריפה פלחי בה לעבודת כוכבים אלמא שריפה לאו חוקה היא מכלל דרבנן סברי שריפה חוקה היא,והא תניא שורפין על המלכים ולא מדרכי האמורי ואי חוקה היא אנן היכי שרפינן והכתיב (ויקרא יח, ג) ובחוקותיהם לא תלכו,אלא דכ"ע שריפה לאו חוקה היא אלא חשיבותא היא והכא בהא קמיפלגי ר"מ סבר לא שנא מיתה שיש בה שריפה ולא שנא מיתה שאין בה שריפה פלחי בה לעבודת כוכבים ורבנן סברי מיתה שיש בה שריפה חשיבא להו ופלחי בה ושאין בה שריפה לא חשיבא ולא פלחי בה,גופא שורפין על המלכים ואין בו משום דרכי האמורי שנאמר (ירמיהו לד, ה) בשלום תמות ובמשרפות אבותיך המלכים וגו' וכשם ששורפין על המלכים כך שורפין על הנשיאים,ומה הם שורפין על המלכים מיטתן וכלי תשמישן ומעשה שמת ר"ג הזקן ושרף עליו אונקלוס הגר שבעים מנה צורי והאמרת מה הן שורפין עליהם מיטתן וכלי תשמישן אימא בשבעים מנה צורי,ומידי אחרינא לא והתניא עוקרין על המלכים ואין בו משום דרכי האמורי אמר רב פפא סוס שרכב עליו,ובהמה טהורה לא והתניא עיקור שיש בה טריפה אסור ושאין בה טריפה מותר ואיזהו עיקור שאין בה טריפה 11a. b The bundle is separated. /b ,§ The Gemara mentions other Romans who converted to Judaism. It relates: b Onkelos bar Kelonimos converted /b to Judaism. The Roman b emperor sent a troop [ i gunda /i ] of Roman /b soldiers b after him /b to seize Onkelos and bring him to the emperor. Onkelos b drew them /b toward him b with verses /b that he cited and learned with them, and b they converted. /b The emperor b then sent another troop of Roman /b soldiers b after him, /b and b said to them: Do not say anything to him, /b so that he cannot convince you with his arguments. The troops followed this instruction, and took Onkelos with them., b When they were walking, /b Onkelos b said to /b the troop of soldiers: b I will say a mere statement to you: A minor official [ i nifyora /i ] holds a torch before a high official [ i apifyora /i ], the high official /b holds a torch b for a duke [ i dukasa /i ], a duke for the governor, /b and b the governor for the ruler [ i koma /i ]. Does the ruler hold a torch before /b the common b people? /b The soldiers b said to /b Onkelos: b No. /b Onkelos b said to them: /b Yet b the Holy One, Blessed be He, holds a torch before the Jewish people, as it is written: “And the Lord went before them by day /b in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light” (Exodus 13:21). b They all converted. /b ,The emperor b then sent another troop /b of soldiers b after him, /b to bring Onkelos, and b said to them: Do not converse with him at all. /b The troops followed this instruction, and took Onkelos with them. b While they grabbed him and were walking, /b Onkelos b saw a i mezuza /i that was placed on the doorway. He placed his hand upon it and said to /b the soldiers: b What is this? They said to him: You tell us. /b ,Onkelos b said to them: The /b standard b practice /b throughout the b world /b is that b a king /b of b flesh and blood sits inside /b his palace, b and his servants /b stand b guard, /b protecting b him outside; but /b with regard to b the Holy One, Blessed be He, His servants, /b the Jewish people, sit b inside /b their homes b and He guards over them outside. As it is stated: “The Lord shall guard your going out and your coming in, from now and forever” /b (Psalms 121:8). Upon hearing this, those soldiers also b converted /b to Judaism. After that, the emperor b sent no more /b soldiers b after him. /b ,§ The Gemara returns to its discussion of Antoninus: When the matriarch Rebecca was pregt with Jacob and Esau, b “the Lord said to her: Two nations [ i goyim /i ] are in your womb” /b (Genesis 25:23). b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Do not read /b it as b i goyim /i , /b meaning nations; b rather /b read it as b i geyim /i , /b meaning proud ones. b This /b verse was fulfilled in two prominent individuals who descended from Rebecca, b Antoninus and Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b whose tables, /b due to their wealth, b never lacked for lettuce, nor cucumbers, nor radish, neither in the summer nor in the rainy season, /b despite the fact that these foods do not grow year round. The reason they ensured that these items were always present at their tables is b that the Master said: A radish breaks up food, lettuce stirs up food, /b and b cucumbers expand the intestines. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t it taught /b in the b school of Rabbi Yishmael: Why are they called cucumbers [ i kishuin /i ]? /b It is b because they are as harmful [ i kashim /i ] to a person’s body as swords. /b The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b statement, that they are harmful to the body, is referring b to large /b cucumbers, whereas b that /b statement, explaining why they were always present on the tables of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and Antoninus, is referring b to small ones. /b ,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Meir b the birthday /b of the king b and the day of the death /b of the king are considered gentile festivals, whereas the Rabbis hold that only a death that includes public burning is considered a festival that includes idol worship. The Gemara comments: b By inference, /b this means b that Rabbi Meir holds /b that b there is no difference /b whether it is b a death that includes /b public b burning, and there is no difference /b whether it is b a death that does not include /b public b burning; /b in either case, b they engage in idol worship on /b that occasion. b Evidently, /b Rabbi Meir holds that the b burning /b performed at the death of the king b is not /b an idolatrous b custom, /b as it is not the cause of the prohibition. The Gemara continues: From here, one can conclude b by inference that the Rabbis hold /b that the b burning /b upon the death of the king b is /b an idolatrous b custom. /b ,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b We burn /b items b upon the /b death of b kings /b as an expression of grief, b and /b this is b not of the ways of the Amorites, /b but rather a Jewish custom? b And if /b this b is /b an idolatrous b custom, how could we /b perform this public b burning? But isn’t it written: “And you shall not walk in their statutes” /b (Leviticus 18:3)?, b Rather, everyone /b agrees that the public b burning /b itself b is not /b an idolatrous b custom. Rather, it is /b performed due to the great b importance /b of the king who passed away. b And here, /b in the mishna, b they disagree about this: Rabbi Meir holds /b that b there is no difference /b whether it is b a death that includes /b public b burning and there is no difference /b whether it is b a death that does not include /b public b burning; /b in either case, in practice b they engage in idol worship on /b that occasion. b And the Rabbis hold /b that b a death that includes /b public b burning /b is b important to /b the gentiles, b and /b therefore b they engage in /b idol b worship on /b that occasion, b but /b a death b that does not include /b public b burning /b is b not important /b to them, b and they do not engage in /b idol b worship on /b that occasion.,Having mentioned this i baraita /i , the Gemara returns to discuss b the /b matter b itself. /b The i baraita /i teaches: b One burns /b items b due to the /b death of b kings /b as an expression of grief, b and /b this b is not subject to /b the prohibition of imitating b the ways of the Amorites, /b since it is a Jewish custom. b As it is stated /b that Jeremiah prophesied to Zedekiah king of Judah: b “You shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former kings /b that were before you, so shall they make a burning for you” (Jeremiah 34:5). b And just as one burns /b items b upon /b the death of b the kings, so too one burns /b items b upon /b the death of b the heads of the Sanhedrin. /b , b And what /b items b do they burn upon the /b death of b kings? /b They burn the kings’ b beds and their utensils, /b so that no one else can make use of them. b And /b there was b an incident in which Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, and upon /b his death b Onkelos the convert burned seven thousand dinars /b in valuable b Tyrian /b coinage. The Gemara asks: b But didn’t you state /b in response to the question: b What do they burn upon /b the death of kings, that they burn b their beds and their utensils? /b Why, then, did Onkelos burn money? The Gemara answers: b Say /b that Onkelos burned items that were valued b at seven thousand dinars /b in b Tyrian /b coinage.,The Gemara asks: b And /b are b other items not /b destroyed in order to accord honor to the deceased king, apart from his utensils? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b we detach /b the hooves of livestock b upon the /b death of b kings, and /b this b is not subject to /b the prohibition of b the ways of the Amorites? Rav Pappa says: /b That i baraita /i is referring to b the horse upon which /b the king b rode. /b Since that animal was designated as the king’s personal item, it is therefore rendered unusable for anyone else, like his personal utensils.,The Gemara asks: b And /b did they b not /b detach the hooves of the king’s b kosher animals, /b which are not used by the king for riding? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : If b removing /b the hooves of an animal would b entail /b that it becomes b an animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ i tereifa /i ], /b it is b prohibited /b to do so. b And when /b doing so would b not entail /b rendering it b a i tereifa /i , /b it is b permitted. And what is /b a way of b removing /b hooves b that does not entail /b rendering the animal b a i tereifa /i ? /b
232. Anon., Tanḥ., None  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
233. Anon., S. Eli. Rab., 29  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
234. Anon., Kallah, 16  Tagged with subjects: •rent, bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Keddie (2019), Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins, 126
240. Mishnah, Nid., 9.2  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016), Viewing Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology: VeHinnei Rachel - Essays in honor of Rachel Hachlili, 76
246. Mishnah, TaʿAn., 4.8  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 31
248. Mishnah10, 105 122, 252Bis, 253, 254,, 10.6  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba revolt Found in books: Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 87
249. Papyri, P.Jericho, 3  Tagged with subjects: •bar kokhba Found in books: Katzoff(2005), Law in the Documents of the Judaean Desert, 216