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36 results for "balaam"
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 8.4 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 492
8.4. and the king showed him honor, for he found favor before the king in all his requests.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 18.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 587
18.14. "וַיַּרְא חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־הוּא עֹשֶׂה לָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר מָה־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹשֶׂה לָעָם מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב לְבַדֶּךָ וְכָל־הָעָם נִצָּב עָלֶיךָ מִן־בֹּקֶר עַד־עָרֶב׃", 18.14. "And when Moses’father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, he said: ‘What is this thing that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people stand about thee from morning unto even?’",
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 55.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
55.24. "וְאַתָּה אֱלֹהִים תּוֹרִדֵם לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת אַנְשֵׁי דָמִים וּמִרְמָה לֹא־יֶחֱצוּ יְמֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אֶבְטַח־בָּךְ׃", 55.24. "But Thou, O God, wilt bring them down into the nethermost pit; Men of blood and deceit shall not live out half their days; But as for me, I will trust in Thee.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 22.8, 22.12-22.13, 22.17-22.18, 22.27, 22.29-22.30, 22.34, 22.37, 23.4, 23.9, 23.21, 23.25, 23.27, 24.7-24.8, 24.14, 24.17-24.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 463, 492, 503, 504, 518, 519, 589, 590, 592, 593
22.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם לִינוּ פֹה הַלַּיְלָה וַהֲשִׁבֹתִי אֶתְכֶם דָּבָר כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָי וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׂרֵי־מוֹאָב עִם־בִּלְעָם׃", 22.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־בִּלְעָם לֹא תֵלֵךְ עִמָּהֶם לֹא תָאֹר אֶת־הָעָם כִּי בָרוּךְ הוּא׃", 22.13. "וַיָּקָם בִּלְעָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרֵי בָלָק לְכוּ אֶל־אַרְצְכֶם כִּי מֵאֵן יְהוָה לְתִתִּי לַהֲלֹךְ עִמָּכֶם׃", 22.17. "כִּי־כַבֵּד אֲכַבֶּדְךָ מְאֹד וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאמַר אֵלַי אֶעֱשֶׂה וּלְכָה־נָּא קָבָה־לִּי אֵת הָעָם הַזֶּה׃", 22.18. "וַיַּעַן בִּלְעָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־עַבְדֵי בָלָק אִם־יִתֶּן־לִי בָלָק מְלֹא בֵיתוֹ כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא אוּכַל לַעֲבֹר אֶת־פִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי לַעֲשׂוֹת קְטַנָּה אוֹ גְדוֹלָה׃", 22.27. "וַתֵּרֶא הָאָתוֹן אֶת־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַתִּרְבַּץ תַּחַת בִּלְעָם וַיִּחַר־אַף בִּלְעָם וַיַּךְ אֶת־הָאָתוֹן בַּמַּקֵּל׃", 22.29. "וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם לָאָתוֹן כִּי הִתְעַלַּלְתְּ בִּי לוּ יֶשׁ־חֶרֶב בְּיָדִי כִּי עַתָּה הֲרַגְתִּיךְ׃", 22.34. "וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה חָטָאתִי כִּי לֹא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אַתָּה נִצָּב לִקְרָאתִי בַּדָּרֶךְ וְעַתָּה אִם־רַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אָשׁוּבָה לִּי׃", 22.37. "וַיֹּאמֶר בָּלָק אֶל־בִּלְעָם הֲלֹא שָׁלֹחַ שָׁלַחְתִּי אֵלֶיךָ לִקְרֹא־לָךְ לָמָּה לֹא־הָלַכְתָּ אֵלָי הַאֻמְנָם לֹא אוּכַל כַּבְּדֶךָ׃", 23.4. "וַיִּקָּר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֶת־שִׁבְעַת הַמִּזְבְּחֹת עָרַכְתִּי וָאַעַל פָּר וָאַיִל בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 23.9. "כִּי־מֵרֹאשׁ צֻרִים אֶרְאֶנּוּ וּמִגְּבָעוֹת אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ הֶן־עָם לְבָדָד יִשְׁכֹּן וּבַגּוֹיִם לֹא יִתְחַשָּׁב׃", 23.21. "לֹא־הִבִּיט אָוֶן בְּיַעֲקֹב וְלֹא־רָאָה עָמָל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עִמּוֹ וּתְרוּעַת מֶלֶךְ בּוֹ׃", 23.25. "וַיֹּאמֶר בָּלָק אֶל־בִּלְעָם גַּם־קֹב לֹא תִקֳּבֶנּוּ גַּם־בָּרֵךְ לֹא תְבָרֲכֶנּוּ׃", 23.27. "וַיֹּאמֶר בָּלָק אֶל־בִּלְעָם לְכָה־נָּא אֶקָּחֲךָ אֶל־מָקוֹם אַחֵר אוּלַי יִישַׁר בְּעֵינֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וְקַבֹּתוֹ לִי מִשָּׁם׃", 24.7. "יִזַּל־מַיִם מִדָּלְיָו וְזַרְעוֹ בְּמַיִם רַבִּים וְיָרֹם מֵאֲגַג מַלְכּוֹ וְתִנַּשֵּׂא מַלְכֻתוֹ׃", 24.8. "אֵל מוֹצִיאוֹ מִמִּצְרַיִם כְּתוֹעֲפֹת רְאֵם לוֹ יֹאכַל גּוֹיִם צָרָיו וְעַצְמֹתֵיהֶם יְגָרֵם וְחִצָּיו יִמְחָץ׃", 24.14. "וְעַתָּה הִנְנִי הוֹלֵךְ לְעַמִּי לְכָה אִיעָצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה הָעָם הַזֶּה לְעַמְּךָ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃", 24.17. "אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃", 24.18. "וְהָיָה אֱדוֹם יְרֵשָׁה וְהָיָה יְרֵשָׁה שֵׂעִיר אֹיְבָיו וְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֹשֶׂה חָיִל׃", 22.8. "And he said unto them: ‘Lodge here this night, and I will bring you back word, as the LORD may speak unto me’; and the princes of Moab abode with Balaam.", 22.12. "And God said unto Balaam: ‘Thou shalt not go with them; thou shalt not curse the people; for they are blessed.’", 22.13. "And Balaam rose up in the morning, and said unto the princes of Balak: ‘Get you into your land; for the LORD refuseth to give me leave to go with you.’", 22.17. "for I will promote thee unto very great honour, and whatsoever thou sayest unto me I will do; come therefore, I pray thee, curse me this people.’", 22.18. "And Balaam answered and said unto the servants of Balak: ‘If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond the word of the LORD my God, to do any thing, small or great.", 22.27. "And the ass saw the angel of the LORD, and she lay down under Balaam; and Balaam’s anger was kindled, and he smote the ass with his staff.", 22.29. "And Balaam said unto the ass: ‘Because thou hast mocked me; I would there were a sword in my hand, for now I had killed thee.’", 22.30. "And the ass said unto Balaam: ‘Am not I thine ass, upon which thou hast ridden all thy life long unto this day? was I ever wont to do so unto thee?’ And he said: ‘Nay.’", 22.34. "And Balaam said unto the angel of the LORD: ‘I have sinned; for I knew not that thou stoodest in the way against me; now therefore, if it displease thee, I will get me back.’", 22.37. "And Balak said unto Balaam: ‘Did I not earnestly send unto thee to call thee? wherefore camest thou not unto me? am I not able indeed to promote thee to honour?’", 23.4. "And God met Balaam; and he said unto Him: ‘I have prepared the seven altars, and I have offered up a bullock and a ram on every altar.’", 23.9. "For from the top of the rocks I see him, And from the hills I behold him: Lo, it is a people that shall dwell alone, And shall not be reckoned among the nations.", 23.21. "None hath beheld iniquity in Jacob, Neither hath one seen perverseness in Israel; The LORD his God is with him, And the shouting for the King is among them.", 23.25. "And Balak said unto Balaam: ‘Neither curse them at all, nor bless them at all.’", 23.27. "And Balak said unto Balaam: ‘Come now, I will take thee unto another place; peradventure it will please God that thou mayest curse me them from thence.’", 24.7. "Water shall flow from his branches, And his seed shall be in many waters; And his king shall be higher than Agag, And his kingdom shall be exalted.", 24.8. "God who brought him forth out of Egypt Is for him like the lofty horns of the wild-ox; He shall eat up the nations that are his adversaries, And shall break their bones in pieces, And pierce them through with his arrows.", 24.14. "And now, behold, I go unto my people; come, and I will announce to thee what this people shall do to thy people in the end of days.’", 24.17. "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth.", 24.18. "And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also, even his enemies, shall be a possession; While Israel doeth valiantly.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 28.13-28.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 492
28.13. "וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃", 28.14. "וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְצָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְנִבְרֲכוּ בְךָ כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה וּבְזַרְעֶךָ׃", 28.15. "וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃", 28.13. "And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed.", 28.14. "And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.", 28.15. "And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’",
6. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.25, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588, 589
23.25. "כִּי תָבֹא בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֶךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ עֲנָבִים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ שָׂבְעֶךָ וְאֶל־כֶּלְיְךָ לֹא תִתֵּן׃", 23.25. "When thou comest into thy neighbour’s vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes until thou have enough at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel.", 34.10. "And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;",
7. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.12, 3.17, 3.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 504, 593
3.12. "וַיֹּסִפוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיְחַזֵּק יְהוָה אֶת־עֶגְלוֹן מֶלֶךְ־מוֹאָב עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל כִּי־עָשׂוּ אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃", 3.17. "וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לְעֶגְלוֹן מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וְעֶגְלוֹן אִישׁ בָּרִיא מְאֹד׃", 3.24. "וְהוּא יָצָא וַעֲבָדָיו בָּאוּ וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה דַּלְתוֹת הָעֲלִיָּה נְעֻלוֹת וַיֹּאמְרוּ אַךְ מֵסִיךְ הוּא אֶת־רַגְלָיו בַּחֲדַר הַמְּקֵרָה׃", 3.12. "And the children of Yisra᾽el did evil again in the sight of the Lord: and the Lord strengthened ῾Eglon the king of Mo᾽av against Yisra᾽el, because they had done evil in the sight of the Lord.", 3.17. "And he brought the present to ῾Eglon king of Mo᾽av: and ῾Eglon was a very fat man.", 3.24. "When he was gone out, his servants came; and when they saw that, behold, the doors of the chamber were locked, they said, Surely he is relieving himself in the cool chamber.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 589
24.10. "But I would not hearken unto Balaam; therefore he even blessed you; so I delivered you out of his hand.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 9.6-9.7, 11.2-11.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 463
9.6. "לםרבה [לְמַרְבֵּה] הַמִּשְׂרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין־קֵץ עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ לְהָכִין אֹתָהּ וּלְסַעֲדָהּ בְּמִשְׁפָּט וּבִצְדָקָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם קִנְאַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּאת׃", 9.7. "דָּבָר שָׁלַח אֲדֹנָי בְּיַעֲקֹב וְנָפַל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 11.2. "וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃", 11.3. "וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃", 9.6. "That the government may be increased, and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it through justice and through righteousness From henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts doth perform this.", 9.7. "The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel.", 11.2. "And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.", 11.3. "And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;",
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 22.15, 22.37, 22.41 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 591
22.15. "הַיּוֹם הַחִלֹּתִי לשאול־[לִשְׁאָל־] לוֹ בֵאלֹהִים חָלִילָה לִּי אַל־יָשֵׂם הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעַבְדּוֹ דָבָר בְּכָל־בֵּית אָבִי כִּי לֹא־יָדַע עַבְדְּךָ בְּכָל־זֹאת דָּבָר קָטֹן אוֹ גָדוֹל׃", 22.15. "Did I then begin to inquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute any thing to his servant, nor to all the house of my father: for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more.",
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
113. Therefore, the vain Balaam, although he sang hymns of exceeding sublimity to God, among which, also, is that one beginning, "God is not as a Man," the most beautiful of all songs, and who uttered panegyrics on the seeing multitude, Israel, going through a countless body of particulars, is rightly judged by the wise lawgiver to have been an impious man and accursed, and to have been cursing rather than blessing;
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 202 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
202. For it is no small number of persons who have been deceived by the similarity of the names of different things, and we had better examine here what I am saying. The name of Ishmael, being interpreted, means "the hearing of God," but some men listen to the divine doctrines to their benefit, and others listen to both his admonitions and to those of others only to their destruction. Do you recollect the case of the soothsayer Balaam? He is represented as hearing the oracles of God, and as having received knowledge from the Most High,
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.266-1.268, 1.274-1.275 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 518, 519, 590, 591, 592, 593
1.266. So this man, Balak, now sent some of his companions, entreating him to come to him, and he gave him some presents at once, and he promised to give him others also, explaining to him the necessity which he was in, on account of which he had sent for him. But he did not treat the messengers with any noble or consistent disposition, but with great courtesy and civility evaded their request, as if he were one of the most celebrated prophets, and as such was accustomed to do nothing whatever without first consulting the oracle, and so he declined, saying that the Deity would not permit him to go with them. 1.267. So the messengers returned back to the king, without having succeeded in their errand. And immediately other messengers of the highest rank in the whole land were sent on the same business, bringing with them more abundant presents of money, and promising still more ample rewards than the former ambassadors had promised. 1.268. And Balaam, being allured by the gifts which were already proffered to him, and also by the hopes for the future which they held out to him, and being influenced also by the rank of those who invited him, began to yield, again alleging the commands of the Deity as his excuse, but no longer with sincerity. Accordingly, on the next day he prepared for his departure, relating some dreams by which he said he had been influenced, affirming that he had been compelled by their manifest visions not to remain, but to follow the ambassadors. 1.274. Then, as he said that he ought to return back again, he asked of the vision which appeared to him, whether he should go back again to his own house; but the angel beholding his insincerity, and being indigt at it (for what need was there for him to ask questions in a matter which was so evident, which had its answer plain in itself, and which did not require any more positive information by means of words, unless a person's ears are more to be trusted than his eyes, and words than thing 1.275. But when the king heard that he was now near at hand, he went forth with his guards to meet him; and when they met at first there were, as was natural, greetings and salutations, and then a brief reproof of his tardiness and of his not having come more readily. After this there were feastings and costly entertainments, and all those other things which are usually prepared on the occasion of the reception of strangers, everything with royal magnificence being prepared, so as to give an exaggerated idea of the power and glory of the king.
14. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 71 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
15. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 181 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
181. among whom we must enroll Balaam, for he also is a child of the earth, and not a shoot of heaven, and a proof of this is, that he, being influenced by omens and false prophecies, not even when the eye of his soul, which had been closed, recovered its sight, and "saw the angel of God standing against him in the way;"45 not even then did he turn back and desist from doing wrong, but giving way to a mighty torrent of folly, he was washed away and swallowed up by it.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
32. Moses also represents Balaam, who is the symbol of a vain people, stripped of his arms, as a runaway and deserter, well knowing the war which it becomes the soul to carry on for the sake of knowledge; for he says to his ass, who is here a symbol of the irrational designs of life which every foolish man entertains, that "If I had had a sword, I should ere now have slain Thee." And great thanks are due to the Maker of all things, because he, knowing the struggles and resistance of folly, did not give to it the power of language, which would have been like giving a sword to a madman, in order that it might have no power to work great and iniquitous destruction among all whom it should meet with. 32. This, then, may be enough to say on these subjects; but it is necessary now to connect with these things what I am about to say, namely, that it was the Father of the universe who delivered these ten maxims, or oracles, or laws and enactments, as they truly are, to the whole assembled nation of men and women altogether. Did he then do so, uttering himself some kind of voice? Away! let not such an idea ever enter your mind; for God is not like a man, in need of a mouth, and of a tongue, and of a windpipe,
17. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 589
2.14. ἀλλὰ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ ὀλίγα, ὅτι ἔχεις ἐκεῖ κρατοῦντας τὴν διδαχὴνΒαλαάμ,ὃς ἐδίδασκεν τῷ Βαλὰκ βαλεῖν σκάνδαλον ἐνώπιοντῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, φαγεῖν εἰδωλόθυτα καὶ πορνεῦσαι· 2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality.
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.280-1.283, 2.15, 2.65, 2.72, 2.217, 3.63, 3.67, 4.103, 4.105-4.107, 4.111-4.116, 4.118, 4.120-4.121, 4.125, 4.127, 5.179, 5.185-5.186, 5.198, 10.30, 10.210, 10.263, 11.32, 11.121, 11.212 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 463, 492, 503, 504, 518, 519, 587, 589, 590, 592, 593
1.280. 2. “O Jacob, it is not fit for thee, who art the son of a good father, and grandson of one who had obtained a great reputation for his eminent virtue, to be dejected at thy present circumstances, but to hope for better times, 1.281. for thou shalt have great abundance of all good things, by my assistance: for I brought Abraham hither, out of Mesopotamia, when he was driven away by his kinsmen, and I made thy father a happy man, nor will I bestow a lesser degree of happiness on thyself: 1.282. be of good courage, therefore, and under my conduct proceed on this thy journey, for the marriage thou goest so zealously about shall be consummated. And thou shalt have children of good characters, but their multitude shall be innumerable; and they shall leave what they have to a still more numerous posterity, to whom, and to whose posterity, I give the dominion of all the land, and their posterity shall fill the entire earth and sea, so far as the sun beholds them: 1.283. but do not thou fear any danger, nor be afraid of the many labors thou must undergo, for by my providence I will direct thee what thou art to do in the time present, and still much more in the time to come.” 2.15. Now Jacob was pleased with the dream: for, considering the prediction in his mind, and shrewdly and wisely guessing at its meaning, he rejoiced at the great things thereby signified, because it declared the future happiness of his son; and that, by the blessing of God, the time would come when he should be honored, and thought worthy of worship by his parents and brethren, 2.65. This, he said, was what he saw; and he desired Joseph, that if he had any portion of understanding in such matters, he would tell him what this vision foretold. Who bid him be of good cheer, and expect to be loosed from his bonds in three days’ time, because the king desired his service, and was about to restore him to it again; 2.72. And he expected a prediction like to that of the cupbearer. But Joseph, considering and reasoning about the dream, said to him, that he would willingly be an interpreter of good events to him, and not of such as his dream denounced to him; but he told him that he had only three days in all to live, for that the [three] baskets signify, 2.217. 4. When the vision had informed him of these things, Amram awaked and told it to Jochebed who was his wife. And now the fear increased upon them on account of the prediction in Amram’s dream; for they were under concern, not only for the child, but on account of the great happiness that was to come to him also. 3.63. Now when Raguel, Moses’s father-in-law, understood in what a prosperous condition his affairs were, he willingly came to meet him. And Moses took Zipporah, his wife, and his children, and pleased himself with his coming. And when he had offered sacrifice, he made a feast for the multitude, near the Bush he had formerly seen; 3.67. and those that lost their causes thought it no harm, while they thought they lost them justly, and not by partiality. Raguel however said nothing to him at that time, as not desirous to be any hinderance to such as had a mind to make use of the virtue of their conductor. But afterward he took him to himself, and when he had him alone, he instructed him in what he ought to do; 4.103. but he did not judge it prudent to fight against them, after they had such prosperous successes, and even became out of ill successes more happy than before, but he thought to hinder them, if he could, from growing greater, and so he resolved to send ambassadors to the Midianites about them. 4.105. So Balsam received the ambassadors, and treated them very kindly; and when he had supped, he inquired what was God’s will, and what this matter was for which the Midianites entreated him to come to them. But when God opposed his going, he came to the ambassadors, and told them that he was himself very willing and desirous to comply with their request, but informed them that God was opposite to his intentions, even that God who had raised him to great reputation on account of the truth of his predictions; 4.106. for that this army, which they entreated him to come and curse, was in the favor of God; on which account he advised them to go home again, and not to persist in their enmity against the Israelites; and when he had given them that answer, he dismissed the ambassadors. 4.107. 3. Now the Midianites, at the earnest request and fervent entreaties of Balak, sent other ambassadors to Balaam, who, desiring to gratify the men, inquired again of God; but he was displeased at this [second] trial, and bid him by no means to contradict the ambassadors. Now Balsam did not imagine that God gave this injunction in order to deceive him, so he went along with the ambassadors; 4.111. Upon which Balaam was afraid, and was preparing to return back again: yet did God excite him to go on his intended journey, but added this injunction, that he should declare nothing but what he himself should suggest to his mind. 4.112. 4. When God had given him this charge, he came to Balak; and when the king had entertained him in a magnificent manner, he desired him to go to one of the mountains to take a view of the state of the camp of the Hebrews. Balak himself also came to the mountain, and brought the prophet along with him, with a royal attendance. This mountain lay over their heads, and was distant sixty furlongs from the camp. 4.113. Now when he saw them, he desired the king to build him seven altars, and to bring him as many bulls and rams; to which desire the king did presently conform. He then slew the sacrifices, and offered them as burnt-offerings, that he might observe some signal of the flight of the Hebrews. 4.114. Then said he, “Happy is this people, on whom God bestows the possession of innumerable good things, and grants them his own providence to be their assistant and their guide; so that there is not any nation among mankind but you will be esteemed superior to them in virtue, and in the earnest prosecution of the best rules of life, and of such as are pure from wickedness, and will leave those rules to your excellent children; and this out of the regard that God bears to you, and the provision of such things for you as may render you happier than any other people under the sun. 4.115. You shall retain that land to which he hath sent you, and it shall ever be under the command of your children; and both all the earth, as well as the seas, shall be filled with your glory: and you shall be sufficiently numerous to supply the world in general, and every region of it in particular, with inhabitants out of your stock. 4.116. However, O blessed army! wonder that you are become so many from one father: and truly, the land of Canaan can now hold you, as being yet comparatively few; but know ye that the whole world is proposed to be your place of habitation for ever. The multitude of your posterity also shall live as well in the islands as on the continent, and that more in number than are the stars of heaven. And when you are become so many, God will not relinquish the care of you, but will afford you an abundance of all good things in times of peace, with victory and dominion in times of war. 4.118. 5. Thus did Balaam speak by inspiration, as not being in his own power, but moved to say what he did by the Divine Spirit. But then Balak was displeased, and said he had broken the contract he had made, whereby he was to come, as he and his confederates had invited him, by the promise of great presents: for whereas he came to curse their enemies, he had made an encomium upon them, and had declared that they were the happiest of men. 4.120. I well remember by what entreaties both you and the Midianites so joyfully brought me hither, and on that account I took this journey. It was my prayer, that I might not put any affront upon you, as to what you desired of me; 4.121. but God is more powerful than the purposes I had made to serve you; for those that take upon them to foretell the affairs of mankind, as from their own abilities, are entirely unable to do it, or to forbear to utter what God suggests to them, or to offer violence to his will; for when he prevents us and enters into us, nothing that we say is our own. 4.125. Then fell Balaam upon his face, and foretold what calamities would befall the several kings of the nations, and the most eminent cities, some of which of old were not so much as inhabited; which events have come to pass among the several people concerned, both in the foregoing ages, and in this, till my own memory, both by sea and by land. From which completion of all these predictions that he made, one may easily guess that the rest will have their completion in time to come. 4.127. and spake thus to them:—“O Balak, and you Midianites that are here present, (for I am obliged even without the will of God to gratify you,) it is true no entire destruction can seize upon the nation of the Hebrews, neither by war, nor by plague, nor by scarcity of the fruits of the earth, nor can any other unexpected accident be their entire ruin; 5.179. 2. The Israelites grew so indolent, and unready of taking pains, that misfortunes came heavier upon them, which also proceeded in part from their contempt of the divine worship; for when they had once fallen off from the regularity of their political government, they indulged themselves further in living according to their own pleasure, and according to their own will, till they were full of the evil doings that were common among the Canaanites. 5.185. 1. When Othniel was dead, the affairs of the Israelites fell again into disorder: and while they neither paid to God the honor due to him, nor were obedient to the laws, their afflictions increased, 5.186. till Eglon, king of the Moabites, did so greatly despise them on account of the disorders of their political government, that he made war upon them, and overcame them in several battles, and made the most courageous to submit, and entirely subdued their army, and ordered them to pay him tribute. 5.198. 1. And now it was that the Israelites, taking no warning by their former misfortunes to amend their manners, and neither worshipping God nor submitting to the laws, were brought under slavery by Jabin, the king of the Canaanites, and that before they had a short breathing time after the slavery under the Moabites; 10.30. 2. At this time it was that the dominion of the Assyrians was overthrown by the Medes; but of these things I shall treat elsewhere. But the king of Babylon, whose name was Baladan, sent ambassadors to Hezekiah, with presents, and desired he would be his ally and his friend. 10.210. Daniel did also declare the meaning of the stone to the king but I do not think proper to relate it, since I have only undertaken to describe things past or things present, but not things that are future; yet if any one be so very desirous of knowing truth, as not to wave such points of curiosity, and cannot curb his inclination for understanding the uncertainties of futurity, and whether they will happen or not, let him be diligent in reading the book of Daniel, which he will find among the sacred writings. 10.263. 7. When therefore those that had intended thus to destroy Daniel by treachery were themselves destroyed, king Darius sent [letters] over all the country, and praised that God whom Daniel worshipped, and said that he was the only true God, and had all power. He had also Daniel in very great esteem, and made him the principal of his friends. 11.32. Now it so fell out, that about this time Zorobabel, who had been made governor of the Jews that had been in captivity, came to Darius, from Jerusalem; for there had been an old friendship between him and the king. He was also, with two others, thought worthy to be guard of the king’s body; and obtained that honor which he hoped for. 11.121. Now about this time a son of Jeshua, whose name was Joacim, was the high priest. Moreover, there was now in Babylon a righteous man, and one that enjoyed a great reputation among the multitude. He was the principal priest of the people, and his name was Esdras. He was very skillful in the laws of Moses, and was well acquainted with king Xerxes. 11.212. Accordingly he came to the king, and accused them, saying, “There is a certain wicked nation, and it is dispersed over all the habitable earth the was under his dominion; a nation separate from others, unsociable, neither admitting the same sort of divine worship that others do, nor using laws like to the laws of others, at enmity with thy people, and with all men, both in their manners and practices.
19. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
2.15. καταλείποντες εὐθεῖαν ὁδὸν ἐπλανήθησαν, ἐξακολουθήσαντες τῇ ὁδῷ τοῦ Βαλαὰμ τοῦ Βεὼρ ὃς μισθὸν ἀδικίας ἠγάπησεν 2.15. forsaking the right way, they went astray, having followed the way of Balaam the son of Beor, who loved the wages of wrong-doing;
20. New Testament, Jude, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 589
1.11. οὐαὶ αὐτοῖς, ὅτι τῇ ὁδῷ τοῦ Καὶν ἐπορεύθησαν, καὶ τῇ πλάνῃ τοῦ Βαλαὰμ μισθοῦ ἐξεχύθησαν, καὶ τῇ ἀντιλογίᾳ τοῦ Κορὲ ἀπώλοντο. 1.11. Woe to them! For they went in the way of Cain, and ran riotously in the error of Balaam for hire, and perished in Korah's rebellion.
21. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
10.2. "שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים וְאַרְבָּעָה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים, יָרָבְעָם, אַחְאָב, וּמְנַשֶּׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְנַשֶּׁה יֶשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לג) וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע תְּחִנָּתוֹ וַיְשִׁיבֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לְמַלְכוּתוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְמַלְכוּתוֹ הֱשִׁיבוֹ וְלֹא לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא הֱשִׁיבוֹ. אַרְבָּעָה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, בִּלְעָם, וְדוֹאֵג, וַאֲחִיתֹפֶל, וְגֵחֲזִי: \n", 10.2. "Three kings and four commoners have no portion in the world to come:The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. Rabbi Judah says: “Manasseh has a portion in the world to come, for it says, “He prayed to him, and He granted his prayer, and heard his plea and he restored him to Jerusalem, to his kingdom” (II Chronicles 33:13). They [the sages] said to him: “They restored him to his kingdom, but not to [his portion in] the world to come.” The four commoners are: Bilaam, Doeg, Ahitophel, and Gehazi.",
22. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 587
23. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.258 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 590
1.258. He says farther, that “This prophet slew himself, as foreseeing the anger of the gods, and those events which were to come upon Egypt afterward; and that he left this prediction for the king in writing.”
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.367 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 504
5.367. And evident it is that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God, when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That, moreover, it is a strong and fixed law, even among brute beasts, as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them; and to suffer those to have dominion who are too hard
25. Mishnah, Avot, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
5.19. "כָּל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים הַלָּלוּ, מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ. וּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים, מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל בִּלְעָם הָרָשָׁע. עַיִן טוֹבָה, וְרוּחַ נְמוּכָה, וְנֶפֶשׁ שְׁפָלָה, מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ. עַיִן רָעָה, וְרוּחַ גְּבוֹהָה, וְנֶפֶשׁ רְחָבָה, מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל בִּלְעָם הָרָשָׁע. מַה בֵּין תַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ לְתַלְמִידָיו שֶׁל בִּלְעָם הָרָשָׁע. תַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, אוֹכְלִין בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְנוֹחֲלִין בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח) לְהַנְחִיל אֹהֲבַי יֵשׁ, וְאֹצְרֹתֵיהֶם אֲמַלֵּא. אֲבָל תַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל בִּלְעָם הָרָשָׁע יוֹרְשִׁין גֵּיהִנֹּם וְיוֹרְדִין לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים נה) וְאַתָּה אֱלֹהִים תּוֹרִידֵם לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת, אַנְשֵׁי דָמִים וּמִרְמָה לֹא יֶחֱצוּ יְמֵיהֶם, וַאֲנִי אֶבְטַח בָּךְ: \n", 5.19. "Whoever possesses these three things, he is of the disciples of Abraham, our father; and [whoever possesses] three other things, he is of the disciples of Balaam, the wicked. A good eye, a humble spirit and a moderate appetite he is of the disciples of Abraham, our father. An evil eye, a haughty spirit and a limitless appetite he is of the disciples of Balaam, the wicked. What is the difference between the disciples of Abraham, our father, and the disciples of Balaam, the wicked? The disciples of Abraham, our father, enjoy this world, and inherit the world to come, as it is said: “I will endow those who love me with substance, I will fill their treasuries” (Proverbs 8:21). But the disciples of Balaam, the wicked, inherit gehinnom, and descend into the nethermost pit, as it is said: “For you, O God, will bring them down to the nethermost pit those murderous and treacherous men; they shall not live out half their days; but I trust in You” (Psalms 55:24).",
26. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 504
27. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 587
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
105a. דקאתי מיהודה מואב סיר רחצי זה גחזי שלקה על עסקי רחיצה על אדום אשליך נעלי זה דואג האדומי עלי פלשת התרועעי אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אם יבא דוד שהרג את הפלשתי והוריש את בניך גת מה אתה עושה לו אמר להן עלי לעשותן ריעים זה לזה,(ירמיהו ח, ה) מדוע שובבה העם הזה ירושלים משובה נצחת וגו' אמר רב תשובה נצחת השיבה כנסת ישראל לנביא אמר להן נביא לישראל חזרו בתשובה אבותיכם שחטאו היכן הם אמרו להן ונביאיכם שלא חטאו היכן הם שנאמר (זכריה א, ה) אבותיכם איה הם והנביאים הלעולם יחיו אמר להן (אבותיכם) חזרו והודו שנאמר (זכריה א, ו) אך דברי וחוקי אשר צויתי את עבדי הנביאים וגו',שמואל אמר באו עשרה בני אדם וישבו לפניו אמר להן חזרו בתשובה אמרו לו עבד שמכרו רבו ואשה שגרשה בעלה כלום יש לזה על זה כלום אמר לו הקב"ה לנביא לך אמור להן (ישעיהו נ, א) איזה ספר כריתות אמכם אשר שלחתיה או מי מנושי אשר מכרתי אתכם לו הן בעונותיכם נמכרתם ובפשעכם שלחה אמכם,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב דוד עבדי (ירמיהו מג, י) נבוכדנצר עבדי גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שעתידין ישראל לומר כך לפיכך הקדים הקב"ה וקראו עבדו עבד שקנה נכסים עבד למי נכסים למי,(יחזקאל כ, לב) והעולה על רוחכם היה לא תהיה אשר אתם אומרים נהיה כגוים כמשפחות הארצות לשרת עץ ואבן חי אני נאם ה' אלהים אם לא ביד חזקה ובזרוע נטויה ובחימה שפוכה אמלוך עליכם אמר רב נחמן כל כי האי ריתחא לירתח רחמנא עלן ולפרוקינן,(ישעיהו כח, כו) ויסרו למשפט אלהיו יורנו אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר להן נביא לישראל חזרו בתשובה אמרו לו אין אנו יכולין יצר הרע שולט בנו אמר להם יסרו יצריכם אמרו לו אלהיו יורנו:,ארבעה הדיוטות בלעם ודואג ואחיתופל וגחזי: בלעם בלא עם דבר אחר בלעם שבלה עם בן בעור שבא על בעיר,תנא הוא בעור הוא כושן רשעתים הוא לבן הארמי בעור שבא על בעיר כושן רשעתים דעבד שתי רשעיות בישראל אחת בימי יעקב ואחת בימי שפוט השופטים ומה שמו לבן הארמי שמו,כתיב (במדבר כב, ה) בן בעור וכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) בנו בעור אמר רבי יוחנן אביו בנו הוא לו בנביאות,בלעם הוא דלא אתי לעלמא דאתי הא אחריני אתו מתניתין מני,רבי יהושע היא דתניא ר"א אומר (תהלים ט, יח) ישובו רשעים לשאולה כל גוים שכחי אלהים ישובו רשעים לשאולה אלו פושעי ישראל כל גוים שכחי אלהים אלו פושעי עובדי כוכבים דברי ר"א אמר לו ר' יהושע וכי נאמר בכל גוים והלא לא נאמר אלא כל גוים שכחי אלהים אלא ישובו רשעים לשאולה מאן נינהו כל גוים שכחי אלהים,ואף אותו רשע נתן סימן בעצמו אמר (במדבר כג, י) תמות נפשי מות ישרים אם תמות נפשי מות ישרים תהא אחריתי כמוהו ואם לאו הנני הולך לעמי,וילכו זקני מואב וזקני מדין תנא מדין ומואב לא היה להם שלום מעולם משל לשני כלבים שהיו בעדר והיו צהובין זה לזה בא זאב על האחד אמר האחד אם איני עוזרו היום הורג אותו ולמחר בא עלי הלכו שניהם והרגו הזאב אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי כרכושתא ושונרא עבדו הלולא מתרבא דביש גדא,(במדבר כב, ח) וישבו שרי מואב עם בלעם ושרי מדין להיכן אזול כיון דאמר להו (במדבר כב, ח) לינו פה הלילה והשבותי אתכם דבר אמרו כלום יש אב ששונא את בנו,אמר רב נחמן חוצפא אפילו כלפי שמיא מהני מעיקרא כתיב לא תלך עמהם ולבסוף כתיב קום לך אתם אמר רב ששת חוצפא מלכותא בלא תאגא היא דכתיב (שמואל ב ג, לט) ואנכי היום רך ומשוח מלך והאנשים האלה בני צרויה קשים ממני וגו',א"ר יוחנן בלעם חיגר ברגלו אחת היה שנאמר (במדבר כג, ג) וילך שפי שמשון בשתי רגליו שנאמר (בראשית מט, יז) שפיפון עלי אורח הנושך עקבי סוס בלעם סומא באחת מעיניו היה שנאמר (במדבר כד, ג) שתום העין,קוסם באמתו היה כתיב הכא נופל וגלוי עינים וכתיב התם (אסתר ז, ח) והנה המן נופל על המטה וגו' איתמר מר זוטרא אמר קוסם באמתו היה מר בריה דרבינא אמר שבא על אתונו מ"ד קוסם באמתו היה כדאמרן ומ"ד בא על אתונו היה כתיב הכא (במדבר כד, ט) כרע שכב וכתיב התם (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה 105a. b who comes from /b the tribe of b Judah. “Moab is My washing pot”; this /b is referring to b Gehazi, who was afflicted /b with leprosy b over matters of washing, /b as he took money from Naaman, who he instructed to immerse in the Jordan River. b “Over Edom I will cast My shoe”; this /b is referring to b Doeg the Edomite. “Philistia, cry aloud [ i hitroa’i /i ] because of Me”; /b this is referring to the fact that b the ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, if David, who killed the Philistine and bequeathed /b the city of b Gath to your sons, will come /b and complain that You gave a share in the World-to-Come to his enemies Doeg and Ahithophel, b what will You do concerning him? /b Will you accept his complaint? God b said to /b the ministering angels: b It is upon me to render /b David and his enemies b friends [ i re’im /i ] with each other, /b and even David will agree.,§ With regard to the verse: b “Why is this people of Jerusalem slid back in perpetual backsliding?” /b (Jeremiah 8:5), b Rav says: The congregation of Israel answered /b with b a convincing response to the prophet. The prophet said to the Jewish people: Repent, /b as b your ancestors sinned, /b and b where are they? They said /b to the prophets: b And your prophets who did not sin, where are they? /b They too died, b as it is stated: “Your fathers, where are they, and the prophets; do they live forever?” /b (Zechariah 1:5). The prophet b said to /b the Jewish people: b Your ancestors reconsidered and conceded /b that the admonitions of the prophets were fulfilled, b as it is stated: “By my words and My statutes, which I commanded My servants the prophets, /b did they not overtake your fathers? And they repented and said: As the Lord of hosts intended to do to us, according to our ways, and according to our doings, so has He dealt with us” (Zechariah 1:6)., b Shmuel says /b that this was the convincing answer: b Ten people came and sat before /b the prophet Ezekiel. b He said to them: Repent. They said to /b Ezekiel: In the case of b a slave sold by his owner /b to another master, b or a woman divorced by her husband, does this /b person b have any /b claim b upon that /b person? Since God gave the Jewish people to other masters, the ties that existed between Him and us were severed. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the prophet: Go say to them: “Where is your mother’s scroll of severance, with which I sent her away? Or to which of My creditors have I sold you? For your iniquities you sold yourselves and for your transgressions was your mother sent away” /b (Isaiah 50:1). Learn from this that God did not sever His ties to the Jewish people., b And that is what Reish Lakish says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “David, My slave” /b (II Samuel 3:18), and: b “Nebuchadnezzar, my slave” /b (Jeremiah 43:10)? How can the wicked Nebuchadnezzar be depicted as a slave of God in the same manner that David was depicted? Rather, b it is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being, that the Jewish people are destined to say that /b God sold them to the nations and they no longer have ties to Him. b Therefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, preemptively called /b Nebuchadnezzar b His slave. /b With regard to the i halakha /i concerning b a slave who acquires property, the slave /b belongs b to whom /b and b the property /b belongs b to whom? /b They both belong to the master, in this case, the Holy One, Blessed be He.,With regard to the verse: b “And what comes into your mind shall never come to be, that you say: We will be like the nations, like the families of the countries, to serve wood and stone. As I live, says the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and an outstretched arm, and with wrath poured out, will I rule over you” /b (Ezekiel 20:32–33), b Rav Naḥman says: Let the Merciful One become wrathful at us /b with b all that wrath, and redeem us. /b ,With regard to the verse: b “And chastise in judgment; his God will instruct him” /b (Isaiah 28:26), b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b the prophet said to the Jewish people: Repent. They said to him: We cannot, /b since b the evil inclination dominates us. He said to them: Chastise your inclinations. They said to him: “His God will instruct him,” /b i.e., God should instruct the evil inclination to allow us to overcome him, as we are incapable of doing so on our own.,§ The mishna teaches that b four /b prominent b commoners, Balaam, Doeg, Ahithophel, and Gehazi, /b have no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara elaborates: The name b Balaam /b is interpreted as a contraction of: b Without a nation [ i belo am /i ], /b or one who has no share in the World-to-Come with the Jewish nation. b Alternatively, /b the name b Balaam /b is interpreted as one b who wore down the /b Jewish b people [ i bila am /i ]. /b He is the b son of Beor, /b one b who engaged in bestiality [ i be’ir /i ]. /b ,It was b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b He is Beor, /b father of Balaam, b he is Cushan-Rishathaim, he is Laban the Aramean. /b He was called b Beor because he engaged in bestiality. /b He was called b Cushan-Rishathaim because he performed two evil deeds [ i rishiyyot /i ] to the Jewish people, one during the time of Jacob, /b when he pursued him intending to kill him, b and one during the time when the judges judged. And what was his /b actual b name? His name was Laban the Aramean. /b , b It is written: “Son of Beor” /b (Numbers 22:5), b and it is written /b elsewhere: b “His son Beor” /b (Numbers 24:3). b Rabbi Yoḥa says /b in resolving the apparent contradiction: Balaam’s b father was his son in /b terms of b prophecy, /b as Balaam was a much greater prophet.,The Gemara infers from the mishna: b Balaam is /b the b one who does not come into the World-to-Come; but other /b gentiles b come /b into the World-to-Come. b Whose /b opinion is expressed in b the mishna? /b , b It is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Yehoshua, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b It is written: b “The wicked shall be turned back to the netherworld, all that nations that forget God” /b (Psalms 9:18). b “The wicked shall be turned back to the netherworld”; these are the sinners of the Jewish people, /b as only the sinners are sentenced to the netherworld. b “All the gentiles that forget God”; these are the sinners of the gentiles. /b From the fact that it is written: “All the gentiles,” it is apparent that none of the gentiles have a share in the World-to-Come. This is b the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: But is it stated /b in the verse that the sinners of the Jewish people will be b like all of the gentiles? It is stated only: “All the gentiles that forget God.” Rather, the wicked shall be turned back to the netherworld, /b and b who are they? /b They are b all the gentiles that forget God. /b Gentiles who fear God do have a share in the World-to-Come., b And that wicked person, /b Balaam, b also provided a sign with regard to himself. He said: “Let me die the death of the righteous, /b and let my end be like his” (Numbers 23:10). b If I die the death of the righteous, /b by natural causes, b my end will be like his, /b i.e., I will receive a share in the World-to-Come like the Jewish people. b And if /b I do b not /b die by natural causes: b “I will go to my people” /b (Numbers 24:14), i.e., my fate will be that of the rest of the wicked people in my generation, who have no share in the World-to-Come.,With regard to the verse: b “And the elders of Moab and the elders of Midian set out /b with their divinations in their hands, and they came to Balaam” (Numbers 22:7), it was b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Midian and Moab /b had previously b never had peace /b between them, and they were always at war with each other. What led them to make peace at that time? There is b a parable of two dogs that were with the flock, and they were hostile to one another. A wolf came /b and attacked b one. The /b other b one said: If I do not help him, today he kills him and tomorrow he comes to /b attack b me. They both went and killed the wolf. /b Moab and Midian joined together to face the potential common threat, the Jewish people. b Rav Pappa says /b that b this /b is in accordance with the adage b that people say: A weasel [ i karkushta /i ] and a cat made a wedding from the fat of the luckless. /b Despite their hatred of one another, they join together for their mutual benefit at the expense of a third party.,It is written: b “And the princes of Moab stayed with Balaam” /b (Numbers 22:8). The Gemara asks: b And to where did the princes of Midian /b who accompanied the princes of Moab b go? /b The Gemara answers: b Once /b Balaam b said to them: “Lodge here this night, and I will bring you word /b when the Lord speaks to me” (Numbers 22:8), the elders of Midian b said: /b If he seeks permission from the Lord, he will not join us, as b is there any father who hates his son? /b Certainly the Lord will help the Jewish people., b Rav Naḥman says: Impudence is effective even toward Heaven. /b How so? b Initially, it is written /b that God said to Balaam: b “You shall not go with them” /b (Numbers 22:12), b and ultimately /b after Balaam persisted and asked, b it is written: “Rise up and go with them” /b (Numbers 22:20). b Rav Sheshet says: Impudence is monarchy without a crown, /b as it is an assertion of leadership and lacks only the official coronation as king, b as it is written: “And I am this day weak, though anointed king; and these men the sons of Zeruiah are too hard for me” /b (II Samuel 3:39). The sons of Zeruiah, due to their impudence, were as formidable as David himself., b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Balaam was disabled in one of his legs, as it is stated /b concerning him: b “And he went limping [ i shefi /i ]” /b (Numbers 23:3). b Samson /b was disabled b in both his legs, as it is stated /b with regard to Samson, who was from the tribe of Dan, in the prophetic blessing of Jacob: “Dan shall be a serpent by the way, b an adder [ i shefifon /i ] in the path that bites the horse’s heels” /b (Genesis 49:17). Rabbi Yoḥa interprets i shefifon /i as the plural of i shefi /i , indicating disability in both legs. b Balaam was blind in one of his eyes, as it is stated: “Whose eye is open” /b (Numbers 24:3), indicating that one eye was open and the other was blind.,The Gemara relates: Balaam b was a diviner by /b using b his penis. It is written here: “Fallen, yet with opened eyes” /b (Numbers 24:4), b and it is written there: “And Haman was fallen upon the divan /b whereupon Esther was” (Esther 7:8), indicating that the verb fallen has sexual connotations. b It was stated /b that there is an amoraic dispute with regard to this matter. b Mar Zutra says: /b Balaam b was a diviner by /b using b his penis. Mar, son of Ravina, says: He engaged in bestiality with his donkey. The one who says /b that he b was a diviner by /b using b his penis /b derives it b as we stated. And the one who says /b that b he engaged in bestiality with his donkey /b derives it as follows: b It is written here: “He crouched, he lay down” /b (Numbers 24:9), b and it is written there: “Between her legs /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
14b. שברי לוחות שמונחים בארון ואי ס"ד ס"ת הקיפו ו' טפחים מכדי כל שיש בהקיפו שלשה טפחים יש בו רוחב טפח וכיון דלאמצעיתו נגלל נפיש ליה מתרי טפחא רווחא דביני ביני בתרי פושכי היכי יתיב,אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ספר עזרה לתחלתו הוא נגלל ואכתי תרי בתרי היכי יתיב אמר רב אשי דכריך ביה פורתא וכרכיה לעיל,ור' יהודה מקמי דליתי ארגז ספר תורה היכי הוה יתיב דפא הוה נפיק מיניה ויתיב עילוה ספר תורה ור"מ האי מצד ארון מאי עביד ליה ההוא מיבעי ליה דמתנח ליה מצד ולא מתנח ביני לוחי ולעולם בגויה מן הצד,ור"מ עמודין היכא הוו קיימי מבראי ור"מ שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ו, ב) אשר נקרא שם שם ה' צבאות יושב הכרובים עליו מלמד שלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחים בארון,ואידך ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יוחנן ד"ר יוחנן א"ר שמעון בן יוחאי מלמד שהשם וכל כינויו מונחין בארון,ואידך נמי מיבעי ליה להכי אין הכי נמי אלא שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדתני רב יוסף דתני רב יוסף (דברים י, ב) אשר שברת ושמתם מלמד שהלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחין בארון,ואידך ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדריש לקיש דאמר ר"ל אשר שברת אמר לו הקב"ה למשה יישר כחך ששברת:,תנו רבנן סדרן של נביאים יהושע ושופטים שמואל ומלכים ירמיה ויחזקאל ישעיה ושנים עשר מכדי הושע קדים דכתיב (הושע א, ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע וכי עם הושע דבר תחלה והלא ממשה ועד הושע כמה נביאים היו וא"ר יוחנן שהיה תחלה לארבעה נביאים שנתנבאו באותו הפרק ואלו הן הושע וישעיה עמוס ומיכה וליקדמיה להושע ברישא,כיון דכתיב נבואתיה גבי חגי זכריה ומלאכי וחגי זכריה ומלאכי סוף נביאים הוו חשיב ליה בהדייהו וליכתביה לחודיה וליקדמיה איידי דזוטר מירכס,מכדי ישעיה קדים מירמיה ויחזקאל ליקדמיה לישעיה ברישא כיון דמלכים סופיה חורבנא וירמיה כוליה חורבנא ויחזקאל רישיה חורבנא וסיפיה נחמתא וישעיה כוליה נחמתא סמכינן חורבנא לחורבנא ונחמתא לנחמתא:,סידרן של כתובים רות וספר תהלים ואיוב ומשלי קהלת שיר השירים וקינות דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא ודברי הימים ולמאן דאמר איוב בימי משה היה ליקדמיה לאיוב ברישא אתחולי בפורענותא לא מתחלינן רות נמי פורענות היא פורענות דאית ליה אחרית דאמר רבי יוחנן למה נקרא שמה רות שיצא ממנה דוד שריוהו להקב"ה בשירות ותושבחות,ומי כתבן משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה שמואל כתב ספרו ושופטים ורות דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים ע"י אדם הראשון על ידי מלכי צדק ועל ידי אברהם וע"י משה ועל ידי הימן וע"י ידותון ועל ידי אסף 14b. b the broken pieces of the /b first set of b tablets, which were placed in the Ark. /b Having cited the i baraita /i , the Gemara now presents its objection to what was taught earlier with regard to the dimensions of a Torah scroll: b And if it should enter your mind /b to say, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held, that b the circumference of a Torah scroll is six handbreadths, now since any /b cylindrical object b having a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth, /b a Torah scroll with a circumference of six handbreadths has a diameter of two handbreadths. b And since /b a Torah scroll b is wound to the middle, /b since it is rolled from both sides, b it /b must take up b more than two handbreadths /b due to b the space between /b the sheets of parchment and the double rolling. According to Rabbi Meir, who says that the Torah scroll was placed inside the ark, b how did /b the scroll b fit in /b the remaining b two handbreadths [ i pushkei /i ] /b of space in the Ark?, b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: The scroll of the /b Temple b courtyard, /b which was kept in the Ark, b was wound to its beginning, /b i.e., it had only a single pole, so that its circumference was only two handbreadths. The Gemara asks: b But still, how does /b an item b that is two /b handbreadths wide b fit into /b a space that is precisely b two /b handbreadths? It would be impossible to fit it in. b Rav Ashi said: A small section /b of the scroll b was wound /b separately b and /b then b placed on top /b of the scroll.,Having concluded its current discussion, the Gemara now addresses the details of the aforementioned i baraita /i and asks: b And /b according to b Rabbi Yehuda, /b who says that the Torah scroll rested on the chest that came from the Philistines, b where was the Torah scroll placed before the chest arrived? /b The Gemara answers: b A shelf protruded from /b the Ark b and the Torah scroll rested on it. /b The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b Rabbi Meir, /b who says that the Torah scroll rested inside the Ark, b what does he do with this /b verse: “Take this Torah scroll and put it b at the side of the Ark” /b (Deuteronomy 31:26)? The Gemara answers: b He requires /b that verse to teach b that /b the Torah scroll b was placed at the side /b of the tablets, b and that it was not placed between /b the two b tablets, but /b it was b actually /b placed b inside /b the Ark b at the side /b of the tablets.,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b Rabbi Meir, where were the /b silver b columns placed? /b The Gemara answers: b Outside /b the Ark. The Gemara further asks: b And from where does Rabbi Meir /b derive that b the broken pieces of the /b first set of b tablets were placed in the Ark, /b as the verse from which Rabbi Yehuda learns this: “There was nothing in the Ark except” (I Kings 8:9), is needed by Rabbi Meir to teach that the Torah scroll was placed there? The Gemara answers: b He derives /b this point b from what Rav Huna /b expounded, b as Rav Huna says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: /b “The Ark of God, b whereupon is called the Name, the name of the Lord of hosts that sits upon the cherubs” /b (II Samuel 6:2)? The phrase “the name, the name of the Lord” b teaches that /b both b the /b second b tablets and the broken pieces of the /b first set of b tablets were placed in the Ark. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b what does b the other /b Sage, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: b He requires /b that text b for /b that b which Rabbi Yoḥa /b says, b as Rabbi Yoḥa says /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: /b This b teaches that the /b ineffable b name /b of God b and all of His appellations were placed in the Ark. /b ,The Gemara inquires: b And /b doesn’t b the other /b Sage, Rabbi Meir, b also require it for that? /b The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b it b is indeed so. Rather, from where does he /b derive that b the broken pieces of the /b first set of b tablets were placed in the Ark? /b The Gemara expounds: b He derives /b this b from /b that b which Rav Yosef taught, as Rav Yosef taught /b a i baraita /i : The verses state: “At that time the Lord said to me: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first…and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, b which you broke, and you shall put them /b in the Ark” (Deuteronomy 10:1–2). b This teaches that /b both b the /b second set of b tablets and the broken pieces of the /b first set of b tablets were placed in the Ark. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b what does b the other /b one, Rabbi Yehuda, learn from this verse? The Gemara answers: b He requires it for /b that b which Reish Lakish /b teaches, b as Reish Lakish says: /b What is the meaning of that which is stated: “The first tablets, b which you broke [ i asher shibbarta /i ]”? /b These words allude to the fact that God approved of Moses’ action, as if b the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be straight [ i yishar koḥakha /i ] because you broke /b them.,§ b The Sages taught: The order of the /b books of the b Prophets /b when they are attached together is as follows: b Joshua and Judges, Samuel and Kings, Jeremiah and Ezekiel, /b and b Isaiah and the Twelve /b Prophets. The Gemara asks: b Consider: Hosea preceded /b some of the other prophets whose books are included in the Bible, b as it is written: “The Lord spoke first to Hosea” /b (Hosea 1:2). At first glance this verse is difficult: b But did God speak first with Hosea, /b and not with any other prophet before him? b Weren’t there many prophets between Moses and Hosea? And Rabbi Yoḥa says: He was the first of four prophets who prophesied in that period, and they were: Hosea and Isaiah, Amos and Micah. /b Accordingly, Hosea preceded those three prophets; b and /b the book of b Hosea /b as well b should precede /b the books of those prophets.,The Gemara answers: b Since his prophecy is written together with /b those of b Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi /b in one book of the Twelve Prophets, b and Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were the last of the prophets, he is counted with them. /b The Gemara inquires: b But let /b the book of Hosea b be written separately and let it precede /b the others. The Gemara answers: Were it written separately, b since it is small it would be lost. /b ,The Gemara further asks: b Consider: Isaiah preceded Jeremiah and Ezekiel; let /b the book of b Isaiah precede /b the books of those other prophets. The Gemara answers: b Since /b the book of b Kings ends with the destruction /b of the Temple, b and /b the book of b Jeremiah /b deals b entirely with /b prophecies of b the destruction, and /b the book of b Ezekiel begins with the destruction /b of the Temple b but ends with consolation /b and the rebuilding of the Temple, b and Isaiah /b deals b entirely with consolation, /b as most of his prophecies refer to the redemption, b we juxtapose destruction to destruction and consolation to consolation. /b This accounts for the order: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah.,The i baraita /i continues: b The order of the Writings /b is: b Ruth and the book of Psalms, and Job and Proverbs; Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Lamentations; Daniel and the Scroll of Esther; /b and b Ezra and Chronicles. /b The Gemara asks: b And according to the one who says /b that b Job /b lived b in the time of Moses, let /b the book of b Job precede /b the others. The Gemara answers: b We do not begin with suffering, /b i.e., it is inappropriate to start the Writings with a book that deals so extensively with suffering. The Gemara asks: But the book of b Ruth, /b with which the Writings opens, b is also /b about b suffering, /b since it describes the tragedies that befell the family of Elimelech. The Gemara answers: This is b suffering which has a future /b of hope and redemption. b As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Why was she named Ruth, /b spelled i reish /i , i vav /i , i tav /i ? Because there b descended from her David who sated, /b a word with the root i reish /i , i vav /i , i heh /i , b the Holy One, Blessed be He, with songs and praises. /b ,The i baraita /i now considers the authors of the biblical books: b And who wrote /b the books of the Bible? b Moses wrote his own book, /b i.e., the Torah, b and the portion of Balaam /b in the Torah, b and /b the book of b Job. Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses in the Torah, /b which describe the death of Moses. b Samuel wrote his own book, /b the book of b Judges, and /b the book of b Ruth. David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten elders /b of previous generations, assembling a collection that included compositions of others along with his own. He included psalms authored b by Adam the first /b man, b by Melchizedek /b king of Salem, b and by Abraham, and by Moses, and by Heman, and by Jeduthun, and by Asaph, /b
30. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 20.9, 20.11-20.12, 20.14-20.15, 20.19 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 590, 592, 593
20.9. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה (במדבר כב, ט), זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (משלי כח, י): מַשְׁגֶּה יְשָׁרִים בְּדֶרֶךְ רָע בִּשְׁחוּתוֹ הוּא יִפּוֹל, זֶה בִּלְעָם, שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה הַבְּרִיּוֹת נוֹהֲגוֹת בְּכַשְׁרוּת, וּבִדְבָרָיו אֵלּוּ הָיוּ נוֹהֲגִין בַּעֲרָיוֹת, שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹנִים (בראשית כט, ט): וְרָחֵל בָּאָה עִם הַצֹּאן, (שמות ב, טז): וּלְכֹהֵן מִדְיָן שֶׁבַע בָּנוֹת, עָמַד בִּלְעָם וְהִטְעָה אֶת הַבְּרִיוֹת בַּעֲרָיוֹת, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁהִטְעָה הֻטְעָה, בָּעֵצָה שֶׁנָּתַן בָּהּ נָפַל, וְהִטְעָהוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁכָּךְ כְּתִיב (איוב יב, כג): מַשְֹּׂגִּיא לַגּוֹיִם וַיְאַבְּדֵם. כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ מִי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה עִמָּךְ, אָמַר אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ בָּהֶן, יֵשׁ שָׁעָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ, וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּבָנָיו כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה, לְכָךְ אָמַר לְהַטְעוֹתוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה עִמָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם בָּלָק בֶּן צִפֹר, הִתְחִיל מִתְגָּאֶה וְאָמַר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אַתָּה מְכַבְּדֵנִי וְאֵין אַתָּה מוֹצִיא לִי שֵׁם בָּעוֹלָם הַמְּלָכִים מְבַקְּשִׁים אוֹתִי. (במדבר כב, יא): הִנֵּה הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם, עַתָּה לְכָה קָבָה לִּי אֹתוֹ, לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁשֹּׂוֹנֵא יוֹתֵר מִבָּלָק, שֶׁבָּלָק לֹא אָמַר קָבָה, אֶלָּא אָרָה, וְזֶה קָבָה בְּפֵרוּשׁ, הוּא אָמַר (במדבר כב, ו): וַאֲגָרְשֶׁנּוּ מִן הָאָרֶץ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר (במדבר כב, יא): וְגֵרַשְׁתִּיו, מִן הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וּמִן הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. 20.11. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל בִּלְעָם לַיְלָה (במדבר כב, כ), זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (איוב לג, טו יז): בַּחֲלוֹם חֶזְיוֹן לַיְלָה בִּנְפֹל תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל אֲנָשִׁים, אָז יִגְלֶה אֹזֶן אֲנָשִׁים, לְהָסִיר אָדָם מַעֲשֶׂה וְגֵוָה מִגֶּבֶר יְכַסֶּה. הֶעֱלִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁהֲלִיכָתוֹ מְאַבַּדְתּוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם וּמוֹלִיכַתּוּ לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת, (איוב לג, ל): [לחשך] לְהָשִׁיב נַפְשׁוֹ מִנִּי שָׁחַת לֵאוֹר בְּאוֹר הַחַיִּים, שֶׁאִבֵּד נַפְשׁוֹ בַּהֲלִיכָתוֹ, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ אָדָם לַחְטוֹא הַשָֹּׂטָן מְרַקֵּד לוֹ עַד שֶׁגּוֹמֵר הָעֲבֵרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִבְּדוֹ חוֹזֵר וּמוֹדִיעוֹ. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (משלי ז, כב כג): הוֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֶיהָ פִּתְאֹם כְּשׁוֹר אֶל טֶבַח יָבֹא, עַד יְפַלַּח חֵץ כְּבֵדוֹ כְּמַהֵר צִפּוֹר אֶל פָּח. הֶעֱלִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִן בִּלְעָם הָרָשָׁע עַד שֶׁהָלַךְ וְאִבֵּד אֶת נַפְשׁוֹ, מִשֶּׁיָּצָא מִן כְּבוֹדוֹ וְיָדַע בַּמֶּה שֶׁהוּא בּוֹ, הִתְחִיל לְבַקֵּשׁ עַל נַפְשׁוֹ (במדבר כג, י): תָּמֹת נַפְשִׁי מוֹת יְשָׁרִים. 20.12. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל בִּלְעָם לַיְלָה. זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (שמות יב, מב): לֵיל שִׁמֻרִים הוּא לַה' הוּא הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה. כָּל הַנִּסִּים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרַע לָהֶם מִן הָרְשָׁעִים בַּלַּיְלָה הָיָה (בראשית לא, כד): וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל לָבָן הָאֲרַמִּי בַּחֲלֹם הַלָּיְלָה, (בראשית כ, ג): וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה, (שמות יב, כט): וַיְהִי בַּחֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה, וּכְתִיב (שמות יד, כ): וַיְהִי הֶעָנָן וְהַחשֶׁךְ וַיָּאֶר אֶת הַלָּיְלָה, (בראשית יד, טו): וַיֵּחָלֵק עֲלֵיהֶם לַיְלָה, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה נִגְלָה עַל בִּלְעָם לַיְלָה, לֹא הָיָה רָאוּי לְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל נְבִיאֵי הַגּוֹיִם בַּלַּיְלָה מְדַבֵּר עִמָּהֶם. וְכֵן אֱלִיפַז אוֹמֵר (איוב ד, יג): בִּשְׂעִפִּים מֵחֶזְיוֹנוֹת לָיְלָה. וְכֵן אֱלִיהוּא אוֹמֵר עַל זֶה שֶׁדִּבֵּר אִתּוֹ לַיְלָה. (במדבר כב, כ): אִם לִקְרֹא לְךָ בָּאוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים קוּם לֵךְ אִתָּם. מִכָּן אַתּ לָמֵד שֶׁבַּדֶּרֶךְ שֶׁאָדָם רוֹצֶה לֵילֵךְ בָּהּ מוֹלִיכִין אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה נֶאֱמַר לוֹ (במדבר כב, יב): לֹא תֵלֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵעֵז פָּנָיו לַהֲלֹךְ הָלַךְ, שֶׁכֵּן כְּתִיב (במדבר כב, כב): וַיִּחַר אַף אֱלֹהִים כִּי הוֹלֵךְ הוּא. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רָשָׁע אֵינִי חָפֵץ בְּאִבּוּדָן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, הוֹאִיל וְאַתְּ רוֹצֶה לֵילֵךְ לֵאָבֵד מִן הָעוֹלָם קוּם לֵךְ. (במדבר כב, כ): וְאַךְ אֶת הַדָּבָר, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁבְּהַתְרָאָה הָלַךְ, מִיָּד וַיַּשְׁכֵּם, קָדַם וְעָמַד בִּזְרִיזוּת הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רָשָׁע, כְּבָר קְדָמְךָ אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיהֶם לַעֲקֹד אֶת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ, (בראשית כב, ג): וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבשׁ אֶת חֲמֹרוֹ וגו'. (במדבר כב, כא): וַיֵּלֶךְ עִם שָׂרֵי מוֹאָב, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁהָיָה שָׂמֵחַ בְּפֻרְעָנוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹתָן. 20.14. וַתֵּט הָאָתוֹן מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וַתֵּלֶךְ (במדבר כב, כג), הָרָשָׁע הַזֶּה הוֹלֵךְ לְקַלֵּל אֻמָּה שְׁלֵמָה שֶׁלֹא חָטְאָה לוֹ וּמַכֶּה אֲתוֹנוֹ שֶׁלֹא תֵּלֵךְ בַּשָֹּׂדֶה, וּכְתִיב (במדבר כב, כד): וַיַּעֲמֹד מַלְאַךְ ה' בְּמִשְׁעוֹל הַכְּרָמִים, וְכִי לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לוֹ לֵילֵךְ אַחֲרָיו, אֶלָּא כָּךְ מִדַת הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם מְשַׁלֵּחַ סְפֶקְלָטוֹר לַהֲרֹג אֶת הָאָדָם, מְהַלֵּךְ אַחֲרָיו יָמִים הַרְבֵּה, וְזֶה שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה וְהַסְּפֶקְלָטוֹר מְהַלֵּךְ וּמִטָּרֵף אַחֲרָיו מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, וְלִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵינוֹ כֵן הַסְּפֶקְלָטוֹר בִּמְקוֹמוֹ עוֹמֵד וּמִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה בָּא אֶצְלוֹ בְּרַגְלָיו, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִצְטָעֵר הַמַּלְאָךְ לֵילֵךְ אַחַר בִּלְעָם קְדָמוֹ לַדָּרֶךְ. וַיַּעֲמֹד מַלְאַךְ ה' בְּמִשְׁעוֹל, אָמַר לוֹ הַכְּרָמִים נִמְכָּרִים כַּשּׁוּעָלִים (במדבר כב, כד): גָּדֵר מִזֶּה וְגָדֵר מִזֶּה, אֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לִשְׁלֹט בָּהֶן, שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶם (שמות לב, טו): לֻחוֹת כְּתוּבִים מִשְּׁנֵי עֶבְרֵיהֶם מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה הֵם כְּתֻבִים. (במדבר כב, כה כו): וַתֵּרֶא הָאָתוֹן אֶת מַלְאַךְ ה' וַתִּלָּחֵץ אֶל הַקִּיר, וַיּוֹסֶף מַלְאַךְ ה' עֲבוֹר, מָה רָאָה לְקַדְּמוֹ שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַד שֶׁלֹא נִרְאָה לוֹ, סִימָנִין שֶׁל אָבוֹת הֶרְאָה לוֹ, עָמַד לוֹ בָרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה רֶוַח מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן וַתֵּט הָאָתוֹן מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ וַתֵּלֶךְ, בַּשְּׁנִיָּה לֹא יָכְלָה לָזוּז אֶלָּא לְצַד אֶחָד, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית (במדבר כב, כו): אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִנְטוֹת יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול. וּמָה הָיוּ הַסִּימָנִין הָאֵלֶּה, שֶׁאִלּוּ בִּקֵּשׁ לְקַלֵּל בָּנָיו שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם, הָיָה מוֹצֵא מִיכָּן וּמִיכָּן בְּנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנֵי קְטוּרָה. בִּקֵּשׁ לְקַלֵּל בְּנֵי יִצְחָק, הָיָה מוֹצֵא בָּהֶן צַד אֶחָד בְּנֵי עֵשָׂו, וַתִּלָחֵץ אֶל הַקִּיר, בָּנָיו שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב לֹא מָצָא בָּהֶן פְּסוֹלֶת לִגַּע בָּהֶן, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית (במדבר כב, כו): בְּמָקוֹם צָר, זֶה יַעֲקֹב, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לב, ח): וַיִּירָא יַעֲקֹב מְאֹד וַיֵּצֶר לוֹ. אֲשֶׁר אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לִנְטוֹת יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול, שֶׁלֹא מָצָא פְּסֹלֶת בְּאֶחָד מִבָּנָיו. (במדבר כב, כז): וַתֵּרֶא הָאָתוֹן אֶת מַלְאַךְ ה' וַתִּרְבַּץ תַּחַת בִּלְעָם וַיִּחַר אַף בִּלְעָם וַיַּךְ אֶת הָאָתוֹן בַּמַּקֵּל, עַל בִּזְיוֹנוֹ שֶׁבִּזְּתָה אוֹתוֹ. (במדבר כב, כח): וַיִּפְתַּח ה' אֶת פִּי הָאָתוֹן, לְהוֹדִיעוֹ שֶׁהַפֶּה וְהַלָּשׁוֹן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, שֶׁאִם בִּקֵּשׁ לְקַלֵּל פִּיו בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. (במדבר כב, כח): וַתֹּאמֶר לְבִלְעָם מֶה עָשִׂיתִי לְךָ כִּי הִכִּיתָנִי זֶה שָׁלשׁ רְגָלִים, רָמְזָה לוֹ אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לַעֲקֹר אֻמָּה הַחוֹגֶגֶת שָׁלשׁ רְגָלִים. (במדבר כב, כט): וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם לָאָתוֹן כִּי הִתְעַלַּלְתְּ בִּי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְדַבֵּר בְּלָשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים לְשׁוֹנוֹ סָרוּחַ. (במדבר כב, כט): לוּ יֶשׁ חֶרֶב בְּיָדִי, מָשָׁל לְרוֹפֵא שֶׁבָּא לְרַפְּאוֹת בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ נְשׁוּךְ נָחָשׁ, בַּדֶּרֶךְ רָאָה אֲנָקָה אַחַת הִתְחִיל מְבַקֵּשׁ מַקֵּל לְהָרְגָהּ, אָמְרוּ זוֹ אִי אַתָּה יָכוֹל לִטֹּל, הֵיאַךְ בָּאתָ לְרַפְּאוֹת בִּלְשׁוֹנְךָ נְשׁוּךְ נָחָשׁ. כָּךְ אָמְרָה הָאָתוֹן לְבִלְעָם אֲנִי אֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְהָרְגֵנִי אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חֶרֶב בְּיָדְךָ, וְהֵיאַךְ אַתָּה רוֹצֶה לַעֲקֹר אֻמָּה שְׁלֵמָה, שָׁתַק וְלֹא מָצָא תְּשׁוּבָה, הִתְחִילוּ תְּמֵהִים שָׂרֵי מוֹאָב שֶׁרָאוּ נֵס שֶׁלֹא הָיָה כָּמוֹהוּ מֵעוֹלָם. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינָהּ שֶׁלִּי, הֵשִׁיבַתּוּ (במדבר כב, ל): הֲלוֹא אָנֹכִי אֲתֹנְךָ אֲשֶׁר רָכַבְתָּ עָלַי מֵעוֹדְךָ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁלֹא הָיָה זָקֵן, שֶׁהָאָתוֹן גְּדוֹלָה הֵימֶנּוּ. (במדבר כב, כט): הַהַסְכֵּן הִסְכַּנְתִּי לַעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ כֹּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדִּבְּרָה מֵתָה, שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִים זוֹ שֶׁדִּבְּרָה וְעוֹשִׂין אוֹתָהּ יִרְאָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הַהַסְכֵּן הִסְכַּנְתִּי לַעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ כֹּה, חָס הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע, שֶׁלֹא יֹאמְרוּ זוֹ הָיְתָה שֶׁסִּלְּקָה אֶת בִּלְעָם. וְאִם חָס הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל כְּבוֹד הָרָשָׁע, אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר עַל כְּבוֹד הַצַּדִּיק. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא כ, טז): וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרַב אֶל כָּל בְּהֵמָה לְרִבְעָה אֹתָהּ וְהָרַגְתָּ אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְאֶת הַבְּהֵמָה, שֶׁלֹא יֹאמְרוּ זוֹ הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁנֶּהֶרְגָה אִשָּׁה פְּלוֹנִית עַל יָדֶיהָ, לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁחָס הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל כְּבוֹדָן שֶׁל בְּרִיּוֹת וְיוֹדֵעַ צָרְכָּן וְסָתַם פִּי הַבְּהֵמָה, שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיְתָה מְדַבֶּרֶת לֹא הָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לְשַׁעְבְּדָהּ וְלַעֲמֹד בָּהּ, שֶׁזּוֹ הַטִּפֶּשֶׁת שֶׁבַּבְּהֵמָה, וְזֶה חָכָם שֶׁבַּחֲכָמִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁדִּבְּרָה לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בָּהּ. 20.15. וַיְגַל ה' אֶת עֵינֵי בִלְעָם (במדבר כב, לא), וְכִי סוּמָא הָיָה, לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁאַף הָעַיִן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. (במדבר כב, לא): וַיִּקֹּד וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְאַפָּיו, שֶׁדִּבֵּר עִמּוֹ. (במדבר כב, לב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ ה' עַל מָה הִכִּיתָ, וְכִי דִּקָּיוֹן שֶׁל אָתוֹן בָּא מַלְאָךְ לְבַקֵּשׁ מִיָּדוֹ, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ מָה הָאָתוֹן שֶׁאֵין לָהּ זְכוּת וְלֹא בְּרִית אָבוֹת נִצְטַוֵּיתִי לִתְבֹּעַ עֶלְבּוֹנָהּ מִיָּדְךָ, אֻמָּה שְׁלֵמָה שֶׁאַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ לְעָקְרָהּ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ זְכוּת וּבְרִית אָבוֹת, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. (במדבר כב, לב): הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי יָצָאתִי לְשָׂטָן כִּי יָרַט הַדֶּרֶךְ. יָרְאָ"ה רָאֲתָ"ה נָטְתָ"ה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, יָרַט בְּא"ת ב"ש מָגֵן. (במדבר כב, לג): וַתִּרְאַנִי הָאָתוֹן, גַּם אֹתְכָה הָרַגְתִּי וְאוֹתָהּ הֶחֱיֵיתִי, מִיכָּן אַתְּ לָמֵד שֶׁהָרַג אֶת הָאָתוֹן. (במדבר כב, לד): וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם אֶל מַלְאַךְ ה' חָטָאתִי, שֶׁהָיָה רָשָׁע עָרוּם וְיוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאֵין עוֹמֵד מִפְּנֵי הַפֻּרְעָנוּת אֶלָּא תְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁחוֹטֵא וְאוֹמֵר חָטָאתִי, אֵין רְשׁוּת לַמַּלְאָךְ לִגַּע בּוֹ. (במדבר כב, לד): כִּי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי. וְעַתָּה אִם רַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אָשׁוּבָה לִי, אָמַר לוֹ אֲנִי לֹא הָלַכְתִּי עַד שֶׁאָמַר לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (במדבר כב, כ): קוּם לֵךְ אִתָּם, וְאַתָּה אוֹמֵר שֶׁאֶחֱזֹר, כָּךְ אֻמְנָתוֹ, לֹא כָךְ אָמַר לְאַבְרָהָם לְהַקְרִיב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית כב, יא יב): וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ ה', וַיֹּאמֶר אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ, לָמוּד הוּא לוֹמַר דָּבָר וּמַלְאָךְ מַחֲזִירוֹ, וְעַכְשָׁו הוּא אוֹמֵר לִי לֵךְ אִתָּם, וְעַכְשָׁו אִם רַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אָשׁוּבָה לִי. (במדבר כב, לה): וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ ה' אֶל בִּלְעָם לֵךְ עִם הָאֲנָשִׁים, שֶׁחֶלְקְךָ עִמָּהֶם וְסוֹפְךָ לֵאָבֵד מִן הָעוֹלָם. (במדבר כב, לה): וַיֵּלֶךְ בִּלְעָם עִם שָׂרֵי בָלָק, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֵם שְׂמֵחִים לְקַלֵּל כָּךְ הוּא שָׂמֵחַ. 20.19. וַיִּשָֹּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר מִן אֲרָם יַנְחֵנִי, פָּתַח וְאָמַר מִן הָרָמִים הָיִיתִי וְהוֹרִידַנִי בָּלָק לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת. יַנְחֵנִי, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (יחזקאל לב, יח): נְהֵה עַל הֲמוֹן מִצְרַיִם וְהוֹרִדֵהוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִן אֲרָם, עִם רָם, שֶׁלְּמַעְלָן הָיִיתִי וְהוֹרִידַנִי בָּלָק מִכְּבוֹדִי, מָשָׁל לְמִי שֶׁמְהַלֵּךְ עִם הַמֶּלֶךְ, רָאָה לִיסְטִין הִנִּיחַ אֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְטִיֵּל עִם הַלִּיסְטִין, כְּשֶׁחָזַר אֵצֶל הַמֶּלֶךְ אָמַר לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ לֵךְ עִם אוֹתוֹ שֶׁטִּיַּלְתָּ עִמּוֹ, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְךָ שֶׁתֵּלֵךְ עִמִּי. כָּךְ בִּלְעָם נִזְקַק לְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְחָזַר לִהְיוֹת קוֹסֵם כְּבַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע יג, כב): וְאֶת בִּלְעָם בֶּן בְּעוֹר הַקּוֹסֵם, לְפִיכָךְ צָוַח רָם הָיִיתִי וְהוֹרִידַנִי בָּלָק. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִן אֲרָם יַנְחֵנִי, אָמַר לוֹ הֻשְׁוֵינוּ שְׁנֵינוּ לִהְיוֹת כְּפוּיֵי טוֹבָה, אִלּוּלֵי אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיהֶם לֹא הָיָה בָלָק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יט, כט): וַיְהִי בְּשַׁחֵת אֱלֹהִים אֶת עָרֵי הַכִּכָּר וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת אַבְרָהָם וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת לוֹט, וְלוּלֵי אַבְרָהָם לֹא פָּלַט לוֹט מִסְּדוֹם, וְאַתָּה מִבְּנֵי בָּנָיו שֶׁל לוֹט. וְאִלּוּלֵי יַעֲקֹב אֲבִיהֶם לֹא הָיִיתִי אֲנִי בָעוֹלָם, שֶׁלֹא רָאָה לָבָן בָּנִים אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה כְּתִיב (בראשית כט, ט): וְרָחֵל בָּאָה עִם הַצֹּאן, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה לוֹ בָנִים הֵיאַךְ בִּתּוֹ רוֹעָה, וּמִשֶּׁהָלַךְ יַעֲקֹב לְשָׁם נִתְּנוּ לוֹ בָנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לא, א): וַיִּשְׁמַע אֶת דִּבְרֵי בְנֵי לָבָן, וְכֵן אָמַר לוֹ (בראשית ל, כז): נִחַשְׁתִּי וַיְבָרְכֵנִי ה' בִּגְלָלֶךָ. (במדבר כג, ז): לְכָה אָרָה לִי, מִי שֶׁהוּא מְאָרֵר לְעַצְמוֹ מְאָרֵר, שֶׁכָּךְ כְּתִיב (בראשית יב, ג): וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר, וְאוֹמֵר (בראשית כז, כט): אֹרְרֶיךָ אָרוּר. לְכָה אָרָה לִי יַעֲקֹב וּלְכָה זֹעֲמָה יִשְׂרָאֵל, אִלּוּ לְאֻמָּה אַחֶרֶת בִּקֵּשׁ שֶׁאֲקַלֵּל, כְּגוֹן בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק, הָיִיתִי יָכוֹל, אֶלָּא יַעֲקֹב, מֶלֶךְ שֶׁבּוֹרֵר לְעַצְמוֹ מָנָה וְעָמַד אֶחָד וְאָמַר גְּנַאי עָלֶיהָ כְּלוּם יֵשׁ לוֹ חַיִּים, וְאֵלּוּ חֶבְלָתוֹ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ וּסְגֻלָּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב, ט): כִּי חֵלֶק ה' עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ, (שמות יט, ה): וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה. וּלְכָה זֹעֲמָה יִשְׂרָאֵל, מֶלֶךְ שֶׁנָּטַל עֲטָרָה וּנְתָנָהּ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וְאָמַר אָדָם שֶׁאֵינָהּ כְּלוּם, יֵשׁ לוֹ חַיִּים, וְאֵלּוּ כְּתִיב בָּהֶן (ישעיה מט, ג): יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר. מָה אֶקֹּב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל (במדבר כג, ח), בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיוּ רְאוּיִין לְהִתְקַלֵּל לֹא נִתְקַלְּלוּ, כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַס יַעֲקֹב לִטֹּל אֶת הַבְּרָכוֹת נִכְנַס בְּמִרְמָה, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כז, טז): וְאֵת עֹרֹת גְּדָיֵי הָעִזִּים, אָמַר אָבִיו (בראשית כז, יח): מִי אַתָּה, אָמַר לוֹ (בראשית כז, יט): אָנֹכִי עֵשָׂו בְּכֹרֶךָ, מִי שֶׁמּוֹצִיא שֶׁקֶר מִפִיו אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהִתְקַלֵּל, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כז, לג): גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה, וְהֵיאַךְ אֲנִי מְקַלְּלָן לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מָה אֶקֹּב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם לִגְיוֹן שֶׁמָּרַד בַּמֶּלֶךְ חַיָּב מִיתָה, וְאֵלּוּ כָּפְרוּ בּוֹ וּמָרְדוּ וְאָמְרוּ (שמות לב, ד): אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל, לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְכַלּוֹתָן, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה לֹא זָז מֵחִבָּתָן, לִוָּה לָהֶן עַנְנֵי כָּבוֹד וְלֹא פָסְקוּ מֵהֶם הַמָּן וְהַבְּאֵר, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמות לב, ח): כִּי עָשׂוּ עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה. (נחמיה ט, יט כ): וְאַתָּה בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים לֹא עֲזַבְתָּם בַּמִּדְבָּר אֶת עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן לֹא סָר מֵעֲלֵיהֶם בְּיוֹמָם, וּמַנְךָ לֹא מָנַעְתָּ מִפִּיהֶם וּמַיִם נָתַתָּה לָהֶם לִצְמָאָם, וְהֵיאַךְ אֲנִי יָכוֹל לְקַלְּלָם, מָה אֶקֹב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה מְצַוֶּה אוֹתָם עַל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְעַל הַקְּלָלוֹת, בַּבְּרָכוֹת הָיָה מַזְכִּירָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כז, יב): אֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת הָעָם, בַּקְּלָלוֹת לֹא הָיָה טוֹבְעָן, שֶׁכֵּן הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים כז, יג): וְאֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ עַל הַקְּלָלָה בְּהַר עֵיבָל. וּכְשֶׁהֵן חוֹטְאִין וְאוֹמֵר לְהָבִיא עֲלֵיהֶן קְלָלָה, אֵינוֹ כּוֹתֵב שֶׁהוּא מְבִיאָהּ, אֶלָּא בַּבְּרָכוֹת הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ מְבָרְכָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כח, א): וּנְתָנְךָ ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן וגו', (דברים כח, ח): יְצַו ה' אִתְּךָ אֶת הַבְּרָכָה, וּבַקְּלָלוֹת לֹא הָיָה טוֹבְעָן, שֶׁכֵּן הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים כח, טו): וְהָיָה אִם לֹא תִשְׁמַע, וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ, מֵעַצְמָן, הֱוֵי מָה אֶקֹּב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל. כְּתִיב (במדבר כג, ט): כִּי מֵרֹאשׁ צֻרִים אֶרְאֶנּוּ, לְהוֹדִיעַ שִׂנְאָתוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ בִּרְכוֹתָיו אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה, לְאָדָם שֶׁבָּא לָקֹץ אֶת אִילָן, מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּקִי קוֹצֵץ אֶת הַנּוֹפִים, כָּל עָנָף וְעָנָף וּמִתְיַגֵּעַ, וְהַפִּקֵּחַ מְגַלֶּה אֶת הַשָּׁרָשִׁין וְקוֹצֵץ, כָּךְ אָמַר אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע, מָה אֲנִי מְקַלֵּל כָּל שֵׁבֶט וְשֵׁבֶט, הֲרֵינִי הוֹלֵךְ לְשָׁרְשָׁן, בָּא לִגַּע מְצָאָן קָשִׁים, לָכֵן אָמַר: כִּי מֵרֹאשׁ צֻרִים אֶרְאֶנּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כִּי מֵרֹאשׁ, אֵלּוּ אָבוֹת, (במדבר כג, ע): וּמִגְּבָעוֹת, אֵלּוּ אִמָּהוֹת. (במדבר כג, ט): הֶן עָם לְבָדָד יִשְׁכֹּן. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְשַׂמְּחָן מְשַׂמְּחָן לְבַדָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לב, יב): ה' בָּדָד יַנְחֶנּוּ. וּכְשֶׁהָאֻמּוֹת בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה שְׂמֵחִים הֵן אוֹכְלִים עִם כָּל מַלְכוּת וּמַלְכוּת וְאֵין עוֹלֶה לָהֶם מִן הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כג, ט): וּבַגּוֹיִם לֹא יִתְחַשָּׁב. (במדבר כג, י): מִי מָנָה עֲפַר יַעֲקֹב, מִי יוּכַל לִמְנוֹת מִצְווֹת שֶׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין בֶּעָפָר, (דברים כב, י): לֹא תַחֲרשׁ בְּשׁוֹר וּבַחֲמֹר, (דברים כב, ט): לֹא תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם. (במדבר יט, ט): וְאָסַף אִישׁ טָהוֹר אֵת אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה, (במדבר ה, יז): וּמִן הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן. (ויקרא יט, כג): שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים, וְכֵן כֻּלָּם. (במדבר כג, י): וּמִסְפָּר אֶת רֹבַע יִשְׂרָאֵל, הָרְבִיעִית שֶׁלָּהֶן, מִי יוּכַל לִמְנוֹת אֻכְלוּסִין שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מֵאוֹתָן שֶׁהָיוּ חוֹטְפוֹת וּמְחַבְּבוֹת אֶת הַמִּצְווֹת, (בראשית ל, טו): וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְעַט קַחְתֵּךְ אֶת אִישִׁי. (בראשית ל, ג): הִנֵּה אֲמָתִי בִלְהָה בֹּא אֵלֶיהָ, (בראשית ל, ט): וַתֵּרֶא לֵאָה כִּי עָמְדָה מִלֶּדֶת. (בראשית טז, ג): וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם אֶת הָגָר, (במדבר כג, י): תָּמֹת נַפְשִׁי מוֹת יְשָׁרִים, מָשָׁל לְטַבָּח שֶׁבָּא לִשְׁחֹט פָּרָתוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, הִתְחִיל הַמֶּלֶךְ רוֹאֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִרְגִּישׁ שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ רוֹאֶה הִתְחִיל מַשְׁלִיךְ אֶת הַסַּכִּין וּמְשַׁפְשֵׁף בָּהּ וּמְמַלֵּא אֶת הָאֵבוּס לְפָנֶיהָ, הִתְחִיל לוֹמַר תֵּצֵא נַפְשִׁי שֶׁבָּאתִי לְשָׁחֲטָהּ וַהֲרֵי זְנַחְתִּיהָ. כָּךְ בִּלְעָם אָמַר תֵּצֵא נַפְשִׁי שֶׁבָּאתִי לְקַלֵּל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֵךְ. (במדבר כג, יד): וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ שְׂדֵה צֹפִים רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה, רֹאשׁ שֶׁיֵּשׁ פְּרָצִים שָׁם, שֶׁשָּׁם מֵת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ג, כז): עֲלֵה רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה, יֵשׁ פִּרְצָה גְדוֹלָה מִזּוֹ שֶׁרָאָה בַּנְּחָשִׁים וְהָיָה סָבוּר שֶׁשָּׁם יִכְלוּ. 20.9. "9 (Numb. 22:9) “Then God came unto Balaam and said, ‘Who are these people with you’”: This text is related (to Prov. 28:10), “One who leads the upright astray on an evil course will fall into his own pit.” This refers to Balaam. For at first mortals [behaved] with propriety, but because of his (Balaam's) words, they became [unbridled] in sexual matters. sup 14 /sup i class=\"footnote\" i Sanh /i . 106a. /i Thus, of former [generations] it is stated (in Gen. 29:9), “Rachel came with the sheep.” And so (in Exod. 2:16), “Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters.” sup 15 /sup i class=\"footnote\" I.e., although these seven daughters and Rachel were shepherdesses, they had no fear of being alone among males. /i [But] Balaam the wicked arose and led mortals astray into unchastity. But as he led [others] astray, he [himself] was led astray. By the [very] counsel he gave, he [himself] fell. So the Holy One, blessed be He, led him astray, as stated (in Job 12:23), “He exalts the nations and destroys them.” When [the Holy One, blessed be He,] asked him (in Numb. 22:9), “Who are these people with you,” that wicked one said [to himself,] “He knows nothing about them; It appears to me [that] there are times when [God] does not know. And so I can do all that I want to His children.” That is why [God] said it. In order to lead him astray. (Numb. 22:10), “And Balaam said to God, ‘Balak ben Zippor, [the king of Moab] sent [this message] unto me”: He began to boast and say, “Even though You do not honor me, and You do not put out a good name for me in the world, kings seek me. (Numb. 22:11) “Behold the people has come out of Egypt […]; come now, curse ( i qavah /i ) them for me”: [This is] to make known that he (Balaam) hated Israel more than Balak, because (in Numb. 22:6) Balak did not say i qavah /i (as Balaam claimed he had said in Numb. 22:11) but i arah /i . sup 16 /sup i class=\"footnote\" Both words mean “curse,” but the former is worse than the latter, because i qavah /i involves the use of the Divine Name. /i This one (Balaam), however, said (in vs. 11), “curse explicitly ( i qavah /i ).” Moreover, while the former (Balak) said (in Numb. 22:6) “And drive them away from the land,” the latter (Balaam) said [simply] (in vs. 11), “and drive them out” [i.e.,] from this world and from the world to come.", 20.11. "11 (Numb. 22:20) “Then God came unto Balaam at night”: This text is related (to Job 33:15-17), “In a dream, a vision of the night […]; Then he uncovers a human ear […]; To turn a person from an action and conceal pride from a man.” What is the meaning of “conceal from a man”? The Holy One, blessed be He, hid from him (i.e, from Balaam) that his going (with Balak's messengers) would obliterate him from the world and bring him to the grave.” [To darken (from)] (as in Job 33:30) “Bringing him back from the grave, that he may bask in the light of life,” to destroy his soul in his going. For when someone is going to sin, Satan dances before him until he completes the transgression. As soon as he has transgressed, he returns to inform Him. Thus it is stated (in Prov. 7: 22–23), “Going after her right away, he comes like an ox to the slaughter …. Until an arrow pierces his liver […].” [So] did the Holy One, blessed be He, hide [obliteration] from Balaam, until he had gone and destroyed his soul. After he had taken leave of his honor, had gone and destroyed his soul and realized how he stood, he began to beg for his soul (saying in Numb. 23:10), “let my soul die the death of the righteous.”", 20.12. "12 (Numb. 22:20) “Then God came unto Balaam at night”: This text is related (to Exod. 12:42), “That was for the Lord a night of vigil […].” All miracles which were done for Israel and which involved exacting retribution for them from the wicked took place at night: (Gen. 31:24) “And God came unto Laban the Aramean in a dream at night”: And it is written (in Gen. 20:3), “But God came unto Abimelech in a dream at night.” And it is written (in Exod. 12:29), “And it came to pass in the middle of the night.” And it is written (in Exod. 14:20), “there was the cloud with the darkness, and it cast a spell upon the night.” And it is written (in Gen. 14:15), “And he deployed at night.” And so [it was with] all of them. Another interpretation: Why did he reveal himself to Balaam by night? He was not worthy of [receiving] the holy spirit [except at night]. As He speaks at night with all the prophets of the nations, as stated (in Job 4:13), “In opinions from night visions.” And so Eliphaz says (in Job 4:13), “In a dream, a vision of the night,” about [Balaam’s] speaking with him at night. And similarly Elihou speaks about that which He had spoken with him at night. (Numb. 22:20, cont.) “If these men have come to invite you, arise and go with them”: From here you learn that in the way that a man wants to go, in it is he driven. As at first it was said to him (in Numb. 22:12), “Do not go with them.” As soon as he had become defiant, he went. As so is it written about him (in Numb. 22:22), “But God's anger was kindled because he was going.” The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “I do not desire the death of the wicked. [But] in as much as you want to be obliterated from the world, ‘arise and go with them.’” (Numb. 22:20, cont.), “But only the thing [that I tell you are you to do].” [These words are] to teach you that he went with a warning. Immediately he got up early in the morning [preparing his donkey] quickly all by himself. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him, “You wicked man! Their ancestor Abraham has already anticipated you at the binding of his son Isaac,” as stated (in Gen. 22:3), “So Abraham arose early in the morning, saddled his he-ass.” (Numb. 22:21, cont.) “And went with the princes of Moab”: [These words are] to teach you that he was as glad at the tribulation of Israel as they were. ", 20.14. "... [T]he Holy One has pity on the honor of the creatures/b’riyot (here meaning “people”) and knows their needs. And He shut the mouth of the beast/b’heimah, for if she would speak, they could not make her serve or stand up to her /bah, for [there was] this silent one from the animals (the ass) and this wise one from the sages (Bil`am) – [and] when she spoke he could not stand up to her.", 20.15. "15 (Numb. 22:31) “Then the Lord uncovered the eyes of Balaam and he saw [the angel of the Lord….]”: Was he blind? [These words were] simply to inform him that even the eye is in [God’s] control. (Ibid., cont.) “Then he bowed down and prostrated himself on his face,” because [the angel] had spoken with him. (Numb. 22:32) “And the angel of the Lord said unto him, ‘Why did you strike your she-ass these three times’”: Did the angel come to seek [satisfaction] at his hand for the she-ass? It is simply that he said to him, “Now if for the she-ass, which has neither merit nor a covet from the ancestors, I have been commanded to seek satisfaction from your hand, how much the more so for an entire people that has merit and the covet of the ancestors that you have come to uproot!“ (Numb. 22:32, cont.) “Here I have come out as an adversary ( i satan /i ), because your way is contrary ( i yrt /i ).” [ i Yrt /i is interpreted as] an acronym [concerning the ass for] i yare'ah /i (she feared), i ra'atah /i (she saw), i natetah /i (she turned away). Another interpretation: [The numerical value of] i yrt /i , in the i atbash /i [scheme] is [equivalent to that of] shield ( i magen /i ). (Numb. 22:33) “For the she-ass saw me and turned away from me these three times. If she had not turned away [from me, surely just now I would have killed you] and let her live”: From here you have learned that he killed the ass. (Numb. 22:34) “Then Balaam said unto the angel of the Lord, ‘I have sinned’”: As he was a crafty evildoer. He knew that nothing can withstand divine punishment except for repentance; for whenever anyone sins and says, “I have sinned,” the angel has no authority to touch him. (Ibid.) “Because I did not know; and now, if it is evil in your eyes, I will return.” sup 22 /sup i class=\"footnote\" This verb can also be rendered as “repent.” /i He said to him, “I did not go until the Holy One, blessed be He, said to me (in Numb. 22:20), “Arise and go with them”; yet you are saying that I should return! [Indeed] such is His practice! Similarly, did he not tell Abraham to sacrifice his son? Then after that [it is stated (in Gen. 22:11-12)], ‘But the angel of the Lord called [unto him…]. And he said, “Do not raise your hand [against the lad].”’ He is used to saying something, then to have an angel come and reverse it. And now He had said to me, ‘Go with them,’ [but (in vs. 34)] ‘if it is evil in your eyes, I will return.’” (Numb. 22:35) “The angel of the Lord said unto Balaam, ‘Go with the men’”; for your lot is [to be] with them, and your end is to be obliterated from the world. (Ibid., cont.) “So Balaam went with the princes of Balak”: [These words] teach that just as they were happy to curse [Israel], so was he happy. ", 20.19. "19 (Numb. 23:7) “So he took up his theme and said, ‘From Aram, Balak the king of Moab has brought me, from the hills of the east.’” I was one of the exalted ones, sup 31 /sup i class=\"footnote\" i Ramim. /i The midrash links this word with ARAM in Numb. 23:7. /i but Balak has brought me down to the pit of corruption. (Ibid.) “Brought me ( i yanheni, /i rt.: i nhh /i ),” [is to be understood] just as you say (in Ezek. 32:18), “bring (rt.: i nhh /i ) the masses of Egypt [and cast them down [… unto the lowest part of the netherworld along with those who go down to the pit].” sup 32 /sup i class=\"footnote\" Thus Numb. 23:7 comes to mean that Balak BROUGHT (rt.: i NHH /i ) Balaam down to the grave. The unusual Biblical translation is necessary to fit the sense of the midrash. /i Another interpretation (of Numb. 23:7), “From Aram”: I was with the highest ( i ram /i ) of the high, and Balak has brought me down from my glory. [The matter] is comparable to one who was walking with the king. When he saw [some] robbers, sup 33 /sup i class=\"footnote\" Gk.: i lestai. /i /i he left the king and toured along with the robbers. When he returned to be with the king, the king said to him, “Go with whomever you have toured with, because it not possible for you to walk with me again.” Similarly Balaam had been bound to the holy spirit. When he paired himself with Balak, the holy spirit departed from him. So he returned to being a diviner as in the beginning. Thus it is stated (at his execution in Josh. 13:22), “Balaam ben Beor the diviner….” Therefore did he yell out, “I was high up ( i ram /i ), and Balak brought me down.” Another interpretation (of Numb. 23:7), “From Aram, he has brought me”: [Balaam] said to [Balak], “We are alike, even both of us, for being ungrateful, because were it not for their father Abraham, there would have been no Balak. Thus it is stated (in Gen. 19:29), ‘And it came to pass that when God destroyed the cities of the plain, God remembered Abraham and sent Lot away.’ Except for Abraham, he would not have delivered Lot from Sodom; and you are one of the children of the children of Lot. sup 34 /sup i class=\"footnote\" As a Moabite, Balak was descended from Moab, the son of Lot. See Gen. 19:37. /i Moreover, if it were not for their father Jacob, I should not have been present in the world, because Laban had sons only through the merit of Jacob, since it is written at the beginning (in Gen. 29:9), ‘Rachel came with the sheep.’ Now if he had sons, how was his daughter a shepherdess? As soon as Jacob came there, sons were given to him, as stated (in Gen. 31:1), ‘Now he heard the things that Laban's sons [were saying].’ sup 35 /sup i class=\"footnote\" Jewish tradition gives three views on Balaam’s relation to Laban: That he was Laban himself, that he was Laban’s nephew, and that he was Laban’s grandson. See Ginzberg, vol. III, p. 354; vol.. V, p. 303, n. 229; vol. VI, pp. 123f., nn. 722f.; p. 130, n. 764. /i And it also says [that Laban said] (in Gen. 30:27), ‘I have learned by divination that the Lord has blessed me for your sake.’” (Numb. 23:7, cont.) “Come, curse Jacob for me”: Whoever curses [the Children of Jacob] is cursing himself, since it is stated (in Gen. 12:3), “and the one who curses you, I will curse.” It also says (in Gen. 27:29), “cursed be those who curse you.” (Numb. 23:7) “Come, curse [Jacob] for me […].” If you had told me to curse another people, for example, the Children of Abraham and Isaac, I would have been able [to do so]. But Jacob? When a king selects a portion for himself, and someone else gets up and speaks disparagingly about it, will he keep his life? Now these people are the Holy One, blessed be He’s, heritage, His portion, and His treasure. Thus it is stated (in Deut. 32:9), “For the Lord's share is His people; Jacob the portion of His heritage.” And it is written (in Exod. 19:5), “and you shall be My treasure.” (Numb. 23:7, cont.) “And come, denounce Israel:” When a king takes a crown and puts it on his head, and someone says of it that it is nothing, will he keep his life? Now in regard to these people it is written about them (in Is. 49:3), “Israel, in whom I will be glorified.” (Numb. 23:8) “How shall I curse [the one] whom God has not cursed”: When they deserved to be cursed, they were not cursed: When Jacob went in to receive the blessings, he went it with deception. As it is written (in Gen. 27:16), “[Then she clothed his arms and the hairless part of his neck] with the skins of goat kids.” His father said to him (in Gen. 27:18), “Who are you?” He said to him (in vs. 19), “I am Esau, your first-born.” Does not the one who puts forth a lie with his mouth deserve to be cursed? Yet not only [was he not cursed], but he was blessed; as stated (in Gen. 27:33), “he shall also be blessed.” So how do I curse them? (In the words of Numb. 23:8) “God has not cursed.” Another interpretation (of Numb. 23:8), “How shall I curse whom God has not cursed?” According to universal custom, when a legion sup 36 /sup i class=\"footnote\" Lat.: i legio. /i /i rebels against the king, it incurs the penalty of death. Now since these denied and revolted against Him, when they said [about the calf] (in Exod. 32:4), “This is your god, O Israel,” was it not necessary to have Him destroy them at that time? [Still] He did not cease to cherish them. Instead He had clouds of glory accompany them. Nor did He withhold the manna and the well from them. And so it says (in Exod. 32:4), “When they made a molten calf,” (in Neh. 9:18-20), “You in Your great mercies did not abandon them in the desert […]; and You did not withhold Your manna from their mouth […].” How can I curse them? (Numb. 23:8) “How shall I curse whom God has not cursed” When He commanded them concerning the blessings and the curses, He mentioned them (as the people) in connection with the blessings where it is stated (in Deut. 27:12), “These shall stand [on Mount Gerizim] for blessing the people;” but He did not mention them in connection with the curses. Thus it is stated (in vs. 13), “And these shall stand on Mount Ebal for the curse.” Moreover, when they sin and He plans to bring a curse upon them, it is not written that He Himself is bringing them (i.e., the curses); but with respect to the blessings, He Himself is blessing them; for so it says (in Deut. 28:1, 8), “And it shall come to pass that, if you diligently obey […], the Lord your God will set you high [over all the nations of the earth]. The Lord will command the blessing to be with you.” But with respect to the curses, it is written (according to Deut. 28:15), “And it shall come to pass that, if you do not obey […], then [all these curses] shall come upon you,” [i.e.,] of their own accord. Ergo (in Numb. 23:8), “How shall I curse whom God has not cursed?” (Numb. 23:9) “For from the top of the rocks I see him,” in order to make the hatred of that evil man (i.e., Balaam) known to you. As from his blessing you may know his thoughts. To what is he comparable? To someone who came to chop down a tree. One who is not an expert chops off the branches one at a time and becomes tired, but the clever one exposes the roots and [then] chops it down. Similarly that wicked man said, “Why shall I curse each and every tribe? Rather I will go to their roots.” When he came to touch them, he found them hard [to cut]. It is therefore stated (in Numb. 23:9), “For from the top of the rocks I see him.” Another interpretation (of Numb. 23:9): “For from the top of the rocks,” these are the patriarchs; (ibid., cont.) “and from the hills I behold him,” these are the matriarchs. (Numb. 23:9, cont.) “Here is a people dwelling alone”: When He makes them rejoice, no nation rejoices along with them. But when the nations are rejoicing in this world, they (i.e., the Children of Israel) eat with each and every kingdom, and no one is charging [such pleasures] against their account (rt: i hshb /i ). sup 37 /sup i class=\"footnote\" In other words the pleasures that Israel enjoys in this world are not to be deducted from their pleasures in the world to come. /i It is so stated (in Numb. 23:9, cont.), “and they shall not be reckoned (rt.: i hshb /i ) among the nations.” (Numb. 23:10) “Who has counted the dust of Jacob”: Who is able to count the commandments which they carry out upon the dust: (In Deut. 22:10,) “You shall not plow with an ox and an ass”; (in Deut. 22:9,) “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed”; (in Numb. 19:9,) “Then someone clean shall gather the ashes of the heifer”; (in Numb. 5:17,) “[Then the high priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel] and some of the dust which is on the floor of the tabernacle”; (in Lev. 19:23,) “[Moreover, when you come into the land and plant any tree for food, you shall count its fruit as forbidden,] three years it shall be forbidden to you, [it shall not be eaten]”; and so on with all of them. (Numb. 23:10, cont.) “Or numbered the sand ( i rb /i ') of Israel,” [i.e.,] their copulations (rt.: i rb /i ') sup 38 /sup i class=\"footnote\" For this interpretation, cf. i Nid. /i 31a. /i Who can number the masses sup 39 /sup i class=\"footnote\" Gk.: i ochloi. /i /i that have emerged from them, from those women who seize on and cherish the commandments (of procreation), as stated (in Gen. 30:15), “But she said to her, ‘Is it a small matter that you have taken away my husband?’” [And so too (in Gen. 30:3, 9),] “Here is my maid Bilhah; go into her.” “When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, [she took her maidservant Zilpah and gave her to Jacob as a wife].” [And so too (in Gen. 16:3),] “So Abraham's wife Sarai took her maidservant Hagar the Egyptian… [and gave her to her husband Abraham as a wife].” (Numb. 23:10, cont.) “Let me die the death of the upright”: The matter is comparable to a butcher who came to slaughter a cow that belonged to a king. The king began to take notice. When [the butcher] realized [what was happening], he began by discarding the knife, then giving [the cow] a rubdown [and] filling the feeding trough for it. He began to say, “Let my life be forfeit for coming to slaughter it; but observe that I have [now given it sustece].” Similarly Balaam said, “Let my life be forfeit for coming to curse, but I will bless [them].” Ergo (in Numb. 23:10), “let me die the death of the upright!” (Numb. 23:14) “So he took him to the Field of Zophim at the top of Pisgah”: He saw that [Israel would be] breached there, for it was there that Moses died, as stated (in Deut. 3:27), “Go up to the top of Pisgah …, [for you shall not cross over this Jordan].” Is there a breach greater than this? What he saw was through divinations, and he was of the opinion that because of him they would fall there.",
31. Anon., Abot De Rabbi Nathan, None (7th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 592
32. Anon., Seder Eliyahu Rabbah, 29, 26  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 588
33. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah 2, 13.2  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 589
34. Anon., Tanchuma (Buber), 2.91-2.92, 4.134, 4.136-4.137  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 463, 518, 588
35. Anon., Aggadat Bereishit, 65  Tagged with subjects: •balaam, prophecy of, according to josephus Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 590
36. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 518, 590