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41 results for "babylonia"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.16, 10.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323, 324
1.16. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃", 10.13. "וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לוּדִים וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃", 1.16. "And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.", 10.13. "And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,",
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.39, 6.4-6.9, 11.13-11.21, 12.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 111, 121, 210, 324
4.39. "וְיָדַעְתָּ הַיּוֹם וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָ אֶל־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת אֵין עוֹד׃", 6.4. "שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃", 6.5. "וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃", 6.6. "וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃", 6.7. "וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 6.8. "וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃", 6.9. "וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃", 11.13. "וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃", 11.14. "וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃", 11.15. "וְנָתַתִּי עֵשֶׂב בְּשָׂדְךָ לִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ וְשָׂבָעְתָּ׃", 11.16. "הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן יִפְתֶּה לְבַבְכֶם וְסַרְתֶּם וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם לָהֶם׃", 11.17. "וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְעָצַר אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָטָר וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תִתֵּן אֶת־יְבוּלָהּ וַאֲבַדְתֶּם מְהֵרָה מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃", 11.18. "וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃", 11.19. "וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 11.21. "לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם לָתֵת לָהֶם כִּימֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 12.22. "אַךְ כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֶת־הַצְּבִי וְאֶת־הָאַיָּל כֵּן תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יַחְדָּו יֹאכְלֶנּוּ׃", 4.39. "know this day, and lay it to thy heart, that the LORD, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is none else.", 6.4. "HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE.", 6.5. "And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.", 6.6. "And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;", 6.7. "and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 6.8. "And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes.", 6.9. "And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates.", 11.13. "And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul,", 11.14. "that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil.", 11.15. "And I will give grass in thy fields for thy cattle, and thou shalt eat and be satisfied.", 11.16. "Take heed to yourselves, lest your heart be deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them;", 11.17. "and the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He shut up the heaven, so that there shall be no rain, and the ground shall not yield her fruit; and ye perish quickly from off the good land which the LORD giveth you.", 11.18. "Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.", 11.19. "And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 11.20. "And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;", 11.21. "that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers to give them, as the days of the heavens above the earth.", 12.22. "Howbeit as the gazelle and as the hart is eaten, so thou shalt eat thereof; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof alike.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.14, 19.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 98, 323
16.14. "וַתַּעַל שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל וְהִנֵּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַמִּדְבָּר דַּק מְחֻסְפָּס דַּק כַּכְּפֹר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 19.6. "וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 16.14. "And when the layer of dew was gone up, behold upon the face of the wilderness a fine, scale-like thing, fine as the hoar-frost on the ground.", 19.6. "and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’",
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.7, 21.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 104
21.7. "אִשָּׁה זֹנָה וַחֲלָלָה לֹא יִקָּחוּ וְאִשָּׁה גְּרוּשָׁה מֵאִישָׁהּ לֹא יִקָּחוּ כִּי־קָדֹשׁ הוּא לֵאלֹהָיו׃", 21.13. "וְהוּא אִשָּׁה בִבְתוּלֶיהָ יִקָּח׃", 21.7. "They shall not take a woman that is a harlot, or profaned; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband; for he is holy unto his God.", 21.13. "And he shall take a wife in her virginity.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323
23.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם אֶל־בָּלָק בְּנֵה־לִי בָזֶה שִׁבְעָה מִזְבְּחֹת וְהָכֵן לִי בָּזֶה שִׁבְעָה פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים׃", 23.1. "מִי מָנָה עֲפַר יַעֲקֹב וּמִסְפָּר אֶת־רֹבַע יִשְׂרָאֵל תָּמֹת נַפְשִׁי מוֹת יְשָׁרִים וּתְהִי אַחֲרִיתִי כָּמֹהוּ׃", 23.1. "And Balaam said unto Balak: ‘Build me here seven altars, and prepare me here seven bullocks and seven rams.’",
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 324
5.3. "עֲשָׂרָה בָקָר בְּרִאִים וְעֶשְׂרִים בָּקָר רְעִי וּמֵאָה צֹאן לְבַד מֵאַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וּבַרְבֻּרִים אֲבוּסִים׃", 5.3. "לְבַד מִשָּׂרֵי הַנִּצָּבִים לִשְׁלֹמֹה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמְּלָאכָה שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת הָרֹדִים בָּעָם הָעֹשִׂים בַּמְּלָאכָה׃", 5.3. "ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, beside harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 264
13.1. "וַתְּמַהֵר הָאִשָּׁה וַתָּרָץ וַתַּגֵּד לְאִישָׁהּ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נִרְאָה אֵלַי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּא בַיּוֹם אֵלָי׃", 13.1. "וַיֹּסִפוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוָה בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃", 13.1. "And the children of Yisra᾽el continued to do evil in the sight of the Lord; and the Lord delivered them into the hand of the Pelishtim for forty years.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 13.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 89, 324
6.3. "וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃", 13.22. "וְעָנָה אִיִּים בְּאַלְמנוֹתָיו וְתַנִּים בְּהֵיכְלֵי עֹנֶג וְקָרוֹב לָבוֹא עִתָּהּ וְיָמֶיהָ לֹא יִמָּשֵׁכוּ׃", 6.3. "And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.", 13.22. "And jackals shall howl in their castles, And wild-dogs in the pleasant palaces; And her time is near to come, And her days shall not be prolonged.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13.24 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 213
13.24. "וּבְנֵיהֶם חֲצִי מְדַבֵּר אַשְׁדּוֹדִית וְאֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר יְהוּדִית וְכִלְשׁוֹן עַם וָעָם׃", 13.24. "and their children spoke half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’language, but according to the language of each people.",
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 1.11, 12.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323, 324
1.11. "וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת־לודיים [לוּדִים] וְאֶת־עֲנָמִים וְאֶת־לְהָבִים וְאֶת־נַפְתֻּחִים׃", 12.8. "וְיוֹעֵאלָה וּזְבַדְיָה בְּנֵי יְרֹחָם מִן־הַגְּדוֹר׃", 1.11. "And Mizraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,", 12.8. "and Joelah, and Zebadiah, the sons of Jeroham of the troop.",
11. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan
51.27. See with your eyes that I have labored little and found myself much rest.
12. Mishnah, Ketuvot, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 135
13. Mishnah, Avot, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 98
4.2. "בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי רָץ לְמִצְוָה קַלָּה כְבַחֲמוּרָה, וּבוֹרֵחַ מִן הָעֲבֵרָה. שֶׁמִּצְוָה גּוֹרֶרֶת מִצְוָה, וַעֲבֵרָה גוֹרֶרֶת עֲבֵרָה. שֶׁשְּׂכַר מִצְוָה, מִצְוָה. וּשְׂכַר עֲבֵרָה, עֲבֵרָה: \n", 4.2. "Ben Azzai said: Be quick in performing a minor commandment as in the case of a major one, and flee from transgression; For one commandment leads to another commandment, and transgression leads to another transgression; For the reward for performing a commandment is another commandment and the reward for committing a transgression is a transgression.",
14. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 179
15. New Testament, John, 20.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 243
20.16. λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς Μαριάμ. στραφεῖσα ἐκείνη λέγει αὐτῷ Ἐβραϊστί Ῥαββουνεί ?̔ὃ λέγεται Διδάσκαλἐ. 20.16. Jesus said to her, "Mary."She turned and said to him, "Rhabbouni!" which is to say, "Teacher!"
16. New Testament, Mark, 10.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 243
10.51. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Τί σοι θέλεις ποιήσω; ὁ δὲ τυφλὸς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ῥαββουνεί, ἵνα ἀναβλέψω. 10.51. Jesus asked him, "What do you want me to do for you?"The blind man said to him, "Rhabboni, that I may see again."
17. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 243
1.2. "בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְרָקִים הָעוֹלָם נִדּוֹן, בְּפֶסַח עַל הַתְּבוּאָה, בַּעֲצֶרֶת עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן, בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה כָּל בָּאֵי הָעוֹלָם עוֹבְרִין לְפָנָיו כִּבְנֵי מָרוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לג) הַיּוֹצֵר יַחַד לִבָּם, הַמֵּבִין אֶל כָּל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. וּבֶחָג נִדּוֹנִין עַל הַמָּיִם: \n", 1.2. "At four set times the world is judged:On Pesah in respect to the produce. On Shavuot in respect to the fruit of the tree. On Rosh Hashanah all the people of the world pass before Him like a division of soldier [a numerus], as it says, “He who fashions the hearts of them all, who discerns all their doings” (Psalms 33:15). And on Sukkot they are judged in respect of rain.",
18. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.13, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 121, 133
2.13. "בעל קרי שאין לו מים לטבול הרי זה קורא את שמע ואינו משמיע לאזנו ואינו מברך לפניה ולא לאחריה דברי רבי מאיר וחכ\"א קורא את שמע ומשמיע לאזנו ומברך לפניה ולאחריה אמר ר' מאיר פעם אחת היינו יושבין לפני ר' עקיבה בבית המדרש והיינו קורין את שמע ולא היינו משמיעים לאזנינו מפני קסדור אחד שהיה עומד על הפתח אמר לו אין שעת הסכנה ראיה.", 3.25. "שמונה עשרה שאמרו חכמים כנגד שמונה עשרה אזכרות שבהבו לה' בני אלים וכולל של מינים בשל פרושין ושל גרים בשל זקנים ושל דוד בירושלים ואם אמר אלו לעצמן ואלו לעצמן יצא.",
19. Tosefta, Megillah, a b c d\n0 3(4).21 3(4).21 3(4) 21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 247
20. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323
2.5. "אין מעברין את השנה לא שביעית ולא מוצאי שביעית אימתי רגילין לעבר בערב שביעית אין מעברין את השנה מפני רעבון ר\"מ אומר הרי הוא אומר (מלכים ב ד) ואיש בא מבעל שלישה וגו' בצקלונו והלא אין לך מקום שמתבכר בא\"י קודם לבעל שלישה ואעפ\"כ לא בכר אלא מאותו המין שהביא לאיש האלהים יכול שהביאו קודם לעומר ת\"ל (שם) ויאמר תנו אל העם ויאכלו מלמד שלא הביאו אלא לאחר העומר והלא אותה שנה ראויה לעבר מפני מה לא עברה אלישע מפני שהיתה שנת רעבון וכל העם רצין לגרנות.",
21. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 121
2.14. "רבן גמליאל אומר שליח צבור מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן וחכמים אומרים כל אחד וא' מוציא [את] עצמו [אמר להן אם כן למה מורידין אותו לפני התיבה אמרו לו כדי להוציא את מי שאינו יודע אמר להם] אם כן למה מתפללין כל אחד ואחד לעצמו [אמרו לו] מפני ששליח צבור מתקין את עצמו אמר להם א\"כ למה מורידין אותו לפני התיבה אמרו לו להוציא את מי שאינו יודע אמר להם כשם שהוא מוציא את מי שאינו יודע כך הוא מוציא את מי שיודע. ",
22. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 98
23. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323
24. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323
25. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 7.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 135
7.2. זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה וגו' (תהלים נא, יט), זַבְדִּי בֶּן לֵוִי וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן פֶּטְרָס וְרַבָּנָן, חַד אָמַר, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי כָּבַשְׁתִּי אֶת יִצְרִי וְעָשִׂיתִי תְּשׁוּבָה לְפָנֶיךָ, אִם אַתָּה מְקַבְּלֵנִי בִּתְשׁוּבָה הֲרֵי יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁלֹמֹה בְּנִי עוֹמֵד וּבוֹנֶה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבוֹנֶה אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַקְטִיר עָלָיו אֶת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא: זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה. וָחֳרָנָא אָמַר מִנַיִן לְמִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה תְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁמַּעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ עָלָה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וּבָנָה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבָנָה אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַקְרִיב עָלָיו כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא: זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה, וְרַבָּנִין אָמְרֵי מִנַּיִן לְעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר עֲבוֹדָה וְקָרְבָּנוֹת וְלָשֹׁחַ, מִן הֲדָא בִּרְכָתָא, רְצֵה אֱלֹהֵינוּ שְׁכֹן בְּצִיּוֹן מְהֵרָה יַעַבְדוּךָ בָּנֶיךָ. אִית דְּבָעֵי מַשְׁמַעְנָא מִן הֲדָא, זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר יוּדָן כָּל מַה שֶׁפָּסַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּבְהֵמָה הִכְשִׁיר בְּאָדָם, פָּסַל בִּבְהֵמָה (ויקרא כב, כב): עֲוֶרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ חָרוּץ אוֹ יַבֶּלֶת, וְהִכְשִׁיר בְּאָדָם (תהלים נא, יט): לֵב נִשְׁבָּר וְנִדְכֶּה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי הַהֶדְיוֹט הַזֶּה אִם מְשַׁמֵּשׁ הוּא בְּכֵלִים שְׁבוּרִים גְּנַאי הוּא לוֹ, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּלֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ שְׁבוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לד, יט): קָרוֹב ה' לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי לֵב, (תהלים קמז, ג): הָרוֹפֵא לִשְׁבוּרֵי לֵב, (ישעיה נז, טו): וְאֶת דַּכָּא וּשְׁפַל רוּחַ. זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה לֵב נִשְׁבָּר, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוּדָא בַּר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר, וּבָא אוֹהֲבוֹ וְכִבְּדוֹ בְּכַלְכָּלָה אַחַת שֶׁל תְּאֵנִים וְחָבִית אַחַת שֶׁל יַיִן, אָמַר לוֹ זֶה כִּבּוּד גָּדוֹל, אָמַר לוֹ אֲדוֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ לְפִי שָׁעָה כִּבַּדְתִּיךָ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאַתָּה נִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ פָּלָטִין שֶׁלְךָ, אַתָּה רוֹאֶה כַּמָּה אֲנִי מְכַבְּדֶךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה, אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים לְפִי שָׁעָה הִקְרַבְנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, אֲבָל לִכְשֶׁתֵּיטִיב (תהלים נא, כ כא): בִּרְצוֹנְךָ אֶת צִיּוֹן תִּבְנֶה חוֹמוֹת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, אָז תַּחְפֹּץ זִבְחֵי צֶדֶק עֹלָה וְכָלִיל.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 318
59b. תנו רבנן הרואה חמה בתקופתה לבנה בגבורתה וכוכבים במסילותם ומזלות כסדרן אומר ברוך עושה בראשית ואימת הוי אמר אביי כל כ"ח שנין והדר מחזור ונפלה תקופת ניסן בשבתאי באורתא דתלת נגהי ארבע:,ר' יהודה אומר הרואה הים וכו': לפרקים עד כמה אמר רמי בר אבא א"ר יצחק עד שלשים יום,ואמר רמי בר אבא א"ר יצחק הרואה פרת אגשרא דבבל אומר ברוך עושה בראשית והאידנא דשניוה פרסאי מבי שבור ולעיל רב יוסף אמר מאיהי דקירא ולעיל ואמר רמי בר אבא הרואה דגלת אגשרא דשביסתנא אומר ברוך עושה בראשית,מאי (בראשית ב, יד) חדקל א"ר אשי שמימיו חדין וקלין מאי פרת שמימיו פרין ורבין,ואמר רבא האי דחריפי בני מחוזא משום דשתו מיא דדגלת האי דגיחורי משום דמשמשי ביממא והאי דניידי עינייהו משום דדיירו בבית אפל:,על הגשמים כו': ועל הגשמים הטוב והמטיב מברך והא"ר אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מאימתי מברכין על הגשמים משיצא חתן לקראת כלה,מאי מברכין אמר רב יהודה מודים אנחנו לך על כל טפה וטפה שהורדת לנו ורבי יוחנן מסיים בה הכי אילו פינו מלא שירה כים וכו' אין אנו מספיקין להודות לך ה' אלהינו עד תשתחוה בא"י רוב ההודאות,רוב ההודאות ולא כל ההודאות אמר רבא אימא האל ההודאות א"ר פפא הלכך נימרינהו לתרוייהו רוב ההודאות והאל ההודאות,ואלא קשיא ל"ק הא דשמע משמע הא דחזא מחזי,דשמע משמע היינו בשורות טובות ותנן על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב,אלא אידי ואידי דחזי מחזי ולא קשיא הא דאתא פורתא הא דאתא טובא ואב"א הא והא דאתא טובא ולא קשיא הא דאית ליה ארעא הא דלית ליה ארעא,אית ליה ארעא הטוב והמטיב מברך והא (תנן) בנה בית חדש וקנה כלים חדשים אומר ברוך שהחיינו והגיענו לזמן הזה שלו ושל אחרים אומר הטוב והמטיב,לא קשיא הא דאית ליה שותפות הא דלית ליה שותפות והתניא קצרו של דבר על שלו הוא אומר ברוך שהחיינו וקיימנו על שלו ועל של חבירו אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב,וכל היכא דלית לאחרינא בהדיה לא מברך הטוב והמטיב והתניא אמרו ליה ילדה אשתו זכר אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב התם נמי דאיכא אשתו בהדיה דניחא לה בזכר,ת"ש מת אביו והוא יורשו בתחלה אומר ברוך דיין האמת ולבסוף הוא אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב התם נמי דאיכא אחי דקא ירתי בהדיה,ת"ש שינוי יין א"צ לברך שינוי מקום צריך לברך וא"ר יוסף בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אע"פ שאמרו שינוי יין א"צ לברך אבל אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב התם נמי דאיכא בני חבורה דשתו בהדיה:,בנה בית חדש וקנה כלים חדשים וכו': א"ר הונא לא שנו אלא שאין לו כיוצא בהן אבל יש לו כיוצא בהן א"צ לברך ור' יוחנן אמר אפילו יש לו כיוצא בהן צריך לברך 59b. b The Sages taught: One who sees the sun in /b the beginning of b its cycle, the moon in its might, the planets in their orbit, or the signs of the zodiac /b aligned b in their order recites: Blessed…Author of creation. /b The Gemara asks: b And when is it /b that the sun is at the beginning of its cycle? b Abaye said: Every twenty-eight years /b when the b cycle /b is complete and b returns /b to its genesis, b and the Nisan, /b vernal, b equinox, /b when the spring days and nights are of equal length, b falls within /b the constellation of b Saturn on the night of the third and eve of the fourth /b day of the week, as then their arrangement returns to be as it was when the constellations were first placed in the heavens.,We learned in the mishna that b Rabbi Yehuda said: One who sees the great sea /b intermittently b recites: /b Blessed…Who has made the great sea. The Gemara asks: b How much /b is b intermittently? Rami bar Abba said /b that b Rav Yitzḥak said: Thirty days. /b , b And Rami bar Abba said /b that b Rav Yitzḥak said: One who sees the Euphrates River near the bridge of Babylonia recites: Blessed…Author of creation. /b The Gemara adds: b And now that the Persians have rerouted /b the course of the river, one only recites the blessing b from Beit Shavor upriver. /b Downriver, it no longer flows as it did at creation, so there one does not recite the blessing: Author of creation. b Rav Yosef said: /b One only recites the blessing b from Ihi Dekira upriver. And Rami bar Abba said: One who sees the Tigris on the bridge of Shabistana recites: Blessed…Author of creation. /b ,The Gemara proceeds to explain the names of these rivers. b What is /b the source of the name b i Ḥidekel /i [ /b Tigris]? b Rav Ashi said: /b Its name is an acronym derived from the fact that b its waters are sharp [ i ḥadin /i ] and light [ i kalin /i ] /b and therefore good for drinking. b What is /b the source of the name b i Perat /i /b [Euphrates]? It is so named b because its waters are fruitful [ i parin /i ] and multiply [ i ravin /i ]; /b there are many fish in it.,As for the Tigris River, b Rava said: The inhabitants /b of the city b Meḥoza are sharp because they drink the water of the Tigris; they are red because they engage in /b conjugal b relations in the daytime; and their eyes move /b constantly b because they live in dark houses. /b ,We learned in our mishna that b over rain /b one recites the blessing: Blessed…Who is good and does good. The Gemara asks: b And over rain /b does b one /b really b recite the blessing: Who is good and does good? Didn’t Rabbi Abbahu say, and some say it was taught in a i baraita /i : From when does one recite the blessing on rain? From when the groom went out to meet the bride. /b In other words, there are puddles of water on the ground. The groom, meaning the raindrops from above, cause the bride, meaning the water below, to splash.,The Gemara asks: b What blessing does one recite? Rav Yehuda said: /b The formula of the blessing is: b We thank You for each and every drop that You have made fall for us. And Rav Yoḥa concludes /b the blessing b as follows: If our mouths were as full of song as the sea…we could not sufficiently praise You O Lord our God, /b and he continues with the formula of i nishmat /i that is recited on Shabbat morning, b until: Shall bow /b before You. b Blessed are You, O Lord, /b to Whom b abundant thanksgivings /b are offered.,The Gemara asks: Does the blessing say: b Abundant thanksgivings, and not: All thanksgivings? /b Certainly all thanksgivings are due to God. b Rava said: /b Emend the formula of the blessing and b say: The God of thanksgivings. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, we will recite them both: Abundant thanksgivings, and: The God of thanksgivings. /b , b However, it is /b still b difficult, /b as apparently the blessing for rain is not: Who is good and does good, as it appears in our mishna. The Gemara responds: This is b not difficult. This, /b which we learned in our mishna, that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case b where one heard /b that rain fell. b This, /b where we learned that one recites: We thank You, etc., refers to a case b where one saw /b the rain fall.,The Gemara asks: b One heard /b that the rain fell; b that is /b a case of b good tidings. And we learned /b in the mishna b that upon /b hearing b good tidings one recites: Who is good and does good. /b Therefore, there is no reason for the mishna to mention rain separately., b Rather, /b the difficulty can be otherwise resolved: b This, /b Rabbi Abbahu’s statement, b and that, /b the mishna, both refer to a case where one saw the rain fall, b and /b this is b not difficult. This, /b Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites We thank You, etc., b refers to /b a case b where a little /b rain b fell, /b while b that, /b the mishna which says that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case b where a lot /b of rain b fell. And if you wish, say /b instead that b this and that /b refer to cases b where a lot /b of rain b fell, and /b this is b not difficult. This, /b the mishna, b refers to /b a case b where one owns land, /b while b that, /b Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites: We thank You, etc., b refers to /b a case b where one does not own land, /b so the rain does not benefit him directly.,The Gemara asks: b One who owns land recites: Who is good and does good? Didn’t we learn /b in the mishna: b One who built a new house or purchased new vessels recites: Blessed…Who has given us life…and brought us to this time. /b However, if the land belonged b to him and others /b in partnership, b he recites: Who is good and does good? /b For rain falling onto land that one owns exclusively, he recites: Who has given us life and not: Who is good and does good.,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This, /b the mishna where we learned that one recites: Who is good and does good, b refers to /b a case b where one /b owns his land b in partnership /b with another; b that, /b Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites: Who has given us life, b refers to /b a case b where one /b owns the land exclusively and b does not have a partnership. And /b indeed, this i halakha /i b was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The gist of the matter is, for /b that which b is /b exclusively b his, he recites: Blessed…Who has given us life and sustained us; for /b that which b belongs to him and to another /b in partnership, b he recites: Who is good and does good. /b ,The Gemara challenges this principle: b And in every case where others are not with him, one does not recite: Who is good and does good? Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b If they told him that his wife gave birth to a male, he recites: Who is good and does good? /b The Gemara responds: b There too, his wife is with him, as she is also happy that a male /b child was born.,The Gemara challenges further: b Come and hear /b a contradiction from what was taught in a i baraita /i : One whose b father died and he is his heir, initially recites: Blessed…the true Judge, /b upon hearing of his father’s death, b and ultimately, /b upon receiving his inheritance, b he recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good. /b Despite the fact that the son alone benefits, he nevertheless recites: Who is good and does good. The Gemara responds: b There, too, /b it refers to a case b where he has brothers who inherit along with him. /b ,The Gemara cites an additional challenge: b Come and hear /b a contradiction based on what was taught in a i baraita /i : In the case of b a change in /b the type of b wine /b during a meal, b one need not recite the blessing: /b Who creates fruit of the vine, a second time. However, in the case of b a change in place, one must recite a /b second b blessing /b over the wine. b And Rabbi Yosef bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Although /b the Sages b said that /b in the case of b a change in /b the type of b wine one need not recite a /b second b blessing /b over the wine, b he does recite: Blessed…Who is good and does good. /b The Gemara responds: b There, too, /b it refers to a case where he is not alone, but where b members of the group are drinking with him. /b ,We learned in the mishna: One who b built a new house or purchased new vessels /b recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us and brought us to this time. With regard to this blessing, b Rav Huna said: They only taught /b that one recites: Who has given us life, upon purchasing a new vessel when b he does not /b already b have something similar, /b i.e., something he inherited. b However, if he /b already b has something similar he need not recite a blessing, /b as it is not new to him. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even /b if b one /b already b has something similar /b that he inherited, b he must recite a blessing /b because he never before purchased a vessel of that kind.
27. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 324
99b. זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) [סביסקי]:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) [רבי יוחנן אמר] אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם 99b. b Sing every day, sing every day, /b i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. b Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says: /b From b what verse /b is this derived? It is b as it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him” /b (Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. b He labors /b in Torah b in this place, /b this world, b and his Torah labors for him in another place, /b the World-to-Come., b Rabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil” /b (Job 5:7). Based on this verse, b I do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth, /b speech, or b whether he was created for the toil of labor. When /b the verse b states: “For his mouth presses upon him” /b (Proverbs 16:26), b you must say /b that b he was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not know /b with regard to the toil of the mouth b whether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. When /b the verse b states: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth” /b (Joshua 1:8), b you must say /b that b he was created for the toil of Torah. And that is /b the meaning of b what Rava said: All bodies are like receptacles /b to store items until use. b Happy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah. /b ,The verse states: b “He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding” /b (Proverbs 6:32). b Reish Lakish says: This is /b a reference to b one who studies Torah intermittently, /b who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, b as it is stated /b about words of Torah: b “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips” /b (Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i that with regard to the verse: b “But the person who acts high-handedly, /b whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), b this /b is a reference to b Manasseh ben Hezekiah, /b king of Israel, b who would sit and teach flawed /b interpretations of Torah b narratives. /b ,Manasseh b said: But did Moses need to write only /b insignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: b “And Lotan’s sister was Timna” /b (Genesis 36:22), or: b “And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, /b son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: b “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found i duda’im /i in the field” /b (Genesis 30:14)? b A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes” /b (Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import., b And about /b Manasseh ben Hezekiah b it is stated explicitly in the /b texts of b tradition, /b the Prophets: b “Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope” /b (Isaiah 5:18). b What /b is the meaning of the phrase b “as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says: /b This is a reference to b the evil inclination. Initially, it seems like /b a flimsy b spinning [ i kuveya /i ] thread and ultimately it seems like /b a sturdy b cart rope. /b ,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse b that we came to /b discuss, b in any event, what is /b the significance of the phrase in the verse b “And Lotan’s sister was Timna”? /b The Gemara explains: b Timna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan” /b (Genesis 36:29), and: b “The chief of Timna” /b (Genesis 36:40), b and each chief is /b a member of b a monarchy, /b albeit b without a crown. /b That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna b sought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, /b referring to herself: b It is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation. /b Ultimately, b Amalek, /b son of Eliphaz, b emerged from her, /b and that tribe b afflicted the Jewish people. What is the reason /b that the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact b that they should not have rejected her /b when she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant., b “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest” /b (Genesis 30:14). b Rava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says /b that b Rav says: From here /b it can be seen b that the righteous do not extend their hands /b to engage b in robbery /b even of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless i duda’im /i . The verse continues: b “And he found i duda’im /i in the field.” /b The Gemara asks: b What are i duda’im /i ? Rav says: /b They are a plant called b i yavruḥei /i . Levi says: /b They are b violets. Rabbi Yonatan says: /b They are b i seviskei /i . /b ,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, b Rabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages in /b the study of b Torah for its own sake introduces peace into the /b heavenly b entourage above and into the /b earthly b entourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ i ma’uzi /i ], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me” /b (Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called i oz /i , introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were., b Rav says: /b It is b as though he built a palace of /b heaven b above and of /b earth b below, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth, /b and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b One who engages in Torah study b also protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advances /b the coming of b the redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.” /b , b Reish Lakish said: /b With regard to b anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he formed /b that student, b as it is stated: /b “And Abram took Sarai his wife… b and the souls that they formed in Haran” /b (Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. b Rabbi Elazar says: /b It is b as though he fashioned [ i asa’an /i ] the words of Torah /b themselves, b as it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, i va’asitem otam /i ” /b (Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. b Rava says: /b It is b as though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “ i Va’asitem otam /i .” Do not read /b “ i va’asitem b otam /b /i b ” /b as: And you shall fashion them; b rather, /b read it as i va’asitem b atem /b /i b , /b meaning: You shall fashion yourself., b Rabbi Abbahu says: /b With regard to b anyone who causes another to /b engage in b a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he performed it /b himself, b as it is stated: /b “And the Lord said to Moses… b and your rod, with which you struck the river, /b take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). b And /b was it b Moses /b who b struck /b the river? b But isn’t /b it written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that b Aaron struck /b the river? b Rather, /b that verse serves b to say to you: Anyone who causes another to /b engage in b a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he performed it /b himself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include b an i epikoros /i . Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: This /b is b one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This /b is b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who says /b that b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is /b the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna, b one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt is /b characterized as one b who interprets the Torah inappropriately, /b due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. b But according to the one who says /b that b one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is /b the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one b who interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like what /b individual does such a person conduct himself? He is b like Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, /b who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives., b And there are those who teach /b this dispute b with regard to the latter clause /b of the i baraita /i : From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: b One who interprets the Torah /b inappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. b Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: This /b is b one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This /b is b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who says /b that b one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is /b the one mentioned in the i baraita /i who b interprets the Torah /b inappropriately, b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is /b characterized as the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna. b But according to the one who says /b that b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is /b the one mentioned in the i baraita /i who b interprets the Torah /b inappropriately, how would he characterize the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna? b Like whom /b does he conduct himself? b Rav Yosef says: /b It is referring to one who conducts himself b like those who say: /b In b what /b manner b have the Sages benefited us /b with all their Torah study? b They read /b the Bible b for their /b own benefit and b they study /b the Mishna b for their /b own benefit., b Abaye said to him: That /b person who questions the benefit provided by Sages is b also /b in the category of one b who interprets the Torah /b inappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, b as it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth” /b (Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too conclude /b the same concept b from it, as it is stated: /b “If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, b then I will spare the entire place for their sakes” /b (Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside., b Rather, /b the i epikoros /i mentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself b like one who sits before his teacher and a i halakha /i /b that he learned b from another place happens to fall /b into his consciousness b and /b the student b says: This is what we say there, and he does not say /b deferentially: b This is what the Master said, /b even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. b Rava said: /b The term i epikoros /i is referring to one who conducts himself b like those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say: /b In b what /b manner b have the Sages benefited us /b with all their Torah study? b Never /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 324
85b. אמרו חכמים ולא פירשוהו אמרו נביאים ולא פירשוהו עד שפירשו הקב"ה בעצמו שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, יב) ויאמר ה' על עזבם את תורתי אשר נתתי לפניהם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלא ברכו בתורה תחילה,אמר רב חמא מאי דכתיב (משלי יד, לג) בלב נבון תנוח חכמה ובקרב כסילים תודע בלב נבון תנוח חכמה זה ת"ח בן ת"ח ובקרב כסילים תודע זה ת"ח בן ע"ה אמר עולא היינו דאמרי אינשי אסתירא בלגינא קיש קיש קריא,אמר ליה ר' ירמיה לר' זירא מאי דכתיב (איוב ג, יט) קטן וגדול שם הוא ועבד חפשי מאדניו אטו לא ידעינן דקטן וגדול שם הוא אלא כל המקטין עצמו על דברי תורה בעוה"ז נעשה גדול לעוה"ב וכל המשים עצמו כעבד על דברי תורה בעוה"ז נעשה חפשי לעוה"ב,ריש לקיש הוה מציין מערתא דרבנן כי מטא למערתיה דר' חייא איעלמא מיניה חלש דעתיה אמר רבש"ע לא פלפלתי תורה כמותו יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו תורה כמותו פלפלת תורה כמותו לא ריבצת,כי הוו מינצו ר' חנינא ור' חייא אמר ליה ר' חנינא לר' חייא בהדי דידי קא מינצית ח"ו אי משתכחא תורה מישראל מהדרנא לה מפילפולי אמר ליה ר' חייא לר' חנינא בהדי דידי קא מינצית דעבדי לתורה דלא תשתכח מישראל,מאי עבידנא אזלינא ושדינא כיתנא וגדילנא נישבי וציידנא טבי ומאכילנא בשרייהו ליתמי ואריכנא מגילתא וכתבנא חמשה חומשי וסליקנא למתא ומקרינא חמשה ינוקי בחמשה חומשי ומתנינא שיתא ינוקי שיתא סדרי ואמרנא להו עד דהדרנא ואתינא אקרו אהדדי ואתנו אהדדי ועבדי לה לתורה דלא תשתכח מישראל,היינו דאמר רבי כמה גדולים מעשי חייא אמר ליה ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי אפי' ממר אמר ליה אין אפי' מאבא אמר ליה ח"ו לא תהא כזאת בישראל,אמר ר' זירא אמש נראה לי ר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמרתי לו אצל מי אתה תקוע אמר לי אצל ר' יוחנן ור' יוחנן אצל מי אצל ר' ינאי ור' ינאי אצל מי אצל ר' חנינא ור' חנינא אצל מי אצל ר' חייא אמרתי לו ור' יוחנן אצל ר' חייא לא אמר לי באתר דזקוקין דנורא ובעורין דאשא מאן מעייל בר נפחא לתמן,אמר רב חביבא אשתעי לי רב חביבא בר סורמקי חזי ליה ההוא מרבנן דהוה שכיח אליהו גביה דלצפרא הוו שפירן עיניה ולאורתא דמיין כדמיקלין בנורא אמרי ליה מאי האי ואמר לי דאמרי ליה לאליהו אחוי לי רבנן כי סלקי למתיבתא דרקיע אמר לי בכולהו מצית לאסתכולי בהו לבר מגוהרקא דר' חייא דלא תסתכל ביה מאי סימנייהו בכולהו אזלי מלאכי כי סלקי ונחתי לבר מגוהרקא דר' חייא דמנפשיה סליק ונחית,לא מצאי לאוקמא אנפשאי אסתכלי בה אתו תרי בוטיטי דנורא ומחיוהו לההוא גברא וסמינהו לעיניה למחר אזלי אשתטחי אמערתיה אמינא מתנייתא דמר מתנינא ואתסאי,אליהו הוה שכיח במתיבתא דרבי יומא חד ריש ירחא הוה נגה ליה ולא אתא א"ל מאי טעמא נגה ליה למר אמר ליה אדאוקימנא לאברהם ומשינא ידיה ומצלי ומגנינא ליה וכן ליצחק וכן ליעקב ולוקמינהו בהדי הדדי סברי תקפי ברחמי ומייתי ליה למשיח בלא זמניה,א"ל ויש דוגמתן בעולם הזה אמר ליה איכא ר' חייא ובניו גזר רבי תעניתא אחתינהו לר' חייא ובניו אמר משיב הרוח ונשבה זיקא אמר מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא כי מטא למימר מחיה המתים רגש עלמא,אמרי ברקיעא מאן גלי רזיא בעלמא אמרי אליהו אתיוהו לאליהו מחיוהו שתין פולסי דנורא אתא אידמי להו כדובא דנורא על בינייהו וטרדינהו,שמואל ירחינאה אסייה דרבי הוה חלש רבי בעיניה א"ל אימלי לך סמא א"ל לא יכילנא אשטר לך משטר [א"ל] לא יכילנא הוה מותיב ליה בגובתא דסמני תותי בי סדיה ואיתסי,הוה קא מצטער רבי למסמכיה ולא הוה מסתייעא מילתא א"ל לא לצטער מר לדידי חזי לי סיפרא דאדם הראשון וכתיב ביה שמואל ירחינאה 85b. b was stated by the Sages, /b i.e., the wise man mentioned in the verse, b and /b yet b they /b could b not explain it. /b It b was stated by the prophets, /b i.e., those to whom the mouth of the Lord has spoken, b and /b yet b they /b could b not explain it, until the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself explained it, as it is stated /b in the next verse: b “And the Lord says: Because they have forsaken My Torah which I set before them” /b (Jeremiah 9:12). b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b This does not mean b that /b the Jewish people ceased Torah study altogether; rather, b they did not recite a blessing on the Torah prior /b to its study, as they did not regard Torah study as a sacred endeavor., b Rav Ḥama says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “In the heart of him that has discernment wisdom rests; but in the inward part of fools it makes itself known” /b (Proverbs 14:33)? b “In the heart of him who has discernment wisdom rests”; this /b is b a Torah scholar, son of a Torah scholar. “But in the inward part of fools it makes itself known”; this /b is b a Torah scholar, son of an ignoramus, /b as his wisdom stands out in contrast to the foolishness of the rest of his family. b Ulla said: This /b explains the adage b that people say: /b A small b coin in /b an empty b barrel calls: i Kish /i , i kish /i , /b i.e., it rattles loudly, whereas a coin in a barrel full of coins is not heard., b Rabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written /b with regard to the World-to-Come: b “The humble and great are there; and the servant is free from his master” /b (Job 3:19)? b Is that to say /b that b we do not know that the humble and the great are there /b in the World-to-Come? b Rather, /b this is the meaning of the verse: b Anyone who humbles himself over matters of Torah in this world becomes great in the World-to-Come; and anyone who establishes himself as a servant over matters of Torah in this world becomes free in the World-to-Come. /b ,§ The Gemara continues discussing the greatness of the Sages. b Reish Lakish was demarcating /b burial b caves of the Sages. When he arrived at the cave of Rabbi Ḥiyya, /b the precise location of his grave b eluded him. /b Reish Lakish b became distressed, /b as he was apparently unworthy of finding the grave. b He said: Master of the Universe! Did I not analyze the Torah like /b Rabbi Ḥiyya? b A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: You did analyze the Torah like him, /b but b you did not disseminate Torah like him. /b ,The Gemara relates: b When Rabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Ḥiyya would debate /b matters of Torah, b Rabbi Ḥanina /b would b say to Rabbi Ḥiyya: /b Do you think b you can debate with me? Heaven forbid! If the Torah were forgotten from the Jewish people, I /b could b restore it with my /b powers of b analysis /b and intellectual acumen. b Rabbi Ḥiyya said to Rabbi Ḥanina: /b Do you think b you can debate with me? /b You cannot compare yourself to me, b as I am acting /b to ensure that b the Torah /b will b not be forgotten by the Jewish people. /b ,Rabbi Ḥiyya elaborated: b What do I do /b to this end? b I go and sow flax /b seeds b and twine nets /b with the flax, b and /b then b I hunt deer and feed their meat to orphans. /b Next b I prepare parchment /b from their hides b and I write the five books /b of the Torah on them. b I go to a city and teach five children the five books, /b one book per child, b and I teach six /b other b children the six orders /b of the Mishna, b and I say to them: Until I return and come /b here, b read each other /b the Torah b and teach each other /b the Mishna. This is how b I act /b to ensure that b the Torah will not be forgotten by the Jewish people. /b ,The Gemara notes that b this is what Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: How great are the deeds of /b Rabbi b Ḥiyya! Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Are his deeds b even greater than the Master’s, /b i.e., yours? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Yes. /b Rabbi Yishmael persisted: Are they b even /b greater b than /b those of my b father, /b Rabbi Yosei? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Heaven forbid! Such /b a statement b shall not be /b heard b among the Jewish people, /b that someone is greater than your father, Rabbi Yosei.,The Gemara continues discussing the greatness of Rabbi Ḥiyya. b Rabbi Zeira said: Last night, Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, appeared to me /b in a dream. b I said to him: Near whom are you placed /b in the upper realms? b He said to me: Near Rabbi Yoḥa. /b I asked: b And Rabbi Yoḥa is near whom? /b He replied: b Near Rabbi Yannai. And Rabbi Yannai is near whom? Near Rabbi Ḥanina. And Rabbi Ḥanina is near whom? Near Rabbi Ḥiyya. /b Rabbi Zeira added: b I said to /b Rabbi Yosei: b But isn’t Rabbi Yoḥa /b worthy of being placed b near Rabbi Ḥiyya? He said to me: In a place of fiery sparks and burning fires, who can bring /b Rabbi Yoḥa, b son of Nappaḥa, there? /b , b Rav Ḥaviva said: Rav Ḥaviva bar Surmakei told me: I /b once b saw one of the Sages whom Elijah /b the prophet b would visit, /b and b his eyes /b looked b beautiful /b and healthy b in the morning, but appeared to be charred by fire in the evening. I said to him: What is this /b phenomenon? b And he said to me: I said to Elijah: Show me the Sages upon their ascension to the heavenly academy. /b Elijah b said to me: You may gaze at all of them except for /b those in b the chariot [ i miguharka /i ] of Rabbi Ḥiyya, upon whom you may not gaze. /b I asked Elijah: b What are the signs /b of Rabbi Ḥiyya’s chariot, so I will know when not to look? He said: b Angels accompany all /b of the other Sages’ chariots b as they ascend and descend, except for the chariot of Rabbi Ḥiyya, which ascends and descends of its own accord, /b due to his greatness.,The Sage relating this story continued: b I was unable to restrain myself, /b and b I gazed upon /b Rabbi Ḥiyya’s chariot. b Two fiery flames came and struck that man, /b i.e., me, b and blinded his eyes. The next day, I went and prostrated on /b Rabbi Ḥiyya’s burial b cave /b in supplication. b I said: I study the i baraitot /i of the Master, /b Rabbi Ḥiyya; please pray on my behalf. b And /b my vision b was healed, /b but my eyes remained scorched.,The Gemara relates another incident involving Elijah the prophet. b Elijah was /b often b found in the academy of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. b One day it was a New Moon, /b the first of the month, and Elijah b was delayed and did not come /b to the academy. Later, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b Elijah: b What is the reason /b that b the Master was delayed? /b Elijah b said to him: I /b had b to wake up Abraham, wash his hands, and /b wait for him to b pray, and /b then b lay him down /b again. b And similarly, /b I followed the same procedure b for Isaac, and similarly for Jacob /b in turn. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi asked Elijah: b And let /b the Master b wake them /b all b together. /b Elijah responded: b I maintain /b that if I were to wake all three to pray at the same time, b they /b would b generate powerful prayers and bring the Messiah prematurely. /b ,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b Elijah: b And is there anyone /b alive b in this world /b who is b comparable to them /b and can produce such efficacious prayers? Elijah b said to him: There are Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b decreed a fast, /b and the Sages b brought Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons down /b to the pulpit to pray on behalf of the congregation. Rabbi Ḥiyya b recited /b the phrase in the i Amida /i prayer: b Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blew. /b Rabbi Ḥiyya b recited /b the next phrase: b Who makes the rain fall, and rain fell. When he was about to say /b the phrase: b Who revives the dead, the world trembled. /b , b They said in heaven: Who is the revealer of secrets in the world? They said /b in response: It is b Elijah. Elijah was brought /b to heaven, whereupon b he was beaten with sixty fiery lashes. /b Elijah b came /b back down to earth b disguised as a bear of fire. He came among /b the congregation b and distracted them /b from their prayers, preventing Rabbi Ḥiyya from reciting the phrase: Who revives the dead.,§ The Gemara relates: b Shmuel Yarḥina’a was the physician of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. One time, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b felt a pain in his eye. /b Shmuel b said to him: I will place a medication in /b your eye. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: I cannot /b have the medication placed directly in my eye, as I am afraid it will cause me too much pain. Shmuel b said to him: I will apply a salve /b above your eye, not directly in it. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: /b Even that b I cannot /b bear. Shmuel b placed /b the medication b in a tube of herbs beneath his pillow, and /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b was healed. /b , b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b made efforts to ordain /b Shmuel Yarḥina’a as a rabbi b but was unsuccessful, /b as Shmuel always demurred. Shmuel Yarḥina’a b said to him: The Master should not be upset /b about my refusal, as I know that I am not destined to be ordained as a rabbi. b I myself saw the book of Adam the first /b man, which contains the genealogy of the human race, b and it is written in it /b that b Shmuel Yarḥina’a /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 98
20a. ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז האור ברובו ר' יהודה אומר בפחמין כל שהוא:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big וכמה א"ר אלעזר אמר רב כדי שיצולו מבעו"י כמאכל בן דרוסאי איתמר נמי אמר רב אסי א"ר יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי נכרים תניא חנניא אומר כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי מותר להשהותו ע"ג כירה ואע"פ שאין גרופה וקטומה:,אין נותנין את הפת כו': איבעיא להו תחתון האיך דגבי תנור או דילמא תחתון האיך דגבי האור ת"ש ר"א אומר כדי שיקרמו פניה המדובקין בתנור:,משלשלין את הפסח: מ"ט משום דבני חבורה זריזין הן הא לאו הכי לא והאמר מר גדיא בין שריק בין לא שריק שפיר דמי התם מינתח הכא לא מינתח:,ומאחיזין את האור וכו': מנהני מילי אמר רב הונא (שמות לה, ג) לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם בכל מושבותיכם אי אתה מבעיר אבל אתה מבעיר במדורת בית המוקד מתקיף לה רב חסדא אי הכי אפילו בשבת נמי אלא אמר רב חסדא קרא כי אתא למשרי אברים ופדרים הוא דאתא וכהנים זריזין הן:,ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז כו': מאי רובן אמר רב רוב כל אחד ואחד ושמואל אמר כדי שלא יאמרו הבא עצים ונניח תחתיהן תנא רב חייא לסיועיה לשמואל כדי שתהא שלהבת עולה מאיליה ולא שתהא שלהבת עולה ע"י דבר אחר,עץ יחידי רב אמר רוב עביו ואמרי לה ברוב היקפו אמר רב פפא הלכך בעינן רוב עביו ובעינן רוב היקפו כתנאי ר' חייא אמר כדי שישחת העץ ממלאכת האומן רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר כדי שתאחז האש משני צדדין ואע"פ שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר (יחזקאל טו, ד) את שני קצותיו אכלה האש ותוכו נחר היצלח למלאכה:,(ירמיהו לו, כב) והאח לפניו מבערת מאי אח אמר רב אחוונא ושמואל אמר עצים שנדלקו באחוונא ההוא דאמר להו מאן בעי אחוונא אשתכח ערבתא,א"ר הונא קנים אין צריכין רוב אגדן צריכין רוב גרעינין אין צריכין רוב נתנן בחותלות צריכין רוב מתקיף לה רב חסדא אדרבה איפכא מסתברא קנים מבדרן אגדן לא מבדרן גרעינין מבדרן נתנן בחותלות לא מבדרן איתמר נמי 20a. b And, /b however, b in the outlying areas, /b meaning in all of Eretz Yisrael outside the Temple, it is prohibited to light a bonfire on Shabbat eve, unless there is sufficient b time for the fire to take hold in most of /b the bonfire, while it is still day. b Rabbi Yehuda says: With /b a bonfire of b coals, /b even in the outlying areas one is permitted to light the fire on Shabbat eve at nightfall, even if the fire only spread to b any amount /b of the bonfire. The coals, once they are kindled, will not be extinguished again, and there is no concern lest he come to tend to them on Shabbat., strong GEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that one may only roast meat and other food items if there remains sufficient time so that they could be roasted while it is still day. The Gemara asks: b And how much /b do they need to be roasted in order to be considered sufficient, so that it will be permitted to complete their cooking afterward? b Rabbi Elazar said /b that b Rav said: So that they will be roasted while it is still day like the food of ben Drosai, /b which was partially roasted. Ben Drosai was a robber and pursued by all. He could not wait for his food to roast completely, so he sufficed with a partial roasting. b It was also stated /b by another of the Sages, as b Rav Asi said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Anything that is /b already cooked b like the food of ben Drosai /b by a Jew, b no /b longer b has /b a problem of the b cooking of gentiles. /b If a gentile completed cooking this food, it is, nevertheless, permitted to eat, even though, as a rule, it is prohibited to eat food cooked by gentiles. b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i , b Ḥaya says: /b With regard to b anything that is /b already cooked b like the food of ben Drosai, it is permitted to keep it on the stove /b on Shabbat b and even though /b this stove b is not swept /b of coals b and /b the burning coals b are not covered with ashes. /b Since the food was already cooked to that extent, there is no concern that he will come to stoke the coals.,We learned in the mishna that b one may only place bread /b in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall if there remains sufficient time for its surface to form a crust while it is still day. According to Rabbi Eliezer, it is permitted to place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve while it is still day if there remains enough time for a crust to form on its bottom side. b A dilemma was raised before them: /b With regard to the b bottom /b mentioned in the mishna, b is /b it b that /b side b close to the oven, or perhaps is it the bottom that is close to the fire? Come /b and b hear /b a resolution to this dilemma from what was taught in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer says /b explicitly: b So that its surface that is stuck to the oven will form a crust. /b ,We learned in the mishna that b one may lower the Paschal lamb /b into the oven on Shabbat eve b at nightfall. /b The Gemara explains: b What is the reason /b that this was permitted? b Because the people of the group /b who registered to be counted together for the offering and eating of the Paschal lamb b are vigilant /b in the performance of mitzvot and they will not transgress the i halakhot /i of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: b And if that was not so, /b there would b not /b be permission to do so? b Didn’t the Master say: /b The meat of b a kid, whether /b it is in an oven that is b sealed /b or b whether /b it is in one that is b not sealed, /b everyone agrees that he may b well /b place it in the oven at nightfall because taking it out of the oven harms it, and there is no room for concern that he will do so? If so, there is no room for concern with regard to the meat of the Paschal lamb, which must be either a goat or a lamb (Exodus 12:5). The Gemara answers: In any case, it is necessary to emphasize the vigilance of the members of the group, as b there, /b where it was permitted, it was specifically in a case that the goat b was cut /b into pieces. However, b here, /b with regard to the Paschal lamb, the goat b is not cut /b into pieces. It is roasted whole, in accordance with the i halakhot /i of the Paschal lamb. Consequently, it does not roast quickly, and there is room for concern lest he stoke the coals in order to accelerate the roasting. However, since the members of the group are vigilant, the Sages permitted it.,We learned the following in the mishna: b And one may light the fire /b in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth in the Temple on Shabbat eve adjacent to nightfall and allow the fire to spread afterward throughout the entire bonfire. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b that doing so is permitted, b derived? Rav Huna said, /b as it is stated: b “You shall kindle no fire in all of your habitations /b on the day of Shabbat” (Exodus 35:3). The Gemara infers: b “In all of your habitations,” /b the dwelling places of the Jewish people, b you may not kindle fire, but you may kindle fire /b on Shabbat b in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth, /b which is in the Temple. b Rav Ḥisda objects: If so, /b if that is the source for the fact that kindling the fire is permitted on Shabbat eve at nightfall, it should b also /b be permitted to kindle it b even on Shabbat /b itself. Why kindle the fire while it is still day? b Rather, Rav Ḥisda said, /b it should be understood as follows: b When the verse came, it came to permit /b burning the b limbs and fats /b of the sacrifices on the altar, even on Shabbat. Lighting the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth was not permitted on Shabbat itself, since it is not part of the Temple service. It was kindled merely for the benefit of the priests. The fact that there was no concern about lighting the bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall is because the b priests are vigilant /b with regard to mitzvot, and they will certainly not come to stoke the coals.,We also learned in the mishna that b in the outlying areas /b one may not light a bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall unless there is sufficient time b for /b the fire b to take hold /b in most of the bonfire. The Gemara asks about this: b What is /b meant by the measure of b most of it? Rav said: Most of each and every one /b of the branches. b And Shmuel said: /b It is sufficient if the branches are b sufficiently /b lit b so that they will not say /b to each other: b Bring /b thinner b branches, /b which are easier to kindle, b and we will place /b them b beneath /b the existing branches to accelerate their burning. b Rav Ḥiyya taught /b a i baraita /i b to support Shmuel, /b from a i halakha /i that was stated with regard to the Temple candelabrum. The i baraita /i said that it must be lit b to the point that the flame will ascend on its own and not that the flame will ascend due to something else. /b In a place where kindling is required, it is sufficient to ensure that the fire burns on its own ( i Tosafot /i ).,To this point, the Gemara was discussing a bonfire. However, the Gemara asks: What is the i halakha /i with regard to b a single branch /b that one kindles on Shabbat eve? b Rav said: Most of the thickness /b of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. b Others say /b the same i halakha /i in the name of Rav: b Most of the circumference /b of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. b Rav Pappa said: /b Since there is disagreement with regard to Rav’s i halakha /i , and it is not clear exactly what he said, b therefore, we require most of its thickness /b to ignite b and we require most of its circumference /b to ignite; thereby, we avoid entering into a situation of uncertainty. The Gemara comments: This dispute is b parallel to the /b dispute of the b i tanna’im /i , /b who disagreed with regard to a different matter. b Rabbi Ḥiyya said: /b A fire is considered to be kindled when b the wood will be ruined to the extent /b that it can no longer be used for b the work of a craftsman. And Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: So that the fire will take hold from both sides /b of the wood. And he added: b And even though there is no proof for the matter, /b i.e., what constitutes burning as far as Shabbat is concerned, nevertheless there is b an allusion to the matter /b that wood in this condition is considered burnt, as it is stated: “Behold, it is cast into the fire for fuel; b the fire consumed both of its ends and the midst of it is burned. Is it fit for any work?” /b (Ezekiel 15:4).,Along the same lines, the Gemara cites a different verse that discusses burning fire, as it relates to King Jehoiakim: b “And the hearth [ i aḥ /i ] was burning before him” /b (Jeremiah 36:22). i Amora’im /i disputed the question: b What is /b the b i aḥ /i /b mentioned in the verse? b Rav said /b that it means b willow branch /b [ b i aḥvana /i ]. And Shmuel said: /b It is referring to b wood that was lit with i aḥvana /i , /b meaning with fraternity [ i aḥva /i ], i.e., that each piece of wood is lit from another, even small ones from large ones. The meaning of the word i aḥvana /i was forgotten; the Gemara relates that b this /b man, b who said to /b people in the marketplace: b Who wants i aḥvana /i ? And he was found /b to be selling b willow, /b and therefore, the meaning of the word was understood., b Rav Huna said: Reeds /b with which he lights a bonfire on Shabbat eve b do not require /b that b most /b of the reeds ignite prior to Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if b he tied them /b together into a bundle, the reeds assume the legal status of a wooden beam and b most /b of the reeds b need /b to catch fire before Shabbat. The same is true with regard to date b seeds /b that he kindles. They b do not require /b that b most /b of them catch fire before Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if b he placed them in woven baskets [ i ḥotalot /i ], most /b of the seeds b need /b to ignite before Shabbat. b Rav Ḥisda strongly objects /b to this: b On the contrary, the opposite makes sense, /b as b reeds are scattered /b and difficult to burn. When b they are bundled, they are not scattered, /b and therefore burn more easily. Similarly, b seeds are scattered. /b And if b he placed them in woven baskets, they are not scattered. It was also stated /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 324
20b. נזדמן לו אדם אחד שהיה מכוער ביותר אמר לו שלום עליך רבי ולא החזיר לו אמר לו ריקה כמה מכוער אותו האיש שמא כל בני עירך מכוערין כמותך אמר לו איני יודע אלא לך ואמור לאומן שעשאני כמה מכוער כלי זה שעשית כיון שידע בעצמו שחטא ירד מן החמור ונשתטח לפניו ואמר לו נעניתי לך מחול לי אמר לו איני מוחל לך עד שתלך לאומן שעשאני ואמור לו כמה מכוער כלי זה שעשית,היה מטייל אחריו עד שהגיע לעירו יצאו בני עירו לקראתו והיו אומרים לו שלום עליך רבי רבי מורי מורי אמר להם למי אתם קורין רבי רבי אמרו לו לזה שמטייל אחריך אמר להם אם זה רבי אל ירבו כמותו בישראל אמרו לו מפני מה אמר להם כך וכך עשה לי אמרו לו אעפ"כ מחול לו שאדם גדול בתורה הוא,אמר להם בשבילכם הריני מוחל לו ובלבד שלא יהא רגיל לעשות כן מיד נכנס רבי אלעזר בן רבי שמעון ודרש לעולם יהא אדם רך כקנה ואל יהא קשה כארז ולפיכך זכה קנה ליטול הימנה קולמוס לכתוב בו ספר תורה תפילין ומזוזות:,וכן עיר שיש בה דבר או מפולת כו': תנו רבנן מפולת שאמרו בריאות ולא רעועות שאינן ראויות ליפול ולא הראויות ליפול,הי ניהו בריאות הי ניהו שאינן ראויות ליפול הי ניהו רעועות הי ניהו ראויות ליפול לא צריכא דנפלו מחמת גובהייהו אי נמי דקיימן אגודא דנהרא,כי ההיא אשיתא רעועה דהואי בנהרדעא דלא הוה חליף רב ושמואל תותה אע"ג דקיימא באתרה תליסר שנין יומא חד איקלע רב אדא בר אהבה להתם אמר ליה שמואל לרב ניתי מר נקיף אמר ליה לא צריכנא האידנא דאיכא רב אדא בר אהבה בהדן דנפיש זכותיה ולא מסתפינא,רב הונא הוה ליה ההוא חמרא בההוא ביתא רעיעא ובעי לפנוייה עייליה לרב אדא בר אהבה להתם משכי' בשמעתא עד דפנייה בתר דנפק נפל ביתא ארגיש רב אדא בר אהבה איקפד,סבר לה כי הא דאמר רבי ינאי לעולם אל יעמוד אדם במקום סכנה ויאמר עושין לי נס שמא אין עושין לו נס ואם תימצי לומר עושין לו נס מנכין לו מזכיותיו אמר רב חנן מאי קרא דכתיב (בראשית לב, יא) קטנתי מכל החסדים ומכל האמת,מאי הוה עובדיה דרב אדא בר אהבה כי הא דאתמר שאלו תלמידיו (את רבי זירא ואמרי לה) לרב אדא בר אהבה במה הארכת ימים אמר להם מימי לא הקפדתי בתוך ביתי ולא צעדתי בפני מי שגדול ממני,ולא הרהרתי במבואות המטונפות ולא הלכתי ד' אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא ששתי בתקלת חברי ולא קראתי לחבירי בהכינתו ואמרי לה בחניכתו,אמר ליה רבא לרפרם בר פפא לימא לן מר מהני מילי מעלייתא דהוה עביד רב הונא אמר ליה בינקותיה לא דכירנא בסיבותיה דכירנא דכל יומא דעיבא הוו מפקין ליה בגוהרקא דדהבא וסייר לה לכולה מתא וכל אשיתא דהוות רעיעתא הוה סתר לה אי אפשר למרה בני לה ואי לא אפשר בני לה איהו מדידיה,וכל פניא דמעלי שבתא הוה משדר שלוחא לשוקא וכל ירקא דהוה פייש להו לגינאי זבין ליה ושדי ליה לנהרא וליתביה לעניים זמנין דסמכא דעתייהו ולא אתו למיזבן ולשדייה לבהמה קסבר מאכל אדם אין מאכילין לבהמה,ולא ליזבניה כלל נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא,כי הוה ליה מילתא דאסותא הוי מלי כוזא דמיא ותלי ליה בסיפא דביתא ואמר כל דבעי ליתי ולישקול ואיכא דאמרי מילתא דשיבתא הוה גמיר והוה מנח כוזא דמיא ודלי ליה ואמר כל דצריך ליתי וליעול דלא לסתכן,כי הוה כרך ריפתא הוה פתח לבביה ואמר כל מאן דצריך ליתי וליכול אמר רבא כולהו מצינא מקיימנא לבר מהא דלא מצינא למיעבד 20b. b He happened /b upon b an exceedingly ugly person, /b who b said to him: Greetings to you, my rabbi, but /b Rabbi Elazar b did not return /b his greeting. Instead, Rabbi Elazar b said to him: Worthless [ i reika /i ] /b person, b how ugly is that man. Are all the people of your city as ugly as you? /b The man b said to him: I do not know, but you /b should b go and say to the Craftsman Who made me: How ugly is the vessel you made. When /b Rabbi Elazar b realized that he /b had b sinned /b and insulted this man merely on account of his appearance, b he descended from his donkey and prostrated himself before him, and he said to /b the man: b I have sinned against you; forgive me. /b The man b said to him: I will not forgive you go until you go to the Craftsman Who made me and say: How ugly is the vessel you made. /b , b He walked behind /b the man, trying to appease him, b until they reached /b Rabbi Elazar’s b city. The people of his city came out to greet him, saying to him: Greetings to you, my rabbi, my rabbi, my master, my master. /b The man b said to them: Who are you calling my rabbi, my rabbi? They said to him: To this man, who is walking behind you. He said to them: If this /b man b is a rabbi, may there not be many like him among the Jewish people. They asked him: For what /b reason do you say this? He b said to them: He did such and such to me. They said to him: Even so, /b forgive him, b as he is a great Torah scholar. /b , b He said to them: For your sakes I forgive him, provided that /b he accepts upon himself b not to become accustomed to behave like this. Immediately, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, entered the study hall and taught: A person should always be soft like a reed and he should not be stiff like a cedar, /b as one who is proud like a cedar is likely to sin. b And therefore, /b due to its gentle qualities, the b reed merited /b that b a quill is taken from it to write with it a Torah scroll, phylacteries, and i mezuzot /i . /b ,§ The mishna taught: b And likewise, /b if a b city is /b afflicted b by pestilence or collapsing buildings, /b that city fasts and sounds the alarm, and all of its surrounding areas fast but they do not sound the alarm. Rabbi Akiva says: They sound the alarm but they do not fast. b The Sages taught: /b These collapsing buildings b to which /b the Sages b referred /b are those of b sturdy and not dilapidated /b walls; they have walls b that are not ready to fall, and not those that are ready to fall. /b ,The Gemara expresses puzzlement with regard to the wording of the i baraita /i : b What are sound /b walls; b what are /b walls b that are not ready to fall; what are dilapidated /b walls; b what are those that are ready to fall? /b The elements in each pair of walls are apparently the same, and the i baraita /i is repetitive. The Gemara answers: b No, /b it is b necessary /b to specify that in the case of walls b that fell due to their height, /b i.e., they are sound but also ready to fall, due to their excessive height. b Alternatively, /b the i baraita /i is referring to a case b where /b the walls b were positioned on a riverbank, /b as they are likely to fall despite the fact that they are not dilapidated, as the riverbank itself is unstable.,The Gemara relates: This is b like that /b dilapidated wall b that was in Neharde’a, under which Rav and Shmuel would not pass, although it stood in place thirteen years. One day Rav Adda bar Ahava happened /b to come b there /b and walked with them. As they passed the wall, b Shmuel said to Rav: Come, Master, let us circumvent /b this wall, so that we do not stand beneath it. Rav b said to him: /b It is b not necessary /b to do so b today, as Rav Adda bar Ahava is with us, whose merit is great, and /b therefore b I am not afraid /b of its collapse.,The Gemara relates another incident. b Rav Huna had a certain /b quantity of b wine in a certain dilapidated house and he wanted to move it, /b but he was afraid that the building would collapse upon his entry. b He brought Rav Adda bar Ahava to there, /b to the ramshackle house, and b he dragged /b out a discussion with b him /b concerning a matter of b i halakha /i until they had removed /b all the wine. b As soon as they exited, the building collapsed. Rav Adda bar Ahava realized /b what had happened b and became angry. /b ,The Gemara explains: Rav Adda bar Ahava b holds in accordance with this /b statement, b as Rabbi Yannai said: A person should never stand in a place of danger and say: A miracle will be performed for me, /b and I will escape unharmed, b lest a miracle is not performed for him. And if you say /b that b a miracle /b will be b performed for him, they will deduct it from his merits. Rav Ḥa said: What is the verse /b that alludes to this idea? b As it is written: “I have become small from all the mercies and all the truth /b that You have showed Your servant” (Genesis 32:11). In other words, the more benevolence one receives from God, the more his merit is reduced.,After recounting stories that reflect Rav Adda bar Ahava’s great merit, the Gemara asks: b What were /b the exceptional deeds b of Rav Adda bar Ahava? /b The Gemara reports that they are b as it is stated: /b The students of Rabbi Zeira asked him, and some say that b the students of Rav Adda bar Ahava asked him: To what /b do you attribute b your longevity? He said to them: In all my days I did not become angry with my household, and I never walked before someone greater than myself; /b rather, I always gave him the honor of walking before me.,Rav Adda bar Ahava continued: b And I did not think /b about matters of Torah b in filthy alleyways; and I did not walk four cubits without /b engaging in b Torah and without /b donning b phylacteries; and I /b would b not fall asleep in the study hall, neither a deep sleep nor a brief nap; and I /b would b not rejoice in the mishap of my colleague; and I /b would b not call my colleague by his nickname. And some say /b that he said: I would b not call my colleague by his /b derogatory b family name. /b ,§ The Gemara relates another story about the righteous deeds of the Sages involving a dilapidated wall. b Rava said to Rafram bar Pappa: Let the Master tell us some of those fine /b deeds b that Rav Huna performed. He said to him: I do not remember /b what he did b in his youth, but /b the deeds b of his old age I remember. As on every cloudy day they would take him out in a golden carriage [ i guharka /i ], and he would survey the entire city. And /b he would command b that every unstable wall /b be b torn down, /b lest it fall in the rain and hurt someone. b If its owner was able /b to build another, Rav Huna would instruct him b to rebuild it. And if he was unable /b to rebuild it, Rav Huna would b build it himself with his own money. /b ,Rafram bar Pappa further relates: b And every Shabbat eve, /b in the b afternoon, /b Rav Huna b would send a messenger to the marketplace, and he would purchase all the vegetables that were left with the gardeners /b who sold their crops, b and throw /b them b into the river. /b The Gemara asks: b But /b why did he throw out the vegetables? b Let him give them to the poor. /b The Gemara answers: If he did this, the poor would b sometimes rely /b on the fact that Rav Huna would hand out vegetables, b and they would not come to purchase /b any. This would ruin the gardeners’ livelihood. The Gemara further asks: b And let him throw them to the animals. /b The Gemara answers: b He holds /b that b human food /b may b not be fed to animals, /b as this is a display of contempt for the food.,The Gemara objects: b But /b if Rav Huna could not use them in any way, he should b not purchase /b the vegetables b at all. /b The Gemara answers: If nothing is done, b you /b would have been b found /b to have caused b a stumbling block for them in the future. /b If the vegetable sellers see that some of their produce is left unsold, the next week they will not bring enough for Shabbat. Therefore, Rav Huna made sure that the vegetables were all bought, so that the sellers would continue to bring them.,Another custom of Rav Huna was b that when he had /b a new b medicine, he would fill /b a water b jug /b with the medicine b and hang it from the doorpost of his house, saying: All who need, let him come and take /b from this new medicine. b And there are /b those b who say: He had a remedy /b against the demon b Shivta /b that he knew by b tradition, /b that one must wash his hands for protection against this evil spirit. b And /b to this end, b he would place a water jug and hang /b it by the door, b saying: Anyone who needs, let him come /b to the house and wash his hands, so b that he will not be in danger. /b ,The Gemara further relates: b When /b Rav Huna b would eat bread, he would open the doors /b to his house, b saying: Whoever needs, let him come in and eat. Rava said: I can fulfill all these /b customs of Rav Huna, b except for this one, which I cannot do, /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 98
19a. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא ללמדו חפינה אמר רב פפא שתי לשכות היו לו לכ"ג אחת לשכת פרהדרין ואחת לשכת בית אבטינס אחת בצפון ואחת בדרום אחת בצפון דתנן ו' לשכות היו בעזרה ג' בצפון וג' בדרום,שבדרום לשכת המלח לשכת הפרוה לשכת המדיחין לשכת המלח ששם היו נותנין מלח לקרבן לשכת הפרוה ששם היו מולחין עורות קדשים ועל גגה היתה בית טבילה לכ"ג ביוה"כ לשכת המדיחין שם היו מדיחין קרבי קדשים ומשם מסיבה עולה לגג בית הפרוה,ג' שבצפון לשכת העץ לשכת הגולה לשכת הגזית לשכת העץ אמר ר' אליעזר בן יעקב שכחתי מה היתה משמשת אבא שאול אומר לשכת כ"ג היתה אחורי שתיהן וגג שלשתן שוה,לשכת הגולה שם היה בור הגולה והגלגל נתון עליו ומשם מספיקין מים לכל העזרה לשכת הגזית שם היה סנהדרין של ישראל יושבת ודנה את הכהנים ומי שנמצא בו פסול היה לובש שחורים ומתעטף שחורים ויצא והלך לו ושלא נמצא בו פסול היה לובש לבנים ומתעטף לבנים ונכנס ומשמש עם אחיו הכהנים,אחת בדרום דתנן שבעה שערים היו בעזרה ג' בצפון וג' בדרום ואחד במזרח שבדרום שער הדלקה שני לו שער הקרבן שלישי לו שער המים שבמזרח שער נקנור ושתי לשכות היו שם אחת בימינו ואחת בשמאלו אחת לשכת פנחס המלבש ואחת לשכת עושי חביתין,שבצפון שער ניצוץ בנין אכסדרה היה ועלייה בנויה לו על גביו ושם כהנים שומרים מלמעלה ולוים מלמטה ושלפנים הימנו החיל שני לו שער הקרבן שלישי לו שער בית המוקד,ותניא חמש טבילות ועשרה קדושין טובל כ"ג ומקדש בו ביום וכולן בקודש [על גג] בית הפרוה חוץ מזו שהיתה בחול על גבי שער המים ובצד לשכתו היתה,ולא ידענא אי לשכת פרהדרין בצפון ולשכת בית אבטינס בדרום או לשכת בית אבטינס בצפון ולשכת פרהדרין בדרום ומסתברא דלשכת פרהדרין בדרום הואי,מאי טעמא מקדים קאי ומיסך את רגליו וטביל ואזיל לצפון יגמר. חפינה ואתי לבית המקדש ועביד עבודה כולי יומא לבהדי פניא מדו עליה והדר אזיל לדרום וטביל ונייח,דאי אמרת לשכת פרהדרין בצפון מקדים קאי ומיסך רגליו ואזיל לדרום וטביל וגמר חפינה ואתי לבית המקדש ועביד עבודה כוליה יומא להדי פניא מדו עליה והדר אזיל לדרום וטביל ובעי מהדר ומיזל לצפון ומינח ומי טרח מטרחינן ליה כולי האי,אלמה לא מטרחינן ליה טפי דאי צדוקי הוא ליפרוש,אי נמי שלא תזוח דעתו עליו דאי לא תימא הכי נעבדינהו לתרוייהו בהדי הדדי אי נמי תסגי ליה בחדא,ואמרו לו אישי כהן גדול וכו' לימא תהוי תיובתא דרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע דאמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע הני כהני שלוחי דרחמנא נינהו דאי אמרת שלוחי דידן נינהו 19a. strong GEMARA: /strong A i tanna /i b taught: /b The Sages took the High Priest to the House of Avtinas, where the incense was prepared, b to teach him /b the method of b taking handfuls /b of incense, which is a difficult and complex skill. b Rav Pappa said: The High Priest had two chambers. One /b was b the i Parhedrin /i chamber and one /b was b the Chamber of the House of Avtinas. One /b of them was b in the north /b of the courtyard, b and one /b was b in the south. /b The Gemara explains: b One /b was in b the north, as we learned /b in the mishna: b There were six chambers in the /b Israelite b courtyard, three in the north and three in the south. /b ,The chambers b in the south /b were b the Chamber of the Salt, the Chamber of the i Parva /i , /b and b the Chamber of the Rinsers. /b The Gemara explains the function performed in each chamber. b The Chamber of the Salt /b was b where /b the priests b would place the salt for the offering /b in storage b The Chamber of the i Parva /i , /b the hides, was b where they salted the consecrated hides /b that belonged to the priests, to prevent them from spoiling. b And on the roof /b of that chamber b was the Hall of Immersion for the High Priest for Yom Kippur. The Chamber of the Rinsers /b was b where they would rinse the innards of consecrated /b animals, which were not taken up to the altar while dirty or with undigested food remaining in them. b From there a circular staircase ascended to the roof of the Chamber of the i Parva /i . /b ,The b three /b chambers b in the north /b of the courtyard were b the Chamber of the Wood, the Chamber of the Exile, /b and b the Chamber of Hewn Stone. /b With regard to b the Chamber of the Wood, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, /b who is the i tanna /i of the i mishnayot /i in tractate i Middot /i in which this mishna appears, b said: I forgot what /b purpose that chamber b would serve. Abba Shaul says: The High Priest’s chamber was behind the two /b chambers, the Chamber of the Exile and the Chamber of Hewn Stone, b and the roofs of /b all b three of them were level. /b As the three were attached, they shared a roof.,In b the Chamber of the Exile there was the well /b excavated by those returning from b exile, /b for which the chamber was named, b and the wheel /b with which water was drawn b was positioned over it. And from there, /b they would b supply water for /b use b in the entire /b Temple b courtyard /b for washing and rinsing. In b the Chamber of Hewn Stone, there /b the great b Sanhedrin of Israel convened and judged /b whether b the priests /b were fit for service. A priest b in whom a disqualification was detected /b due to a blemish or lineage b would wear black and would wrap himself in black /b in a display of sorrow and mourning b and would emerge /b from the Temple b and go /b on b his way, /b because he was not fit for service as a priest. b And /b any priest b in whom a disqualification was not found would wear white and wrap himself in white /b in a display of joy b and would enter and serve with his fellow priests. /b ,In any event, it was taught that there was a chamber of the High Priest in the north of the courtyard, and there is proof that he also had b one /b chamber b in the south /b of the courtyard, b as we learned /b in a mishna: b Seven gates were in the /b Temple b courtyard, three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. /b The gates b in the south /b were b the Gate of Fire; second to it /b was b the Gate of the offering; third to it /b was b the Gate of the Water. /b The gate b that was in the east /b was called the b Gate of Nicanor, and two chambers were there /b next to the Gate of Nicanor, b one to its right and one to its left. One /b was b the Chamber of Pineḥas the Dresser, /b where the priestly vestments were stored, b and one /b was b the Chamber of the Preparers of the Griddle-Cake offering, /b where the daily griddle-cake offering was prepared on behalf of the High Priest.,The gates b that were in the north: /b The first was b the Gate of the Spark, /b which was b a portico building, /b meaning it had a roof but was not completely closed on every side. b And /b there was b a second story built atop it, and there /b the honor guard of the Temple stood, with b the priests guarding from above /b and the b Levites from below. Inside of /b this gate was b the rampart, /b and an opening led from the gate to the rampart. b Second to /b this gate was b the Gate of the offering; third to it was the Gate of the Hall of the Hearth. /b , b And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The High Priest would /b perform b five immersions and ten sanctifications /b of his hands and feet b on that day, /b Yom Kippur. b And each of these /b was performed b in the sacred /b area of the courtyard, b on the roof of the Hall of the i Parva /i , except for this /b first immersion, b which was /b performed b in the non-sacred /b area outside the courtyard. The first immersion was not unique to Yom Kippur but was performed every day by any priest entering the Temple. That immersion was performed b on the roof of the Gate of the Water, /b and that gate b was alongside his chamber. /b Apparently, the High Priest had a chamber next to the Gate of the Water, which was in the south of the courtyard.,The High Priest had use of two chambers, b but we do not know whether the i Parhedrin /i chamber was in the north and the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the south, or the Chamber of the House of Avtinas was in the north and the i Parhedrin /i chamber was in the south. And, /b however, b it is reasonable /b to say that b the i Parhedrin /i chamber was in the south /b and the High Priest slept there., b What is the reason /b for that assumption? Because if that is the case, the High Priest b arises early /b every morning of the seven days of sequestering b and he covers his legs, /b a euphemism for defecating, b and immerses /b alongside his chamber, which was in the south. b And /b then he b walks to the north /b of the courtyard to the second chamber, which is the Chamber of the House of Avtinas, b and learns /b there b the /b method of b taking handfuls. And /b then b he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle /b purification water b upon him, and he then walks /b back b to the south and immerses /b again alongside his chamber b and rests /b in his chamber., b As, if you say /b that the b Chamber of i Parhedrin /i /b was b in the north, /b this would mean that the High Priest would be forced to exert himself and walk significant distances. According to this understanding, b he arises early, and he covers his legs. /b However, since it was taught in the i baraita /i that the place of his immersion was in the south, b he /b then b walks to the south and immerses. And /b then b he learns /b the method of b taking handfuls. And /b then b he comes to the Temple and performs the service for the entire day. Toward the evening they sprinkle /b purification water b upon him, and he then walks /b back b to the south and immerses, and /b then b he needs to walk back to the north and rest. Do we impose /b upon b him to that extent? /b Rather, it is reasonable to say that the i Parhedrin /i chamber, the High Priest’s private chamber, was in the south, which would limit the distance that he needed to walk.,The Gemara rejects this reasoning: b Why not /b impose upon him? On the contrary, b we impose upon him /b even b more, /b so b that if he is a Sadducee, he will retire. /b As he is not a God-fearing person, he would prefer to walk away rather than subject himself to that added exertion. That is a desirable result, ridding the High Priesthood of a Sadducee., b Or, alternatively, /b there is even value in imposing on a God-fearing Pharisee High Priest, in order b that he will not become haughty /b in his lofty position. Since he is occupied in performing his task, he does not have leisure to be impressed with his elevated status. b As, if you do not say /b that it is an intentional attempt to impose upon him, b let us establish both of /b the chambers of the High Priest b next to one another; or, alternatively, one /b chamber would be b sufficient for him. /b From the fact that neither of these alternatives is adopted, it is apparently an intentional attempt to impose upon him, and there is no proof as to the location of either of the chambers of the High Priest.,§ It was taught in the mishna that the Elders b said to him: My Master, High Priest. /b We are agents of the court, and you are our agent and the agent of the court. The Gemara suggests: b Let us say that this is a conclusive refutation of /b the opinion of b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, as Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: These priests /b who sacrifice the offerings b are the agents of the Merciful One. /b They are not agents representing the Jewish people but are agents representing God, as He commanded them to perform the service. Proof is cited for this opinion: b As, if you say they are our agents, /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 98
59b. בור שהוא קרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,עני המנקף בראש הזית מה שתחתיו גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,אין ממחין ביד עניי עובדי כוכבים בלקט שכחה ופאה מפני דרכי שלום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא (דברים לא, ט) ויכתוב משה את התורה הזאת ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנא לא ידענא דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מהכא (דברים כא, ה) ונגשו הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנן לא ידעינן דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כג, יג) בני עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן להקדישו קדש קדשים,ר' חייא בר אבא אמר מהכא (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מפני דרכי שלום דאורייתא היא א"ל דאורייתא ומפני דרכי שלום,כל התורה כולה נמי מפני דרכי שלום היא דכתיב (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם וכל נתיבותיה שלום,אלא אמר אביי לכדמר דתניא שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול ממנו הרשות בידו,ואמר מר עלה לא שנו אלא בסעודה אבל בבהכ"נ לא דאתו לאינצויי,אמר רב מתנה הא דאמרת בבהכ"נ לא לא אמרן אלא בשבתות וימים טובים דשכיחי רבים אבל בשני ובחמישי לא,איני והא רב הונא קרי בכהני בשבתות ויו"ט שאני רב הונא דאפילו רבי אמי ורבי אסי כהני חשיבי דא"י מיכף הוו כייפי ליה,אמר אביי נקטינן אין שם כהן נתפרדה חבילה ואמר אביי נקטינן אין שם לוי קורא כהן,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן כהן אחר כהן לא יקרא משום פגמו של ראשון לוי אחר לוי לא יקרא משום פגם שניהם כי קאמרינן באותו כהן,מ"ש לוי אחר לוי דאיכא פגם שניהם דאמרי חד מינייהו לאו לוי הוא כהן אחר כהן נמי אמרי חד מינייהו לאו כהן הוא כגון דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דכהן הוא,ה"נ דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דלוי הוא אלא אמרי ממזרת או נתינה נסיב ופסליה לזרעיה הכא נמי אמרי גרושה או חלוצה נסיב ואחליה לזרעיה,סוף סוף לוי מי קא הוי,ולמאן אי ליושבין הא קא חזו ליה אלא ליוצאין,שלחו ליה בני גלילא לרבי חלבו אחריהן 59b. The Sages enacted that b the pit that is nearest to the irrigation channel /b that supplies water to several pits or fields b is filled first on account of the ways of peace. /b They established a fixed order for the irrigation of fields, so that people would not quarrel over who is given precedence., b Animals, birds, or fish /b that were caught in b traps /b are not acquired by the one who set the traps until he actually takes possession of them. Nevertheless, if another person comes and takes them, it b is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says: /b This is b full-fledged robbery. /b ,Similarly, b a lost item /b found by b a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor /b is not acquired by him, since he lacks the legal competence to effect acquisition. Nevertheless, taking such an item from him b is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says: /b This is b full-fledged robbery. /b ,If b a poor person gleans /b olives b at the top of an olive tree /b and olives fall to the ground under the tree, then taking those olives b that are beneath it is /b considered b robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says: /b This is b full-fledged robbery. /b , b One does not protest against poor gentiles /b who come to take b gleanings, forgotten /b sheaves, b and the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ i pe’a /i ], /b although they are meant exclusively for the Jewish poor, b on account of the ways of peace. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that at public readings of the Torah, a priest reads first, and after him a Levite. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? What is the source of this i halakha /i in the Torah? b Rav Mattana said: As the verse states: “And Moses wrote this Torah, and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi” /b (Deuteronomy 31:9). The Gemara explains the inference: b Is that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? /b Why is it necessary for the verse to say this? b Rather, /b the Torah was first delivered to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and this serves as the source for the enactment that first b a priest /b reads from the Torah, b and after /b him b a Levite. /b , b Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said /b that this i halakha /i is derived b from here, /b as it is written: b “And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near” /b (Deuteronomy 21:5). The Gemara asks: b Is that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? Rather, /b the Torah was first given to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and from this we learn that b first a priest /b reads from the Torah, b and after /b him b a Levite. /b , b Rav Ashi said /b that this i halakha /i is derived b from here: “The sons of Amram, Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was separated, that he should be sanctified as most holy” /b (I Chronicles 23:13). This indicates that Aaron and his descendants, the priests, are considered to be holier than the rest of the tribe of Levi. Consequently, they are given precedence in public Torah readings., b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that this i halakha /i is derived b from here, /b as it is stated with regard to a priest: b “And you shall sanctify him” /b (Leviticus 21:8), giving a priest priority b for every matter of sanctity. /b And with regard to this verse, a Sage from b the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “And you shall sanctify him,” /b giving a priest priority b for every matter of sanctity: To open /b the discussion in the study hall b first, to recite the blessing /b of Grace after Meals b first, and to take a fine portion /b at a meal b first, /b meaning that he can choose any portion at a meal for himself., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: /b According to this, why does the mishna teach that the priest reads first from the Torah b on account of the ways of peace, /b indicating that this is a rabbinic enactment? Is it not b by Torah law /b that he reads first? Rav Yosef b said to /b Abaye: Indeed, it is b by Torah law, but /b the reason that the priest reads first is b on account of the ways of peace. /b ,Abaye objected: Aren’t the i halakhot /i of b the entire Torah also /b given b on account of the ways of peace, as it is written: “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace” /b (Proverbs 3:17)? Consequently, this i halakha /i is no different from the other i halakhot /i in the Torah, all of which were given to increase pleasantness and tranquility in the world., b Rather, Abaye said: /b The mishna’s statement that a priest reads first from the Torah on account of the ways of peace b is in accordance with /b what was said by b my master, /b Rabba. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Berakhot /i 5:3): When b two people /b are eating together b from a single dish, /b they must b wait for each other, /b but if there are b three, /b each eats when he wishes and they do b not /b need to b wait /b for each other. Generally, b the one who breaks bread extends his hand /b to take food b first, but if he wishes to show respect to his teacher or to one who is greater /b than he and allow him to take first, b he has permission /b to do so., b And the Master, /b Rabba, b said with regard to /b this i baraita /i : b They taught /b this b with regard to a meal, /b that one may show honor to a person of greater stature and allow him to take food first. b But in the synagogue, /b one may b not /b show another honor, because the congregants are liable to b come to quarrel /b about who is the most distinguished among them. Accordingly, the ruling of the mishna is that to prevent strife and controversy, it is not permitted for a priest to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first from the Torah in his place., b Rav Mattana said: /b With regard to b this /b matter b that you stated, /b that b in the synagogue /b a priest is b not /b permitted to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first, b we said /b this b only concerning i Shabbatot /i and Festivals, when many people are present /b for the services, b but not on Mondays and Thursdays, /b when only a small number of people are there. On those days it is permitted for one to honor his superior, and there is no concern that this will lead to a quarrel.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? /b Is it actually prohibited for a priest to honor his teacher and allow him to read first in his place? b But didn’t Rav Huna, /b who was not a priest, b read /b the Torah section ordinarily reserved b for priests, /b even b on i Shabbatot /i and Festivals? /b The Gemara answers: b Rav Huna is different, as even Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the most important priests in Eretz Yisrael, were subject to his /b jurisdiction. Therefore, there was no concern about a quarrel, because everyone agreed that he was the leading authority of the generation and it was fitting that he should read from the Torah first.,§ b Abaye said /b that b we have a tradition /b that if b there is no priest there /b in the synagogue at the time of the Torah reading, b the bundle is separated, /b i.e., a Levite is not shown precedence over Israelites. b And Abaye said /b that b we have a tradition /b that if b there is no Levite there /b in the synagogue, b a priest reads /b in his place.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: /b One b priest should not read after /b another b priest, because /b people might mistakenly think that the second priest was called to read due to b a flaw /b that was found b in /b the status of b the first /b one, i.e., that he was found not to be a priest. And one b Levite should not read after /b another b Levite, because /b people might mistakenly think that there is b a flaw in both of them. /b If two Levites read one after the other, people might say that the second is not a Levite but an Israelite, or else that the first was not a Levite, and therefore a real Levite was called to read in his place. The Gemara answers: b When we said /b that when there is no Levite present a priest reads in his place, we were speaking b of the same priest /b who had already read from the Torah, for in that case there is no concern that people will think that a flaw had been found in his status.,The Gemara raises a question with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: b What is different /b that in the case where one b Levite /b reads from the Torah b after /b another b Levite, /b Rabbi Yoḥa says b that there is /b concern that people might mistakenly think that there is b a flaw in both of them? /b It must be that he is concerned that people might b say /b that b one of them, /b either the first or the second, b is /b certainly b not a Levite. /b If so, in the case where one b priest /b reads from the Torah b after /b another b priest, /b he should b also /b be concerned that people might b say /b that b one of them, /b either the first or the second, b is /b certainly b not a priest. /b Why, then, was Rabbi Yoḥa concerned only about suspicions that might be raised about the first priest? The Gemara answers: He speaks about a case b where we have a presumption concerning the father of the second /b one, b that he is a priest. /b ,The Gemara asks: If so, b here too, /b in the case of the Levites let us say that b we have a presumption concerning the father of the second /b one, b that he is a Levite. Rather, /b the concern here is that even if it is known that he is the son of a Levite, people might b say /b that perhaps the father b married a i mamzeret /i , /b a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship, b or a Gibeonite woman, and /b thereby b disqualified his children, /b so that they are considered Israelites rather than Levites. If so, then b here too, /b in the case of the priests, there is concern that people might b say /b that perhaps the priest’s father b married a divorced woman or a i yevama /i who underwent i ḥalitza /i [ i ḥalutza /i ] and /b thereby b disqualified his children /b from the priesthood (see Leviticus 21:7).,The Gemara answers: b Ultimately, is he a Levite? /b If the priest is disqualified from the priesthood owing to his blemished lineage, he has the status of an Israelite, not a Levite. Therefore, if he reads from the Torah after another priest, and it is known that his father is a priest, then it must be that he too is a qualified priest. Therefore, the only reason for concern is that people might say that there is a flaw in the status of the first priest.,With regard to the concern itself, the Gemara asks: b And about whom /b is there a concern? Who might mistakenly think that the first priest’s status is blemished? b If /b you say that the concern is b for those sitting /b in the synagogue until the end of the Torah reading, that is not a valid concern, as b they see /b that he is counted as one of the seven who must read from the Torah, and therefore he must certainly be a qualified priest. b Rather, /b the concern is b for those who leave /b before the conclusion of the reading, and do not know that he was counted among the seven readers., b The people of the Galilee sent /b a question b to Rabbi Ḥelbo: After them, /b the priest and the Levite,
33. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 323
21a. סיפא אתאן לתינוקות של בית רבן ומתקנת יהושע בן גמלא ואילך,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב ויהושע בן גמלא שמו שאלמלא הוא נשתכח תורה מישראל שבתחלה מי שיש לו אב מלמדו תורה מי שאין לו אב לא היה למד תורה מאי דרוש (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם ולמדתם אתם,התקינו שיהו מושיבין מלמדי תינוקות בירושלים מאי דרוש (ישעיהו ב, ג) כי מציון תצא תורה ועדיין מי שיש לו אב היה מעלו ומלמדו מי שאין לו אב לא היה עולה ולמד התקינו שיהו מושיבין בכל פלך ופלך ומכניסין אותן כבן ט"ז כבן י"ז,ומי שהיה רבו כועס עליו מבעיט בו ויצא עד שבא יהושע בן גמלא ותיקן שיהו מושיבין מלמדי תינוקות בכל מדינה ומדינה ובכל עיר ועיר ומכניסין אותן כבן שש כבן שבע,אמר ליה רב לרב שמואל בר שילת עד שית לא תקביל מכאן ואילך קביל ואספי ליה כתורא וא"ל רב לרב שמואל בר שילת כי מחית לינוקא לא תימחי אלא בערקתא דמסנא דקארי קארי דלא קארי ליהוי צוותא לחבריה,מיתיבי אחד מבני חצר שביקש לעשות רופא אומן וגרדי ומלמד תינוקות בני חצר מעכבין עליו הכא במאי עסקינן בתינוקות דעכו"ם,תא שמע שנים שיושבין בחצר וביקש אחד מהן לעשות רופא ואומן וגרדי ומלמד תינוקות חבירו מעכב עליו ה"נ בתינוקות דעכו"ם,תא שמע מי שיש לו בית בחצר השותפין ה"ז לא ישכירנו לא לרופא ולא לאומן ולא לגרדי ולא לסופר יהודי ולא לסופר ארמאי הכא במאי עסקינן בסופר מתא,אמר רבא מתקנת יהושע בן גמלא ואילך לא ממטינן ינוקא ממתא למתא אבל מבי כנישתא לבי כנישתא ממטינן ואי מפסק נהרא לא ממטינן ואי איכא תיתורא ממטינן ואי איכא גמלא לא ממטינן,ואמר רבא סך מקרי דרדקי עשרין וחמשה ינוקי ואי איכא חמשין מותבינן תרי ואי איכא ארבעין מוקמינן ריש דוכנא ומסייעין ליה ממתא,ואמר רבא האי מקרי ינוקי דגריס ואיכא אחרינא דגריס טפי מיניה לא מסלקינן ליה דלמא אתי לאיתרשולי רב דימי מנהרדעא אמר כ"ש דגריס טפי קנאת סופרים תרבה חכמה,ואמר רבא הני תרי מקרי דרדקי חד גריס ולא דייק וחד דייק ולא גריס מותבינן ההוא דגריס ולא דייק שבשתא ממילא נפקא רב דימי מנהרדעא אמר מותבינן דדייק ולא גריס שבשתא כיון דעל על,דכתיב (מלכים א יא, טז) כי ששת חדשים ישב שם יואב וכל ישראל עד הכרית כל זכר באדום כי אתא לקמיה דדוד אמר ליה 21a. In b the latter clause we arrive at /b the case of b schoolchildren /b who come to learn Torah in his house, b and /b this ruling applies b from /b the time of b the ordice of Yehoshua ben Gamla and onward. /b ,What was this ordice? b As Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Truly, that man is remembered for the good, and his name is Yehoshua ben Gamla. If not for him /b the b Torah would have been forgotten from the Jewish people. Initially, whoever had a father /b would have his father b teach him Torah, /b and b whoever did not have a father would not learn Torah /b at all. The Gemara explains: b What /b verse b did they interpret homiletically /b that allowed them to conduct themselves in this manner? They interpreted the verse that states: b “And you shall teach them [ i otam /i ] /b to your sons” (Deuteronomy 11:19), to mean: b And you yourselves [ i atem /i ] shall teach, /b i.e., you fathers shall teach your sons.,When the Sages saw that not everyone was capable of teaching their children and Torah study was declining, b they instituted /b an ordice b that teachers of children should be established in Jerusalem. /b The Gemara explains: b What /b verse b did they interpret homiletically /b that enabled them to do this? They interpreted the verse: b “For Torah emerges from Zion” /b (Isaiah 2:3). b But still, whoever had a father, /b his father b ascended with him /b to Jerusalem b and had him taught, but whoever did not have a father, he did not ascend and learn. /b Therefore, the Sages b instituted /b an ordice b that /b teachers of children b should be established /b in one city b in each and every region [ i pelekh /i ]. And they brought /b the students b in at /b the b age /b of b sixteen /b and b at /b the b age /b of b seventeen. /b , b But /b as the students were old and had not yet had any formal education, a student b whose teacher grew angry at him /b would b rebel against him and leave. /b It was impossible to hold the youths there against their will. This state of affairs continued b until Yehoshua ben Gamla came and instituted /b an ordice b that teachers of children should be established in each and every province and in each and every town, and they /b would b bring /b the children b in /b to learn b at /b the b age /b of b six /b and b at /b the b age /b of b seven. /b With regard to the matter at hand, since this system was established for the masses, the neighbors cannot prevent a scholar from teaching Torah in the courtyard.,Concerning that same issue, b Rav said to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, /b a teacher of children: b Do not accept /b a student b before /b the age of b six, /b as he is too young, and it is difficult for him to learn in a steady manner. b From this /b point b forward, accept him and stuff him /b with Torah b like an ox. And Rav /b further b said to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat: When you strike a child /b for educational purposes, b hit him only with the strap of a sandal, /b which is small and does not cause pain. Rav further advised him: b He who reads, /b let him b read /b on his own; b whoever does not read, let him be a companion to his friends, /b which will encourage him to learn to read.,With regard to a courtyard, the Gemara concluded that it is permitted for one to establish an elementary school to teach Torah and the neighbors cannot protest. The Gemara b raises an objection /b to this ruling from a i baraita /i : With regard to b one member of a courtyard who wishes to become a doctor, a bloodletter, a weaver [ i vegardi /i ], or a teacher of children, the /b other b members of the courtyard can prevent him /b from doing so. This indicates that neighbors can protest the teaching of children in their shared courtyard. The Gemara answers: b With what are we dealing here, /b i.e., when can they protest his teaching children? We are dealing b with /b a case of b gentile children, /b as there is no mitzva to educate them. In this situation, the neighbors can protest about the noise., b Come /b and b hear /b another i baraita /i : With regard to b two people who are residing in /b one b courtyard, and one of them sought to become a doctor, a bloodletter, a weaver, or a teacher of children, the other can prevent him /b from doing so. The Gemara answers: b Here too, /b we are dealing b with /b a case of b gentile children. /b ,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b another i baraita /i : b One who has a house in a jointly owned courtyard may not rent it to a doctor, nor to a bloodletter, nor to a weaver, nor to a Jewish teacher [ i sofer /i ], nor to a gentile teacher. /b This indicates that one’s neighbors can prevent him from teaching Jewish children. The Gemara answers: b With what are we dealing here? /b We are dealing b with the scribe [ i sofer /i ] of the town, /b who does not teach children but writes documents and letters for residents of the town. This type of work is not a mitzva, and since many people seek his services, the residents of the courtyard can prevent him from performing this job near their houses.,§ With regard to the ordice of Yehoshua ben Gamla, and concerning teaching children in general, b Rava says: From /b the time of b the ordice of Yehoshua ben Gamla, /b that schoolteachers must be established in each town, b and onward, one does not bring a child from one town to another. /b Rather, each child is educated where he resides. b But one does bring them from one synagogue /b where they learn b to another synagogue. And if a river separates /b the areas b one does not bring /b the children across, lest they fall into the river. b And if there is a bridge /b spanning the river b one may bring /b them across the river. b But if there is /b only b a narrow bridge [ i gamla /i ] one does not bring /b them., b And Rava said: /b The maximum b number /b of students for one b teacher of children /b is b twenty-five children. And if there are fifty /b children in a single place, b one establishes two /b teachers, so that each one teaches twenty-five students. b And if there are forty /b children, b one establishes an assistant, and /b the teacher b receives help from /b the residents of b the town /b to pay the salary of the assistant., b And Rava said: /b If there is b a teacher of children who teaches /b a few subjects, b and there is another who teaches more /b subjects b than him, one does not remove /b the first teacher from his position to hire the second, as b perhaps /b the other teacher b will come to be negligent /b due to the lack of competition. b Rav Dimi from Neharde’a said: /b On the contrary, b all the more so /b is it the case that he will b teach /b in b a better /b manner if he knows that he is the sole instructor in the place, as b jealousy among teachers increases wisdom. /b The one who was dismissed will try to refine his skills so that he will be rehired, and this will prevent negligence on the part of the other teacher., b And Rava said: /b If there are b two teachers of children, one /b who b teaches /b a lot of material b but is not precise /b in his statements, b and one /b who b is precise but does not teach /b a lot of material, b one hires the one who teaches /b a lot of material b but is not precise. /b Why is this? b Errors will be corrected by themselves, /b and no lasting harm will be caused. By contrast, b Rav Dimi of Neharde’a said: One hires /b the instructor b who is precise and does not teach /b a lot of material, b as once an error is taught, it is taught, /b and cannot be easily corrected.,The Gemara cites a proof for the opinion of Rav Dimi of Neharde’a: This is b as it is written: “For Joab and all Israel remained there six months until he had cut off every male in Edom” /b (I Kings 11:16). b When /b Joab b came before /b King b David /b after this episode, David b said to him: /b
34. Anon., Midrash Psalms, None (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 136
35. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 10.5 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 264
10.5. דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (במדבר ו, ב), אֵלּוּ הַנּוֹדְרִים בְּנָזִיר, (במדבר ו, ב): וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם, לְהַזְהִיר בֵּית דִּין עַל כָּךְ שֶׁלֹא יַנִּיחוּ לְנָזִיר לַעֲבֹר עַל נְזִירוּתוֹ, שֶׁאִם יִרְאוּ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לְבַטֵּל נְזִירוּתוֹ יִכְפּוּ אוֹתוֹ כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם דְּבָרָיו, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁהַגְּדוֹלִים מוּזְהָרִין עַל יְדֵי הַקְּטַנִּים וְהֵם נֶעֱנָשִׁים עַל יְדֵיהֶם אִם לֹא יוֹכִיחוּ אוֹתָם, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא כו, לז): וְכָשְׁלוּ אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו, אִישׁ בַּעֲוֹן אָחִיו, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִים זֶה בָּזֶה. (במדבר ו, ב): אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה כִּי יַפְלִא וגו', הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים יג, ב): וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִצָּרְעָה וגו'. וַיְהִי, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לָשׁוֹן צַעַר, (אסתר א, א): וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, הָיָה הָמָן. (רות א, א): וַיְהִי בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט, הָיָה רָעָב. (בראשית ו, א): וַיְהִי כִּי הֵחֵל הָאָדָם] וגו' (בראשית ו, ב): וַיִּרְאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וגו'. (בראשית יד, א): וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אַמְרָפֶל, (בראשית יד, ב): עָשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה. (יהושע ה, יג): וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וגו' (יהושע ה, יג): וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ. (יהושע ו, כו): וַיְהִי ה' אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. (יהושע ז, ב): וַיִּמְעֲלוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעַל בַּחֵרֶם. (שמואל א ח, א): וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר זָקֵן שְׁמוּאֵל, (שמואל א ח, ג): וְלֹא הָלְכוּ בָנָיו בִּדְרָכָיו, (שמואל א יח, יד): וַיְהִי דָּוִד לְכָל דְּרָכָו מַשְׂכִּיל. (שמואל א יח, ט): וַיְהִי שָׁאוּל עוֹיֵן אֶת דָּוִד. (שופטים יג, ב): וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִצָּרְעָה, (שופטים יג, כב): וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ מוֹת נָמוּת. וַיְהִי אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן, כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה, בַּצַּדִּיקִים, שָׁקוּל הוּא כִּשְׁלשִׁים וְאֶחָד צַדִּיקִים, כְּמִנְיַן וַיְהִי. אִישׁ אֶחָד, כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֶחָד, גָּדוֹל הוּא. בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נֶאֱמַר אֶחָד דִּכְתִיב (דברים ו, ד): ה' אֶחָד, אֵין בָּעוֹלָם כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ, וְכֵן בְּאַבְרָהָם (יחזקאל לג, כד): אֶחָד הָיָה אַבְרָהָם, לֹא הָיָה בְּאוֹתָן יָמִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּתִיב (דברי הימים א יז, כא): וּמִי כְּעַמְךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ, אֵין בָּאֻמּוֹת כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֵן. וְכֵן בַּאֲבִימֶלֶךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר (בראשית כו, י): כִּמְעַט שָׁכַב אַחַד הָעָם, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה מֶלֶךְ. וְכֵן בְּאֶלְקָנָה הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמואל א א, א): אֶחָד, לְפִי שֶׁלֹא הָיָה בְּדוֹרוֹ כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. (שופטים יג, ב): מִצָּרְעָה, כָּל שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ וְשֵׁם עִירוֹ מְפֹרָשׁ בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא מֵאוֹתוֹ הָעִיר. שְׁמוֹ וְלֹא שֵׁם עִירוֹ, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא מִירוּשָׁלַיִם. (שופטים יג, ב): מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי, לְפִי שֶׁצָּרְעָה הָיְתָה לִיהוּדָה, כְּדִכְתִיב (יהושע טו, לג): אֶשְׁתָּאוֹל וְצָרְעָה וְאַשְׁנָה, וְצָרְעָה הָיְתָה לְדָן (יהושע יט, מא): וַיְהִי גְּבוּל נַחֲלָתָם צָרְעָה וְאֶשְׁתָּאוֹל. לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ שֶׁהָיָה מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר מִשֵּׁבֶט, אֶלָּא מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה אָבִיו מִדָּן וְאִמּוֹ שֶׁל מָנוֹחַ מִיהוּדָה, וְעַל זֶה אָמַר יַעֲקֹב (בראשית מט, טז): דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ וגו', כַּמְיֻחָד שֶׁבַּשְּׁבָטִים, זֶה יְהוּדָה, לְכָךְ הֵקִישׁוֹ לִיהוּדָה, שֶׁמֵּאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה הָיָה וְאִמּוֹ הָיְתָה מִיהוּדָה, וְכֵן מָנוֹחַ הָיָה מִדָּן, וְאִשְׁתּוֹ הָיְתָה מִיהוּדָה, נִמְצָא שִׁמְשׁוֹן בָּא מִשֵּׁבֶט דָּן וּמִשֵּׁבֶט יְהוּדָה, שֶׁכָּךְ אָמְרוּ: אִמֵּיהּ דְּשִׁמְשׁוֹן הַצְלֶלְפּוֹנִי שְׁמָהּ, וְהִיא מְיֻחֶסֶת עַל שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים א ד, ג): וְשֵׁם אֲחוֹתָם הַצְלֶלְפּוֹנִי. (שופטים יג, ב): וּשְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ, הָרְשָׁעִים קוֹדְמִים לִשְׁמָם (שמואל א כה, כה): נָבָל שְׁמוֹ, (שמואל א יז, ד): גָּלְיָת שְׁמוֹ, (שמואל ב כ, כא): שֶׁבַע בֶּן בִּכְרִי שְׁמוֹ. אֲבָל הַצַּדִּיקִים שְׁמָן קוֹדְמָם (שמואל א א, א): וּשְׁמוֹ אֶלְקָנָה, (שמואל א יז, יב): וּשְׁמוֹ יִשַּׁי, (רות ב, א): וּשְׁמוֹ בֹּעַז, (אסתר ב, ה): וּשְׁמוֹ מָרְדְּכַי, וּשְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ. דּוֹמִין לְבוֹרְאָן (שמות ו, ג): וּשְׁמִי ה'. אֲתִיבִין לֵיהּ הָכְתִיב (בראשית כד, כט): וּלְרִבְקָה אָח וּשְׁמוֹ לָבָן. רַבִּי יִצְחָק אוֹמֵר אַפָּרָדוֹכְּסוֹס, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר מְלֻבָּן בְּרֶשַׁע. אֲתִיבִין (שופטים יז, א): וּשְׁמוֹ מִיכָיְהוּ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה מְקַבֵּל אוֹרְחִים נִכְתַּב שְׁמוֹ כְּשֵׁם הַצַּדִּיקִים. אֲתִיבִין מִבְּנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל (שמואל א ח, ב): וַיְהִי שֶׁם בְּנוֹ הַבְּכוֹר יוֹאֵל וְשֵׁם מִשְׁנֵהוּ אֲבִיָּה, רַבָּנִין אָמְרֵי מַה זֶּה רָשָׁע אַף זֶה רָשָׁע, רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן לְבַסּוֹף עָשׂוּ תְּשׁוּבָה, וּלְכָךְ נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ (דברי הימים א ו, יג): וַשְׁנִי, שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ לְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, וּלְכָךְ זָכוּ לְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יואל א, א): דְּבַר ה' אֲשֶׁר הָיָה אֶל יוֹאֵל בֶּן פְּתוּאֵל, זֶה שְׁמוּאֵל. לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פְּתוּאֵל, שֶׁפִּתָּה לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ. מָנוֹחַ, לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ, שֶׁזָּכָה לְדַבֵּר עִמּוֹ מַלְאָךְ, וְהַנְּבוּאָה נִקְרֵאת מְנוּחָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה נא, נט): וּשְׂרָיָה שַׂר מְנוּחָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁזָּכָה בָּרוּךְ בֶּן נֵרִיָּה לְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה'. (שופטים יג, ב): וְאִשְׁתּוֹ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלָדָה, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה מַחֲלֹקֶת בֵּין מָנוֹחַ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, הוּא אוֹמֵר לָהּ אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וּלְכָךְ אֵינֵךְ יוֹלֶדֶת, וְהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ אַתְּ עָקָר וּלְכָךְ לֹא יָלַדְתִּי. לֹא הָיָה מָנוֹחַ עָקָר (שופטים יג, ג): וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ ה' אֶל הָאִשָּׁה, מִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל מָנוֹחַ צַדֶּקֶת הָיְתָה שֶׁזָּכְתָה לְדַבֵּר עִמָּה מַלְאָךְ, וְלָשׂוּם שָׁלוֹם בֵּינָהּ לְבֵין בַּעֲלָהּ, וּלְהוֹדִיעָהּ שֶׁהִיא עֲקָרָה, וְהִיא מוֹנַעַת הַהֵרָיוֹן וְלֹא בַּעֲלָהּ, לְכָךְ דִּבֶּר עִמָּהּ. וּלְפִי שֶׁרָאֲתָה בַּמַּלְאָךְ נִקְרֵאת שְׁמָה הַצְּלֶלְפּוֹנִי, שֶׁהִיא פּוֹנָה בַּמַּלְאָךְ, וְאֵין צְלֶל אֶלָּא מַלְאָךְ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית יט, ח): כִּי עַל כֵּן בָּאוּ בְּצֵל קֹרָתִי. לְהַלָּן שֶׁהָיָה לוֹט צַדִּיק יוֹתֵר מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ בָּאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים בְּצֵל קוֹרָתוֹ וְלֹא בְּצֵל קוֹרָתָהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא שֶׁבָּא הַמַּלְאָךְ אֶצְלָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה צַדֶּקֶת, לְכָךְ נִקְרָאת הַצְלֶל. לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר הַצְלֶל, וְלֹא אָמַר הַצֵּל, לְפִי שֶׁשְּׁתֵי פְּעָמִים נִרְאָה לָהּ לָאִשָּׁה, אַחַת בָּעִיר וְאַחַת בַּשָֹּׂדֶה. (שופטים יג, ג): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ, הוֹדִיעָהּ שֶׁהִיא עֲקָרָה וּלְכָךְ לֹא יָלְדָה, כְּדֵי לָשׂוּם שָׁלוֹם בֵּינָהּ לְבֵין בַּעֲלָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה מִתְרַעֶמֶת עַל מָנוֹחַ בַּעֲלָהּ עַל שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה יוֹלֶדֶת. (שופטים יג ג): וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ אַתְּ תְּקַבְּלִי הֵרָיוֹן וְתֵלְדִי בֵּן. (שופטים יג, ד): וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמְרִי נָא, הִזְהִירָהּ שֶׁלֹא תִשְׁתֶּה חֹמֶץ יַיִן וְחֹמֶץ שֵׁכָר וְכָל מִשְׁרַת עֲנָבִים, שֶׁאֵלּוּ אֵינָם אֶלָּא מִשְׁמֶרֶת לַיַּיִן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יָבוֹא הַנָּזִיר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן, לְכָךְ אֲסָרָן עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב. (שופטים יג, ד): וְאַל תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר, כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (במדבר ו, ג): מִיַּיִן וְשֵׁכָר יַזִּיר. (שופטים יג ד): וְאַל תֹּאכְלִי כָּל טָמֵא, וְאֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא אִסּוּר, שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה הִזְהִירָה לְנָזִיר שֶׁלֹא לֶאֱכֹל כְּלוּם. (במדבר ו, ד): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (במדבר ו, ג): וַעֲנָבִים לַחִים וִיבֵשִׁים לֹא יֹאכֵל. מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן וגו'. כִּי כִּי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן (שופטים יג, ה), מִכָּאן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַשִּׁכְבַת זֶרַע שֶׁל הַלַּיְלָה שְׁמוּרָה בְּרַחְמָהּ וְלֹא פְּלָטַתָּה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לָהּ הַמַּלְאָךְ (שופטים יג, ג): וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה קִבְּלָה הָרֶחֶם אוֹתָהּ טִפָּה לְשָׁם. (שופטים יג, ה): וּמוֹרָה לֹא יַעֲלֶה עַל רֹאשׁוֹ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (במדבר ו, ה): תַּעַר לֹא יַעֲבֹר עַל רֹאשׁוֹ, לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל תַּעַר, מוֹרָה, שֶׁאֵין הַשֵֹּׂעָר מִתְיָרֵא אֶלָּא מִן תַּעַר שֶׁהוּא מְגַלְּחוֹ גִּלּוּחַ שֶׁל הַשְׁחָתָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ויקרא יט, כז): וְלֹא תַשְׁחִית אֵת פְּאַת זְקָנֶךָ. (שופטים יג, ה): כִּי נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן הַבֶּטֶן, גָּלוּי הָיָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁשִּׁמְשׁוֹן הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר עֵינָיו, לְפִיכָךְ הִזְהִירוֹ בְּנָזִיר שֶׁלֹא יִהְיֶה שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן, לְפִי שֶׁהַיַּיִן מֵבִיא לִידֵי זִמָּה, וּמַה בִּזְּמַן שֶׁהָיָה נָזִיר הָלַךְ אַחַר עֵינָיו, אִלּוּ הָיָה שׁוֹתֶה לֹא הָיָה לוֹ תַּקָּנָה לְעוֹלָם מֵרֹב שֶׁהָיָה רוֹדֵף אַחַר זִמָּה. מַהוּ שֶׁאָמַר: מִן הַבָּטֶן, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה א, ה): בְּטֶרֶם אֶצָרְךָ בַבֶּטֶן יְדַעְתִּיךָ. אֲבָל בָּרְשָׁעִים מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (תהלים נח, ד): זֹרוּ רְשָׁעִים מֵרָחֶם תָּעוּ מִבֶּטֶן דֹּבְרֵי כָזָב, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים נא, ז): הֵן בְּעָווֹן חוֹלָלְתִּי וגו'. (שופטים יג, ה): וְהוּא יָחֵל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים, בּוֹ תִּהְיֶה חָלָה נְבוּאוֹת יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁאָמַר (בראשית מט, טז יז): דָּן יָדִין עַמּוֹ וגו', יְהִי דָן וגו'. (שופטים יג, ו): וַתָּבֹא הָאִשָּׁה וַתֹּאמֶר לְאִישָׁהּ לֵאמֹר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּא אֵלַי וּמַרְאֵהוּ כְּמַרְאֵה מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים נוֹרָא מְאֹד וגו', מִכָּאן שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה שׁוֹרָה הַשְּׁכִינָה אֶלָּא עַל בַּעֲלֵי מַרְאֶה. (שופטים יג, ז): וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וגו', אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לָהּ. הִנָּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה, לֹא גִלְתָה לוֹ, שֶׁלֹא רָצְתָה לְגַלּוֹת קִלְקוּלָהּ. (שופטים יג, ז): כִּי נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן הַבֶּטֶן עַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ, הִיא הוֹסִיפָה עַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁלֹא יָדְעָה מַה שֶּׁעָתִיד, אֲבָל הַמַּלְאָךְ שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁעָתִיד הוּא לְאַבֵּד נְזִירוּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי דְלִילָה, לְכָךְ לֹא אָמַר: עַד יוֹם מוֹתוֹ. (שופטים יג, ח): וַיֶּעְתַּר מָנוֹחַ אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמַר בִּי אֲדוֹנָי אִישׁ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלָה תְּפִלַּת הַצַּדִּיקִים לְעֶתֶר, לוֹמַר לָךְ מָה עֶתֶר זֶה מְהַפֵּךְ אֶת הַתְּבוּאָה בַּגּוֹרֶן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, כָּךְ תְּפִלָּתָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים מְהַפְּכִין מִדַּת אַכְזָרִיּוּת לְמִדַּת רַחְמָנוּת. (שופטים יג, ט): וַיִּשְׁמַע הָאֱלֹהִים בְּקוֹל מָנוֹחַ, לָמָּה חָזַר הַמַּלְאָךְ אֵצֶל הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא בָּא אֵצֶל מָנוֹחַ, שֶׁלֹא לִפְסֹל דְּבָרָיו הָרִאשׁוֹנִים שֶׁאָמַר לָאִשָּׁה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, כְּדֵי לְחַבְּבָהּ בְּעֵינָיו. (שופטים יג, י): וַתְּמַהֵר הָאִשָּׁה וַתָּרָץ וגו', מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל מַעֲשֵׂה הַצַּדִּיקִים בִּמְהִירוּת. (שופטים יג, י): אֲשֶׁר בָּא בַיּוֹם אֵלָי, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר הַיּוֹם אֶלָּא בַיּוֹם, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹא נִרְאָה הַמַּלְאָךְ אֵלֶיהָ עַד לְמָחָר, לְפִי שֶׁמָּנוֹחַ לֹא נִתְפַּלֵּל עַד לְמָחָר בִּתְפִלַּת הַבֹּקֶר, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (תהלים ה, ד): ה' בֹּקֶר תִּשְׁמַע קוֹלִי וגו', מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהַצַּדִּיקִים מְבָרְרִים עַל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. (שופטים יג, יא): וַיֹּאמֶר אָנִי, אֲנִי הוּא בַּתְּחִלָּה וַאֲנִי הוּא בַּסּוֹף, שֶׁאֵינִי מַחֲלִיף בִּדְבָרָי. (שופטים יג, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ עַתָּה יָבֹא דְבָרֶיךָ, אָמַר לוֹ מָנוֹחַ עַד כָּאן שָׁמַעְתִּי מִן הָאִשָּׁה וְהַנָּשִׁים אֵינָם בְּנוֹת הוֹרָאָה וְאֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶן, אֲבָל עַתָּה יָבֹא דְבָרֶיךָ, מִפִּיךָ אֲנִי רוֹצֶה לִשְׁמֹעַ, שֶׁאֵינִי מַאֲמִין בִּדְבָרֶיהָ, שֶׁמָּא חָלְפָה בִּדְבָרֶיהָ אוֹ פִּחֲתָה אוֹ הוֹתִירָה. (שופטים יג, יב): מַה יִּהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַנַּעַר, מַה נְּזִירוּת יִצְטָרֵךְ הַנַּעַר לִשְׁמֹר אַחַר שֶׁיִּוָּלֵד. (שופטים יג, יב): וּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ, מַה תַּעֲשֶׂה אִמּוֹ קֹדֶם לָכֵן כָּל הַיָּמִים שֶׁתְּהֵא הָרָה מִמֶּנּוּ. (שופטים יג, יג): וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ ה' אֶל מָנוֹחַ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶל הָאִשָּׁה, לַחְלֹק כָּבוֹד לָאִשָּׁה וּלְחַבְּבָהּ בְּעֵינָיו. (שופטים יג, יג): תִּשָּׁמֵר, עַל חֹמֶץ יַיִן וְחֹמֶץ שֵׁכָר וּמִשְׁרַת עֲנָבִים אָמַר לוֹ (שופטים יג, יד): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן לֹא תֹאכַל וְיַיִּן וְשֵׁכָר עַל תֵּשְׁתְּ, כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ. (שופטים יג, יד): וְכָל טֻמְאָה אַל תֹּאכַל, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (במדבר ו, ג): וַעֲנָבִים לַחִים וִיבֵשִׁים לֹא יֹאכֵל. (שופטים יג, יד): כֹּל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיהָ תִּשְׁמֹר, מַה שֶּׁאָמַר לָהּ (שופטים יג, ה): וּמוֹרָה לֹא יַעֲלֶה עַל רֹאשׁוֹ. (שופטים יג, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל מַלְאַךְ ה' נַעַצְרָה נָא אוֹתָךְ, אָמַר לוֹ מָנוֹחַ עֲצוּרִים הָיִינוּ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (בראשית כ, יח): כִּי עָצֹר עָצַר ה' בְּעַד כָּל רֶחֶם, וְאַתָּה בִּשַֹּׂרְתָּנוּ בְּהַרְוָחָה, נַעֲשֶׂה עִמְּךָ יוֹם טוֹב, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (במדבר כט, לה): בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם, (שופטים יג, יד): וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנֶיךָ גְּדִי עִזִּים, שִׂמַּחְתָּנוּ וְנִשְׂמַח עִמְּךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין שִׂמְחָה אֶלָּא בְּבָשָׂר. (שופטים יג, טז): וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ ה' אֶל מָנוֹחַ אִם תַּעַצְרֵנִי לֹא אֹכַל בְּלַחְמֶךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ אֵין דֶּרֶךְ נְבִיאֵי ה' לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר עַל נְבוּאָתָם. בִּנְבִיאֵי שֶׁקֶר מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (יחזקאל יג, יט): וַתְּחַלֶּלְנָה אֹתִי אֶל עַמִּי בְּשַׁעֲלֵי שְׂעוֹרִים וּבִפְתוֹתֵי לֶחֶם לְהָמִית וגו'. אֲבָל בִּנְבִיאֵי אֱמֶת מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (מלכים ב ה, טז): וַיֹּאמֶר חַי ה' אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם אֶקָּח. (שופטים יג, טז): וְאִם תַּעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה לַה' תַּעֲלֶנָּה, רָמַז לוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלָה לַה' עַל בְּשׂוֹרָה טוֹבָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית יב, ז): לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת, מִיָּד בָּנָה אַבְרָהָם מִזְבֵּחַ עַל בְּשׂוֹרָה טוֹבָה, שֶׁכֵּן כְּתִיב (בראשית יב, ז): וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַה' הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו, וְאֵין מִזְבֵּחַ אֶלָּא קָרְבָּן. (שופטים יג, טז): כִּי לֹא יָדַע מָנוֹחַ כִּי מַלְאַךְ ה' הוּא, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר, לְפִי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ אָמְרָה לוֹ (שופטים יג, ו): וּמַרְאֵהוּ כְּמַרְאֵה מַלְאַךְ ה' נוֹרָא מְאֹד, הָיְתָה סְבוּרָה שֶׁהִכִּיר בּוֹ מָנוֹחַ שֶׁהוּא מַלְאָךְ, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הָיָה מְזַמְּנוֹ לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל, שֶׁטּוֹעֶה הָיָה כַּסָּבוּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ אֲכִילָה לְמַעְלָה, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: כִּי לֹא יָדַע מָנוֹחַ כִּי מַלְאַךְ ה' הוּא, לְכָךְ הָיָה מְזַמְּנוֹ לֶאֱכֹל, אֲבָל אִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהָיָה מַלְאָךְ אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל, שֶׁבָּקִי הָיָה שֶׁאֵין אֲכִילָה לְמַעְלָה. וְלָמָּה לֹא הִכִּיר בּוֹ, מִכָּאן אַתְּ לָמֵד בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיוּ הַנְּבִיאִים הוֹלְכִים בִּשְׁלִיחוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהָיְתָה שׁוֹרָה עֲלֵיהֶם הָיְתָה נוֹתֶנֶת לָהֶם אֵימָה בְּעֵינֵי רוֹאֵיהֶם, שֶׁהַכֹּל מִתְיָרְאִים מֵהֶם, שֶׁהָיוּ דוֹמִים לְמַלְאָכִים. וְלָמָּה אָכְלוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים שֶׁבָּאוּ לְבַשֵֹּׂר אֶת שָׂרָה בְּהֵרָיוֹן וְזֶה לֹא רָצָה לֶאֱכֹל, לְפִי שֶׁאוֹתָם מַלְאָכִים כְּשֶׁנִּתְרָאוּ תְּחִלָּה לְאַבְרָהָם כִּדְמוּת עוֹבְרֵי דֶרֶךְ נִתְרָאוּ לוֹ, וְהוּא הִכְנִיסָם לְבֵיתוֹ כְּמִנְהָגוֹ וְהִזְמִינָם לֶאֱכֹל, וְהֵם לֹא רָצוּ לְבַטֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ מִנְהַג הָאַכְסְנָאִים, וְאָכְלוּ עִמּוֹ, וְאַחַר שֶׁאָכְלוּ אָמְרוּ שְׁלִיחוּתָן, וְלֹא נִרְאֶה הַדָּבָר שֶׁיְקַבְּלוּ שָׂכָר עַל שְׁלִיחוּתָן, אֲבָל זֶה הַמַּלְאָךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה אָמַר שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, וְאִלּוּ הָיָה אוֹכֵל עִמּוֹ הָיָה נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ קִבֵּל שָׂכָר עַל שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ, לְכָךְ נִמְנַע מִלֶּאֱכֹל. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל מַלְאַךְ ה' מִי שְׁמֶךָ (שופטים יג, יז), לְפִי שֶׁלֹא הִכִּיר בּוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מַלְאָךְ לְכָךְ שָׁאַל לוֹ עַל שְׁמוֹ. (שופטים יגף יז): כִּי יָבֹא דְבָרְךָ וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ. אָמַר לוֹ מָנוֹחַ אֱמֹר לִי שִׁמְךָ כְּדֵי שֶׁאֶשְׁאַל בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם אֶמְצָאֲךָ בְּעֵת שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם נְבוּאָתְךָ וְנִתֵּן לְךָ דּוֹרוֹן, וְאֵין וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ אֶלָּא מִנְחָה, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (במדבר כב, יז): כִּי כַבֵּד אֲכַבֶּדְךָ. (שופטים יג, יח): וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מַלְאַךְ ה' לָמָּה זֶה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ אֵין אַתְּ צָרִיךְ לֵידַע שְׁמִי, שֶׁאֵין סוֹפְךָ שֶׁתִּרְאֵנִי עוֹד לְעוֹלָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים יג, יח): וְהוּא פֶלִּאי, עַל עַצְמוֹ אָמַר לוֹ שֶׁהוּא יִהְיֶה מְכֻסֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁלֹא יִרְאֶנּוּ עוֹד לְעוֹלָם, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (תהלים קלט, ו): פְּלִיאָה דַעַת מִמֶּנִּי. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהוּא פֶלִאי, אָמַר לוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ לוֹמַר לְךָ שְׁמִי, שֶׁלְּפִי הַשְּׁלִיחוּת שֶׁשּׁוֹלֵחַ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹתָנוּ קוֹרֵא לָנוּ שֵׁם, הֱוֵי: וְהוּא פֶלִיא, לְפִי פְּלִיאָה וּפְלִיאָה שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה עַל יָדֵינוּ הוּא קוֹרֵא לָנוּ שֵׁם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְהוּא פֶלִאי, שֵׁם שְׁמוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ פֶּלִיא, לְפִי שְׁלִיחוּת הוּא בָּא לְהַזִּיר אֶת שִׁמְשׁוֹן, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (שופטים יג, ה): כִּי נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר, לְכָךְ קָרָא שְׁמוֹ פֶּלִאי, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב: אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה כִּי יַפְלִא וגו'.
36. Manuscripts, Bodleian Library, Oxford, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 210
37. Manuscripts, Cambridge University Library, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 15, 317, 318, 319, 323, 324, 327, 329, 330, 331
38. Manuscripts, British Library, London, None  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 261
39. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 24.5  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 135
40. Anon., Soferim, 13.11, 19.5, 20.6  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 134, 136, 294
41. Anon., Midrash On Samuel, None  Tagged with subjects: •babylonia and iraq Found in books: Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 136