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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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135 results for "babylon"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.14, 14.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, city walls •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 117, 121
1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 14.15. But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus had captured. Before his death he rejoiced over Nineveh.
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.14, 10.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonia Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008) 225, 315
4.14. "לֹא־אֶפְקוֹד עַל־בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם כִּי תִזְנֶינָה וְעַל־כַּלּוֹתֵיכֶם כִּי תְנָאַפְנָה כִּי־הֵם עִם־הַזֹּנוֹת יְפָרֵדוּ וְעִם־הַקְּדֵשׁוֹת יְזַבֵּחוּ וְעָם לֹא־יָבִין יִלָּבֵט׃", 10.1. "גֶּפֶן בּוֹקֵק יִשְׂרָאֵל פְּרִי יְשַׁוֶּה־לּוֹ כְּרֹב לְפִרְיוֹ הִרְבָּה לַמִּזְבְּחוֹת כְּטוֹב לְאַרְצוֹ הֵיטִיבוּ מַצֵּבוֹת׃", 10.1. "בְּאַוָּתִי וְאֶסֳּרֵם וְאֻסְּפוּ עֲלֵיהֶם עַמִּים בְּאָסְרָם לִשְׁתֵּי עינתם [עוֹנֹתָם׃]", 4.14. "I will not punish your daughters when they commit harlotry, Nor your daughters-in-law when they commit adultery; For they themselves consort with lewd women, And they sacrifice with harlots; And the people that is without understanding is distraught.", 10.1. "Israel was a luxuriant vine, Which put forth fruit freely: As his fruit increased, He increased his altars; The more goodly his land was, The more goodly were his pillars.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.8-16.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 24
16.8. "וְנָתַן אַהֲרֹן עַל־שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִם גּוֹרָלוֹת גּוֹרָל אֶחָד לַיהוָה וְגוֹרָל אֶחָד לַעֲזָאזֵל׃", 16.9. "וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר אֲשֶׁר עָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַיהוָה וְעָשָׂהוּ חַטָּאת׃", 16.8. "And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats: one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for Azazel.", 16.9. "And Aaron shall present the goat upon which the lot fell for the LORD, and offer him for a sin-offering.", 16.10. "But the goat, on which the lot fell for Azazel, shall be set alive before the LORD, to make atonement over him, to send him away for Azazel into the wilderness.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 117
1.2. "קוּם לֵךְ אֶל־נִינְוֵה הָעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה וּקְרָא עָלֶיהָ כִּי־עָלְתָה רָעָתָם לְפָנָי׃", 1.2. "’Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and proclaim against it; for their wickedness is come up before Me.’",
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.16, 10, 10.22, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.28-12.5, 14.15, 14.17, 14.18, 15.13, 16.12, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.28, 19.29, 38.14, 38.19, 49.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 205
6. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.12, 8.18, 22.20-22.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 120, 141, 261; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 27
2.12. "וַיִּפֶן כֹּה וָכֹה וַיַּרְא כִּי אֵין אִישׁ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּטְמְנֵהוּ בַּחוֹל׃", 8.18. "וְהִפְלֵיתִי בַיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־אֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר עַמִּי עֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ לְבִלְתִּי הֱיוֹת־שָׁם עָרֹב לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃", 22.21. "כָּל־אַלְמָנָה וְיָתוֹם לֹא תְעַנּוּן׃", 2.12. "And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he smote the Egyptian, and hid him in the sand.", 8.18. "And I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which My people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end that thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth.", 22.20. "And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.", 22.21. "Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.1-1.3, 6.13, 8.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 115, 141, 214
1.1. "בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי כְּטוֹב לֵב־הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּיִן אָמַר לִמְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָא חַרְבוֹנָא בִּגְתָא וַאֲבַגְתָא זֵתַר וְכַרְכַּס שִׁבְעַת הַסָּרִיסִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־פְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ׃", 1.1. "וַיְהִי בִּימֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הַמֹּלֵךְ מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה׃", 1.2. "וְנִשְׁמַע פִּתְגָם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ כִּי רַבָּה הִיא וְכָל־הַנָּשִׁים יִתְּנוּ יְקָר לְבַעְלֵיהֶן לְמִגָּדוֹל וְעַד־קָטָן׃", 1.2. "בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם כְּשֶׁבֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַל כִּסֵּא מַלְכוּתוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה׃", 1.3. "בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמָלְכוֹ עָשָׂה מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־שָׂרָיו וַעֲבָדָיו חֵיל פָּרַס וּמָדַי הַפַּרְתְּמִים וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת לְפָנָיו׃", 6.13. "וַיְסַפֵּר הָמָן לְזֶרֶשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ וּלְכָל־אֹהֲבָיו אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר קָרָהוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ חֲכָמָיו וְזֶרֶשׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ אִם מִזֶּרַע הַיְּהוּדִים מָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר הַחִלּוֹתָ לִנְפֹּל לְפָנָיו לֹא־תוּכַל לוֹ כִּי־נָפוֹל תִּפּוֹל לְפָנָיו׃", 8.15. "וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּלְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת תְּכֵלֶת וָחוּר וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב גְּדוֹלָה וְתַכְרִיךְ בּוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן צָהֲלָה וְשָׂמֵחָה׃", 1.1. "NOW IT came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus—this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India to Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces—", 1.2. "that in those days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the castle,", 1.3. "in the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the army of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him;", 6.13. "And Haman recounted unto Zeresh his wife and all his friends every thing that had befallen him. Then said his wise men and Zeresh his wife unto him: ‘If Mordecai, before whom thou hast begun to fall, be of the seed of the Jews, thou shalt not prevail against him, but shalt surely fall before him.’", 8.15. "And Mordecai went forth from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a rob of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan shouted and was glad.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.1-7.5, 10.18, 12.3, 14.29, 21.7, 21.10-21.14, 23.4, 23.7, 23.18, 24.17, 24.19-24.21, 28.49, 34.1-34.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 335; Gera (2014) 162, 163, 261, 264; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224, 236, 315; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 27
7.1. "וּמְשַׁלֵּם לְשֹׂנְאָיו אֶל־פָּנָיו לְהַאֲבִידוֹ לֹא יְאַחֵר לְשֹׂנְאוֹ אֶל־פָּנָיו יְשַׁלֶּם־לוֹ׃", 7.1. "כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ וְנָשַׁל גּוֹיִם־רַבִּים מִפָּנֶיךָ הַחִתִּי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי שִׁבְעָה גוֹיִם רַבִּים וַעֲצוּמִים מִמֶּךָּ׃", 7.2. "וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהִכִּיתָם הַחֲרֵם תַּחֲרִים אֹתָם לֹא־תִכְרֹת לָהֶם בְּרִית וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם׃", 7.2. "וְגַם אֶת־הַצִּרְעָה יְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּם עַד־אֲבֹד הַנִּשְׁאָרִים וְהַנִּסְתָּרִים מִפָּנֶיךָ׃", 7.3. "וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃", 7.4. "כִּי־יָסִיר אֶת־בִּנְךָ מֵאַחֲרַי וְעָבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מַהֵר׃", 7.5. "כִּי־אִם־כֹּה תַעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶם תִּתֹּצוּ וּמַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּ וַאֲשֵׁירֵהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וּפְסִילֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ׃", 10.18. "עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפַּט יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאֹהֵב גֵּר לָתֶת לוֹ לֶחֶם וְשִׂמְלָה׃", 12.3. "הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחֲרֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵי הִשָּׁמְדָם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּפֶן־תִּדְרֹשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר אֵיכָה יַעַבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־כֵּן גַּם־אָנִי׃", 12.3. "וְנִתַּצְתֶּם אֶת־מִזְבּחֹתָם וְשִׁבַּרְתֶּם אֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם וַאֲשֵׁרֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ וּפְסִילֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וְאִבַּדְתֶּם אֶת־שְׁמָם מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃", 14.29. "וּבָא הַלֵּוִי כִּי אֵין־לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה׃", 21.7. "וְעָנוּ וְאָמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ לֹא שפכה [שָׁפְכוּ] אֶת־הַדָּם הַזֶּה וְעֵינֵינוּ לֹא רָאוּ׃", 21.11. "וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃", 21.12. "וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶיהָ׃", 21.13. "וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃", 21.14. "וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃", 23.4. "לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 23.7. "לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃", 23.18. "לֹא־תִהְיֶה קְדֵשָׁה מִבְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה קָדֵשׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 24.17. "לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם וְלֹא תַחֲבֹל בֶּגֶד אַלְמָנָה׃", 24.19. "כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃", 24.21. "כִּי תִבְצֹר כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃", 28.49. "יִשָּׂא יְהוָה עָלֶיךָ גּוֹי מֵרָחוֹק מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִדְאֶה הַנָּשֶׁר גּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִשְׁמַע לְשֹׁנוֹ׃", 34.1. "וְלֹא־קָם נָבִיא עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים׃", 34.1. "וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה מֵעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב אֶל־הַר נְבוֹ רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וַיַּרְאֵהוּ יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָד עַד־דָּן׃", 34.2. "וְאֵת כָּל־נַפְתָּלִי וְאֶת־אֶרֶץ אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה עַד הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן׃", 34.3. "וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃", 34.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו זֹאת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה הֶרְאִיתִיךָ בְעֵינֶיךָ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲבֹר׃", 34.5. "וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃", 34.6. "וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 7.1. "When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and shall cast out many nations before thee, the Hittite, and the Girgashite, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, seven nations greater and mightier than thou;", 7.2. "and when the LORD thy God shall deliver them up before thee, and thou shalt smite them; then thou shalt utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covet with them, nor show mercy unto them;", 7.3. "neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son.", 7.4. "For he will turn away thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods; so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He will destroy thee quickly.", 7.5. "But thus shall ye deal with them: ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and hew down their Asherim, and burn their graven images with fire.", 10.18. "He doth execute justice for the fatherless and widow, and loveth the stranger, in giving him food and raiment.", 12.3. "And ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods; and ye shall destroy their name out of that place.", 14.29. "And the Levite, because he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest.", 21.7. "And they shall speak and say: ‘Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it.", 21.10. "When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive,", 21.11. "and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;", 21.12. "then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails;", 21.13. "and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife.", 21.14. "And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her.", 23.4. "An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;", 23.7. "Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever.", 23.18. "There shall be no harlot of the daughters of Israel, neither shall there be a sodomite of the sons of Israel.", 24.17. "Thou shalt not pervert the justice due to the stranger, or to the fatherless; nor take the widow’s raiment to pledge.", 24.19. "When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands.", 24.20. "When thou beatest thine olive-tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.", 24.21. "When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean it after thee; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.", 28.49. "The LORD will bring a nation against thee from far, from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoopeth down; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand;", 34.1. "And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land, even Gilead as far as Dan;", 34.2. "and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah as far as the hinder sea;", 34.3. "and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar.", 34.4. "And the LORD said unto him: ‘This is the land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying: I will give it unto thy seed; I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.’", 34.5. "So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD.", 34.6. "And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.1-12.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian •babylon, babylonia Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008) 236; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 48
12.1. "וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃", 12.1. "וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃", 12.2. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ הֲרַק אַךְ־בְּמֹשֶׁה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה הֲלֹא גַּם־בָּנוּ דִבֵּר וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה׃", 12.3. "וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃", 12.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה פִּתְאֹם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־מִרְיָם צְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתְּכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁלָשְׁתָּם׃", 12.5. "וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּקְרָא אַהֲרֹן וּמִרְיָם וַיֵּצְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃", 12.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָא דְבָרָי אִם־יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֲכֶם יְהוָה בַּמַּרְאָה אֵלָיו אֶתְוַדָּע בַּחֲלוֹם אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ׃", 12.7. "לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃", 12.8. "פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃", 12.9. "וַיִּחַר אַף יְהוָה בָּם וַיֵּלַךְ׃", 12.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בִּי אֲדֹנִי אַל־נָא תָשֵׁת עָלֵינוּ חַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר נוֹאַלְנוּ וַאֲשֶׁר חָטָאנוּ׃", 12.12. "אַל־נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת אֲשֶׁר בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם אִמּוֹ וַיֵּאָכֵל חֲצִי בְשָׂרוֹ׃", 12.13. "וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר אֵל נָא רְפָא נָא לָהּ׃", 12.14. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאָבִיהָ יָרֹק יָרַק בְּפָנֶיהָ הֲלֹא תִכָּלֵם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּסָּגֵר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחַר תֵּאָסֵף׃", 12.15. "וַתִּסָּגֵר מִרְיָם מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהָעָם לֹא נָסַע עַד־הֵאָסֵף מִרְיָם׃", 12.1. "And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman.", 12.2. "And they said: ‘Hath the LORD indeed spoken only with Moses? hath He not spoken also with us?’ And the LORD heard it.—", 12.3. "Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—", 12.4. "And the LORD spoke suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam: ‘Come out ye three unto the tent of meeting.’ And they three came out.", 12.5. "And the LORD came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the Tent, and called Aaron and Miriam; and they both came forth.", 12.6. "And He said: ‘Hear now My words: if there be a prophet among you, I the LORD do make Myself known unto him in a vision, I do speak with him in a dream.", 12.7. "My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;", 12.8. "with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’", 12.9. "And the anger of the LORD was kindled against them; and He departed.", 12.10. "And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous.", 12.11. "And Aaron said unto Moses: ‘Oh my lord, lay not, I pray thee, sin upon us, for that we have done foolishly, and for that we have sinned.", 12.12. "Let her not, I pray, be as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother’s womb.’", 12.13. "And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘Heal her now, O God, I beseech Thee.’", 12.14. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘If her father had but spit in her face, should she not hide in shame seven days? let her be shut up without the camp seven days, and after that she shall be brought in again.’", 12.15. "And Miriam was shut up without the camp seven days; and the people journeyed not till Miriam was brought in again.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.9-4.10, 4.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonia •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 141; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 238
4.9. "עַתָּה לָמָּה תָרִיעִי רֵעַ הֲמֶלֶךְ אֵין־בָּךְ אִם־יוֹעֲצֵךְ אָבָד כִּי־הֶחֱזִיקֵךְ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃", 4.13. "קוּמִי וָדוֹשִׁי בַת־צִיּוֹן כִּי־קַרְנֵךְ אָשִׂים בַּרְזֶל וּפַרְסֹתַיִךְ אָשִׂים נְחוּשָׁה וַהֲדִקּוֹת עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהַחֲרַמְתִּי לַיהוָה בִּצְעָם וְחֵילָם לַאֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 4.9. "Now why dost thou cry out aloud? Is there no King in thee, Is thy Counsellor perished, That pangs have taken hold of thee as of a woman in travail?", 4.10. "Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, Like a woman in travail; For now shalt thou go forth out of the city, And shalt dwell in the field, And shalt come even unto Babylon; There shalt thou be rescued; There shall the LORD redeem thee from the hand of thine enemies.", 4.13. "Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion; For I will make thy horn iron, And I will make thy hoofs brass; And thou shalt beat in pieces many peoples; And thou shalt devote their gain unto the LORD, And their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth.",
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 5.6, 23.13-23.14, 48.7, 80.9-80.16, 89.26, 102.5, 146.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon, babylonian •babylon, babylonia •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 50; Gera (2014) 214, 261, 264; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 225, 238
5.6. "לֹא־יִתְיַצְּבוּ הוֹלְלִים לְנֶגֶד עֵינֶיךָ שָׂנֵאתָ כָּל־פֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן׃", 48.7. "רְעָדָה אֲחָזָתַם שָׁם חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃", 80.9. "גֶּפֶן מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּסִּיעַ תְּגָרֵשׁ גּוֹיִם וַתִּטָּעֶהָ׃", 80.11. "כָּסּוּ הָרִים צִלָּהּ וַעֲנָפֶיהָ אַרְזֵי־אֵל׃", 80.12. "תְּשַׁלַּח קְצִירֶהָ עַד־יָם וְאֶל־נָהָר יוֹנְקוֹתֶיהָ׃", 80.13. "לָמָּה פָּרַצְתָּ גְדֵרֶיהָ וְאָרוּהָ כָּל־עֹבְרֵי דָרֶךְ׃", 80.14. "יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר וְזִיז שָׂדַי יִרְעֶנָּה׃", 80.15. "אֱלֹהִים צְבָאוֹת שׁוּב־נָא הַבֵּט מִשָּׁמַיִם וּרְאֵה וּפְקֹד גֶּפֶן זֹאת׃", 80.16. "וְכַנָּה אֲשֶׁר־נָטְעָה יְמִינֶךָ וְעַל־בֵּן אִמַּצְתָּה לָּךְ׃", 89.26. "וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃", 102.5. "הוּכָּה־כָעֵשֶׂב וַיִּבַשׁ לִבִּי כִּי־שָׁכַחְתִּי מֵאֲכֹל לַחְמִי׃", 146.9. "יְהוָה שֹׁמֵר אֶת־גֵּרִים יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה יְעוֹדֵד וְדֶרֶךְ רְשָׁעִים יְעַוֵּת׃", 5.6. "The boasters shall not stand in Thy sight; Thou hatest all workers of iniquity.", 48.7. "Trembling took hold of them there, Pangs, as of a woman in travail.", 80.9. "Thou didst pluck up a vine out of Egypt; Thou didst drive out the nations, and didst plant it.", 80.10. "Thou didst clear a place before it, And it took deep root, and filled the land.", 80.11. "The mountains were covered with the shadow of it, And the mighty cedars with the boughs thereof.", 80.12. "She sent out her branches unto the sea, And her shoots unto the River.", 80.13. "Why hast Thou broken down her fences, So that all they that pass by the way do pluck her?", 80.14. "The boar out of the wood doth ravage it, That which moveth in the field feedeth on it.", 80.15. "O God of hosts, return, we beseech Thee; Look from heaven, and behold, and be mindful of this vine,", 80.16. "And of the stock which Thy right hand hath planted, And the branch that Thou madest strong for Thyself. .", 89.26. "I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers.", 102.5. "My heart is smitten like grass, and withered; for I forget to eat my bread.", 146.9. "The LORD preserveth the strangers; He upholdeth the fatherless and the widow; But the way of the wicked He maketh crooked.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 3.1, 3.5, 3.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 117; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 237, 238
3.1. "גַּם־הִיא לַגֹּלָה הָלְכָה בַשֶּׁבִי גַּם עֹלָלֶיהָ יְרֻטְּשׁוּ בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת וְעַל־נִכְבַּדֶּיהָ יַדּוּ גוֹרָל וְכָל־גְּדוֹלֶיהָ רֻתְּקוּ בַזִּקִּים׃", 3.1. "הוֹי עִיר דָּמִים כֻּלָּהּ כַּחַשׁ פֶּרֶק מְלֵאָה לֹא יָמִישׁ טָרֶף׃", 3.5. "הִנְנִי אֵלַיִךְ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְגִלֵּיתִי שׁוּלַיִךְ עַל־פָּנָיִךְ וְהַרְאֵיתִי גוֹיִם מַעְרֵךְ וּמַמְלָכוֹת קְלוֹנֵךְ׃", 3.13. "הִנֵּה עַמֵּךְ נָשִׁים בְּקִרְבֵּךְ לְאֹיְבַיִךְ פָּתוֹחַ נִפְתְּחוּ שַׁעֲרֵי אַרְצֵךְ אָכְלָה אֵשׁ בְּרִיחָיִך׃", 3.1. "Woe to the bloody city! It is all full of lies and rapine; The prey departeth not.", 3.5. "Behold, I am against thee, saith the LORD of hosts, And I will uncover thy skirts upon thy face, And I will shew the nations thy nakedness, And the kingdoms thy shame.", 3.13. "Behold, thy people in the midst of thee are women; The gates of thy land are set wide open unto thine enemies; The fire hath devoured thy bars.",
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.2, 7.2-7.3, 17.9-17.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 120, 261; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224
5.2. "וְעַתָּה צַוֵּה וְיִכְרְתוּ־לִי אֲרָזִים מִן־הַלְּבָנוֹן וַעֲבָדַי יִהְיוּ עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ וּשְׂכַר עֲבָדֶיךָ אֶתֵּן לְךָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמֵר כִּי אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ כִּי אֵין בָּנוּ אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ לִכְרָת־עֵצִים כַּצִּדֹנִים׃", 5.2. "וַיְהִי לֶחֶם־שְׁלֹמֹה לְיוֹם אֶחָד שְׁלֹשִׁים כֹּר סֹלֶת וְשִׁשִּׁים כֹּר קָמַח׃", 7.2. "וַיִּבֶן אֶת־בֵּית יַעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן מֵאָה אַמָּה אָרְכּוֹ וַחֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רָחְבּוֹ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתוֹ עַל אַרְבָּעָה טוּרֵי עַמּוּדֵי אֲרָזִים וּכְרֻתוֹת אֲרָזִים עַל־הָעַמּוּדִים׃", 7.2. "וְכֹתָרֹת עַל־שְׁנֵי הָעַמּוּדִים גַּם־מִמַּעַל מִלְּעֻמַּת הַבֶּטֶן אֲשֶׁר לְעֵבֶר שבכה [הַשְּׂבָכָה] וְהָרִמּוֹנִים מָאתַיִם טֻרִים סָבִיב עַל הַכֹּתֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃", 7.3. "וְאַרְבָּעָה אוֹפַנֵּי נְחֹשֶׁת לַמְּכוֹנָה הָאַחַת וְסַרְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת וְאַרְבָּעָה פַעֲמֹתָיו כְּתֵפֹת לָהֶם מִתַּחַת לַכִּיֹּר הַכְּתֵפֹת יְצֻקוֹת מֵעֵבֶר אִישׁ לֹיוֹת׃", 7.3. "וְסָפֻן בָּאֶרֶז מִמַּעַל עַל־הַצְּלָעֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעַמּוּדִים אַרְבָּעִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר הַטּוּר׃", 17.9. "קוּם לֵךְ צָרְפַתָה אֲשֶׁר לְצִידוֹן וְיָשַׁבְתָּ שָׁם הִנֵּה צִוִּיתִי שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה לְכַלְכְּלֶךָ׃", 17.11. "וַתֵּלֶךְ לָקַחַת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר לִקְחִי־נָא לִי פַּת־לֶחֶם בְּיָדֵךְ׃", 17.12. "וַתֹּאמֶר חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אִם־יֶשׁ־לִי מָעוֹג כִּי אִם־מְלֹא כַף־קֶמַח בַּכַּד וּמְעַט־שֶׁמֶן בַּצַּפָּחַת וְהִנְנִי מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת שְׁנַיִם עֵצִים וּבָאתִי וַעֲשִׂיתִיהוּ לִי וְלִבְנִי וַאֲכַלְנֻהוּ וָמָתְנוּ׃", 17.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אֵלִיָּהוּ אַל־תִּירְאִי בֹּאִי עֲשִׂי כִדְבָרֵךְ אַךְ עֲשִׂי־לִי מִשָּׁם עֻגָה קְטַנָּה בָרִאשֹׁנָה וְהוֹצֵאתְ לִי וְלָךְ וְלִבְנֵךְ תַּעֲשִׂי בָּאַחֲרֹנָה׃", 17.14. "כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּד הַקֶּמַח לֹא תִכְלָה וְצַפַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶן לֹא תֶחְסָר עַד יוֹם תתן־[תֵּת־] יְהוָה גֶּשֶׁם עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃", 17.15. "וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתַּעֲשֶׂה כִּדְבַר אֵלִיָּהוּ וַתֹּאכַל הוא־והיא [הִיא־] [וָהוּא] וּבֵיתָהּ יָמִים׃", 17.16. "כַּד הַקֶּמַח לֹא כָלָתָה וְצַפַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶן לֹא חָסֵר כִּדְבַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד אֵלִיָּהוּ׃", 17.17. "וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה חָלָה בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה בַּעֲלַת הַבָּיִת וַיְהִי חָלְיוֹ חָזָק מְאֹד עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נוֹתְרָה־בּוֹ נְשָׁמָה׃", 17.18. "וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ מַה־לִּי וָלָךְ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּאתָ אֵלַי לְהַזְכִּיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי וּלְהָמִית אֶת־בְּנִי׃", 17.19. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ תְּנִי־לִי אֶת־בְּנֵךְ וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ מֵחֵיקָהּ וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ אֶל־הָעֲלִיָּה אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יֹשֵׁב שָׁם וַיַּשְׁכִּבֵהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ׃", 17.21. "וַיִּתְמֹדֵד עַל־הַיֶּלֶד שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי תָּשָׁב נָא נֶפֶשׁ־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה עַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃", 17.22. "וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה בְּקוֹל אֵלִיָּהוּ וַתָּשָׁב נֶפֶשׁ־הַיֶּלֶד עַל־קִרְבּוֹ וַיֶּחִי׃", 17.23. "וַיִּקַּח אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּרִדֵהוּ מִן־הָעֲלִיָּה הַבַּיְתָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ לְאִמּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ רְאִי חַי בְּנֵךְ׃", 17.24. "וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ עַתָּה זֶה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִישׁ אֱלֹהִים אָתָּה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה בְּפִיךָ אֱמֶת׃", 5.2. "And Solomon’s provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal;", 7.2. "For he built the house of the forest of Lebanon: the length thereof was a hundred cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty cubits, and the height thereof thirty cubits, upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars.", 7.3. "And it was covered with cedar above upon the side-chambers, that lay on forty and five pillars, fifteen in a row.", 17.9. "’Arise, get thee to Zarephath, which belongeth to Zidon, and dwell there; behold, I have commanded a widow there to sustain thee.’", 17.10. "So he arose and went to Zarephath; and when he came to the gate of the city, behold, a widow was there gathering sticks; and he called to her, and said: ‘Fetch me, I pray thee, a little water in a vessel, that I may drink.’", 17.11. "And as she was going to fetch it, he called to her, and said: ‘Bring me, I pray thee, a morsel of bread in thy hand.’", 17.12. "And she said: ‘As the LORD thy God liveth, I have not a cake, only a handful of meal in the jar, and a little oil in the cruse; and, behold, I am gathering two sticks, that I may go in and dress it for me and my son, that we may eat it, and die.’", 17.13. "And Elijah said unto her: ‘Fear not; go and do as thou hast said; but make me thereof a little cake first, and bring it forth unto me, and afterward make for thee and for thy son.", 17.14. "For thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: The jar of meal shall not be spent, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day that the LORD sendeth rain upon the land.’", 17.15. "And she went and did according to the saying of Elijah; and she, and he, and her house, did eat many days.", 17.16. "The jar of meal was not spent, neither did the cruse of oil fail, according to the word of the LORD, which He spoke by Elijah.", 17.17. "And it came to pass after these things, that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, fell sick; and his sickness was so sore, that there was no breath left in him.", 17.18. "And she said unto Elijah: ‘What have I to do with thee, O thou man of God? art thou come unto me to bring my sin to remembrance, and to slay my son?’", 17.19. "And he said unto her: ‘Give me thy son.’ And he took him out of her bosom, and carried him up into the upper chamber, where he abode, and laid him upon his own bed.", 17.20. "And he cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD my God, hast Thou also brought evil upon the widow with whom I sojourn, by slaying her son?’", 17.21. "And he stretched himself upon the child three times, and cried unto the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD my God, I pray thee, let this child’s soul come back into him.’", 17.22. "And the LORD hearkened unto the voice of Elijah; and the soul of the child came back into him, and he revived.", 17.23. "And Elijah took the child, and brought him down out of the upper chamber into the house, and delivered him unto his mother; and Elijah said: ‘See, thy son liveth.’", 17.24. "And the woman said to Elijah: ‘Now I know that thou art a man of God, and that the word of the LORD in thy mouth is truth.’",
14. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.1, 4.19, 5.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon, babylonia Found in books: Gera (2014) 261; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224, 236
1.1. "יָדוֹ פָּרַשׂ צָר עַל כָּל־מַחֲמַדֶּיהָ כִּי־רָאֲתָה גוֹיִם בָּאוּ מִקְדָּשָׁהּ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָה לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בַקָּהָל לָךְ׃", 1.1. "אֵיכָה יָשְׁבָה בָדָד הָעִיר רַבָּתִי עָם הָיְתָה כְּאַלְמָנָה רַּבָּתִי בַגּוֹיִם שָׂרָתִי בַּמְּדִינוֹת הָיְתָה לָמַס׃" 4.19. "קַלִּים הָיוּ רֹדְפֵינוּ מִנִּשְׁרֵי שָׁמָיִם עַל־הֶהָרִים דְּלָקֻנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר אָרְבוּ לָנוּ׃", 5.11. "נָשִׁים בְּצִיּוֹן עִנּוּ בְּתֻלֹת בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה׃", 1.1. "O how has the city that was once so populous remained lonely! She has become like a widow! She that was great among the nations, a princess among the provinces, has become tributary." 4.19. "Our pursuers were swifter Than the eagles of the heaven; They chased us upon the mountains, They lay in wait for us in the wilderness.", 5.11. "They have ravished the women in Zion, The maidens in the cities of Judah.",
15. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.7, 3.20-3.24, 5.3, 6.28, 7.4-7.7, 8.10, 15.13, 18.18-18.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian •babylon, babylonia •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 50, 335; Gera (2014) 141, 160, 162; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 236
3.7. "וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁכְּחוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבְּעָלִים וְאֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרוֹת׃", 3.21. "וַיִּשְׁלַח אֵהוּד אֶת־יַד שְׂמֹאלוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַחֶרֶב מֵעַל יֶרֶךְ יְמִינוֹ וַיִּתְקָעֶהָ בְּבִטְנוֹ׃", 3.22. "וַיָּבֹא גַם־הַנִּצָּב אַחַר הַלַּהַב וַיִּסְגֹּר הַחֵלֶב בְּעַד הַלַּהַב כִּי לֹא שָׁלַף הַחֶרֶב מִבִּטְנוֹ וַיֵּצֵא הַפַּרְשְׁדֹנָה׃", 3.23. "וַיֵּצֵא אֵהוּד הַמִּסְדְּרוֹנָה וַיִּסְגֹּר דַּלְתוֹת הָעַלִיָּה בַּעֲדוֹ וְנָעָל׃", 3.24. "וְהוּא יָצָא וַעֲבָדָיו בָּאוּ וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה דַּלְתוֹת הָעֲלִיָּה נְעֻלוֹת וַיֹּאמְרוּ אַךְ מֵסִיךְ הוּא אֶת־רַגְלָיו בַּחֲדַר הַמְּקֵרָה׃", 5.3. "שִׁמְעוּ מְלָכִים הַאֲזִינוּ רֹזְנִים אָנֹכִי לַיהוָה אָנֹכִי אָשִׁירָה אֲזַמֵּר לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 5.3. "הֲלֹא יִמְצְאוּ יְחַלְּקוּ שָׁלָל רַחַם רַחֲמָתַיִם לְרֹאשׁ גֶּבֶר שְׁלַל צְבָעִים לְסִיסְרָא שְׁלַל צְבָעִים רִקְמָה צֶבַע רִקְמָתַיִם לְצַוְּארֵי שָׁלָל׃", 6.28. "וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה נֻתַּץ מִזְבַּח הַבַּעַל וְהָאֲשֵׁרָה אֲשֶׁר־עָלָיו כֹּרָתָה וְאֵת הַפָּר הַשֵּׁנִי הֹעֲלָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַבָּנוּי׃", 7.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־גִּדְעוֹן עוֹד הָעָם רָב הוֹרֵד אוֹתָם אֶל־הַמַּיִם וְאֶצְרְפֶנּוּ לְךָ שָׁם וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ זֶה יֵלֵךְ אִתָּךְ הוּא יֵלֵךְ אִתָּךְ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ זֶה לֹא־יֵלֵךְ עִמָּךְ הוּא לֹא יֵלֵךְ׃", 7.5. "וַיּוֹרֶד אֶת־הָעָם אֶל־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־גִּדְעוֹן כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יָלֹק בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ מִן־הַמַּיִם כַּאֲשֶׁר יָלֹק הַכֶּלֶב תַּצִּיג אוֹתוֹ לְבָד וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִכְרַע עַל־בִּרְכָּיו לִשְׁתּוֹת׃", 7.6. "וַיְהִי מִסְפַּר הַמֲלַקְקִים בְּיָדָם אֶל־פִּיהֶם שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וְכֹל יֶתֶר הָעָם כָּרְעוּ עַל־בִּרְכֵיהֶם לִשְׁתּוֹת מָיִם׃", 7.7. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־גִּדְעוֹן בִּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ הַמֲלַקְקִים אוֹשִׁיעַ אֶתְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־מִדְיָן בְּיָדֶךָ וְכָל־הָעָם יֵלְכוּ אִישׁ לִמְקֹמוֹ׃", 15.13. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ לֵאמֹר לֹא כִּי־אָסֹר נֶאֱסָרְךָ וּנְתַנּוּךָ בְיָדָם וְהָמֵת לֹא נְמִיתֶךָ וַיַּאַסְרֻהוּ בִּשְׁנַיִם עֲבֹתִים חֲדָשִׁים וַיַּעֲלוּהוּ מִן־הַסָּלַע׃", 18.18. "וְאֵלֶּה בָּאוּ בֵּית מִיכָה וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־פֶּסֶל הָאֵפוֹד וְאֶת־הַתְּרָפִים וְאֶת־הַמַּסֵּכָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֵן מָה אַתֶּם עֹשִׂים׃", 18.19. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ הַחֲרֵשׁ שִׂים־יָדְךָ עַל־פִּיךָ וְלֵךְ עִמָּנוּ וֶהְיֵה־לָנוּ לְאָב וּלְכֹהֵן הֲטוֹב הֱיוֹתְךָ כֹהֵן לְבֵית אִישׁ אֶחָד אוֹ הֱיוֹתְךָ כֹהֵן לְשֵׁבֶט וּלְמִשְׁפָּחָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 3.7. "And the children of Yisra᾽el did evil in the sight of the Lord, and forgot the Lord their God, and served the Ba῾alim and the Asherot.", 3.20. "And Ehud came to him; and he was sitting in a cool upper chamber, which he had for himself alone. And Ehud said, I have a message from God to thee. So he arose out of his seat.", 3.21. "And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the sword from his right thigh, and thrust it into his belly:", 3.22. "and the haft also went in after the blade; and the fat closed upon the blade, so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly; and the dirt came out.", 3.23. "Then Ehud went out to the vestibule, and shut the doors of the chamber upon him, and locked them.", 3.24. "When he was gone out, his servants came; and when they saw that, behold, the doors of the chamber were locked, they said, Surely he is relieving himself in the cool chamber.", 5.3. "Hear, O kings; give ear, O princes; I will sing to the Lord; I will intone a melody to the God of Yisra᾽el.", 6.28. "And when the men of the city arose early in the morning, behold, the altar of Ba῾al was pulled down, and the Ashera that was by it, was cut down, and the second bullock was offered upon the altar that was built.", 7.4. "And the Lord said to Gid῾on, The people are yet too many; bring them down to the water, and I will sift them for thee there: and it shall be, that of whom I say to thee, This shall go with thee, that one shall go with thee; and of whomever I say to thee, This shall not go with thee, that one shall not go.", 7.5. "So he brought the people down to the water: and the Lord said to Gid῾on, Every one that laps of the water with his tongue, as a dog laps, him shalt thou set by himself; likewise every one that bows down upon his knees to drink.", 7.6. "And the number of them that lapped, putting their hand to their mouth, were three hundred men: but all the rest of the people bowed down upon their knees to drink water.", 7.7. "And the Lord said to Gid῾on, By the three hundred men that lapped will I save you, and deliver Midyan into thy hand: and let all the other people go every man to his place.", 8.10. "Now Zevaĥ and Żalmunna were in Qarqor, and their hosts with them, about fifteen thousand men, all that were left of all the camp of the children of the east: for there fell a hundred and twenty thousand men that drew sword.", 15.13. "And they spoke to him, saying, No; but we will bind thee fast, and deliver thee into their hand: but surely we will not kill thee. And they bound him with two new cords, and brought him up from the rock.", 18.18. "And these went to Mikha’s house, and fetched the carving, the efod, and the terafim, and the molten image. Then said the priest to them, What are you doing?", 18.19. "And they said to him, Hold thy peace, lay thy hand upon thy mouth, and go with us, and be to us a father and a priest: is it better for thee to be a priest to the house of one man, or that thou be a priest to a whole tribe and a family in Yisra᾽el?",
16. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.11, 9.1, 10.3-10.4, 24.2-24.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 124, 141, 205
3.11. "הִנֵּה אֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית אֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ עֹבֵר לִפְנֵיכֶם בַּיַּרְדֵּן׃", 9.1. "וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ כָּל־הַמְּלָכִים אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן בָּהָר וּבַשְּׁפֵלָה וּבְכֹל חוֹף הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל אֶל־מוּל הַלְּבָנוֹן הַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַפְּרִזִּי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃", 9.1. "וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִשְׁנֵי מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן לְסִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ חֶשְׁבּוֹן וּלְעוֹג מֶלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁן אֲשֶׁר בְּעַשְׁתָּרוֹת׃", 10.3. "וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה גַּם־אוֹתָהּ בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־מַלְכָּהּ וַיַּכֶּהָ לְפִי־חֶרֶב וְאֶת־כָּל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ לֹא־הִשְׁאִיר בָּהּ שָׂרִיד וַיַּעַשׂ לְמַלְכָּהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְמֶלֶךְ יְרִיחוֹ׃", 10.3. "וַיִּשְׁלַח אֲדֹנִי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־הוֹהָם מֶלֶךְ־חֶבְרוֹן וְאֶל־פִּרְאָם מֶלֶךְ־יַרְמוּת וְאֶל־יָפִיעַ מֶלֶךְ־לָכִישׁ וְאֶל־דְּבִיר מֶלֶךְ־עֶגְלוֹן לֵאמֹר׃", 10.4. "וַיַּכֶּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הָהָר וְהַנֶּגֶב וְהַשְּׁפֵלָה וְהָאֲשֵׁדוֹת וְאֵת כָּל־מַלְכֵיהֶם לֹא הִשְׁאִיר שָׂרִיד וְאֵת כָּל־הַנְּשָׁמָה הֶחֱרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 10.4. "עֲלוּ־אֵלַי וְעִזְרֻנִי וְנַכֶּה אֶת־גִּבְעוֹן כִּי־הִשְׁלִימָה אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 24.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר יָשְׁבוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵעוֹלָם תֶּרַח אֲבִי אַבְרָהָם וַאֲבִי נָחוֹר וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃", 24.2. "כִּי תַעַזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהֵי נֵכָר וְשָׁב וְהֵרַע לָכֶם וְכִלָּה אֶתְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵיטִיב לָכֶם׃", 24.3. "וָאֶקַּח אֶת־אֲבִיכֶם אֶת־אַבְרָהָם מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וָאוֹלֵךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וארב [וָאַרְבֶּה] אֶת־זַרְעוֹ וָאֶתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־יִצְחָק׃", 24.3. "וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ בִּגְבוּל נַחֲלָתוֹ בְּתִמְנַת־סֶרַח אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר־אֶפְרָיִם מִצְּפוֹן לְהַר־גָּעַשׁ׃", 3.11. "Behold, the ark of the covet of the Lord of all the earth passeth on before you over the Jordan.", 9.1. "And it came to pass, when all the kings that were beyond the Jordan, in the hill-country, and in the Lowland, and on all the shore of the Great Sea in front of Lebanon, the Hittite, and the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard thereof,", 10.3. "Wherefore Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying:", 10.4. "’Come up unto me, and help me, and let us smite Gibeon; for it hath made peace with Joshua and with the children of Israel.’", 24.2. "And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor; and they served other gods.", 24.3. "And I took your father Abraham from beyond the River, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 4.13, 5.19, 6.9, 6.24, 8.1, 13.18-13.19, 21.4, 22.6, 22.15, 22.23, 27.1-27.11, 40.2-40.3, 49.22, 50.17, 50.37, 50.43, 51.3, 51.11, 51.28, 51.53, 51.58-51.59 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonia •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions •babylon and babylonians, city walls Found in books: Gera (2014) 116, 118, 119, 124, 205, 214; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224, 225, 236, 237, 238
4.13. "הִנֵּה כַּעֲנָנִים יַעֲלֶה וְכַסּוּפָה מַרְכְּבוֹתָיו קַלּוּ מִנְּשָׁרִים סוּסָיו אוֹי לָנוּ כִּי שֻׁדָּדְנוּ׃", 5.19. "וְהָיָה כִּי תֹאמְרוּ תַּחַת מֶה עָשָׂה יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָנוּ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עֲזַבְתֶּם אוֹתִי וַתַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהֵי נֵכָר בְּאַרְצְכֶם כֵּן תַּעַבְדוּ זָרִים בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָכֶם׃", 6.9. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת עוֹלֵל יְעוֹלְלוּ כַגֶּפֶן שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל הָשֵׁב יָדְךָ כְּבוֹצֵר עַל־סַלְסִלּוֹת׃", 6.24. "שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת־שָׁמְעוֹ רָפוּ יָדֵינוּ צָרָה הֶחֱזִיקַתְנוּ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃", 8.1. "לָכֵן אֶתֵּן אֶת־נְשֵׁיהֶם לַאֲחֵרִים שְׂדוֹתֵיהֶם לְיוֹרְשִׁים כִּי מִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל כֻּלֹּה בֹּצֵעַ בָּצַע מִנָּבִיא וְעַד־כֹּהֵן כֻּלֹּה עֹשֶׂה שָּׁקֶר׃", 8.1. "בָּעֵת הַהִיא נְאֻם־יְהוָה ויציאו [יוֹצִיאוּ] אֶת־עַצְמוֹת מַלְכֵי־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־עַצְמוֹת־שָׂרָיו וְאֶת־עַצְמוֹת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֵת עַצְמוֹת הַנְּבִיאִים וְאֵת עַצְמוֹת יוֹשְׁבֵי־יְרוּשָׁלִָם מִקִּבְרֵיהֶם׃", 13.18. "אֱמֹר לַמֶּלֶךְ וְלַגְּבִירָה הַשְׁפִּילוּ שֵׁבוּ כִּי יָרַד מַרְאֲשׁוֹתֵיכֶם עֲטֶרֶת תִּפְאַרְתְּכֶם׃", 13.19. "עָרֵי הַנֶּגֶב סֻגְּרוּ וְאֵין פֹּתֵחַ הָגְלָת יְהוּדָה כֻּלָּהּ הָגְלָת שְׁלוֹמִים׃", 21.4. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי מֵסֵב אֶת־כְּלֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה אֲשֶׁר בְּיֶדְכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם נִלְחָמִים בָּם אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאֶת־הַכַּשְׂדִּים הַצָּרִים עֲלֵיכֶם מִחוּץ לַחוֹמָה וְאָסַפְתִּי אוֹתָם אֶל־תּוֹךְ הָעִיר הַזֹּאת׃", 22.6. "כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־בֵּית מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה גִּלְעָד אַתָּה לִי רֹאשׁ הַלְּבָנוֹן אִם־לֹא אֲשִׁיתְךָ מִדְבָּר עָרִים לֹא נושבה [נוֹשָׁבוּ׃]", 22.15. "הֲתִמְלֹךְ כִּי אַתָּה מְתַחֲרֶה בָאָרֶז אָבִיךָ הֲלוֹא אָכַל וְשָׁתָה וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה אָז טוֹב לוֹ׃", 22.23. "ישבתי [יֹשַׁבְתְּ] בַּלְּבָנוֹן מקננתי [מְקֻנַּנְתְּ] בָּאֲרָזִים מַה־נֵּחַנְתְּ בְּבֹא־לָךְ חֲבָלִים חִיל כַּיֹּלֵדָה׃", 27.1. "כִּי שֶׁקֶר הֵם נִבְּאִים לָכֶם לְמַעַן הַרְחִיק אֶתְכֶם מֵעַל אַדְמַתְכֶם וְהִדַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם וַאֲבַדְתֶּם׃", 27.1. "בְּרֵאשִׁית מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוֹיָקִם בֶּן־יֹאושִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֶל־יִרְמְיָה מֵאֵת יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃", 27.2. "אֲשֶׁר לֹא־לְקָחָם נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל בַּגְלוֹתוֹ אֶת־יְכָונְיָה בֶן־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה מִירוּשָׁלִַם בָּבֶלָה וְאֵת כָּל־חֹרֵי יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 27.2. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֵלַי עֲשֵׂה לְךָ מוֹסֵרוֹת וּמֹטוֹת וּנְתַתָּם עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ׃", 27.3. "וְשִׁלַּחְתָּם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ אֱדוֹם וְאֶל־מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וְאֶל־מֶלֶךְ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וְאֶל־מֶלֶךְ צֹר וְאֶל־מֶלֶךְ צִידוֹן בְּיַד מַלְאָכִים הַבָּאִים יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־צִדְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה׃", 27.4. "וְצִוִּיתָ אֹתָם אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כֹּה תֹאמְרוּ אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיכֶם׃", 27.5. "אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הָאָדָם וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ בְּכֹחִי הַגָּדוֹל וּבִזְרוֹעִי הַנְּטוּיָה וּנְתַתִּיהָ לַאֲשֶׁר יָשַׁר בְּעֵינָי׃", 27.6. "וְעַתָּה אָנֹכִי נָתַתִּי אֶת־כָּל־הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה בְּיַד נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל עַבְדִּי וְגַם אֶת־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לוֹ לְעָבְדוֹ׃", 27.7. "וְעָבְדוּ אֹתוֹ כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹ וְאֶת־בֶּן־בְּנוֹ עַד בֹּא־עֵת אַרְצוֹ גַּם־הוּא וְעָבְדוּ בוֹ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וּמְלָכִים גְּדֹלִים׃", 27.8. "וְהָיָה הַגּוֹי וְהַמַּמְלָכָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַעַבְדוּ אֹתוֹ אֶת־נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתֵּן אֶת־צַוָּארוֹ בְּעֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל בַּחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר אֶפְקֹד עַל־הַגּוֹי הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה עַד־תֻּמִּי אֹתָם בְּיָדוֹ׃", 27.9. "וְאַתֶּם אַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־נְבִיאֵיכֶם וְאֶל־קֹסְמֵיכֶם וְאֶל חֲלֹמֹתֵיכֶם וְאֶל־עֹנְנֵיכֶם וְאֶל־כַּשָּׁפֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם אֹמְרִים אֲלֵיכֶם לֵאמֹר לֹא תַעַבְדוּ אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃", 27.11. "וְהַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר יָבִיא אֶת־צַוָּארוֹ בְּעֹל מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וַעֲבָדוֹ וְהִנַּחְתִּיו עַל־אַדְמָתוֹ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וַעֲבָדָהּ וְיָשַׁב בָּהּ׃", 40.2. "וַיִּקַּח רַב־טַבָּחִים לְיִרְמְיָהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ דִּבֶּר אֶת־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 40.3. "וַיָּבֵא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר כִּי־חֲטָאתֶם לַיהוָה וְלֹא־שְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּקוֹלוֹ וְהָיָה לָכֶם דבר [הַדָּבָר] הַזֶּה׃", 49.22. "הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה וְיִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו עַל־בָּצְרָה וְהָיָה לֵב גִּבּוֹרֵי אֱדוֹם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּלֵב אִשָּׁה מְצֵרָה׃", 50.17. "שֶׂה פְזוּרָה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲרָיוֹת הִדִּיחוּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲכָלוֹ מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וְזֶה הָאַחֲרוֹן עִצְּמוֹ נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃", 50.37. "חֶרֶב אֶל־סוּסָיו וְאֶל־רִכְבּוֹ וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעֶרֶב אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָהּ וְהָיוּ לְנָשִׁים חֶרֶב אֶל־אוֹצְרֹתֶיהָ וּבֻזָּזוּ׃", 50.43. "שָׁמַע מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל אֶת־שִׁמְעָם וְרָפוּ יָדָיו צָרָה הֶחֱזִיקַתְהוּ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃", 51.3. "חָדְלוּ גִבּוֹרֵי בָבֶל לְהִלָּחֵם יָשְׁבוּ בַּמְּצָדוֹת נָשְׁתָה גְבוּרָתָם הָיוּ לְנָשִׁים הִצִּיתוּ מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיהָ נִשְׁבְּרוּ בְרִיחֶיהָ׃", 51.3. "אֶל־יִדְרֹךְ ידרך הַדֹּרֵךְ קַשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶל־יִתְעַל בְּסִרְיֹנוֹ וְאַל־תַּחְמְלוּ אֶל־בַּחֻרֶיהָ הַחֲרִימוּ כָּל־צְבָאָהּ׃", 51.11. "הָבֵרוּ הַחִצִּים מִלְאוּ הַשְּׁלָטִים הֵעִיר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ מַלְכֵי מָדַי כִּי־עַל־בָּבֶל מְזִמָּתוֹ לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ כִּי־נִקְמַת יְהוָה הִיא נִקְמַת הֵיכָלוֹ׃", 51.28. "קַדְּשׁוּ עָלֶיהָ גוֹיִם אֶת־מַלְכֵי מָדַי אֶת־פַּחוֹתֶיהָ וְאֶת־כָּל־סְגָנֶיהָ וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ מֶמְשַׁלְתּוֹ׃", 51.53. "כִּי־תַעֲלֶה בָבֶל הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכִי תְבַצֵּר מְרוֹם עֻזָּהּ מֵאִתִּי יָבֹאוּ שֹׁדְדִים לָהּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃", 51.58. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת חֹמוֹת בָּבֶל הָרְחָבָה עַרְעֵר תִּתְעַרְעָר וּשְׁעָרֶיהָ הַגְּבֹהִים בָּאֵשׁ יִצַּתּוּ וְיִגְעוּ עַמִּים בְּדֵי־רִיק וּלְאֻמִּים בְּדֵי־אֵשׁ וְיָעֵפוּ׃", 51.59. "הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יִרְמְיָהוּ הַנָּבִיא אֶת־שְׂרָיָה בֶן־נֵרִיָּה בֶּן־מַחְסֵיָה בְּלֶכְתּוֹ אֶת־צִדְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה בָּבֶל בִּשְׁנַת הָרְבִעִית לְמָלְכוֹ וּשְׂרָיָה שַׂר מְנוּחָה׃", 4.13. "Behold, he cometh up as clouds, and his chariots are as the whirlwind; his horses are swifter than eagles.— ’Woe unto us! for we are undone.’—", 5.19. "And it shall come to pass, when ye shall say: ‘Wherefore hath the LORD our God done all these things unto us?’ then shalt Thou say unto them: ‘Like as ye have forsaken Me, and served strange gods in your land, so shall ye serve strangers in a land that is not yours.’", 6.9. "Thus saith the LORD of hosts: They shall thoroughly glean as a vine The remt of Israel; Turn again thy hand As a grape-gatherer upon the shoots.", 6.24. "’We have heard the fame thereof, our hands wax feeble, Anguish hath taken hold of us, And pain, as of a woman in travail.’", 8.1. "At that time, saith the LORD, they shall bring out the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, out of their graves;", 13.18. "Say thou unto the king and to the queen-mother: ‘Sit ye down low; For your headtires are come down, Even your beautiful crown.’", 13.19. "The cities of the South are shut up, And there is none to open them; Judah is carried away captive all of it; It is wholly carried away captive.", 21.4. "Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands, wherewith ye fight against the king of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans, that besiege you without the walls, and I will gather them into the midst of this city.", 22.6. "For thus saith the LORD concerning the house of the king of Judah: Thou art Gilead unto Me, The head of Lebanon; Yet surely I will make thee a wilderness, Cities which are not inhabited.", 22.15. "Shalt thou reign, because thou strivest to excel in cedar? Did not thy father eat and drink, and do justice and righteousness? Then it was well with him.", 22.23. "O inhabitant of Lebanon, That art nestled in the cedars, How gracious shalt thou be when pangs come upon thee, The pain as of a woman in travail!", 27.1. "In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, came this word unto Jeremiah from the LORD, saying:", 27.2. "’Thus saith the LORD to me: Make thee bands and bars, and put them upon thy neck;", 27.3. "and send them to the king of Edom, and to the king of Moab, and to the king of the children of Ammon, and to the king of Tyre, and to the king of Zidon, by the hand of the messengers that come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah king of Judah;", 27.4. "and give them a charge unto their masters, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Thus shall ye say unto your masters:", 27.5. "I have made the earth, the man and the beast that are upon the face of the earth, by My great power and by My outstretched arm; and I give it unto whom it seemeth right unto Me.", 27.6. "And now have I given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, My servant; and the beasts of the field also have I given him to serve him.", 27.7. "And all the nations shall serve him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the time of his own land come; and then many nations and great kings shall make him their bondman.", 27.8. "And it shall come to pass, that the nation and the kingdom which will not serve the same Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and that will not put their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon, that nation will I visit, saith the LORD, with the sword, and with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand.", 27.9. "But as for you, hearken ye not to your prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreams, nor to your soothsayers, nor to your sorcerers, that speak unto you, saying: Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon;", 27.10. "for they prophesy a lie unto you, to remove you far from your land; and that I should drive you out and ye should perish.", 27.11. "But the nation that shall bring their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon, and serve him, that nation will I let remain in their own land, saith the LORD; and they shall till it, and dwell therein.’", 40.2. "And the captain of the guard took Jeremiah, and said unto him: ‘The LORD thy God pronounced this evil upon this place;", 40.3. "and the LORD hath brought it, and done according as He spoke; because ye have sinned against the LORD, and have not hearkened to His voice, therefore this thing is come upon you.", 49.22. "Behold, he shall come up and swoop down as the vulture, And spread out his wings against Bozrah; And the heart of the mighty men of Edom at that day Shall be as the heart of a woman in her pangs.", 50.17. "Israel is a scattered sheep, The lions have driven him away; First the king of Assyria hath devoured him, And last this Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones.", 50.37. "A sword is upon their horses, and upon their chariots, And upon all the mingled people that are in the midst of her, And they shall become as women; A sword is upon her treasures, and they shall be robbed.", 50.43. "The king of Babylon hath heard the fame of them, And his hands wax feeble; Anguish hath taken hold of him, And pain, as of a woman in travail.", 51.3. "Let the archer bend his bow against her, And let him lift himself up against her in his coat of mail; And spare ye not her young men, Destroy ye utterly all her host.", 51.11. "Make bright the arrows, Fill the quivers, The LORD hath roused the spirit of the kings of the Medes; Because His device is against Babylon, to destroy it; For it is the vengeance of the LORD, The vengeance of His temple.", 51.28. "Prepare against her the nations, the kings of the Medes, The governors thereof, and all the deputies thereof, And all the land of his dominion.", 51.53. "Though Babylon should mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from Me shall spoilers come unto her, saith the LORD.", 51.58. "Thus saith the LORD of hosts: The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly overthrown, and her high gates shall be burned with fire; And the peoples shall labour for vanity, And the nations for the fire; And they shall be weary.", 51.59. "The word which Jeremiah the prophet commanded Seraiah the son of Neriah, the son of Mahseiah, when he went with Zedekiah the king of Judah to Babylon in the fourth year of his reign. Now Seraiah was quartermaster.",
18. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 13.8, 13.16, 14.8, 14.12-14.14, 19.16, 36.1-36.20, 37.18-37.19, 41.2, 44.28, 45.1, 46.11, 47.1-47.3, 47.8-47.9, 54.4-54.8, 54.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 141, 162, 163, 205, 221, 261; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224, 236, 237, 238; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 24
13.8. "וְנִבְהָלוּ צִירִים וַחֲבָלִים יֹאחֵזוּן כַּיּוֹלֵדָה יְחִילוּן אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ יִתְמָהוּ פְּנֵי לְהָבִים פְּנֵיהֶם׃", 13.16. "וְעֹלְלֵיהֶם יְרֻטְּשׁוּ לְעֵינֵיהֶם יִשַּׁסּוּ בָּתֵּיהֶם וּנְשֵׁיהֶם תשגלנה [תִּשָּׁכַבְנָה׃]", 14.8. "גַּם־בְּרוֹשִׁים שָׂמְחוּ לְךָ אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן מֵאָז שָׁכַבְתָּ לֹא־יַעֲלֶה הַכֹּרֵת עָלֵינוּ׃", 14.12. "אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃", 14.13. "וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃", 14.14. "אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃", 19.16. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה מִצְרַיִם כַּנָּשִׁים וְחָרַד וּפָחַד מִפְּנֵי תְּנוּפַת יַד־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲשֶׁר־הוּא מֵנִיף עָלָיו׃", 36.1. "וְעַתָּה הֲמִבַּלְעֲדֵי יְהוָה עָלִיתִי עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי עֲלֵה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ׃", 36.1. "וַיְהִי בְּאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ חִזְקִיָּהוּ עָלָה סַנְחֵרִיב מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר עַל כָּל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה הַבְּצֻרוֹת וַיִּתְפְּשֵׂם׃", 36.2. "מִי בְּכָל־אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר־הִצִּילוּ אֶת־אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי כִּי־יַצִּיל יְהוָה אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִיָּדִי׃", 36.2. "וַיִּשְׁלַח מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר אֶת־רַב־שָׁקֵה מִלָּכִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלְַמָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ חִזְקִיָּהוּ בְּחֵיל כָּבֵד וַיַּעֲמֹד בִּתְעָלַת הַבְּרֵכָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה בִּמְסִלַּת שְׂדֵה כוֹבֵס׃", 36.3. "וַיֵּצֵא אֵלָיו אֶלְיָקִים בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּהוּ אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַבָּיִת וְשֶׁבְנָא הַסֹּפֵר וְיוֹאָח בֶּן־אָסָף הַמַּזְכִּיר׃", 36.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם רַב־שָׁקֵה אִמְרוּ־נָא אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר מָה הַבִּטָּחוֹן הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּטָחְתָּ׃", 36.5. "אָמַרְתִּי אַךְ־דְּבַר־שְׂפָתַיִם עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה לַמִּלְחָמָה עַתָּה עַל־מִי בָטַחְתָּ כִּי מָרַדְתָּ בִּי׃", 36.6. "הִנֵּה בָטַחְתָּ עַל־מִשְׁעֶנֶת הַקָּנֶה הָרָצוּץ הַזֶּה עַל־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יִסָּמֵךְ אִישׁ עָלָיו וּבָא בְכַפּוֹ וּנְקָבָהּ כֵּן פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם לְכָל־הַבֹּטְחִים עָלָיו׃", 36.7. "וְכִי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בָּטָחְנוּ הֲלוֹא־הוּא אֲשֶׁר הֵסִיר חִזְקִיָּהוּ אֶת־בָּמֹתָיו וְאֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לִיהוּדָה וְלִירוּשָׁלִַם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַזֶּה תִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ׃", 36.8. "וְעַתָּה הִתְעָרֶב נָא אֶת־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אַלְפַּיִם סוּסִים אִם־תּוּכַל לָתֶת לְךָ רֹכְבִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃", 36.9. "וְאֵיךְ תָּשִׁיב אֵת פְּנֵי פַחַת אַחַד עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי הַקְטַנִּים וַתִּבְטַח לְךָ עַל־מִצְרַיִם לְרֶכֶב וּלְפָרָשִׁים׃", 36.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶלְיָקִים וְשֶׁבְנָא וְיוֹאָח אֶל־רַב־שָׁקֵה דַּבֶּר־נָא אֶל־עֲבָדֶיךָ אֲרָמִית כִּי שֹׁמְעִים אֲנָחְנוּ וְאַל־תְּדַבֵּר אֵלֵינוּ יְהוּדִית בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַחוֹמָה׃", 36.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר רַב־שָׁקֵה הַאֶל אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֵלֶיךָ שְׁלָחַנִי אֲדֹנִי לְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הֲלֹא עַל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הַיֹּשְׁבִים עַל־הַחוֹמָה לֶאֱכֹל אֶת־חראיהם [צוֹאָתָם] וְלִשְׁתּוֹת אֶת־שיניהם [מֵימֵי] [רַגְלֵיהֶם] עִמָּכֶם׃", 36.13. "וַיַּעֲמֹד רַב־שָׁקֵה וַיִּקְרָא בְקוֹל־גָּדוֹל יְהוּדִית וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃", 36.14. "כֹּה אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־יַשִּׁא לָכֶם חִזְקִיָּהוּ כִּי לֹא־יוּכַל לְהַצִּיל אֶתְכֶם׃", 36.15. "וְאַל־יַבְטַח אֶתְכֶם חִזְקִיָּהוּ אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הַצֵּל יַצִּילֵנוּ יְהוָה לֹא תִנָּתֵן הָעִיר הַזֹּאת בְּיַד מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃", 36.16. "אַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כִּי כֹה אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר עֲשׂוּ־אִתִּי בְרָכָה וּצְאוּ אֵלַי וְאִכְלוּ אִישׁ־גַּפְנוֹ וְאִישׁ תְּאֵנָתוֹ וּשְׁתוּ אִישׁ מֵי־בוֹרוֹ׃", 36.17. "עַד־בֹּאִי וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ כְּאַרְצְכֶם אֶרֶץ דָּגָן וְתִירוֹשׁ אֶרֶץ לֶחֶם וּכְרָמִים׃", 36.18. "פֶּן־יַסִּית אֶתְכֶם חִזְקִיָּהוּ לֵאמֹר יְהוָה יַצִּילֵנוּ הַהִצִּילוּ אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם אִישׁ אֶת־אַרְצוֹ מִיַּד מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃", 36.19. "אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵי חֲמָת וְאַרְפָּד אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵי סְפַרְוָיִם וְכִי־הִצִּילוּ אֶת־שֹׁמְרוֹן מִיָּדִי׃", 37.18. "אָמְנָם יְהוָה הֶחֱרִיבוּ מַלְכֵי אַשּׁוּר אֶת־כָּל־הָאֲרָצוֹת וְאֶת־אַרְצָם׃", 37.19. "וְנָתֹן אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ כִּי לֹא אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה כִּי אִם־מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן וַיְאַבְּדוּם׃", 41.2. "לְמַעַן יִרְאוּ וְיֵדְעוּ וְיָשִׂימוּ וְיַשְׂכִּילוּ יַחְדָּו כִּי יַד־יְהוָה עָשְׂתָה זֹּאת וּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרָאָהּ׃", 41.2. "מִי הֵעִיר מִמִּזְרָח צֶדֶק יִקְרָאֵהוּ לְרַגְלוֹ יִתֵּן לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמְלָכִים יַרְדְּ יִתֵּן כֶּעָפָר חַרְבּוֹ כְּקַשׁ נִדָּף קַשְׁתּוֹ׃", 44.28. "הָאֹמֵר לְכוֹרֶשׁ רֹעִי וְכָל־חֶפְצִי יַשְׁלִם וְלֵאמֹר לִירוּשָׁלִַם תִּבָּנֶה וְהֵיכָל תִּוָּסֵד׃", 45.1. "הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה־תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה־תְּחִילִין׃", 45.1. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ׃", 46.11. "קֹרֵא מִמִּזְרָח עַיִט מֵאֶרֶץ מֶרְחָק אִישׁ עצתו [עֲצָתִי] אַף־דִּבַּרְתִּי אַף־אֲבִיאֶנָּה יָצַרְתִּי אַף־אֶעֱשֶׂנָּה׃", 47.1. "וַתִּבְטְחִי בְרָעָתֵךְ אָמַרְתְּ אֵין רֹאָנִי חָכְמָתֵךְ וְדַעְתֵּךְ הִיא שׁוֹבְבָתֶךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי בְלִבֵּךְ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד׃", 47.1. "רְדִי וּשְׁבִי עַל־עָפָר בְּתוּלַת בַּת־בָּבֶל שְׁבִי־לָאָרֶץ אֵין־כִּסֵּא בַּת־כַּשְׂדִּים כִּי לֹא תוֹסִיפִי יִקְרְאוּ־לָךְ רַכָּה וַעֲנֻגָּה׃" 47.2. "קְחִי רֵחַיִם וְטַחֲנִי קָמַח גַּלִּי צַמָּתֵךְ חֶשְׂפִּי־שֹׁבֶל גַּלִּי־שׁוֹק עִבְרִי נְהָרוֹת׃", 47.3. "תִּגָּל עֶרְוָתֵךְ גַּם תֵּרָאֶה חֶרְפָּתֵךְ נָקָם אֶקָּח וְלֹא אֶפְגַּע אָדָם׃", 47.8. "וְעַתָּה שִׁמְעִי־זֹאת עֲדִינָה הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת לָבֶטַח הָאֹמְרָה בִּלְבָבָהּ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד לֹא אֵשֵׁב אַלְמָנָה וְלֹא אֵדַע שְׁכוֹל׃", 47.9. "וְתָבֹאנָה לָּךְ שְׁתֵּי־אֵלֶּה רֶגַע בְּיוֹם אֶחָד שְׁכוֹל וְאַלְמֹן כְּתֻמָּם בָּאוּ עָלַיִךְ בְּרֹב כְּשָׁפַיִךְ בְּעָצְמַת חֲבָרַיִךְ מְאֹד׃", 54.4. "אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־לֹא תֵבוֹשִׁי וְאַל־תִּכָּלְמִי כִּי לֹא תַחְפִּירִי כִּי בֹשֶׁת עֲלוּמַיִךְ תִּשְׁכָּחִי וְחֶרְפַּת אַלְמְנוּתַיִךְ לֹא תִזְכְּרִי־עוֹד׃", 54.5. "כִּי בֹעֲלַיִךְ עֹשַׂיִךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ יִקָּרֵא׃", 54.6. "כִּי־כְאִשָּׁה עֲזוּבָה וַעֲצוּבַת רוּחַ קְרָאָךְ יְהוָה וְאֵשֶׁת נְעוּרִים כִּי תִמָּאֵס אָמַר אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃", 54.7. "בְּרֶגַע קָטֹן עֲזַבְתִּיךְ וּבְרַחֲמִים גְּדֹלִים אֲקַבְּצֵךְ׃", 54.8. "בְּשֶׁצֶף קֶצֶף הִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי רֶגַע מִמֵּךְ וּבְחֶסֶד עוֹלָם רִחַמְתִּיךְ אָמַר גֹּאֲלֵךְ יְהוָה׃", 13.8. "And they shall be affrighted; Pangs and throes shall take hold of them; They shall be in pain as a woman in travail; They shall look aghast one at another; Their faces shall be faces of flame.", 13.16. "Their babes also shall be dashed in pieces before their eyes; Their houses shall be spoiled, And their wives ravished.", 14.8. "Yea, the cypresses rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon: ‘Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.’", 14.12. "How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations!", 14.13. "And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;", 14.14. "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’", 19.16. "In that day shall Egypt be like unto women; and it shall tremble and fear because of the shaking of the hand of the LORD of hosts, which He shaketh over it.", 36.1. "Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them.", 36.2. "And the king of Assyria sent Rab-shakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fullers’field.", 36.3. "Then came forth unto him Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, that was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph the recorder.", 36.4. "And Rab-shakeh said unto them: ‘Say ye now to Hezekiah: Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria: What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?", 36.5. "I said: It is but vain words; for counsel and strength are for the war. Now on whom dost thou trust, that thou hast rebelled against me?", 36.6. "Behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even upon Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it; so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust on him.", 36.7. "But if thou say unto me: We trust in the LORD our God; is not that He, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, and hath said to Judah and to Jerusalem: Ye shall worship before this altar?", 36.8. "Now therefore, I pray thee, make a wager with my master, the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.", 36.9. "How then canst thou turn away the face of one captain, even of the least of my master’s servants? yet thou puttest thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen!", 36.10. "And am I now come up without the LORD against this land to destroy it? The LORD said unto me: Go up against this land, and destroy it.’", 36.11. "Then said Eliakim and Shebna and Joah unto Rab-shakeh: ‘Speak, I pray thee, unto thy servants in the Aramean language, for we understand it; and speak not to us in the Jews’language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall.’", 36.12. "But Rab-shakeh said: ‘Hath my master sent me to thy master, and to thee, to speak these words? hath he not sent me to the men that sit upon the wall, to eat their own dung, and to drink their own water with you?’", 36.13. "Then Rab-shakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews’language, and said: ‘Hear ye the words of the great king, the king of Assyria.", 36.14. "Thus saith the king: Let not Hezekiah beguile you, for he will not be able to deliver you;", 36.15. "neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying: The LORD will surely deliver us; this city shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria.", 36.16. "Hearken not to Hezekiah; for thus saith the king of Assyria: Make your peace with me, and come out to me; and eat ye every one of his vine, and every one of his fig-tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his own cistern;", 36.17. "until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards.", 36.18. "Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you, saying: The LORD will deliver us. Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?", 36.19. "Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? where are the gods of Sepharvaim? and have they delivered Samaria out of my hand?", 36.20. "Who are they among all the gods of these countries, that have delivered their country out of my hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?’", 37.18. "of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the countries, and their land,", 37.19. "and have cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed them.", 41.2. "Who hath raised up one from the east, At whose steps victory attendeth? He giveth nations before him, And maketh him rule over kings; His sword maketh them as the dust, His bow as the driven stubble.", 44.28. "That saith of Cyrus: ‘He is My shepherd, And shall perform all My pleasure’; Even saying of Jerusalem: ‘She shall be built’; And to the temple: ‘My foundation shall be laid.’", 45.1. "Thus saith the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and that the gates may not be shut:", 46.11. "Calling a bird of prey from the east, the man of My counsel from a far country; Yea, I have spoken, I will also bring it to pass, I have purposed, I will also do it.", 47.1. "Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, Sit on the ground without a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans; For thou shalt no more be called Tender and delicate." 47.2. "Take the millstones, and grind meal; Remove thy veil, Strip off the train, uncover the leg, Pass through the rivers.", 47.3. "Thy nakedness shall be uncovered, Yea, thy shame shall be seen; I will take vengeance, And will let no man intercede.", 47.8. "Now therefore hear this, thou that art given to pleasures, That sittest securely, That sayest in thy heart: ‘I am, and there is none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, Neither shall I know the loss of children’;", 47.9. "But these two things shall come to thee in a moment In one day, the loss of children, and widow-hood; In their full measure shall they come upon thee, For the multitude of thy sorceries, And the great abundance of thine enchantments.", 54.4. "Fear not, for thou shalt not be ashamed. Neither be thou confounded, for thou shalt not be put to shame; For thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, And the reproach of thy widowhood shalt thou remember no more.", 54.5. "For thy Maker is thy husband, The LORD of hosts is His name; And the Holy One of Israel is thy Redeemer, The God of the whole earth shall He be called.", 54.6. "For the LORD hath called thee As a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit; And a wife of youth, can she be rejected? Saith thy God.", 54.7. "For a small moment have I forsaken thee; But with great compassion will I gather thee.", 54.8. "In a little wrath I hid My face from thee for a moment; But with everlasting kindness will I have compassion on thee, Saith the LORD thy Redeemer.", 54.10. "For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall My covet of peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath compassion on thee.",
19. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonia Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224
1.8. "וְקַלּוּ מִנְּמֵרִים סוּסָיו וְחַדּוּ מִזְּאֵבֵי עֶרֶב וּפָשׁוּ פָּרָשָׁיו וּפָרָשָׁיו מֵרָחוֹק יָבֹאוּ יָעֻפוּ כְּנֶשֶׁר חָשׁ לֶאֱכוֹל׃", 1.8. "Their horses also are swifter than leopards, And are more fierce than the wolves of the desert; And their horsemen spread themselves; Yea, their horsemen come from far, They fly as a vulture that hasteth to devour.",
20. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.7-1.8, 14.1-14.23, 14.52, 31.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions •babylon/babylonians •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 160, 264; Gruen (2020) 176
1.7. "וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה מִדֵּי עֲלֹתָהּ בְּבֵית יְהוָה כֵּן תַּכְעִסֶנָּה וַתִּבְכֶּה וְלֹא תֹאכַל׃", 1.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ אֶלְקָנָה אִישָׁהּ חַנָּה לָמֶה תִבְכִּי וְלָמֶה לֹא תֹאכְלִי וְלָמֶה יֵרַע לְבָבֵךְ הֲלוֹא אָנֹכִי טוֹב לָךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָה בָּנִים׃", 14.1. "וְאִם־כֹּה יֹאמְרוּ עֲלוּ עָלֵינוּ וְעָלִינוּ כִּי־נְתָנָם יְהוָה בְּיָדֵנוּ וְזֶה־לָּנוּ הָאוֹת׃", 14.1. "וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹנָתָן בֶּן־שָׁאוּל אֶל־הַנַּעַר נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו לְכָה וְנַעְבְּרָה אֶל־מַצַּב פְּלִשְׁתִּים אֲשֶׁר מֵעֵבֶר הַלָּז וּלְאָבִיו לֹא הִגִּיד׃", 14.2. "וְשָׁאוּל יוֹשֵׁב בִּקְצֵה הַגִּבְעָה תַּחַת הָרִמּוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּמִגְרוֹן וְהָעָם אֲשֶׁר עִמּוֹ כְּשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ׃", 14.2. "וַיִּזָּעֵק שָׁאוּל וְכָל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־הַמִּלְחָמָה וְהִנֵּה הָיְתָה חֶרֶב אִישׁ בְּרֵעֵהוּ מְהוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד׃", 14.3. "וַאֲחִיָּה בֶן־אֲחִטוּב אֲחִי אִיכָבוֹד בֶּן־פִּינְחָס בֶּן־עֵלִי כֹּהֵן יְהוָה בְּשִׁלוֹ נֹשֵׂא אֵפוֹד וְהָעָם לֹא יָדַע כִּי הָלַךְ יוֹנָתָן׃", 14.3. "אַף כִּי לוּא אָכֹל אָכַל הַיּוֹם הָעָם מִשְּׁלַל אֹיְבָיו אֲשֶׁר מָצָא כִּי עַתָּה לֹא־רָבְתָה מַכָּה בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים׃", 14.4. "וּבֵין הַמַּעְבְּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר בִּקֵּשׁ יוֹנָתָן לַעֲבֹר עַל־מַצַּב פְּלִשְׁתִּים שֵׁן־הַסֶּלַע מֵהָעֵבֶר מִזֶּה וְשֵׁן־הַסֶּלַע מֵהָעֵבֶר מִזֶּה וְשֵׁם הָאֶחָד בּוֹצֵץ וְשֵׁם הָאֶחָד סֶנֶּה׃", 14.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ לְעֵבֶר אֶחָד וַאֲנִי וְיוֹנָתָן בְּנִי נִהְיֶה לְעֵבֶר אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָעָם אֶל־שָׁאוּל הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֶיךָ עֲשֵׂה׃", 14.5. "וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת שָׁאוּל אֲחִינֹעַם בַּת־אֲחִימָעַץ וְשֵׁם שַׂר־צְבָאוֹ אֲבִינֵר בֶּן־נֵר דּוֹד שָׁאוּל׃", 14.5. "הַשֵּׁן הָאֶחָד מָצוּק מִצָּפוֹן מוּל מִכְמָשׂ וְהָאֶחָד מִנֶּגֶב מוּל גָּבַע׃", 14.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן אֶל־הַנַּעַר נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו לְכָה וְנַעְבְּרָה אֶל־מַצַּב הָעֲרֵלִים הָאֵלֶּה אוּלַי יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לָנוּ כִּי אֵין לַיהוָה מַעְצוֹר לְהוֹשִׁיעַ בְּרַב אוֹ בִמְעָט׃", 14.7. "וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו עֲשֵׂה כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבֶךָ נְטֵה לָךְ הִנְנִי עִמְּךָ כִּלְבָבֶךָ׃", 14.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹנָתָן הִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ עֹבְרִים אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁים וְנִגְלִינוּ אֲלֵיהֶם׃", 14.9. "אִם־כֹּה יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֵינוּ דֹּמּוּ עַד־הַגִּיעֵנוּ אֲלֵיכֶם וְעָמַדְנוּ תַחְתֵּינוּ וְלֹא נַעֲלֶה אֲלֵיהֶם׃", 14.11. "וַיִּגָּלוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶל־מַצַּב פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיֹּאמְרוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים הִנֵּה עִבְרִים יֹצְאִים מִן־הַחֹרִים אֲשֶׁר הִתְחַבְּאוּ־שָׁם׃", 14.12. "וַיַּעֲנוּ אַנְשֵׁי הַמַּצָּבָה אֶת־יוֹנָתָן וְאֶת־נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲלוּ אֵלֵינוּ וְנוֹדִיעָה אֶתְכֶם דָּבָר וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹנָתָן אֶל־נֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו עֲלֵה אַחֲרַי כִּי־נְתָנָם יְהוָה בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 14.13. "וַיַּעַל יוֹנָתָן עַל־יָדָיו וְעַל־רַגְלָיו וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו אַחֲרָיו וַיִּפְּלוּ לִפְנֵי יוֹנָתָן וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו מְמוֹתֵת אַחֲרָיו׃", 14.14. "וַתְּהִי הַמַּכָּה הָרִאשֹׁנָה אֲשֶׁר הִכָּה יוֹנָתָן וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו כְּעֶשְׂרִים אִישׁ כְּבַחֲצִי מַעֲנָה צֶמֶד שָׂדֶה׃", 14.15. "וַתְּהִי חֲרָדָה בַמַּחֲנֶה בַשָּׂדֶה וּבְכָל־הָעָם הַמַּצָּב וְהַמַּשְׁחִית חָרְדוּ גַּם־הֵמָּה וַתִּרְגַּז הָאָרֶץ וַתְּהִי לְחֶרְדַּת אֱלֹהִים׃", 14.16. "וַיִּרְאוּ הַצֹּפִים לְשָׁאוּל בְּגִבְעַת בִּנְיָמִן וְהִנֵּה הֶהָמוֹן נָמוֹג וַיֵּלֶךְ וַהֲלֹם׃", 14.17. "וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לָעָם אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ פִּקְדוּ־נָא וּרְאוּ מִי הָלַךְ מֵעִמָּנוּ וַיִּפְקְדוּ וְהִנֵּה אֵין יוֹנָתָן וְנֹשֵׂא כֵלָיו׃", 14.18. "וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַאֲחִיָּה הַגִּישָׁה אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־הָיָה אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 14.19. "וַיְהִי עַד דִּבֶּר שָׁאוּל אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶהָמוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּמַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ וָרָב וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֱסֹף יָדֶךָ׃", 14.21. "וְהָעִבְרִים הָיוּ לַפְּלִשְׁתִּים כְּאֶתְמוֹל שִׁלְשׁוֹם אֲשֶׁר עָלוּ עִמָּם בַּמַּחֲנֶה סָבִיב וְגַם־הֵמָּה לִהְיוֹת עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עִם־שָׁאוּל וְיוֹנָתָן׃", 14.22. "וְכֹל אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּתְחַבְּאִים בְּהַר־אֶפְרַיִם שָׁמְעוּ כִּי־נָסוּ פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּדְבְּקוּ גַם־הֵמָּה אַחֲרֵיהֶם בַּמִּלְחָמָה׃", 14.23. "וַיּוֹשַׁע יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַמִּלְחָמָה עָבְרָה אֶת־בֵּית אָוֶן׃", 14.52. "וַתְּהִי הַמִּלְחָמָה חֲזָקָה עַל־פְּלִשְׁתִּים כֹּל יְמֵי שָׁאוּל וְרָאָה שָׁאוּל כָּל־אִישׁ גִּבּוֹר וְכָל־בֶּן־חַיִל וַיַּאַסְפֵהוּ אֵלָיו׃", 31.13. "וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־עַצְמֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּקְבְּרוּ תַחַת־הָאֶשֶׁל בְּיָבֵשָׁה וַיָּצֻמוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃", 1.7. "And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the Lord, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.", 1.8. "Then Elqana her husband said to her, Ĥanna, why dost thou weep? and why dost thou not eat? and why is thy heart grieved? am I not better to thee than ten sons?", 14.1. "Now it came to pass one day, that Yonatan the son of Sha᾽ul said to the young man that bore his armour, Come, and let us go over to the garrison of the Pelishtim, that is on the other side. But he did not tell his father.", 14.2. "And Sha᾽ul was sitting on the far side of Giv῾a under the pomegranate tree which was in Migron: and the people that were with him were about six hundred men;", 14.3. "and Aĥiyya, the son of Aĥituv, I-khavod’s brother, the son of Pineĥas, the son of ῾Eli, was the Lord’s priest in Shilo, wearing an efod. And the people knew not that Yonatan was gone.", 14.4. "And between the passes, by which Yonatan sought to go over to the garrison of the Pelishtim, there was a sharp rock on the one side, and a sharp rock on the other side: and the name of the one was Bożeż, and the name of the other Sene.", 14.5. "The one point rose up abruptly northwards over against Mikhmash, and the other southwards over against Geva.", 14.6. "And Yonatan said to the young man that bore his armour, Come, and let us go over to the garrison of these uncircumcised: it may be that the Lord will perform a deed for us: for there is no restraint upon the Lord to save by many or by few.", 14.7. "And his armourbearer said to him, Do all that is in thy heart: turn thee; behold, I am with thee according to thy heart.", 14.8. "Then said Yonatan, Behold, we will pass over to these men, and we will reveal ourselves to them.", 14.9. "If they say thus to us, Tarry until we come to you; then we will stand still in our place, and will not go up to them.", 14.10. "But if they say thus, Come up to us; then we will go up: for the Lord has delivered them into our hand: and this shall be a sign to us.", 14.11. "And both of them showed themselves to the garrison of the Pelishtim: and the Pelishtim said, Behold, the Hebrews come out of the holes where they have hidden themselves.", 14.12. "And the men of the garrison answered Yonatan and his armourbearer, and said, Come up to us, and we will show you something. And Yonatan said to his armourbearer, Come up after me: for the Lord has delivered them into the hand of Yisra᾽el.", 14.13. "And Yonatan climbed up on his hands and feet, and his armourbearer after him: and they fell before Yonatan; and his armourbearer slew after him.", 14.14. "And that first slaughter, which Yonatan and his armour-bearer made, was about twenty men, within as it were half a furrow, which a yoke of oxen might plough.", 14.15. "And there was trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people: the garrison, and the raiding parties, they also trembled, and the earth quaked: so it was a very great trembling.", 14.16. "And the watchmen of Sha᾽ul in Giv῾a of Binyamin looked; and, behold, the multitude melted away, and disintegrated.", 14.17. "Then said Sha᾽ul to the people that were with him. Number now, and see who is gone from us. And when they had numbered, behold, Yonatan and his armourbearer were not there.", 14.18. "And Sha᾽ul said to Aĥiyya, Bring the ark of God here. For the ark of God was at that time with the children of Yisra᾽el.", 14.19. "And it came to pass, while Sha᾽ul talked to the priest, that the noise that was in the camp of the Pelishtim went on and increased: and Sha᾽ul said to the priest, Withdraw thy hand.", 14.20. "And Sha᾽ul and all the people that were with him assembled themselves, and they came to the battle: and, behold, every man’s sword was against his fellow, and there was a very great confusion.", 14.21. "Moreover the Hebrews that were with the Pelishtim before that time, who went up with them into the camp from the country round about, they also turned to be with the men of Yisra᾽el that were with Sha᾽ul and Yonatan.", 14.22. "Likewise all the men of Yisra᾽el who had hid themselves in mount Efrayim, when they heard that the Pelishtim fled, they also pursued them closely in the battle.", 14.23. "So the Lord saved Yisra᾽el that day: and the battle passed beyond Bet-aven.", 14.52. "And there was hard warfare against the Pelishtim all the days of Sha᾽ul: and when Sha᾽ul saw any strong man, or any valiant man, he took him to himself.", 31.13. "And they took their bones, and buried them under a tamarisk tree at Yavesh, and fasted seven days.",
21. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 1.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonia Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008) 236
1.13. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל־בִּקְעָם הָרוֹת הַגִּלְעָד לְמַעַן הַרְחִיב אֶת־גְּבוּלָם׃", 1.13. "Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of the children of Ammon, yea, for four, I will not reverse it: because they have ripped up the women with child of Gilead, that they might enlarge their border.",
22. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.12, 3.35, 12.11, 12.16-12.23, 13.20, 14.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions •babylon, babylonia •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 261, 264; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 237
1.12. "וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב עַל־שָׁאוּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל־עַם יְהוָה וְעַל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃", 3.35. "וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לְהַבְרוֹת אֶת־דָּוִד לֶחֶם בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם וַיִּשָּׁבַע דָּוִד לֵאמֹר כֹּה יַעֲשֶׂה־לִּי אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה יֹסִיף כִּי אִם־לִפְנֵי בוֹא־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֶטְעַם־לֶחֶם אוֹ כָל־מְאוּמָה׃", 12.11. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מֵקִים עָלֶיךָ רָעָה מִבֵּיתֶךָ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי לְרֵעֶיךָ וְשָׁכַב עִם־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ הַזֹּאת׃", 12.16. "וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים בְּעַד הַנָּעַר וַיָּצָם דָּוִד צוֹם וּבָא וְלָן וְשָׁכַב אָרְצָה׃", 12.17. "וַיָּקֻמוּ זִקְנֵי בֵיתוֹ עָלָיו לַהֲקִימוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא אָבָה וְלֹא־בָרָא אִתָּם לָחֶם׃", 12.18. "וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיָּמָת הַיָּלֶד וַיִּרְאוּ עַבְדֵי דָוִד לְהַגִּיד לוֹ כִּי־מֵת הַיֶּלֶד כִּי אָמְרוּ הִנֵּה בִהְיוֹת הַיֶּלֶד חַי דִּבַּרְנוּ אֵלָיו וְלֹא־שָׁמַע בְּקוֹלֵנוּ וְאֵיךְ נֹאמַר אֵלָיו מֵת הַיֶּלֶד וְעָשָׂה רָעָה׃", 12.19. "וַיַּרְא דָּוִד כִּי עֲבָדָיו מִתְלַחֲשִׁים וַיָּבֶן דָּוִד כִּי מֵת הַיָּלֶד וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הֲמֵת הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֵת׃", 12.21. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו מָה־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָה בַּעֲבוּר הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתָּ וַתֵּבְךְּ וְכַאֲשֶׁר מֵת הַיֶּלֶד קַמְתָּ וַתֹּאכַל לָחֶם׃", 12.22. "וַיֹּאמֶר בְּעוֹד הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה כִּי אָמַרְתִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ יחנני [וְחַנַּנִי] יְהוָה וְחַי הַיָּלֶד׃", 12.23. "וְעַתָּה מֵת לָמָּה זֶּה אֲנִי צָם הַאוּכַל לַהֲשִׁיבוֹ עוֹד אֲנִי הֹלֵךְ אֵלָיו וְהוּא לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלָי׃", 14.2. "לְבַעֲבוּר סַבֵּב אֶת־פְּנֵי הַדָּבָר עָשָׂה עַבְדְּךָ יוֹאָב אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַאדֹנִי חָכָם כְּחָכְמַת מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים לָדַעַת אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃", 14.2. "וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב תְּקוֹעָה וַיִּקַּח מִשָּׁם אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִתְאַבְּלִי־נָא וְלִבְשִׁי־נָא בִגְדֵי־אֵבֶל וְאַל־תָּסוּכִי שֶׁמֶן וְהָיִית כְּאִשָּׁה זֶה יָמִים רַבִּים מִתְאַבֶּלֶת עַל־מֵת׃", 1.12. "and they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Sha᾽ul, and for Yehonatan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Yisra᾽el; because they were fallen by the sword.", 3.35. "And all the people came to cause David to eat bread while it was yet day, but David swore, saying, So do God to me, and more also, if I taste bread, or anything else, till the sun be down.", 12.11. "Thus says the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house, and I will take thy wives before thy eyes, and give them to thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun.", 12.16. "David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the ground.", 12.17. "And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the ground: but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them.", 12.18. "And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead: for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spoke to him, and he would not hearken to our voice; how then shall we tell him that the child is dead, and he will do himself a mischief?", 12.19. "But when David saw that his servants whispered, David understood that the child was dead: therefore David said to his servants, Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead.", 12.20. "Then David arose from the ground, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and bowed down: then he came to his own house, and asked them to set bread before him, and he did eat.", 12.21. "Then his servants said to him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread.", 12.22. "And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell? God may be gracious to me, and the child may live?", 12.23. "But now he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not come back to me.", 13.20. "And Avshalom her brother said to her, Has Amnon thy brother been with thee? but keep silence, my sister: he is thy brother; take not this thing to heart. So Tamar remained desolate in her brother Avshalom’s house.", 14.2. "And Yo᾽av sent to Teqo῾a, and fetched from there a wise woman, and said to her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and do not anoint thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead:",
23. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.1-4.7, 13.7, 14.9, 18.4, 18.17-18.35, 19.12, 19.23, 19.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 116, 141, 162, 214, 221, 261; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224
4.1. "נַעֲשֶׂה־נָּא עֲלִיַּת־קִיר קְטַנָּה וְנָשִׂים לוֹ שָׁם מִטָּה וְשֻׁלְחָן וְכִסֵּא וּמְנוֹרָה וְהָיָה בְּבֹאוֹ אֵלֵינוּ יָסוּר שָׁמָּה׃", 4.1. "וְאִשָּׁה אַחַת מִנְּשֵׁי בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים צָעֲקָה אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע לֵאמֹר עַבְדְּךָ אִישִׁי מֵת וְאַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ כִּי עַבְדְּךָ הָיָה יָרֵא אֶת־יְהוָה וְהַנֹּשֶׁה בָּא לָקַחַת אֶת־שְׁנֵי יְלָדַי לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים׃", 4.2. "וַיִּשָּׂאֵהוּ וַיְבִיאֵהוּ אֶל־אִמּוֹ וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־בִּרְכֶּיהָ עַד־הַצָּהֳרַיִם וַיָּמֹת׃", 4.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אֱלִישָׁע מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ הַגִּידִי לִי מַה־יֶּשׁ־לכי [לָךְ] בַּבָּיִת וַתֹּאמֶר אֵין לְשִׁפְחָתְךָ כֹל בַּבַּיִת כִּי אִם־אָסוּךְ שָׁמֶן׃", 4.3. "וַתֹּאמֶר אֵם הַנַּעַר חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֶיהָ׃", 4.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר לְכִי שַׁאֲלִי־לָךְ כֵּלִים מִן־הַחוּץ מֵאֵת כָּל־שכנכי [שְׁכֵנָיִךְ] כֵּלִים רֵקִים אַל־תַּמְעִיטִי׃", 4.4. "וּבָאת וְסָגַרְתְּ הַדֶּלֶת בַּעֲדֵךְ וּבְעַד־בָּנַיִךְ וְיָצַקְתְּ עַל כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהַמָּלֵא תַּסִּיעִי׃", 4.4. "וַיִּצְקוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים לֶאֱכוֹל וַיְהִי כְּאָכְלָם מֵהַנָּזִיד וְהֵמָּה צָעָקוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ מָוֶת בַּסִּיר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לֶאֱכֹל׃", 4.5. "וַתֵּלֶךְ מֵאִתּוֹ וַתִּסְגֹּר הַדֶּלֶת בַּעֲדָהּ וּבְעַד בָּנֶיהָ הֵם מַגִּשִׁים אֵלֶיהָ וְהִיא מיצקת [מוֹצָקֶת׃]", 4.6. "וַיְהִי כִּמְלֹאת הַכֵּלִים וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנָהּ הַגִּישָׁה אֵלַי עוֹד כֶּלִי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אֵין עוֹד כֶּלִי וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשָּׁמֶן׃", 4.7. "וַתָּבֹא וַתַּגֵּד לְאִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לְכִי מִכְרִי אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶן וְשַׁלְּמִי אֶת־נשיכי [נִשְׁיֵךְ] וְאַתְּ בניכי [וּבָנַיִךְ] תִחְיִי בַּנּוֹתָר׃", 13.7. "כִּי לֹא הִשְׁאִיר לִיהוֹאָחָז עָם כִּי אִם־חֲמִשִּׁים פָּרָשִׁים וַעֲשָׂרָה רֶכֶב וַעֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים רַגְלִי כִּי אִבְּדָם מֶלֶךְ אֲרָם וַיְשִׂמֵם כֶּעָפָר לָדֻשׁ׃", 14.9. "וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוֹאָשׁ מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֲמַצְיָהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה לֵאמֹר הַחוֹחַ אֲשֶׁר בַּלְּבָנוֹן שָׁלַח אֶל־הָאֶרֶז אֲשֶׁר בַּלְּבָנוֹן לֵאמֹר תְּנָה־אֶת־בִּתְּךָ לִבְנִי לְאִשָּׁה וַתַּעֲבֹר חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בַּלְּבָנוֹן וַתִּרְמֹס אֶת־הַחוֹחַ׃", 18.4. "הוּא הֵסִיר אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת וְשִׁבַּר אֶת־הַמַּצֵּבֹת וְכָרַת אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה וְכִתַּת נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה כִּי עַד־הַיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה הָיוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַטְּרִים לוֹ וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ נְחֻשְׁתָּן׃", 18.17. "וַיִּשְׁלַח מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר אֶת־תַּרְתָּן וְאֶת־רַב־סָרִיס וְאֶת־רַב־שָׁקֵה מִן־לָכִישׁ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ חִזְקִיָּהוּ בְּחֵיל כָּבֵד יְרוּשָׁלִָם וַיַּעֲלוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּעֲלוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ בִּתְעָלַת הַבְּרֵכָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּמְסִלַּת שְׂדֵה כוֹבֵס׃", 18.18. "וַיִּקְרְאוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֵּצֵא אֲלֵהֶם אֶלְיָקִים בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּהוּ אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַבָּיִת וְשֶׁבְנָה הַסֹּפֵר וְיוֹאָח בֶּן־אָסָף הַמַּזְכִּיר׃", 18.19. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם רַב־שָׁקֵה אִמְרוּ־נָא אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר מָה הַבִּטָּחוֹן הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּטָחְתָּ׃", 18.21. "עַתָּה הִנֵּה בָטַחְתָּ לְּךָ עַל־מִשְׁעֶנֶת הַקָּנֶה הָרָצוּץ הַזֶּה עַל־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יִסָּמֵךְ אִישׁ עָלָיו וּבָא בְכַפּוֹ וּנְקָבָהּ כֵּן פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם לְכָל־הַבֹּטְחִים עָלָיו׃", 18.22. "וְכִי־תֹאמְרוּן אֵלַי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בָּטָחְנוּ הֲלוֹא־הוּא אֲשֶׁר הֵסִיר חִזְקִיָּהוּ אֶת־בָּמֹתָיו וְאֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לִיהוּדָה וְלִירוּשָׁלִַם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַזֶּה תִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 18.23. "וְעַתָּה הִתְעָרֶב נָא אֶת־אֲדֹנִי אֶת־מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר וְאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אַלְפַּיִם סוּסִים אִם־תּוּכַל לָתֶת לְךָ רֹכְבִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃", 18.24. "וְאֵיךְ תָּשִׁיב אֵת פְּנֵי פַחַת אַחַד עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי הַקְּטַנִּים וַתִּבְטַח לְךָ עַל־מִצְרַיִם לְרֶכֶב וּלְפָרָשִׁים׃", 18.25. "עַתָּה הֲמִבַּלְעֲדֵי יְהוָה עָלִיתִי עַל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה לְהַשְׁחִתוֹ יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי עֲלֵה עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ׃", 18.26. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶלְיָקִים בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּהוּ וְשֶׁבְנָה וְיוֹאָח אֶל־רַב־שָׁקֵה דַּבֶּר־נָא אֶל־עֲבָדֶיךָ אֲרָמִית כִּי שֹׁמְעִים אֲנָחְנוּ וְאַל־תְּדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ יְהוּדִית בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַחֹמָה׃", 18.27. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם רַב־שָׁקֵה הַעַל אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֵלֶיךָ שְׁלָחַנִי אֲדֹנִי לְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הֲלֹא עַל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הַיֹּשְׁבִים עַל־הַחֹמָה לֶאֱכֹל אֶת חריהם [צוֹאָתָם] וְלִשְׁתּוֹת אֶת־שיניהם [מימֵי] [רַגְלֵיהֶם] עִמָּכֶם׃", 18.28. "וַיַּעֲמֹד רַב־שָׁקֵה וַיִּקְרָא בְקוֹל־גָּדוֹל יְהוּדִית וַיְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ הַגָּדוֹל מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃", 18.29. "כֹּה אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־יַשִּׁיא לָכֶם חִזְקִיָּהוּ כִּי־לֹא יוּכַל לְהַצִּיל אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדוֹ׃", 18.31. "אַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כִּי כֹה אָמַר מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר עֲשׂוּ־אִתִּי בְרָכָה וּצְאוּ אֵלַי וְאִכְלוּ אִישׁ־גַּפְנוֹ וְאִישׁ תְּאֵנָתוֹ וּשְׁתוּ אִישׁ מֵי־בוֹרוֹ׃", 18.32. "עַד־בֹּאִי וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ כְּאַרְצְכֶם אֶרֶץ דָּגָן וְתִירוֹשׁ אֶרֶץ לֶחֶם וּכְרָמִים אֶרֶץ זֵית יִצְהָר וּדְבַשׁ וִחְיוּ וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ כִּי־יַסִּית אֶתְכֶם לֵאמֹר יְהוָה יַצִּילֵנוּ׃", 18.33. "הַהַצֵּל הִצִּילוּ אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם אִישׁ אֶת־אַרְצוֹ מִיַּד מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃", 18.34. "אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵי חֲמָת וְאַרְפָּד אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵי סְפַרְוַיִם הֵנַע וְעִוָּה כִּי־הִצִּילוּ אֶת־שֹׁמְרוֹן מִיָּדִי׃", 18.35. "מִי בְּכָל־אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת אֲשֶׁר־הִצִּילוּ אֶת־אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי כִּי־יַצִּיל יְהוָה אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִיָּדִי׃", 19.12. "הַהִצִּילוּ אֹתָם אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר שִׁחֲתוּ אֲבוֹתַי אֶת־גּוֹזָן וְאֶת־חָרָן וְרֶצֶף וּבְנֵי־עֶדֶן אֲשֶׁר בִּתְלַאשָּׂר׃", 19.23. "בְּיַד מַלְאָכֶיךָ חֵרַפְתָּ אֲדֹנָי וַתֹּאמֶר ברכב [בְּרֹב] רִכְבִּי אֲנִי עָלִיתִי מְרוֹם הָרִים יַרְכְּתֵי לְבָנוֹן וְאֶכְרֹת קוֹמַת אֲרָזָיו מִבְחוֹר בְּרֹשָׁיו וְאָבוֹאָה מְלוֹן קִצֹּה יַעַר כַּרְמִלּוֹ׃", 19.36. "וַיִּסַּע וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיָּשָׁב סַנְחֵרִיב מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּנִינְוֵה׃", 4.1. "Now there cried a certain woman of the wives of the sons of the prophets unto Elisha, saying: ‘Thy servant my husband is dead; and thou knowest that thy servant did fear the LORD; and the creditor is come to take unto him my two children to be bondmen.’", 4.2. "And Elisha said unto her: ‘What shall I do for thee? tell me; what hast thou in the house?’ And she said: ‘Thy handmaid hath not any thing in the house, save a pot of oil.’", 4.3. "Then he said: ‘Go, borrow thee vessels abroad of all thy neighbours, even empty vessels; borrow not a few.", 4.4. "And thou shalt go in, and shut the door upon thee and upon thy sons, and pour out into all those vessels; and thou shalt set aside that which is full.’", 4.5. "So she went from him, and shut the door upon her and upon her sons; they brought the vessels to her, and she poured out.", 4.6. "And it came to pass, when the vessels were full, that she said unto her son: ‘Bring me yet a vessel.’ And he said unto her: ‘There is not a vessel more.’ And the oil stayed.", 4.7. "Then she came and told the man of God. And he said: ‘Go, sell the oil, and pay thy debt, and live thou and thy sons of the rest.’", 13.7. "For there was not left to Jehoahaz of the people save fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Aram destroyed them, and made them like the dust in threshing.", 14.9. "And Jehoash the king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying: ‘The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying: Give thy daughter to my son to wife; and there passed by the wild beasts that were in Lebanon, and trod down the thistle.", 18.4. "He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Asherah; and he broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan.", 18.17. "And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rab-saris and Rab-shakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great army unto Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fullers’field.", 18.18. "And when they had called to the king, there came out to them Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, and Shebnah the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph the recorder.", 18.19. "And Rab-shakeh said unto them: ‘Say ye now to Hezekiah: Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria: What confidence is this wherein thou trustest?", 18.20. "Sayest thou that a mere word of the lips is counsel and strength for the war? Now on whom dost thou trust, that thou hast rebelled against me?", 18.21. "Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised reed, even upon Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it; so is Pharaoh king of Egypt unto all that trust on him.", 18.22. "But if ye say unto me: We trust in the LORD our God; is not that He, whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, and hath said to Judah and to Jerusalem: Ye shall worship before this altar in Jerusalem?", 18.23. "Now therefore, I pray thee, make a wager with my master the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.", 18.24. "How then canst thou turn away the face of one captain, even of the least of my masters servants? and yet thou puttest thy trust on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen!", 18.25. "Am I now come up without the LORD against this place to destroy it? The LORD said unto me: Go up against this land, destroy it.’", 18.26. "Then said Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, and Shebnah, and Joah, unto Rab-shakeh: ‘Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Aramean language; for we understand it; and speak not with us in the Jews’language, in the ears of the people that are on the wall.’", 18.27. "But Rab-shakeh said unto them: ‘Hath my master sent me to thy master, and to thee, to speak these words? hath he not sent me to the men that sit on the wall, to eat their own dung, and to drink their own water with you?’", 18.28. "Then Rab-shakeh stood, and cried with a loud voice in the Jews’language, and spoke, saying: ‘Hear ye the word of the great king, the king of Assyria.", 18.29. "Thus saith the king: Let not Hezekiah beguile you; for he will not be able to deliver you out of his hand;", 18.30. "neither let Hezekiah make you trust in the LORD, saying: The LORD will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria.", 18.31. "Hearken not to Hezekiah; for thus saith the king of Assyria: Make your peace with me, and come out to me; and eat ye every one of his vine, and every one of his fig-tree, and drink ye every one the waters of his own cistern;", 18.32. "until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of olive-trees and of honey, that ye may live, and not die; and hearken not unto Hezekiah, when he persuadeth you, saying: The LORD will deliver us.", 18.33. "Hath any of the gods of the nations ever delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?", 18.34. "Where are the gods of Hamath, and of Arpad? where are the gods of Sepharvaim, of Hena, and Ivvah? have they delivered Samaria out of my hand?", 18.35. "Who are they among all the gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of my hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?’", 19.12. "Have the gods of the nations delivered them, which my fathers have destroyed, Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden that were in Telassar?", 19.23. "By the messengers thou hast taunted the Lord, And hast said: With the multitude of my chariots Am I come up to the height of the mountains, To the innermost parts of Lebanon; And I have cut down the tall cedars thereof, And the choice cypresses thereof; and I have entered into his farthest lodge, The forest of his fruitful field.", 19.36. "So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and dwelt at Nineveh.",
24. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.16-8.18, 15.6, 16.3, 17.5, 19.1, 19.10-19.14, 27.11, 28.1-28.10, 31.1-31.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 333, 337; Gera (2014) 120, 124, 163; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 224, 225
8.16. "וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃", 8.17. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הֲרָאִיתָ בֶן־אָדָם הֲנָקֵל לְבֵית יְהוּדָה מֵעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־פֹה כִּי־מָלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ חָמָס וַיָּשֻׁבוּ לְהַכְעִיסֵנִי וְהִנָּם שֹׁלְחִים אֶת־הַזְּמוֹרָה אֶל־אַפָּם׃", 8.18. "וְגַם־אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה בְחֵמָה לֹא־תָחוֹס עֵינִי וְלֹא אֶחְמֹל וְקָרְאוּ בְאָזְנַי קוֹל גָּדוֹל וְלֹא אֶשְׁמַע אוֹתָם׃", 15.6. "לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כַּאֲשֶׁר עֵץ־הַגֶּפֶן בְּעֵץ הַיַּעַר אֲשֶׁר־נְתַתִּיו לָאֵשׁ לְאָכְלָה כֵּן נָתַתִּי אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃", 16.3. "מָה אֲמֻלָה לִבָּתֵךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בַּעֲשׂוֹתֵךְ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה מַעֲשֵׂה אִשָּׁה־זוֹנָה שַׁלָּטֶת׃", 16.3. "וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לִירוּשָׁלִַם מְכֹרֹתַיִךְ וּמֹלְדֹתַיִךְ מֵאֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי אָבִיךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וְאִמֵּךְ חִתִּית׃", 17.5. "וַיִּקַּח מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ בִּשְׂדֵה־זָרַע קָח עַל־מַיִם רַבִּים צַפְצָפָה שָׂמוֹ׃", 19.1. "וְאַתָּה שָׂא קִינָה אֶל־נְשִׂיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 19.1. "אִמְּךָ כַגֶּפֶן בְּדָמְךָ עַל־מַיִם שְׁתוּלָה פֹּרִיָּה וַעֲנֵפָה הָיְתָה מִמַּיִם רַבִּים׃", 19.11. "וַיִּהְיוּ־לָהּ מַטּוֹת עֹז אֶל־שִׁבְטֵי מֹשְׁלִים וַתִּגְבַּהּ קוֹמָתוֹ עַל־בֵּין עֲבֹתִים וַיֵּרָא בְגָבְהוֹ בְּרֹב דָּלִיֹּתָיו׃", 19.12. "וַתֻּתַּשׁ בְּחֵמָה לָאָרֶץ הֻשְׁלָכָה וְרוּחַ הַקָּדִים הוֹבִישׁ פִּרְיָהּ הִתְפָּרְקוּ וְיָבֵשׁוּ מַטֵּה עֻזָּהּ אֵשׁ אֲכָלָתְהוּ׃", 19.13. "וְעַתָּה שְׁתוּלָה בַמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ צִיָּה וְצָמָא׃", 19.14. "וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִמַּטֵּה בַדֶּיהָ פִּרְיָהּ אָכָלָה וְלֹא־הָיָה בָהּ מַטֵּה־עֹז שֵׁבֶט לִמְשׁוֹל קִינָה הִיא וַתְּהִי לְקִינָה׃", 27.11. "בְּנֵי אַרְוַד וְחֵילֵךְ עַל־חוֹמוֹתַיִךְ סָבִיב וְגַמָּדִים בְּמִגְדְּלוֹתַיִךְ הָיוּ שִׁלְטֵיהֶם תִּלּוּ עַל־חוֹמוֹתַיִךְ סָבִיב הֵמָּה כָּלְלוּ יָפְיֵךְ׃", 28.1. "מוֹתֵי עֲרֵלִים תָּמוּת בְּיַד־זָרִים כִּי אֲנִי דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃", 28.1. "וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 28.2. "בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵל אָנִי מוֹשַׁב אֱלֹהִים יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּלֵב יַמִּים וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל וַתִּתֵּן לִבְּךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃", 28.2. "וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 28.3. "הִנֵּה חָכָם אַתָּה מדנאל [מִדָּנִיֵּאל] כָּל־סָתוּם לֹא עֲמָמוּךָ׃", 28.4. "בְּחָכְמָתְךָ וּבִתְבוּנָתְךָ עָשִׂיתָ לְּךָ חָיִל וַתַּעַשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף בְּאוֹצְרוֹתֶיךָ׃", 28.5. "בְּרֹב חָכְמָתְךָ בִּרְכֻלָּתְךָ הִרְבִּיתָ חֵילֶךָ וַיִּגְבַּהּ לְבָבְךָ בְּחֵילֶךָ׃", 28.6. "לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן תִּתְּךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃", 28.7. "לָכֵן הִנְנִי מֵבִיא עָלֶיךָ זָרִים עָרִיצֵי גּוֹיִם וְהֵרִיקוּ חַרְבוֹתָם עַל־יְפִי חָכְמָתֶךָ וְחִלְּלוּ יִפְעָתֶךָ׃", 28.8. "לַשַּׁחַת יוֹרִדוּךָ וָמַתָּה מְמוֹתֵי חָלָל בְּלֵב יַמִּים׃", 28.9. "הֶאָמֹר תֹּאמַר אֱלֹהִים אָנִי לִפְנֵי הֹרְגֶךָ וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל בְּיַד מְחַלְלֶיךָ׃", 31.1. "וַיְהִי בְּאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 31.1. "לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר גָּבַהְתָּ בְּקוֹמָה וַיִּתֵּן צַמַּרְתּוֹ אֶל־בֵּין עֲבוֹתִים וְרָם לְבָבוֹ בְּגָבְהוֹ׃", 31.2. "בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר אֶל־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וְאֶל־הֲמוֹנוֹ אֶל־מִי דָּמִיתָ בְגָדְלֶךָ׃", 31.3. "הִנֵּה אַשּׁוּר אֶרֶז בַּלְּבָנוֹן יְפֵה עָנָף וְחֹרֶשׁ מֵצַל וּגְבַהּ קוֹמָה וּבֵין עֲבֹתִים הָיְתָה צַמַּרְתּוֹ׃", 31.4. "מַיִם גִּדְּלוּהוּ תְּהוֹם רֹמְמָתְהוּ אֶת־נַהֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלֵךְ סְבִיבוֹת מַטָּעָהּ וְאֶת־תְּעָלֹתֶיהָ שִׁלְחָה אֶל כָּל־עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃", 31.5. "עַל־כֵּן גָּבְהָא קֹמָתוֹ מִכֹּל עֲצֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וַתִּרְבֶּינָה סַרְעַפֹּתָיו וַתֶּאֱרַכְנָה פארתו [פֹארֹתָיו] מִמַּיִם רַבִּים בְּשַׁלְּחוֹ׃", 31.6. "בִּסְעַפֹּתָיו קִנְנוּ כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְתַחַת פֹּארֹתָיו יָלְדוּ כֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּבְצִלּוֹ יֵשְׁבוּ כֹּל גּוֹיִם רַבִּים׃", 31.7. "וַיְּיִף בְּגָדְלוֹ בְּאֹרֶךְ דָּלִיּוֹתָיו כִּי־הָיָה שָׁרְשׁוֹ אֶל־מַיִם רַבִּים׃", 31.8. "אֲרָזִים לֹא־עֲמָמֻהוּ בְּגַן־אֱלֹהִים בְּרוֹשִׁים לֹא דָמוּ אֶל־סְעַפֹּתָיו וְעַרְמֹנִים לֹא־הָיוּ כְּפֹארֹתָיו כָּל־עֵץ בְּגַן־אֱלֹהִים לֹא־דָמָה אֵלָיו בְּיָפְיוֹ׃", 31.9. "יָפֶה עֲשִׂיתִיו בְּרֹב דָּלִיּוֹתָיו וַיְקַנְאֻהוּ כָּל־עֲצֵי־עֵדֶן אֲשֶׁר בְּגַן הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 8.16. "And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east.", 8.17. "Then He said unto me: ‘Hast thou seen this, O son of man? Is it a light thing to the house of Judah that they commit the abominations which they commit here in that they fill the land with violence, and provoke Me still more, and, lo, they put the branch to their nose?", 8.18. "Therefore will I also deal in fury; Mine eye shall not spare, neither will I have pity; and though they cry in Mine ears with a loud voice, yet will I not hear them.’", 15.6. "Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: As the vine-tree among the trees of the forest, which I have given to the fire for fuel, so do I give the inhabitants of Jerusalem.", 16.3. "and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD unto Jerusalem: Thine origin and thy nativity is of the land of the Canaanite; the Amorite was thy father, and thy mother was a Hittite.", 17.5. "He took also of the seed of the land, And planted it in a fruitful soil; He placed it beside many waters, He set it as a slip.", 19.1. "Moreover, take thou up a lamentation for the princes of Israel,", 19.10. "Thy mother was like a vine, in thy likeness, Planted by the waters; She was fruitful and full of branches By reason of many waters.", 19.11. "And she had strong rods To be sceptres for them that bore rule; And her stature was exalted Among the thick branches, And she was seen in her height With the multitude of her tendrils.", 19.12. "But she was plucked up in fury, She was cast down to the ground, And the east wind dried up her fruit; Her strong rods were broken off and withered, The fire consumed her.", 19.13. "And now she is planted in the wilderness, In a dry and thirsty ground.", 19.14. "And fire is gone out of the rod of her branches, It hath devoured her fruit, So that there is in her no strong rod To be a sceptre to rule.’ This is a lamentation, and it was for a lamentation.", 27.11. "The men of Arvad and Helech were upon thy walls round about, and the Gammadim were in thy towers; they hanged their shields upon thy walls round about; they have perfected thy beauty.", 28.1. "And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:", 28.2. "’Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thy heart is lifted up, And thou hast said: I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, In the heart of the seas; Yet thou art man, and not God, Though thou didst set thy heart as the heart of God—", 28.3. "Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel! There is no secret that they can hide from thee!", 28.4. "By thy wisdom and by thy discernment Thou hast gotten thee riches, And hast gotten gold and silver Into thy treasures;", 28.5. "In thy great wisdom by thy traffic Hast thou increased thy riches, And thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches—", 28.6. "Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thou hast set thy heart As the heart of God;", 28.7. "Therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon thee, The terrible of the nations; And they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, And they shall defile thy brightness. .", 28.8. "They shall bring thee down to the pit; And thou shalt die the deaths of them that are slain, In the heart of the seas.", 28.9. "Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee: I am God? But thou art man, and not God, In the hand of them that defile thee.", 28.10. "Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised By the hand of strangers; For I have spoken, saith the Lord GOD.’", 31.1. "And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in the third month, in the first day of the month, that the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:", 31.2. "’Son of man, say unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and to his multitude: Whom art thou like in thy greatness?", 31.3. "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon, With fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, And of a high stature; And its top was among the thick boughs.", 31.4. "The waters nourished it, The deep made it to grow; Her rivers ran round About her plantation, And she sent out her conduits Unto all the trees of the field.", 31.5. "Therefore its stature was exalted Above all the trees of the field; And its boughs were multiplied, And its branches became long, Because of the multitude of waters, when it shot them forth.", 31.6. "All the fowls of heaven made Their nests in its boughs, And all the beasts of the field did bring forth their young Under its branches, And under its shadow dwelt All great nations.", 31.7. "Thus was it fair in its greatness, In the length of its branches; For its root was By many waters.", 31.8. "The cedars in the garden of God Could not hide it; The cypress-trees were not Like its boughs, And the plane-trees were not As its branches; Nor was any tree in the garden of God Like unto it in its beauty.", 31.9. "I made it fair By the multitude of its branches; So that all the trees of Eden, That were in the garden of God, envied it.",
25. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 696-718, 720-741, 790-815, 719 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 152
719. πρὶν ἂν πρὸς αὐτὸν Καύκασον μόλῃς, ὀρῶν
26. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 14.2, 26.15-26.21, 32.9-32.16 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 120, 163, 221; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 48
14.2. "וַיָּסַר אֶת־מִזְבְּחוֹת הַנֵּכָר וְהַבָּמוֹת וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֶת־הַמַּצֵּבוֹת וַיְגַדַּע אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים׃", 26.15. "וַיַּעַשׂ בִּירוּשָׁלִַם חִשְּׁבֹנוֹת מַחֲשֶׁבֶת חוֹשֵׁב לִהְיוֹת עַל־הַמִּגְדָּלִים וְעַל־הַפִּנּוֹת לִירוֹא בַּחִצִּים וּבָאֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת וַיֵּצֵא שְׁמוֹ עַד־לְמֵרָחוֹק כִּי־הִפְלִיא לְהֵעָזֵר עַד כִּי־חָזָק׃", 26.16. "וּכְחֶזְקָתוֹ גָּבַהּ לִבּוֹ עַד־לְהַשְׁחִית וַיִּמְעַל בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהָיו וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה לְהַקְטִיר עַל־מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת׃", 26.17. "וַיָּבֹא אַחֲרָיו עֲזַרְיָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְעִמּוֹ כֹּהֲנִים לַיהוָה שְׁמוֹנִים בְּנֵי־חָיִל׃", 26.18. "וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־עֻזִּיָּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ לֹא־לְךָ עֻזִּיָּהוּ לְהַקְטִיר לַיהוָה כִּי לַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹן הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים לְהַקְטִיר צֵא מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ כִּי מָעַלְתָּ וְלֹא־לְךָ לְכָבוֹד מֵיְהוָה אֱלֹהִים׃", 26.19. "וַיִּזְעַף עֻזִּיָּהוּ וּבְיָדוֹ מִקְטֶרֶת לְהַקְטִיר וּבְזַעְפּוֹ עִם־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַצָּרַעַת זָרְחָה בְמִצְחוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה מֵעַל לְמִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת׃", 26.21. "וַיְהִי עֻזִּיָּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ מְצֹרָע עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ וַיֵּשֶׁב בֵּית החפשות [הַחָפְשִׁית] מְצֹרָע כִּי נִגְזַר מִבֵּית יְהוָה וְיוֹתָם בְּנוֹ עַל־בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ שׁוֹפֵט אֶת־עַם הָאָרֶץ׃", 32.9. "אַחַר זֶה שָׁלַח סַנְחֵרִיב מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר עֲבָדָיו יְרוּשָׁלַיְמָה וְהוּא עַל־לָכִישׁ וְכָל־מֶמְשַׁלְתּוֹ עִמּוֹ עַל־יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וְעַל־כָּל־יְהוּדָה אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר׃", 32.11. "הֲלֹא יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מַסִּית אֶתְכֶם לָתֵת אֶתְכֶם לָמוּת בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא לֵאמֹר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יַצִּילֵנוּ מִכַּף מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃", 32.12. "הֲלֹא־הוּא יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ הֵסִיר אֶת־בָּמֹתָיו וְאֶת־מִזְבְּחֹתָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לִיהוּדָה וְלִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר לִפְנֵי מִזְבֵּחַ אֶחָד תִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ וְעָלָיו תַּקְטִירוּ׃", 32.13. "הֲלֹא תֵדְעוּ מֶה עָשִׂיתִי אֲנִי וַאֲבוֹתַי לְכֹל עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת הֲיָכוֹל יָכְלוּ אֱלֹהֵי גּוֹיֵ הָאֲרָצוֹת לְהַצִּיל אֶת־אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי׃", 32.14. "מִי בְּכָל־אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר הֶחֱרִימוּ אֲבוֹתַי אֲשֶׁר יָכוֹל לְהַצִּיל אֶת־עַמּוֹ מִיָּדִי כִּי יוּכַל אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְהַצִּיל אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדִי׃", 32.15. "וְעַתָּה אַל־יַשִּׁיא אֶתְכֶם חִזְקִיָּהוּ וְאַל־יַסִּית אֶתְכֶם כָּזֹאת וְאַל־תַּאֲמִינוּ לוֹ כִּי־לֹא יוּכַל כָּל־אֱלוֹהַ כָּל־גּוֹי וּמַמְלָכָה לְהַצִּיל עַמּוֹ מִיָּדִי וּמִיַּד אֲבוֹתָי אַף כִּי אֱ‍לֹהֵיכֶם לֹא־יַצִּילוּ אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדִי׃", 32.16. "וְעוֹד דִּבְּרוּ עֲבָדָיו עַל־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים וְעַל יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַבְדּוֹ׃", 14.2. "for he took away the strange altars, and the high places, and broke down the pillars, and hewed down the Asherim;", 26.15. "And he made in Jerusalem engines, invented by skilful men, to be on the towers and upon the corners, wherewith to shoot arrows and great stones. And his name spread far abroad; for he was marvellously helped, till he was strong.", 26.16. "But when he was strong, his heart was lifted up so that he did corruptly, and he trespassed against the LORD his God; for he went into the temple of the LORD to burn incense upon the altar of incense.", 26.17. "And Azariah the priest went in after him, and with him fourscore priests of the LORD, that were valiant men;", 26.18. "and they withstood Uzziah the king, and said unto him: ‘It pertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto the LORD, but to the priests the sons of Aaron that are consecrated it pertaineth to burn incense; go out of the sanctuary; for thou hast trespassed; neither shall it be for thy honour from the LORD God.’", 26.19. "Then Uzziah was wroth; and he had a censer in his hand to burn incense; and while he was wroth with the priests, the leprosy broke forth in his forehead before the priests in the house of the LORD, beside the altar of incense.", 26.20. "And Azariah the chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him, and, behold, he was leprous in his forehead, and they thrust him out quickly from thence; yea, himself made haste also to go out, because the LORD had smitten him.", 26.21. "And Uzziah the king was a leper unto the day of his death, and dwelt in a house set apart, being a leper; for he was cut off from the house of the LORD; and Jotham his son was over the king’s house, judging the people of the land.", 32.9. "After this did Sennacherib king of Assyria send his servants to Jerusalem—now he was before Lachish, and all his power with him—unto Hezekiah king of Judah, and unto all Judah that were at Jerusalem, saying:", 32.10. "’Thus saith Sennacherib king of Assyria: Whereon do ye trust, that ye abide the siege in Jerusalem?", 32.11. "Doth not Hezekiah persuade you, to give you over to die by famine and by thirst, saying: The LORD our God will deliver us out of the hand of the king of Assyria?", 32.12. "Hath not the same Hezekiah taken away His high places and His altars, and commanded Judah and Jerusalem, saying: Ye shall worship before one altar, and upon it shall ye offer?", 32.13. "Know ye not what I and my fathers have done unto all the peoples of the lands? Were the gods of the nations of the lands in any wise able to deliver their land out of my hand?", 32.14. "Who was there among all the gods of those nations which my fathers utterly destroyed, that could deliver his people out of my hand, that your God should be able to deliver you out of my hand?", 32.15. "Now therefore let not Hezekiah beguile you, nor persuade you after this manner, neither believe ye him; for no god of any nation or kingdom was able to deliver his people out of my hand, and out of the hand of my fathers; how much less shall your God deliver you out of my hand?’", 32.16. "And his servants spoke yet more against the LORD God, and against His servant Hezekiah.",
27. Aristophanes, Birds, 1124-1131, 551-552 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 120
552. περιτειχίζειν μεγάλαις πλίνθοις ὀπταῖς ὥσπερ Βαβυλῶνα.
28. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 1.7, 3.1-3.5, 3.9, 5.5-5.11, 14.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 121; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 236; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 24, 27, 28
1.7. "בְּיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לְעַשְׁתֵּי־עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ שְׁבָט בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה בֶּן־בֶּרֶכְיָהוּ בֶּן־עִדּוֹא הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃", 3.1. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃", 3.1. "וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃", 3.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַשָּׂטָן וְיִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַבֹּחֵר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם הֲלוֹא זֶה אוּד מֻצָּל מֵאֵשׁ׃", 3.3. "וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ הָיָה לָבֻשׁ בְּגָדִים צוֹאִים וְעֹמֵד לִפְנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ׃", 3.4. "וַיַּעַן וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעֹמְדִים לְפָנָיו לֵאמֹר הָסִירוּ הַבְּגָדִים הַצֹּאִים מֵעָלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו רְאֵה הֶעֱבַרְתִּי מֵעָלֶיךָ עֲוֺנֶךָ וְהַלְבֵּשׁ אֹתְךָ מַחֲלָצוֹת׃", 3.5. "וָאֹמַר יָשִׂימוּ צָנִיף טָהוֹר עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיָּשִׂימוּ הַצָּנִיף הַטָּהוֹר עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיַּלְבִּשֻׁהוּ בְּגָדִים וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד׃", 3.9. "כִּי הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִפְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עַל־אֶבֶן אַחַת שִׁבְעָה עֵינָיִם הִנְנִי מְפַתֵּחַ פִּתֻּחָהּ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּמַשְׁתִּי אֶת־עֲוֺן הָאָרֶץ־הַהִיא בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃", 5.5. "וַיֵּצֵא הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה מָה הַיּוֹצֵאת הַזֹּאת׃", 5.6. "וָאֹמַר מַה־הִיא וַיֹּאמֶר זֹאת הָאֵיפָה הַיּוֹצֵאת וַיֹּאמֶר זֹאת עֵינָם בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 5.7. "וְהִנֵּה כִּכַּר עֹפֶרֶת נִשֵּׂאת וְזֹאת אִשָּׁה אַחַת יוֹשֶׁבֶת בְּתוֹךְ הָאֵיפָה׃", 5.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר זֹאת הָרִשְׁעָה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֹתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ הָאֵיפָה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־אֶבֶן הָעֹפֶרֶת אֶל־פִּיהָ׃", 5.9. "וָאֶשָּׂא עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה שְׁתַּיִם נָשִׁים יוֹצְאוֹת וְרוּחַ בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם וְלָהֵנָּה כְנָפַיִם כְּכַנְפֵי הַחֲסִידָה וַתִּשֶּׂאנָה אֶת־הָאֵיפָה בֵּין הָאָרֶץ וּבֵין הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 5.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לִבְנוֹת־לָה בַיִת בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר וְהוּכַן וְהֻנִּיחָה שָּׁם עַל־מְכֻנָתָהּ׃", 14.2. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה עַל־מְצִלּוֹת הַסּוּס קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה וְהָיָה הַסִּירוֹת בְּבֵית יְהוָה כַּמִּזְרָקִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 14.2. "וְאָסַפְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לַמִּלְחָמָה וְנִלְכְּדָה הָעִיר וְנָשַׁסּוּ הַבָּתִּים וְהַנָּשִׁים תשגלנה [תִּשָּׁכַבְנָה] וְיָצָא חֲצִי הָעִיר בַּגּוֹלָה וְיֶתֶר הָעָם לֹא יִכָּרֵת מִן־הָעִיר׃", 1.7. "Upon the four and twentieth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Shebat, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying—", 3.1. "And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.", 3.2. "And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan, yea, the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this man a brand plucked out of the fire?’", 3.3. "Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the angel.", 3.4. "And he answered and spoke unto those that stood before him, saying: ‘Take the filthy garments from off him.’ And unto him he said: ‘Behold, I cause thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with robes.’", 3.5. "And I said: ‘Let them set a fair mitre upon his head.’ So they set a fair mitre upon his head, and clothed him with garments; and the angel of the LORD stood by.", 3.9. "For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone are seven facets; behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the LORD of hosts: And I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.", 5.5. "Then the angel that spoke with me went forth, and said unto me: ‘Lift up now thine eyes, and see what is this that goeth forth.’", 5.6. "And I said: ‘What is it?’ And he said: ‘This is the measure that goeth forth.’ He said moreover: ‘This is their eye in all the land—", 5.7. "and, behold, there was lifted up a round piece of lead—and this is a woman sitting in the midst of the measure.’", 5.8. "And he said: ‘This is Wickedness.’ And he cast her down into the midst of the measure, and he cast the weight of lead upon the mouth thereof.", 5.9. "Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there came forth two women, and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork; and they lifted up the measure between the earth and the heaven.", 5.10. "Then said I to the angel that spoke with me: ‘Whither do these bear the measure?’", 5.11. "And he said unto me: ‘To build her a house in the land of Shinar; and when it is prepared, she shall be set there in her own place.", 14.2. "For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; And the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, And the women ravished; And half of the city shall go forth into captivity, But the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.",
29. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 12.38 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 141
12.38. "וּמֵעֵבֶר לַיַּרְדֵּן מִן־הָראוּבֵנִי וְהַגָּדִי וַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה בְּכֹל כְּלֵי צְבָא מִלְחָמָה מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃", 12.38. "And on the other side of the Jordan, of the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and of the half-tribe of Manasseh, with all manner of instruments of war for the battle, a hundred and twenty thousand.",
30. Herodotus, Histories, 1.56-1.58, 1.95, 1.98, 1.106, 1.153, 1.174, 1.178-1.179, 1.184-1.185, 1.186.1, 1.199, 2.158, 3.28-3.30, 4.1, 4.5-4.13, 5.102, 6.58-6.60, 6.75, 8.33, 8.51-8.55, 8.109, 8.113, 8.129, 8.143, 9.32, 9.65 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions •babylon and babylonians, city walls •babylon/babylonians •babylon, babylonia Found in books: Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 40; Gera (2014) 116, 119, 141, 162, 205; Gruen (2020) 14; Marek (2019) 113; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 315, 316, 319
1.56. When he heard these verses, Croesus was pleased with them above all, for he thought that a mule would never be king of the Medes instead of a man, and therefore that he and his posterity would never lose his empire. Then he sought very carefully to discover who the mightiest of the Greeks were, whom he should make his friends. ,He found by inquiry that the chief peoples were the Lacedaemonians among those of Doric, and the Athenians among those of Ionic stock. These races, Ionian and Dorian, were the foremost in ancient time, the first a Pelasgian and the second a Hellenic people. The Pelasgian race has never yet left its home; the Hellenic has wandered often and far. ,For in the days of king Deucalion it inhabited the land of Phthia , then the country called Histiaean, under Ossa and Olympus , in the time of Dorus son of Hellen; driven from this Histiaean country by the Cadmeans, it settled about Pindus in the territory called Macedonian; from there again it migrated to Dryopia, and at last came from Dryopia into the Peloponnese , where it took the name of Dorian. 1.57. What language the Pelasgians spoke I cannot say definitely. But if one may judge by those that still remain of the Pelasgians who live above the Tyrrheni in the city of Creston —who were once neighbors of the people now called Dorians, and at that time inhabited the country which now is called Thessalian— ,and of the Pelasgians who inhabited Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont , who came to live among the Athenians, and by other towns too which were once Pelasgian and afterwards took a different name: if, as I said, one may judge by these, the Pelasgians spoke a language which was not Greek. ,If, then, all the Pelasgian stock spoke so, then the Attic nation, being of Pelasgian blood, must have changed its language too at the time when it became part of the Hellenes. For the people of Creston and Placia have a language of their own in common, which is not the language of their neighbors; and it is plain that they still preserve the manner of speech which they brought with them in their migration into the places where they live. 1.58. But the Hellenic stock, it seems clear to me, has always had the same language since its beginning; yet being, when separated from the Pelasgians, few in number, they have grown from a small beginning to comprise a multitude of nations, chiefly because the Pelasgians and many other foreign peoples united themselves with them. Before that, I think, the Pelasgic stock nowhere increased much in number while it was of foreign speech. 1.95. But the next business of my history is to inquire who this Cyrus was who took down the power of Croesus, and how the Persians came to be the rulers of Asia . I mean then to be guided in what I write by some of the Persians who desire not to magnify the story of Cyrus but to tell the truth, though there are no less than three other accounts of Cyrus which I could give. ,After the Assyrians had ruled Upper Asia for five hundred and twenty years, the Medes were the first who began to revolt from them. These, it would seem, proved their bravery in fighting for freedom against the Assyrians; they cast off their slavery and won freedom. Afterwards, the other subject nations, too, did the same as the Medes. 1.98. The question was at once propounded: Whom should they make king? Then every man was loud in putting Deioces forward and praising Deioces, until they agreed that he should be their king. ,He ordered them to build him houses worthy of his royal power, and strengthen him with a bodyguard. The Medes did so. They built him a big and strong house wherever in the land he indicated to them, and let him choose a bodyguard out of all the Medes. ,And having obtained power, he forced the Medes to build him one city and to fortify and care for this more strongly than all the rest. The Medes did this for him, too. So he built the big and strong walls, one standing inside the next in circles, which are now called Ecbatana . ,This fortress is so designed that each circle of walls is higher than the next outer circle by no more than the height of its battlements; to which plan the site itself, on a hill in the plain, contributes somewhat, but chiefly it was accomplished by skill. ,There are seven circles in all; within the innermost circle are the palace and the treasuries; and the longest wall is about the length of the wall that surrounds the city of Athens . The battlements of the first circle are white, of the second black, of the third circle purple, of the fourth blue, and of the fifth orange: ,thus the battlements of five circles are painted with colors; and the battlements of the last two circles are coated, the one with silver and the other with gold. 1.106. The Scythians, then, ruled Asia for twenty-eight years: and the whole land was ruined because of their violence and their pride, for, besides exacting from each the tribute which was assessed, they rode about the land carrying off everyone's possessions. ,Most of them were entertained and made drunk and then slain by Cyaxares and the Medes: so thus the Medes took back their empire and all that they had formerly possessed; and they took Ninus (how, I will describe in a later part of my history), and brought all Assyria except the province of Babylon under their rule. 1.153. When the herald had proclaimed this, Cyrus is said to have asked the Greeks who were present who and how many in number these Lacedaemonians were who made this declaration. When he was told, he said to the Spartan herald, “I never yet feared men who set apart a place in the middle of their city where they perjure themselves and deceive each other. They, if I keep my health, shall talk of their own misfortunes, not those of the Ionians.” ,He uttered this threat against all the Greeks, because they have markets and buy and sell there; for the Persians themselves were not used to resorting to markets at all, nor do they even have a market of any kind. ,Presently, entrusting Sardis to a Persian called Tabalus, and instructing Pactyes, a Lydian, to take charge of the gold of Croesus and the Lydians, he himself marched away to Ecbatana , taking Croesus with him, and at first taking no notice of the Ionians. ,For he had Babylon on his hands and the Bactrian nation and the Sacae and Egyptians; he meant to lead the army against these himself, and to send another commander against the Ionians. 1.174. Neither the Carians nor any Greeks who dwell in this country did any thing notable before they were all enslaved by Harpagus. ,Among those who inhabit it are certain Cnidians, colonists from Lacedaemon . Their country (it is called the Triopion) lies between the sea and that part of the peninsula which belongs to Bubassus, and all but a small part of the Cnidian territory is washed by the sea ,(for it is bounded on the north by the gulf of Ceramicus, and on the south by the sea off Syme and Rhodes ). Now while Harpagus was conquering Ionia , the Cnidians dug a trench across this little space, which is about two-thirds of a mile wide, in order that their country might be an island. So they brought it all within the entrenchment; for the frontier between the Cnidian country and the mainland is on the isthmus across which they dug. ,Many of them were at this work; and seeing that the workers were injured when breaking stones more often and less naturally than usual, some in other ways, but most in the eyes, the Cnidians sent envoys to Delphi to inquire what it was that opposed them. ,Then, as they themselves say, the priestess gave them this answer in iambic verse: quote type="oracle" l met="iamb" “Do not wall or trench the isthmus: /l l Zeus would have given you an island, if he had wanted to.” /l /quote ,At this answer from the priestess, the Cnidians stopped their digging, and when Harpagus came against them with his army they surrendered to him without resistance. 1.178. When Cyrus had made all the mainland submit to him, he attacked the Assyrians. In Assyria there are many other great cities, but the most famous and the strongest was Babylon , where the royal dwelling had been established after the destruction of Ninus . Babylon was a city such as I will now describe. ,It lies in a great plain, and is in shape a square, each side fifteen miles in length; thus sixty miles make the complete circuit of the city. Such is the size of the city of Babylon ; and it was planned like no other city of which we know. ,Around it runs first a moat deep and wide and full of water, and then a wall eighty three feet thick and three hundred thirty three feet high. The royal measure is greater by three fingers' breadth than the common measure. 1.179. Further, I must relate where the earth was used as it was dug from the moat and how the wall was constructed. As they dug the moat, they made bricks of the earth which was carried out of the place they dug, and when they had moulded bricks enough, they baked them in ovens; ,then using hot bitumen for cement and interposing layers of wattled reeds at every thirtieth course of bricks, they built first the border of the moat and then the wall itself in the same fashion. ,On the top, along the edges of the wall, they built houses of a single room, facing each other, with space enough between to drive a four-horse chariot. There are a hundred gates in the circuit of the wall, all of bronze, with posts and lintels of the same. ,There is another city, called Is, eight days' journey from Babylon , where there is a little river, also named Is, a tributary of the Euphrates river ; from the source of this river Is, many lumps of bitumen rise with the water; and from there the bitumen was brought for the wall of Babylon . 1.184. Now among the many rulers of this city of Babylon (whom I shall mention in my Assyrian history) who finished the building of the walls and the temples, there were two that were women. The first of these lived five generations earlier than the second, and her name was Semiramis: it was she who built dikes on the plain, a notable work; before that the whole plain used to be flooded by the river. 1.185. The second queen, whose name was Nitocris, was a wiser woman than the first. She left such monuments as I shall record; and moreover, seeing that the kingdom of Media was great and restless and Ninus itself among other cities had fallen to it, she took such precautions as she could for her protection. ,First she dealt with the river Euphrates , which flows through the middle of her city; this had been straight before; but by digging canals higher up she made the river so crooked that its course now passes one of the Assyrian villages three times; the village which is so approached by the Euphrates is called Ardericca. And now those who travel from our sea to Babylon must spend three days as they float down the Euphrates coming three times to the same village. ,Such was this work; and she built an embankment along either shore of the river, marvellous for its greatness and height. ,Then a long way above Babylon she dug the reservoir of a lake, a little way off from the river, always digging deep enough to find water, and making the circumference a distance of fifty two miles; what was dug out of this hole, she used to embank either edge of the river; ,and when she had it all dug, she brought stones and made a quay all around the lake. ,Her purpose in making the river wind and turning the hole into marsh was this: that the current might be slower because of the many windings that broke its force, and that the passages to Babylon might be crooked, and that right after them should come also the long circuit of the lake. ,All this work was done in that part of the country where the passes are and the shortest road from Media, so that the Medes might not mix with her people and learn of her affairs. 1.186.1. So she made the deep river her protection; and this work led to another which she added to it. Her city was divided into two parts by the river that flowed through the middle. In the days of the former rulers, when one wanted to go from one part to the other, one had to cross in a boat; and this, I suppose, was a nuisance. But the queen also provided for this; she made another monument of her reign out of this same work when the digging of the basin of the lake was done. 1.199. The foulest Babylonian custom is that which compels every woman of the land to sit in the temple of Aphrodite and have intercourse with some stranger once in her life. Many women who are rich and proud and disdain to mingle with the rest, drive to the temple in covered carriages drawn by teams, and stand there with a great retinue of attendants. ,But most sit down in the sacred plot of Aphrodite, with crowns of cord on their heads; there is a great multitude of women coming and going; passages marked by line run every way through the crowd, by which the men pass and make their choice. ,Once a woman has taken her place there, she does not go away to her home before some stranger has cast money into her lap, and had intercourse with her outside the temple; but while he casts the money, he must say, “I invite you in the name of Mylitta” (that is the Assyrian name for Aphrodite). ,It does not matter what sum the money is; the woman will never refuse, for that would be a sin, the money being by this act made sacred. So she follows the first man who casts it and rejects no one. After their intercourse, having discharged her sacred duty to the goddess, she goes away to her home; and thereafter there is no bribe however great that will get her. ,So then the women that are fair and tall are soon free to depart, but the uncomely have long to wait because they cannot fulfill the law; for some of them remain for three years, or four. There is a custom like this in some parts of Cyprus . 2.158. Psammetichus had a son, Necos, who became king of Egypt . It was he who began building the canal into the Red Sea , which was finished by Darius the Persian. This is four days' voyage in length, and it was dug wide enough for two triremes to move in it rowed abreast. ,It is fed by the Nile , and is carried from a little above Bubastis by the Arabian town of Patumus; it issues into the Red Sea . Digging began in the part of the Egyptian plain nearest to Arabia ; the mountains that extend to Memphis (the mountains where the stone quarries are) come close to this plain; ,the canal is led along the foothills of these mountains in a long reach from west to east; passing then into a ravine, it bears southward out of the hill country towards the Arabian Gulf . ,Now the shortest and most direct passage from the northern to the southern or Red Sea is from the Casian promontory, the boundary between Egypt and Syria , to the Arabian Gulf , and this is a distance of one hundred and twenty five miles, neither more nor less; ,this is the most direct route, but the canal is far longer, inasmuch as it is more crooked. In Necos' reign, a hundred and twenty thousand Egyptians died digging it. Necos stopped work, stayed by a prophetic utterance that he was toiling beforehand for the barbarian. The Egyptians call all men of other languages barbarians. 3.28. Having put them to death, he next summoned the priests before him. When they gave him the same account, he said that if a tame god had come to the Egyptians he would know it; and with no more words he bade the priests bring Apis. So they went to fetch and bring him. ,This Apis, or Epaphus, is a calf born of a cow that can never conceive again. By what the Egyptians say, the cow is made pregt by a light from heaven, and thereafter gives birth to Apis. ,The marks of this calf called Apis are these: he is black, and has on his forehead a three-cornered white spot, and the likeness of an eagle on his back; the hairs of the tail are double, and there is a knot under the tongue. 3.29. When the priests led Apis in, Cambyses—for he was all but mad—drew his dagger and, meaning to stab the calf in the belly, stuck the thigh; then laughing he said to the priests: ,“Simpletons, are these your gods, creatures of flesh and blood that can feel weapons of iron? That is a god worthy of the Egyptians. But for you, you shall suffer for making me your laughing-stock.” So saying he bade those, whose business it was, to scourge the priests well, and to kill any other Egyptian whom they found holiday-making. ,So the Egyptian festival ended, and the priests were punished, and Apis lay in the temple and died of the wound in the thigh. When he was dead of the wound, the priests buried him without Cambyses' knowledge. 3.30. But Cambyses, the Egyptians say, owing to this wrongful act immediately went mad, although even before he had not been sensible. His first evil act was to destroy his full brother Smerdis, whom he had sent away from Egypt to Persia out of jealousy, because Smerdis alone could draw the bow brought from the Ethiopian by the Fish-eaters as far as two fingerbreadths, but no other Persian could draw it. ,Smerdis having gone to Persia , Cambyses saw in a dream a vision, in which it seemed to him that a messenger came from Persia and told him that Smerdis sitting on the royal throne touched heaven with his head. ,Fearing therefore for himself, lest his brother might slay him and so be king, he sent Prexaspes, the most trusted of his Persians, to Persia to kill him. Prexaspes went up to Susa and killed Smerdis; some say that he took Smerdis out hunting, others that he brought him to the Red Sea and there drowned him. 4.1. After taking Babylon , Darius himself marched against the Scythians. For since Asia was bursting with men and vast revenues were coming in, Darius desired to punish the Scythians for the wrong they had begun when they invaded Media first and defeated those who opposed them in battle. ,For the Scythians, as I have said before, ruled upper Asia for twenty-eight years; they invaded Asia in their pursuit of the Cimmerians, and ended the power of the Medes, who were the rulers of Asia before the Scythians came. ,But when the Scythians had been away from their homes for twenty-eight years and returned to their country after so long an absence, as much trouble as their Median war awaited them. They found themselves opposed by a great force; for the Scythian women, when their husbands were away for so long, turned to their slaves. 4.5. The Scythians say that their nation is the youngest in the world, and that it came into being in this way. A man whose name was Targitaüs appeared in this country, which was then desolate. They say that his parents were Zeus and a daughter of the Borysthenes river (I do not believe the story, but it is told). ,Such was Targitaüs' lineage; and he had three sons: Lipoxaïs, Arpoxaïs, and Colaxaïs, youngest of the three. ,In the time of their rule (the story goes) certain implements—namely, a plough, a yoke, a sword, and a flask, all of gold—fell down from the sky into Scythia . The eldest of them, seeing these, approached them meaning to take them; but the gold began to burn as he neared, and he stopped. ,Then the second approached, and the gold did as before. When these two had been driven back by the burning gold, the youngest brother approached and the burning stopped, and he took the gold to his own house. In view of this, the elder brothers agreed to give all the royal power to the youngest. 4.6. Lipoxaïs, it is said, was the father of the Scythian clan called Auchatae; Arpoxaïs, the second brother, of those called Katiari and Traspians; the youngest, who was king, of those called Paralatae. ,All these together bear the name of Skoloti, after their king; “Scythians” is the name given them by Greeks. This, then, is the Scythians' account of their origin, 4.7. and they say that neither more nor less than a thousand years in all passed from the time of their first king Targitaüs to the entry of Darius into their country. The kings guard this sacred gold very closely, and every year offer solemn sacrifices of propitiation to it. ,Whoever falls asleep at this festival in the open air, having the sacred gold with him, is said by the Scythians not to live out the year; for which reason (they say) as much land as he can ride round in one day is given to him. Because of the great size of the country, the lordships that Colaxaïs established for his sons were three, one of which, where they keep the gold, was the greatest. ,Above and north of the neighbors of their country no one (they say) can see or travel further, because of showers of feathers; for earth and sky are full of feathers, and these hinder sight. 4.8. This is what the Scythians say about themselves and the country north of them. But the story told by the Greeks who live in Pontus is as follows. Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryones, came to this land, which was then desolate, but is now inhabited by the Scythians. ,Geryones lived west of the Pontus , settled in the island called by the Greeks Erythea, on the shore of Ocean near Gadira, outside the pillars of Heracles. As for Ocean, the Greeks say that it flows around the whole world from where the sun rises, but they cannot prove that this is so. ,Heracles came from there to the country now called Scythia , where, encountering wintry and frosty weather, he drew his lion's skin over him and fell asleep, and while he slept his mares, which were grazing yoked to the chariot, were spirited away by divine fortune. 4.9. When Heracles awoke, he searched for them, visiting every part of the country, until at last he came to the land called the Woodland, and there he found in a cave a creature of double form that was half maiden and half serpent; above the buttocks she was a woman, below them a snake. ,When he saw her he was astonished, and asked her if she had seen his mares straying; she said that she had them, and would not return them to him before he had intercourse with her; Heracles did, in hope of this reward. ,But though he was anxious to take the horses and go, she delayed returning them, so that she might have Heracles with her for as long as possible; at last she gave them back, telling him, “These mares came, and I kept them safe here for you, and you have paid me for keeping them, for I have three sons by you. ,Now tell me what I am to do when they are grown up: shall I keep them here (since I am queen of this country), or shall I send them away to you?” Thus she inquired, and then (it is said) Heracles answered: ,“When you see the boys are grown up, do as follows and you will do rightly: whichever of them you see bending this bow and wearing this belt so, make him an inhabitant of this land; but whoever falls short of these accomplishments that I require, send him away out of the country. Do so and you shall yourself have comfort, and my will shall be done.” 4.10. So he drew one of his bows (for until then Heracles always carried two), and showed her the belt, and gave her the bow and the belt, that had a golden vessel on the end of its clasp; and, having given them, he departed. But when the sons born to her were grown men, she gave them names, calling one of them Agathyrsus and the next Gelonus and the youngest Scythes; furthermore, remembering the instructions, she did as she was told. ,Two of her sons, Agathyrsus and Gelonus, were cast out by their mother and left the country, unable to fulfill the requirements set; but Scythes, the youngest, fulfilled them and so stayed in the land. ,From Scythes son of Heracles comes the whole line of the kings of Scythia ; and it is because of the vessel that the Scythians carry vessels on their belts to this day. This alone his mother did for Scythes. This is what the Greek dwellers in Pontus say. 4.11. There is yet another story, to which account I myself especially incline. It is to this effect. The nomadic Scythians inhabiting Asia , when hard pressed in war by the Massagetae, fled across the Araxes river to the Cimmerian country (for the country which the Scythians now inhabit is said to have belonged to the Cimmerians before), ,and the Cimmerians, at the advance of the Scythians, deliberated as men threatened by a great force should. Opinions were divided; both were strongly held, but that of the princes was the more honorable; for the people believed that their part was to withdraw and that there was no need to risk their lives for the dust of the earth; but the princes were for fighting to defend their country against the attackers. ,Neither side could persuade the other, neither the people the princes nor the princes the people; the one party planned to depart without fighting and leave the country to their enemies, but the princes were determined to lie dead in their own country and not to flee with the people, for they considered how happy their situation had been and what ills were likely to come upon them if they fled from their native land. ,Having made up their minds, the princes separated into two equal bands and fought with each other until they were all killed by each other's hands; then the Cimmerian people buried them by the Tyras river, where their tombs are still to be seen, and having buried them left the land; and the Scythians came and took possession of the country left empty. 4.12. And to this day there are Cimmerian walls in Scythia , and a Cimmerian ferry, and there is a country Cimmeria and a strait named Cimmerian. ,Furthermore, it is evident that the Cimmerians in their flight from the Scythians into Asia also made a colony on the peninsula where the Greek city of Sinope has since been founded; and it is clear that the Scythians pursued them and invaded Media, missing their way; ,for the Cimmerians always fled along the coast, and the Scythians pursued with the Caucasus on their right until they came into the Median land, turning inland on their way. That is the other story current among Greeks and foreigners alike. 4.13. There is also a story related in a poem by Aristeas son of Caüstrobius, a man of Proconnesus . This Aristeas, possessed by Phoebus, visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspians, beyond whom are the griffins that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreans, whose territory reaches to the sea. ,Except for the Hyperboreans, all these nations (and first the Arimaspians) are always at war with their neighbors; the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspians, and the Scythians by the Issedones, and the Cimmerians, living by the southern sea, were hard pressed by the Scythians and left their country. Thus Aristeas' story does not agree with the Scythian account about this country. 5.102. In the fire at Sardis, a temple of Cybebe, the goddess of that country, was burnt, and the Persians afterwards made this their pretext for burning the temples of Hellas. At this time, the Persians of the provinces this side of the Halys, on hearing of these matters, gathered together and came to aid the Lydians. ,It chanced that they found the Ionians no longer at Sardis, but following on their tracks, they caught them at Ephesus. There the Ionians stood arrayed to meet them, but were utterly routed in the battle. ,The Persians put to the sword many men of renown including Eualcides the general of the Eretrians who had won crowns as victor in the games and been greatly praised by Simonides of Ceos. Those of the Ionians who escaped from the battle fled, each to his city. 6.58. The kings are granted these rights from the Spartan commonwealth while they live; when they die, their rights are as follows: Horsemen proclaim their death in all parts of Laconia, and in the city women go about beating on cauldrons. When this happens, two free persons from each house, a man and a woman, are required to wear mourning, or incur heavy penalties if they fail to do so. ,The Lacedaemonians have the same custom at the deaths of their kings as the foreigners in Asia; most foreigners use the same custom at their kings' deaths. When a king of the Lacedaemonians dies, a fixed number of their subject neighbors must come to the funeral from all Lacedaemon, besides the Spartans. ,When these and the helots and the Spartans themselves have assembled in one place to the number of many thousands, together with the women, they zealously beat their foreheads and make long and loud lamentation, calling that king that is most recently dead the best of all their kings. Whenever a king dies in war, they make an image of him and carry it out on a well-spread bier. For ten days after the burial there are no assemblies or elections, and they mourn during these days. 6.59. The Lacedaemonians also resemble the Persians in this: when one king is dead and another takes his office, this successor releases from debt any Spartan who owes a debt to the king or to the commonwealth. Among the Persians the king at the beginning of his reign forgives all cities their arrears of tribute. 6.60. The Lacedaemonians resemble the Egyptians in that their heralds and flute-players and cooks inherit the craft from their fathers, a flute-player's son being a flute-player, and a cook's son a cook, and a herald's son a herald; no others usurp their places, making themselves heralds by loudness of voice; they ply their craft by right of birth. Such is the way of these matters. 6.75. When the Lacedaemonians learned that Cleomenes was doing this, they took fright and brought him back to Sparta to rule on the same terms as before. Cleomenes had already been not entirely in his right mind, and on his return from exile a mad sickness fell upon him: any Spartan that he happened to meet he would hit in the face with his staff. ,For doing this, and because he was out of his mind, his relatives bound him in the stocks. When he was in the stocks and saw that his guard was left alone, he demanded a dagger; the guard at first refused to give it, but Cleomenes threatened what he would do to him when he was freed, until the guard, who was a helot, was frightened by the threats and gave him the dagger. ,Cleomenes took the weapon and set about slashing himself from his shins upwards; from the shin to the thigh he cut his flesh lengthways, then from the thigh to the hip and the sides, until he reached the belly, and cut it into strips; thus he died, as most of the Greeks say, because he persuaded the Pythian priestess to tell the tale of Demaratus. The Athenians alone say it was because he invaded Eleusis and laid waste the precinct of the gods. The Argives say it was because when Argives had taken refuge after the battle in their temple of Argus he brought them out and cut them down, then paid no heed to the sacred grove and set it on fire. 8.33. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings. There was also then as now a place of divination at this place. This temple, too, they plundered and burnt, and they pursued and caught some of the Phocians near the mountains. Certain women too perished because of the multitude of their violators. 8.51. Since the crossing of the Hellespont, where the barbarians began their journey, they had spent one month there crossing into Europe and in three more months were in Attica, when Calliades was archon at Athens. ,When they took the town it was deserted, but in the sacred precinct they found a few Athenians, stewards of the sacred precinct and poor people, who defended themselves against the assault by fencing the acropolis with doors and logs. They had not withdrawn to Salamis not only because of poverty but also because they thought they had discovered the meaning of the oracle the Pythia had given, namely that the wooden wall would be impregnable. They believed that according to the oracle this, not the ships, was the refuge. 8.52. The Persians took up a position on the hill opposite the acropolis, which the Athenians call the Areopagus, and besieged them in this way: they wrapped arrows in tar and set them on fire, and then shot them at the barricade. Still the besieged Athenians defended themselves, although they had come to the utmost danger and their barricade had failed them. ,When the Pisistratids proposed terms of surrender, they would not listen but contrived defenses such as rolling down boulders onto the barbarians when they came near the gates. For a long time Xerxes was at a loss, unable to capture them. 8.53. In time a way out of their difficulties was revealed to the barbarians, since according to the oracle all the mainland of Attica had to become subject to the Persians. In front of the acropolis, and behind the gates and the ascent, was a place where no one was on guard, since no one thought any man could go up that way. Here some men climbed up, near the sacred precinct of Cecrops' daughter Aglaurus, although the place was a sheer cliff. ,When the Athenians saw that they had ascended to the acropolis, some threw themselves off the wall and were killed, and others fled into the chamber. The Persians who had come up first turned to the gates, opened them, and murdered the suppliants. When they had levelled everything, they plundered the sacred precinct and set fire to the entire acropolis. 8.54. So it was that Xerxes took complete possession of Athens, and he sent a horseman to Susa to announce his present success to Artabanus. On the day after the messenger was sent, he called together the Athenian exiles who accompanied him and asked them go up to the acropolis and perform sacrifices in their customary way, an order given because he had been inspired by a dream or because he felt remorse after burning the sacred precinct. The Athenian exiles did as they were commanded. 8.55. I will tell why I have mentioned this. In that acropolis is a shrine of Erechtheus, called the “Earthborn,” and in the shrine are an olive tree and a pool of salt water. The story among the Athenians is that they were set there by Poseidon and Athena as tokens when they contended for the land. It happened that the olive tree was burnt by the barbarians with the rest of the sacred precinct, but on the day after its burning, when the Athenians ordered by the king to sacrifice went up to the sacred precinct, they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the stump, and they reported this. 8.109. When Themistocles perceived that he could not persuade the greater part of them to sail to the Hellespont, he turned to the Athenians (for they were the angriest at the Persians' escape, and they were minded to sail to the Hellespont even by themselves, if the rest would not) and addressed them as follows: ,“This I have often seen with my eyes and heard yet more often, namely that beaten men, when they be driven to bay, will rally and retrieve their former mishap. Therefore I say to you,—as it is to a fortunate chance that we owe ourselves and Hellas, and have driven away so mighty a band of enemies—let us not pursue men who flee, ,for it is not we who have won this victory, but the gods and the heroes, who deemed Asia and Europe too great a realm for one man to rule, and that a wicked man and an impious one who dealt alike with temples and bones, burning and overthrowing the images of the gods,—yes, and one who scourged the sea and threw fetters into it. ,But as it is well with us for the moment, let us abide now in Hellas and take thought for ourselves and our households. Let us build our houses again and be diligent in sowing, when we have driven the foreigner completely away. Then when the next spring comes, let us set sail for the Hellespont and Ionia.” ,This he said with intent to have something to his credit with the Persian, so that he might have a place of refuge if ever (as might chance) he should suffer anything at the hands of the Athenians—and just that did in fact happen. 8.113. Those who were with Xerxes waited for a few days after the sea-fight and then marched away to Boeotia by the road by which they had come. Mardonius wanted to give the king safe conduct and thought the time of year unseasonable for war; it was better, he thought, to winter in Thessaly, and then attack the Peloponnese in the spring. ,When they had arrived in Thessaly, Mardonius first chose all the Persians called Immortals, save only Hydarnes their general who said that he would not quit the king's person, and next, the Persian cuirassiers and the thousand horse and the Medes and Sacae and Bactrians and Indians, alike their infantrymen and the rest of the horsemen. ,These nations he chose in their entirety; of the rest of his allies he picked out a few from each people, the best men and those whom he knew to have done some good service. The Persians whom he chose (men who wore torques and bracelets) were more in number than those of any other nation and next to them the Medes; these indeed were as many as the Persians, but not such stout fighters. Thereby the whole number, together with the horsemen, grew to three hundred thousand men. 8.129. This is how Timoxenus' treachery was brought to light. But when Artabazus had besieged Potidaea for three months, there was a great ebb-tide in the sea which lasted for a long while, and when the foreigners saw that the sea was turned to a marsh, they prepared to pass over it into Pallene. ,When they had made their way over two-fifths of it, however, and three yet remained to cross before they could be in Pallene, there came a great flood-tide, higher, as the people of the place say, than any one of the many that had been before. Some of them who did not know how to swim were drowned, and those who knew were slain by the Potidaeans, who came among them in boats. ,The Potidaeans say that the cause of the high sea and flood and the Persian disaster lay in the fact that those same Persians who now perished in the sea had profaned the temple and the image of Poseidon which was in the suburb of the city. I think that in saying that this was the cause they are correct. Those who escaped alive were led away by Artabazus to Mardonius in Thessaly. This is how the men who had been the king's escort fared. 8.143. But to Alexander the Athenians replied as follows: “We know of ourselves that the power of the Mede is many times greater than ours. There is no need to taunt us with that. Nevertheless in our zeal for freedom we will defend ourselves to the best of our ability. But as regards agreements with the barbarian, do not attempt to persuade us to enter into them, nor will we consent. ,Now carry this answer back to Mardonius from the Athenians, that as long as the sun holds the course by which he now goes, we will make no agreement with Xerxes. We will fight against him without ceasing, trusting in the aid of the gods and the heroes whom he has disregarded and burnt their houses and their adornments. ,Come no more to Athenians with such a plea, nor under the semblance of rendering us a service, counsel us to act wickedly. For we do not want those who are our friends and protectors to suffer any harm at Athenian hands.” 9.32. These which I have named were the greatest of the nations set in array by Mardonius, but there was also in the army a mixture of Phrygians, Thracians, Mysians, Paeonians, and the rest, besides Ethiopians and the Egyptian swordsmen called Hermotybies and Calasiries, who are the only fighting men in Egypt. ,These had been fighters on shipboard, till Mardonius while yet at Phalerum disembarked them from their ships; for the Egyptians were not appointed to serve in the land army which Xerxes led to Athens. of the barbarians, then, there were three hundred thousand, as I have already shown. As for the Greek allies of Mardonius, no one knows the number of them (for they were not counted), I suppose them to have been mustered to the number of fifty thousand. These were the footmen that were set in array; the cavalry were separately ordered. 9.65. At Plataea, however, the Persians, routed by the Lacedaemonians, fled in disorder to their own camp and inside the wooden walls which they had made in the territory of Thebes. ,It is indeed a marvel that although the battle was right by the grove of Demeter, there was no sign that any Persian had been killed in the precinct or entered into it; most of them fell near the temple in unconsecrated ground. I think—if it is necessary to judge the ways of the gods—that the goddess herself denied them entry, since they had burnt her temple, the shrine at Eleusis.
31. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 6.2, 9.1-9.6, 9.10-9.14, 10.2-10.4, 10.10-10.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 118; Gruen (2020) 120
6.2. "וְהִשְׁתְּכַח בְּאַחְמְתָא בְּבִירְתָא דִּי בְּמָדַי מְדִינְתָּה מְגִלָּה חֲדָה וְכֵן־כְּתִיב בְּגַוַּהּ דִּכְרוֹנָה׃", 6.2. "כִּי הִטַּהֲרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם כְּאֶחָד כֻּלָּם טְהוֹרִים וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ הַפֶּסַח לְכָל־בְּנֵי הַגּוֹלָה וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְלָהֶם׃", 9.1. "וּכְכַלּוֹת אֵלֶּה נִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי הַשָּׂרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־נִבְדְּלוּ הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הַפְּרִזִּי הַיְבוּסִי הָעַמֹּנִי הַמֹּאָבִי הַמִּצְרִי וְהָאֱמֹרִי׃", 9.1. "וְעַתָּה מַה־נֹּאמַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת כִּי עָזַבְנוּ מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃", 9.2. "כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃", 9.3. "וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה קָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶמְרְטָה מִשְּׂעַר רֹאשִׁי וּזְקָנִי וָאֵשְׁבָה מְשׁוֹמֵם׃", 9.4. "וְאֵלַי יֵאָסְפוּ כֹּל חָרֵד בְּדִבְרֵי אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מַעַל הַגּוֹלָה וַאֲנִי יֹשֵׁב מְשׁוֹמֵם עַד לְמִנְחַת הָעָרֶב׃", 9.5. "וּבְמִנְחַת הָעֶרֶב קַמְתִּי מִתַּעֲנִיתִי וּבְקָרְעִי בִגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶכְרְעָה עַל־בִּרְכַּי וָאֶפְרְשָׂה כַפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃", 9.6. "וָאֹמְרָה אֱלֹהַי בֹּשְׁתִּי וְנִכְלַמְתִּי לְהָרִים אֱלֹהַי פָּנַי אֵלֶיךָ כִּי עֲוֺנֹתֵינוּ רָבוּ לְמַעְלָה רֹּאשׁ וְאַשְׁמָתֵנוּ גָדְלָה עַד לַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 9.11. "אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָ בְּיַד עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּאִים לְרִשְׁתָּהּ אֶרֶץ נִדָּה הִיא בְּנִדַּת עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת בְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר מִלְאוּהָ מִפֶּה אֶל־פֶּה בְּטֻמְאָתָם׃", 9.12. "וְעַתָּה בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְּנוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם אַל־תִּשְׂאוּ לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא־תִדְרְשׁוּ שְׁלֹמָם וְטוֹבָתָם עַד־עוֹלָם לְמַעַן תֶּחֶזְקוּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־טוּב הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּם לִבְנֵיכֶם עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 9.13. "וְאַחֲרֵי כָּל־הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂינוּ הָרָעִים וּבְאַשְׁמָתֵנוּ הַגְּדֹלָה כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ חָשַׂכְתָּ לְמַטָּה מֵעֲוֺנֵנוּ וְנָתַתָּה לָּנוּ פְּלֵיטָה כָּזֹאת׃", 9.14. "הֲנָשׁוּב לְהָפֵר מִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּלְהִתְחַתֵּן בְּעַמֵּי הַתֹּעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הֲלוֹא תֶאֱנַף־בָּנוּ עַד־כַּלֵּה לְאֵין שְׁאֵרִית וּפְלֵיטָה׃", 10.2. "וַיַּעַן שְׁכַנְיָה בֶן־יְחִיאֵל מִבְּנֵי עולם [עֵילָם] וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֶזְרָא אֲנַחְנוּ מָעַלְנוּ בֵאלֹהֵינוּ וַנֹּשֶׁב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְעַתָּה יֵשׁ־מִקְוֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־זֹאת׃", 10.2. "וּמִבְּנֵי אִמֵּר חֲנָנִי וּזְבַדְיָה׃", 10.3. "וּמִבְּנֵי פַּחַת מוֹאָב עַדְנָא וּכְלָל בְּנָיָה מַעֲשֵׂיָה מַתַּנְיָה בְצַלְאֵל וּבִנּוּי וּמְנַשֶּׁה׃", 10.3. "וְעַתָּה נִכְרָת־בְּרִית לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְהוֹצִיא כָל־נָשִׁים וְהַנּוֹלָד מֵהֶם בַּעֲצַת אֲדֹנָי וְהַחֲרֵדִים בְּמִצְוַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְכַתּוֹרָה יֵעָשֶׂה׃", 10.4. "מַכְנַדְבַי שָׁשַׁי שָׁרָי׃", 10.4. "קוּם כִּי־עָלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר וַאֲנַחְנוּ עִמָּךְ חֲזַק וַעֲשֵׂה׃", 10.11. "וְעַתָּה תְּנוּ תוֹדָה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־אֲבֹתֵיכֶם וַעֲשׂוּ רְצוֹנוֹ וְהִבָּדְלוּ מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וּמִן־הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃", 10.12. "וַיַּעְנוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל וַיֹּאמְרוּ קוֹל גָּדוֹל כֵּן כדבריך [כִּדְבָרְךָ] עָלֵינוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃", 10.13. "אֲבָל הָעָם רָב וְהָעֵת גְּשָׁמִים וְאֵין כֹּחַ לַעֲמוֹד בַּחוּץ וְהַמְּלָאכָה לֹא־לְיוֹם אֶחָד וְלֹא לִשְׁנַיִם כִּי־הִרְבִּינוּ לִפְשֹׁעַ בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃", 10.14. "יַעֲמְדוּ־נָא שָׂרֵינוּ לְכָל־הַקָּהָל וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר בֶּעָרֵינוּ הַהֹשִׁיב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת יָבֹא לְעִתִּים מְזֻמָּנִים וְעִמָּהֶם זִקְנֵי־עִיר וָעִיר וְשֹׁפְטֶיהָ עַד לְהָשִׁיב חֲרוֹן אַף־אֱלֹהֵינוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃", 6.2. "And there was found at Ahmetha, in the palace that is in the province of Media, a roll, and therein was thus written: ‘A record.", 9.1. "Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.", 9.2. "For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’", 9.3. "And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled.", 9.4. "Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of them of the captivity; and I sat appalled until the evening offering.", 9.5. "And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God;", 9.6. "and I said: ‘O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to Thee, my God; for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our guiltiness is grown up unto the heavens.", 9.10. "And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? for we have forsaken Thy commandments,", 9.11. "which Thou hast commanded by Thy servants the prophets, saying: The land, unto which ye go to possess it, is an unclean land through the uncleanness of the peoples of the lands, through their abominations, wherewith they have filled it from one end to another with their filthiness.", 9.12. "Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their prosperity for ever; that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever.", 9.13. "And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great guilt, seeing that Thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and hast given us such a remt,", 9.14. "shall we again break Thy commandments, and make marriages with the peoples that do these abominations? wouldest not Thou be angry with us till Thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remt, nor any to escape?", 10.2. "And Shecaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said unto Ezra: ‘We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign women of the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope for Israel concerning this thing.", 10.3. "Now therefore let us make a covet with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the counsel of the LORD, and of those that tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law.", 10.4. "Arise; for the matter belongeth unto thee, and we are with thee; be of good courage, and do it.’", 10.10. "And Ezra the priest stood up, and said unto them: ‘Ye have broken faith, and have married foreign women, to increase the guilt of Israel.", 10.11. "Now therefore make confession unto the LORD, the God of your fathers, and do His pleasure; and separate yourselves from the peoples of the land, and from the foreign women.’", 10.12. "Then all the congregation answered and said with a loud voice: ‘As thou hast said, so it is for us to do.", 10.13. "But the people are many, and it is a time of much rain, and we are not able to stand without, neither is this a work of one day or two; for we have greatly transgressed in this matter.", 10.14. "Let now our princes of all the congregation stand, and let all them that are in our cities that have married foreign women come at appointed times, and with them the elders of every city, and the judges thereof, until the fierce wrath of our God be turned from us, as touching this matter.’",
32. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.29-10.31 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 120
10.29. "וּשְׁאָר הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם הַשּׁוֹעֲרִים הַמְשֹׁרְרִים הַנְּתִינִים וְכָל־הַנִּבְדָּל מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת אֶל־תּוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים נְשֵׁיהֶם בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם כֹּל יוֹדֵעַ מֵבִין׃", 10.31. "וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִתֵּן בְּנֹתֵינוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם לֹא נִקַּח לְבָנֵינוּ׃", 10.29. "And the rest of the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinim, and all they that had separated themselves from the peoples of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one that had knowledge and understanding;", 10.30. "they cleaved to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and His ordices and His statutes;", 10.31. "and that we would not give our daughters unto the peoples of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons;",
33. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 6.2.10, 8.6.19 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 141
6.2.10. ἤδη δὲ καὶ μεμισθωμένους εἶναι πολλοὺς μὲν Θρᾳκῶν μαχαιροφόρους, Αἰγυπτίους δὲ προσπλεῖν, καὶ ἀριθμὸν ἔλεγον εἰς δώδεκα μυριάδας σὺν ἀσπίσι ποδήρεσι καὶ δόρασι μεγάλοις, οἷάπερ καὶ νῦν ἔχουσι, καὶ κοπίσι· προσέτι δὲ καὶ Κυπρίων στράτευμα· παρεῖναι δʼ ἤδη Κίλικας πάντας καὶ Φρύγας ἀμφοτέρους καὶ Λυκάονας καὶ Παφλαγόνας καὶ Καππαδόκας καὶ Ἀραβίους καὶ Φοίνικας καὶ σὺν τῷ Βαβυλῶνος ἄρχοντι τοὺς Ἀσσυρίους, καὶ Ἴωνας δὲ καὶ Αἰολέας καὶ σχεδὸν πάντας τοὺς Ἕλληνας τοὺς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ ἐποικοῦντας σὺν Κροίσῳ ἠναγκάσθαι ἕπεσθαι, πεπομφέναι δὲ Κροῖσον καὶ εἰς Λακεδαίμονα περὶ συμμαχίας· 8.6.19. ἐπεὶ δὲ περιῆλθεν ὁ ἐνιαυτός, συνήγειρε στρατιὰν εἰς Βαβυλῶνα, καὶ λέγεται αὐτῷ γενέσθαι εἰς δώδεκα μὲν ἱππέων μυριάδας, εἰς δισχίλια δὲ ἅρματα δρεπανηφόρα, πεζῶν δὲ εἰς μυριάδας ἑξήκοντα. 6.2.10. 8.6.19.
34. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.14, 14.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, city walls •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 117, 121
1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 14.15. But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus had captured. Before his death he rejoiced over Nineveh.
35. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 205
2.5. "עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר לכשדיא [לְכַשְׂדָּאֵי] מִלְּתָא מִנִּי אַזְדָּא הֵן לָא תְהוֹדְעוּנַּנִי חֶלְמָא וּפִשְׁרֵהּ הַדָּמִין תִּתְעַבְדוּן וּבָתֵּיכוֹן נְוָלִי יִתְּשָׂמוּן׃", 2.5. "The king answered and said to the Chaldeans: ‘The thing is certain with me; if ye make not known unto me the dream and the interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill.",
36. Septuagint, Judith, 1.1-1.4, 1.6-1.13, 1.15-1.16, 2.1, 2.4-2.15, 2.19, 2.23-2.28, 3.1-3.2, 3.8-3.9, 4.1, 4.3-4.4, 4.9-4.13, 5.1-5.21, 6.2, 6.4-6.5, 6.16, 6.19, 7.22-7.23, 7.30, 8.1, 8.10, 8.17, 8.21, 8.24, 9.8, 9.13, 10.3, 10.7, 11.13-11.14, 12.6, 12.13, 13.11, 15.5, 15.12-15.14, 16.4, 16.10, 16.20, 16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, city walls •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 26, 27, 29, 33, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 124, 141, 152, 160, 162, 163, 171, 205, 214, 221, 261, 264
1.1. In the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the Assyrians in the great city of Nineveh, in the days of Arphaxad, who ruled over the Medes in Ecbatana -- 1.2. he is the king who built walls about Ecbatana with hewn stones three cubits thick and six cubits long; he made the walls seventy cubits high and fifty cubits wide; 1.3. at the gates he built towers a hundred cubits high and sixty cubits wide at the foundations; 1.4. and he made its gates, which were seventy cubits high and forty cubits wide, so that his armies could march out in force and his infantry form their ranks -- 1.6. He was joined by all the people of the hill country and all those who lived along the Euphrates and the Tigris and the Hydaspes and in the plain where Arioch ruled the Elymaeans. Many nations joined the forces of the Chaldeans. 1.7. Then Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians sent to all who lived in Persia and to all who lived in the west, those who lived in Cilicia and Damascus and Lebanon and Antilebanon and all who lived along the seacoast, 1.8. and those among the nations of Carmel and Gilead, and Upper Galilee and the great Plain of Esdraelon, 1.9. and all who were in Samaria and its surrounding towns, and beyond the Jordan as far as Jerusalem and Bethany and Chelous and Kadesh and the river of Egypt, and Tahpanhes and Raamses and the whole land of Goshen, 1.10. even beyond Tanis and Memphis, and all who lived in Egypt as far as the borders of Ethiopia. 1.11. But all who lived in the whole region disregarded the orders of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians, and refused to join him in the war; for they were not afraid of him, but looked upon him as only one man, and they sent back his messengers empty-handed and shamefaced. 1.12. Then Nebuchadnezzar was very angry with this whole region, and swore by his throne and kingdom that he would surely take revenge on the whole territory of Cilicia and Damascus and Syria, that he would kill them by the sword, and also all the inhabitants of the land of Moab, and the people of Ammon, and all Judea, and every one in Egypt, as far as the coasts of the two seas. 1.13. In the seventeenth year he led his forces against King Arphaxad, and defeated him in battle, and overthrew the whole army of Arphaxad, and all his cavalry and all his chariots. 1.15. He captured Arphaxad in the mountains of Ragae and struck him down with hunting spears; and he utterly destroyed him, to this day. 1.16. Then he returned with them to Nineveh, he and all his combined forces, a vast body of troops; and there he and his forces rested and feasted for one hundred and twenty days. 2.1. In the eighteenth year, on the twenty-second day of the first month, there was talk in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians about carrying out his revenge on the whole region, just as he said. 2.4. When he had finished setting forth his plan, Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians called Holofernes, the chief general of his army, second only to himself, and said to him, 2.5. "Thus says the Great King, the lord of the whole earth: When you leave my presence, take with you men confident in their strength, to the number of one hundred and twenty thousand foot soldiers and twelve thousand cavalry. 2.6. Go and attack the whole west country, because they disobeyed my orders. 2.7. Tell them to prepare earth and water, for I am coming against them in my anger, and will cover the whole face of the earth with the feet of my armies, and will hand them over to be plundered by my troops, 2.8. till their wounded shall fill their valleys, and every brook and river shall be filled with their dead, and overflow; 2.9. and I will lead them away captive to the ends of the whole earth. 2.10. You shall go and seize all their territory for me in advance. They will yield themselves to you, and you shall hold them for me till the day of their punishment. 2.11. But if they refuse, your eye shall not spare and you shall hand them over to slaughter and plunder throughout your whole region. 2.12. For as I live, and by the power of my kingdom, what I have spoken my hand will execute. 2.13. And you -- take care not to transgress any of your sovereign's commands, but be sure to carry them out just as I have ordered you; and do not delay about it." 2.14. So Holofernes left the presence of his master, and called together all the commanders, generals, and officers of the Assyrian army, 2.15. and mustered the picked troops by divisions as his lord had ordered him to do, one hundred and twenty thousand of them, together with twelve thousand archers on horseback, 2.19. So he set out with his whole army, to go ahead of King Nebuchadnezzar and to cover the whole face of the earth to the west with their chariots and horsemen and picked troops of infantry. 2.23. and ravaged Put and Lud, and plundered all the people of Rassis and the Ishmaelites who lived along the desert, south of the country of the Chelleans. 2.24. Then he followed the Euphrates and passed through Mesopotamia and destroyed all the hilltop cities along the brook Abron, as far as the sea. 2.25. He also seized the territory of Cilicia, and killed every one who resisted him, and came to the southern borders of Japheth, fronting toward Arabia. 2.26. He surrounded all the Midianites, and burned their tents and plundered their sheepfolds. 2.27. Then he went down into the plain of Damascus during the wheat harvest, and burned all their fields and destroyed their flocks and herds and sacked their cities and ravaged their lands and put to death all their young men with the edge of the sword. 2.28. So fear and terror of him fell upon all the people who lived along the seacoast, at Sidon and Tyre, and those who lived in Sur and Ocina and all who lived in Jamnia. Those who lived in Azotus and Ascalon feared him exceedingly. 3.1. So they sent messengers to sue for peace, and said, 3.2. "Behold, we the servants of Nebuchadnezzar, the Great King, lie prostrate before you. Do with us whatever you will. 3.8. And he demolished all their shrines and cut down their sacred groves; for it had been given to him to destroy all the gods of the land, so that all nations should worship Nebuchadnezzar only, and all their tongues and tribes should call upon him as god. 3.9. Then he came to the edge of Esdraelon, near Dothan, fronting the great ridge of Judea; 4.1. By this time the people of Israel living in Judea heard of everything that Holofernes, the general of Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Assyrians, had done to the nations, and how he had plundered and destroyed all their temples; 4.3. For they had only recently returned from the captivity, and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar and the temple had been consecrated after their profanation. 4.4. So they sent to every district of Samaria, and to Kona and Beth-horon and Belmain and Jericho and to Choba and Aesora and the valley of Salem, 4.9. And every man of Israel cried out to God with great fervor, and they humbled themselves with much fasting. 4.10. They and their wives and their children and their cattle and every resident alien and hired laborer and purchased slave -- they all girded themselves with sackcloth. 4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 4.13. So the Lord heard their prayers and looked upon their affliction; for the people fasted many days throughout Judea and in Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty. 5.1. When Holofernes, the general of the Assyrian army, heard that the people of Israel had prepared for war and had closed the passes in the hills and fortified all the high hilltops and set up barricades in the plains, 5.2. he was very angry. So he called together all the princes of Moab and the commanders of Ammon and all the governors of the coastland, 5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 5.4. And why have they alone, of all who live in the west, refused to come out and meet me?" 5.5. Then Achior, the leader of all the Ammonites, said to him, "Let my lord now hear a word from the mouth of your servant, and I will tell you the truth about this people that dwells in the nearby mountain district. No falsehood shall come from your servant's mouth. 5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle. 5.10. When a famine spread over Canaan they went down to Egypt and lived there as long as they had food; and there they became a great multitude -- so great that they could not be counted. 5.11. So the king of Egypt became hostile to them; he took advantage of them and set them to making bricks, and humbled them and made slaves of them. 5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 5.13. Then God dried up the Red Sea before them, 5.14. and he led them by the way of Sinai and Kadesh-barnea, and drove out all the people of the wilderness. 5.15. So they lived in the land of the Amorites, and by their might destroyed all the inhabitants of Heshbon; and crossing over the Jordan they took possession of all the hill country. 5.16. And they drove out before them the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Jebusites and the Shechemites and all the Gergesites, and lived there a long time. 5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 5.20. Now therefore, my master and lord, if there is any unwitting error in this people and they sin against their God and we find out their offense, then we will go up and defeat them. 5.21. But if there is no transgression in their nation, then let my lord pass them by; for their Lord will defend them, and their God will protect them, and we shall be put to shame before the whole world." 6.2. "And who are you, Achior, and you hirelings of Ephraim, to prophesy among us as you have done today and tell us not to make war against the people of Israel because their God will defend them? Who is God except Nebuchadnezzar? 6.4. We will burn them up, and their mountains will be drunk with their blood, and their fields will be full of their dead. They cannot withstand us, but will utterly perish. So says King Nebuchadnezzar, the lord of the whole earth. For he has spoken; none of his words shall be in vain. 6.5. "But you, Achior, you Ammonite hireling, who have said these words on the day of your iniquity, you shall not see my face again from this day until I take revenge on this race that came out of Egypt. 6.16. They called together all the elders of the city, and all their young men and their women ran to the assembly; and they set Achior in the midst of all their people, and Uzziah asked him what had happened. 6.19. "O Lord God of heaven, behold their arrogance, and have pity on the humiliation of our people, and look this day upon the faces of those who are consecrated to thee." 7.22. Their children lost heart, and the women and young men fainted from thirst and fell down in the streets of the city and in the passages through the gates; there was no strength left in them any longer. 7.23. Then all the people, the young men, the women, and the children, gathered about Uzziah and the rulers of the city and cried out with a loud voice, and said before all the elders, 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 8.1. At that time Judith heard about these things: she was the daughter of Merari the son of Ox, son of Joseph, son of Oziel, son of Elkiah, son of Aias, son of Gideon, son of Raphaim, son of Ahitub, son of Elijah, son of Hilkiah, son of Eliab, son of Nathanael, son of Salamiel, son of Sarasadai, son of Israel. 8.10. she sent her maid, who was in charge of all she possessed, to summon Chabris and Charmis, the elders of her city. 8.17. Therefore, while we wait for his deliverance, let us call upon him to help us, and he will hear our voice, if it pleases him. 8.21. For if we are captured all Judea will be captured and our sanctuary will be plundered; and he will exact of us the penalty for its desecration. 8.24. "Now therefore, brethren, let us set an example to our brethren, for their lives depend upon us, and the sanctuary and the temple and the altar rest upon us. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her, 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 11.14. They have sent men to Jerusalem, because even the people living there have been doing this, to bring back to them permission from the senate. 12.6. and sent to Holofernes and said, "Let my lord now command that your servant be permitted to go out and pray." 12.13. So Bagoas went out from the presence of Holofernes, and approached her and said, "This beautiful maidservant will please come to my lord and be honored in his presence, and drink wine and be merry with us, and become today like one of the daughters of the Assyrians who serve in the house of Nebuchadnezzar." 13.11. Judith called out from afar to the watchmen at the gates, "Open, open the gate! God, our God, is still with us, to show his power in Israel, and his strength against our enemies, even as he has done this day!" 15.5. And when the Israelites heard it, with one accord they fell upon the enemy, and cut them down as far as Choba. Those in Jerusalem and all the hill country also came, for they were told what had happened in the camp of the enemy; and those in Gilead and in Galilee outflanked them with great slaughter, even beyond Damascus and its borders. 15.12. Then all the women of Israel gathered to see her, and blessed her, and some of them performed a dance for her; and she took branches in her hands and gave them to the women who were with her; 15.13. and they crowned themselves with olive wreaths, she and those who were with her; and she went before all the people in the dance, leading all the women, while all the men of Israel followed, bearing their arms and wearing garlands and with songs on their lips. 16.4. The Assyrian came down from the mountains of the north; he came with myriads of his warriors; their multitude blocked up the valleys, their cavalry covered the hills. 16.10. The Persians trembled at her boldness, the Medes were daunted at her daring. 16.20. So the people continued feasting in Jerusalem before the sanctuary for three months, and Judith remained with them. 16.23. She became more and more famous, and grew old in her husband's house, until she was one hundred and five years old. She set her maid free. She died in Bethulia, and they buried her in the cave of her husband Manasseh,
37. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.19, 4.36, 10.1-10.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 124, 171
1.19. For when our fathers were being led captive to Persia, the pious priests of that time took some of the fire of the altar and secretly hid it in the hollow of a dry cistern, where they took such precautions that the place was unknown to any one.' 4.36. When the king returned from the region of Cilicia, the Jews in the city appealed to him with regard to the unreasonable murder of Onias, and the Greeks shared their hatred of the crime.' 10.1. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;' 10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.' 10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.' 10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.'
38. Polybius, Histories, 5.34.7, 10.27.4-10.27.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions •babylon and babylonians, city walls Found in books: Gera (2014) 119; Marek (2019) 213
5.34.7. παρέκειντο δὲ τοῖς κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίαν δυνάσταις, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ταῖς νήσοις, δεσπόζοντες τῶν ἐπιφανεστάτων πόλεων καὶ τόπων καὶ λιμένων κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν παραλίαν ἀπὸ Παμφυλίας ἕως Ἑλλησπόντου καὶ τῶν κατὰ Λυσιμάχειαν τόπων· 10.27.4. αὕτη δʼ ἔκτισται μὲν ἐν τοῖς πρὸς τὰς ἄρκτους μέρεσι τῆς Μηδίας, ἐπίκειται δὲ τοῖς περὶ τὴν Μαιῶτιν καὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον μέρεσι τῆς Ἀσίας, 10.27.5. ἦν δὲ βασίλειον ἐξ ἀρχῆς Μήδων, πλούτῳ δὲ καὶ τῇ τῆς κατασκευῆς πολυτελείᾳ μέγα τι παρὰ τὰς ἄλλας δοκεῖ διενηνοχέναι πόλεις. 10.27.6. κεῖται μὲν οὖν ὑπὸ τὴν παρώρειαν τὴν παρὰ τὸν Ὀρόντην, ἀτείχιστος οὖσα, ἄκραν δʼ ἐν αὑτῇ χειροποίητον ἔχει, θαυμασίως πρὸς ὀχυρότητα κατεσκευασμένην. 10.27.7. ὑπὸ δὲ ταύτην ἐστὶ βασίλεια, περὶ ὧν καὶ τὸ λέγειν κατὰ μέρος καὶ τὸ παρασιωπᾶν ἔχει τινʼ ἀπορίαν· 10.27.8. τοῖς μὲν γὰρ αἱρουμένοις τὰς ἐκπληκτικὰς τῶν διηγήσεων προφέρεσθαι καὶ μετʼ αὐξήσεως ἔνια καὶ διαθέσεως εἰθισμένοις ἐξαγγέλλειν καλλίστην ὑπόθεσιν ἡ προειρημένη πόλις ἔχει, τοῖς δʼ εὐλαβῶς προσπορευομένοις πρὸς πᾶν τὸ παρὰ τὴν κοινὴν ἔννοιαν λεγόμενον ἀπορίαν παρασκευάζει καὶ δυσχρηστίαν. 10.27.9. πλὴν ἔστι γε τὰ βασίλεια τῷ μὲν μεγέθει σχεδὸν ἑπτὰ σταδίων ἔχοντα τὴν περιγραφήν, τῇ δὲ τῶν κατὰ μέρος κατασκευασμάτων πολυτελείᾳ μεγάλην ἐμφαίνοντα τὴν τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς καταβαλλομένων εὐκαιρίαν. 10.27.10. οὔσης γὰρ τῆς ξυλείας ἁπάσης κεδρίνης καὶ κυπαριττίνης, οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν γεγυμνῶσθαι συνέβαινεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς δοκοὺς καὶ τὰ φατνώματα καὶ τοὺς κίονας τοὺς ἐν ταῖς στοαῖς καὶ περιστύλοις, τοὺς μὲν ἀργυραῖς, τοὺς δὲ χρυσαῖς λεπίσι περιειλῆφθαι, τὰς δὲ κεραμίδας ἀργυρᾶς εἶναι πάσας. 10.27.11. τούτων δὲ τὰ μὲν πλεῖστα συνέβη λεπισθῆναι κατὰ τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρου καὶ Μακεδόνων ἔφοδον, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ κατὰ τὴν Ἀντιγόνου καὶ Σελεύκου τοῦ Νικάνορος δυναστείαν. 10.27.12. ὅμως δὲ κατὰ τὴν Ἀντιόχου παρουσίαν ὅ τε ναὸς αὐτὸς ὁ τῆς Αἴνης προσαγορευόμενος ἔτι τοὺς κίονας εἶχε τοὺς πέριξ κεχρυσωμένους, καὶ κεραμίδες ἀργυραῖ καὶ πλείους ἐν αὐτῷ συνετέθειντο, πλίνθοι δὲ χρυσαῖ τινες ὀλίγαι μὲν ἦσαν, ἀργυραῖ δὲ καὶ πλείους ὑπέμενον. 10.27.13. ἐκ δὲ πάντων τῶν προειρημένων τὸ χαραχθὲν εἰς τὸ βασιλικὸν ἡθροίσθη νόμισμα μικρῷ λεῖπον τετρακισχιλίων ταλάντων. — 10.27.4.  This city is situated in the northern part of Media and commands that portion of Asia which borders on the Maeotis and Euxine. 10.27.5.  It had always been the royal residence of the Medes and is said to have greatly exceeded all the other cities in wealth and the magnificence of its buildings. 10.27.6.  It lies on the skirts of Mount Orontes and has no wall, but possesses an artificial citadel the fortifications of which are of wonderful strength. 10.27.7.  Beneath this stands the palace, regarding which I am in doubt whether I should go into details or keep silence. 10.27.8.  For to those who are disposed to recount marvellous tales and are in the habit of giving exaggerated and rhetorical reports of certain matters this city affords an admirable theme, but to such as approach with caution all statements which are contrary to ordinary conceptions it is a source of doubt and difficulty. 10.27.9.  The palace, however, is about seven stades in circumference, and by the magnificence of the separate structures in it conveys a high idea of the wealth of its original founders. 10.27.10.  For the woodwork was all of cedar and cypress, but no part of it was left exposed, and the rafters, the compartments of the ceiling, and the columns in the porticoes and colonnades were plated with either silver or gold, and all the tiles were silver. 10.27.11.  Most of the precious metals were stripped off in the invasion of Alexander and his Macedonians, and the rest during the reigns of Antigonus and Seleucus the son of Nicanor, 10.27.12.  but still, when Antiochus reached the place, the temple of Aene alone had the columns round it still gilded and a number of silver tiles were piled up in it, while a few gold bricks and a considerable quantity of silver ones remained. 10.27.13.  From all the objects I have mentioned sufficient was collected to coin money with the king's effigy amounting to very nearly four thousand talents.
39. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.36-4.51, 7.39, 11.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 116, 124, 171
4.36. Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it." 4.37. So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.39. Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes. 4.40. They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven. 4.41. Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 4.42. He chose blameless priests devoted to the law, 4.43. and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place. 4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar, 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 4.47. Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 4.49. They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 4.50. Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple. 4.51. They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken. 7.39. Now Nicanor went out from Jerusalem and encamped in Beth-horon, and the Syrian army joined him. 11.14. Now Alexander the king was in Cilicia at that time, because the people of that region were in revolt.
40. Anon., Jubilees, 9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 118
9.4. And for Asshur came forth the second portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascendeth and skirteth the river.
41. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3-4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 48
42. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 161, 160 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
43. Livy, History, 6.1.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 257
44. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 6.1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
6.1. That their ancient ancestor, the original founder of their race, was a Chaldaean; and that this people emigrated from Egypt, after having in former times left its abode in Syria, being very numerous and consisting of countless myriads of people; and that when the land was no longer able to contain them, and moreover when a high spirit began to show itself in the dispositions of their young men, and when, besides this, God himself by visions and dreams began to show them that he willed that they should depart, and when, as the Deity brought it about, nothing was less an object of desire to them than their ancient native land; on that account this ancestor of theirs departed and journeyed into Egypt, whether in consequence of some express determination of God, or whether it was in consequence of some prophetic instinct of his own; so that from that time to the present the nation has had an existence and a durability, and has become so exceedingly populous, as it is at this moment.
45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 213-219, 212 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
212. The most ancient person of the Jewish nation was a Chaldaean by birth, born of a father who was very skilful in astronomy, and famous among those men who pass their lives in the study of mathematics, who look upon the stars as gods, and worship the whole heaven and the whole world; thinking, that from them do all good and all evil proceed, to every individual among men; as they do not conceive that there is any cause whatever, except such as are included among the objects of the outward senses.
46. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.237-1.343 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
1.237. This was the reason why they did not arrive sooner in the land which they went forth to colonize; for though they might, in the second year after their departure from Egypt, have conquered all the cities in Syria, and divided the inheritance amongst themselves, still they turned aside from the direct and short road, and wandered about, using one long, and difficult, and pathless line of march after another, so as to be incessantly toiling both in soul and body, and enduring the necessary and deserved punishment of their excessive impiety: 1.238. accordingly, for eight and thirty years more, after the two years which I have already mentioned as having elapsed, the life of a complete generation of mankind did they wander up and down, traversing the pathless wilderness; and at last in the fortieth year, they with difficulty came to the borders of the country which they had reached so many years before. 1.239. And at the entrance to this country there dwelt other tribes akin to themselves, who they thought would cheerfully join them in the war against their neighbours, and would co-operate in everything necessary for the establishment of the colony; and if they hesitated to do that, they thought that at all events they would range themselves on neither side, but would preserve a strict neutrality, holding up their hands; 1.240. for in fact the ancestors of both nations, both of the Hebrews and of those who dwelt on the skirts of the country, were brethren descended from the same father and the same mother, and moreover were twins; for it was from two brothers, who had thus increased with numerous descendants, and had enjoyed a great productiveness of offspring, that each of their families had grown into a vast and numerous Nation.{3}{the brothers are Jacob and Esau, Jacob being the father of the Israelites and Esau of the Edomites.} But one of these nations had clung to its original abodes; but the other, as has been already mentioned, having migrated to Egypt by reason of the famine, at this subsequent period was now returning, 1.241. and one of the two preserved its respect for its kindred though it had been for such a length of time separated from it, still having a regard for those who no longer preserved any one of their ancestral customs, but who had in every respect departed from their ancient habits and constitutions, thinking that it became those who claimed to be of civilised natures, to give and yield something to the name of relationship. 1.242. But the other utterly overturned all notions of friendship and affection, giving in to fierce, and unfriendly, and irreconcilable dispositions, and language, and counsels, and actions; and thus keeping alive the ill-will of their original ancestor to his brother; for the first founder of their race, though he had himself given up his birthright to his brother, yet a short time afterwards endeavoured to assert his claim to what he had abandoned voluntarily, violating his agreement, and he sought to slay his brother, threatening him with death if he did not surrender what he had purchased. And now the whole nation after the interval of so many generations, renewed the ancient enmity between one individual and another. 1.243. Therefore Moses, the leader of the Hebrews, although he might with one single effort, aye with the mere shout of his army, have subdued the whole nation, still, by reason of the aforesaid relationship did not think fit to do so; but desired only to use the road through their country, promising that he would in every respect observe the treaties between them, and not despoil them of territory, or cattle, or of any booty, that he would even pay a price for water if there should be a scarcity of drink, and for anything else that they might require to buy, as not being supplied with it; but they violently rejected their peaceful invitations, threatening them with war, if they heard of their crossing over their borders or even of their setting foot upon them. 1.244. But as the Hebrews received their answer with great indignation, and prepared at once to oppose them, Moses stood in a place from whence he would be well heard, and said, "O men, your indignation is reasonable and just; for though we, in a peaceable disposition, have made them good and friendly offers, they have made us an evil reply out of their evil and perverse disposition. 1.245. But it does not follow that because they deserve to pay the penalty for their cruelty, therefore it is desirable for us to proceed to take vengeance upon them, by reason of the honour due to our own nation, that we may show that in this particular we are good and different from wicked men, inasmuch as we consider not only whether such and such persons deserve to be punished, but whether also it is proper that they should receive their punishment from us." 1.246. On this he turned aside and led his army by another road, since he knew that all the roads in that district were surrounded with garrisons, by those who were not in danger of receiving any injury, but who were out of envy and jealousy would not allow them to proceed by the shortest road; 1.247. and this was the most manifest proof of their sorrow, which they felt in consequence of the nation having obtained their liberty, namely when they rejoiced when they were enduring that bitter slavery of theirs in Egypt; for it follows of necessity that those men to whom the good fortune of their neighbours causes grief, do also rejoice at their evil fortune, even if they do not admit that they do so; 1.248. for they had already related to their neighbours, as to persons in accordance with themselves, and cherishing the same thoughts, all the misfortunes and also all the agreeable pieces of good fortune which had happened to them, not knowing that they had proceeded to a great degree of iniquity, and that they were full of unfriendly, and hostile, and malicious thoughts towards them, so that they were like to grieve at their good fortune, but to rejoice at any thing of a contrary tendency. 1.249. But when their malevolence was fully revealed, the Hebrews were nevertheless restrained from coming to open war with them by their ruler, who thus displayed two most excellent qualities at the same time; namely prudence and a compassionate disposition; for to take care that no evil should happen to any one is the part of wisdom, and not to be willing even to repel one's own kinsmen is a proof of a humane disposition. 1.250. Therefore he passed by the cities of these nations; but a certain king of the neighbouring country, Canaan by name, when his spies reported to him that the army of the Hebrews, which was making in his direction was at no great distance, thinking that it was in a state of confusion and disorder, and that he should be able easily to conquer it if he were to attack it at once, proceeded forth with the youth of his nation well armed and equipped, and marched with all speed, and put the van of their host to flight as soon as he encountered them, inasmuch as they were not arrayed or prepared for battle; and having taken many prisoners, and being elated at the prosperity beyond his hopes which he had met with, he marched on thinking that he should defeat all the others also. 1.251. But the Hebrews, for they were not dismayed at the defeat of their advanced guard, but had rather derived even more confidence than they had felt before, being eager also to make amends by their eagerness for battle for the loss of those of their number who had been taken prisoners, exhorted one another not to faint nor to yield. "Let us rise up," said they; "let us at once invade their land. Let us show that we are in no wise alarmed or depressed, by our vigour in action and our confidence. The end is very often judged of by the beginning. Let us seize the keys of the country and strike terror into the inhabitants as deriving prosperity from cities, and inflicting upon them in return the want of necessary things which we bring with us out of the wilderness." 1.252. And they, at the same time, exhorted one another often with these words, and likewise began to dedicate to God, as the first fruits of the land, the cities of the king and all the citizens of each city. And he accepted their views and inspired the Hebrews with courage, and prepared the army of the enemy to be defeated. 1.253. Accordingly, the Hebrews defeated them with mighty power, and fulfilled the agreement of gratitude which they had made, not appropriating to themselves the slightest portion of the booty. And they dedicated to God the cities with all the men and treasures that were in them, and, from what had thus taken place, they called the whole country an offering to God; 1.254. for, as every pious man offers unto God the first fruits of the fruits of the year, which he collects from his own possessions, so in the same manner did the Hebrews dedicate the whole nation of this mighty country into which they had come as settlers, and that great spoil, the kingdom which they had so speedily subdued, as a sort of first-fruit of their colony; for they did not think it consistent with piety to distribute the land among themselves, or to inherit the cities, before they had offered up to God the first fruits of that country and of those cities. 1.255. A short time afterwards, having found a copious spring of water which supplied drink to all the multitude, and the spring was in a well and on the borders of the country, drawing it up and drinking it as though it had been not water but pure wine, they were refreshed in their souls, and those among the people who loved God established choruses and dances in a circle around the well, out of their cheerfulness and joy, and sang a new song to God, the possessor and giver of their inheritance and the real leader of their colony, because now at the first moment of their coming forth from the direction in which they had so long been dwelling in to the inhabited land which they were ordained to possess, they had found abundant drink, and therefore they thought it right not to pass this spring by without due honour. 1.256. For this well had been originally cut not by the hands of private individuals, but of kings, who had laboured in rivalry of one another, as the tale went, not only in the discovery of the water, but likewise in the digging of the well, in order that by its magnificence it might be seen to be a royal work, and that the power and magimity of those who built it might appear from the beginning. 1.257. And Moses, rejoicing at the unexpected blessings which from time to time were presenting themselves to him, advanced further, dividing the youth of his people into the vanguard and the rearguard, and placing the old men, and the women, and thechildren in the centre, that they might be protected by those who were thus at each extremity, in the case of their having to encounter any force of the enemy either in front or behind. 1.258. A few days afterwards he entered the country of the Amorites, and sent ambassadors to the king, whose name was Sihon, exhorting him to the same measures to which he had previously invited his kinsman. But he not only replied to these ambassadors when they came with great insolence, but he very nearly put them to death, and would have done so if the law with respect to ambassadors had not hindered him; but he did collect an army and made against them, thinking that he should immediately be able to subdue them in war. 1.259. But when he encountered them he then found that he had to fight not men who had no experience or practice in the art of war, but men skilful in all warfare and truly invincible, who only a short time before had done many and important valiant achievements, displaying great personal valour, and great wisdom, and excellence of sense and virtue. Owing to which qualities they subdued these their enemies with great ease and defeated them with great loss, but they took no part of the spoil, desiring to dedicate to God the first booty which they gained; 1.260. and, on this occasion, they guarded their own camp vigorously, and then, with one accord and with equally concerted preparation, rushed forward in opposition to the enemy as he advanced and charged them, availing themselves of the invincible alliance of the just God, in consequence of which they had the greatest boldness, and became cheerful and sanguine combatants. 1.261. And the proof of this was clear; there was no need of any second battle, but the first was also the only one, and in it the whole power of the enemy was frustrated for ever. And it was utterly overthrown, and immediately it disappeared for ever. 1.262. And about the same time the cities were both empty and full; empty of their ancient inhabitants, and full of those who now succeeded to their dominions over them. In the same manner, also, the stables of cattle in the fields, being made desolate, received instead men who were in all respects better than their former masters. 1.263. This war struck all the Asiatic nations with terrible consternation, and especially all those who were near the borders of the Amorites, inasmuch as they looked upon the dangers as being nearer to themselves. Accordingly, one of the neighbouring kings, by name Balak, who ruled over a large and thickly inhabited country of the east, before he met them in battle, feeling great distrust of his own power, did not think fit to meet them in close combat, being desirous to avoid carrying on a war of extermination by open arms; but he had recourse to inquiries and divination, thinking that by some kind of ruse or other he might be able to overthrow the irresistible power of the Hebrews. 1.264. Now there was a man at that time very celebrated for his skill in divination, dwelling in Mesopotamia, who was initiated in every branch of the soothsayers' art. And he was celebrated and renowned above all men for his experience as a diviner and prophet, as he had in many instances foretold to many people incredible and most important events; 1.265. for, on one occasion, he had predicted heavy rain to one nation at the height of summer; to another he had foretold a drought and burning heat in the middle of winter. Others he had forewarned of a dearth which should follow a season of abundance; and, on the other hand, plenty after famine. In some instances he had predicted the inundations of rivers; or, on the contrary, their falling greatly and becoming dried up; and the departure of pestilential diseases, and ten thousand other things. From all which he had obtained a name of wide celebrity, as he was believed to have foreseen them all, and so he had attained to great renown and his glory had spread everywhere and was continually increasing. 1.266. So this man, Balak, now sent some of his companions, entreating him to come to him, and he gave him some presents at once, and he promised to give him others also, explaining to him the necessity which he was in, on account of which he had sent for him. But he did not treat the messengers with any noble or consistent disposition, but with great courtesy and civility evaded their request, as if he were one of the most celebrated prophets, and as such was accustomed to do nothing whatever without first consulting the oracle, and so he declined, saying that the Deity would not permit him to go with them. 1.267. So the messengers returned back to the king, without having succeeded in their errand. And immediately other messengers of the highest rank in the whole land were sent on the same business, bringing with them more abundant presents of money, and promising still more ample rewards than the former ambassadors had promised. 1.268. And Balaam, being allured by the gifts which were already proffered to him, and also by the hopes for the future which they held out to him, and being influenced also by the rank of those who invited him, began to yield, again alleging the commands of the Deity as his excuse, but no longer with sincerity. Accordingly, on the next day he prepared for his departure, relating some dreams by which he said he had been influenced, affirming that he had been compelled by their manifest visions not to remain, but to follow the ambassadors. 1.269. But when he was on his road a very manifest sign met him in the way, showing him plainly that the purpose for which he was travelling was displeasing to God, and ill-omened; for the beast on which he was riding, while proceeding onwards in the straight road, at first stopped suddenly, 1.270. then, as if some one was forcibly resisting it, or standing in front and driving it back by force, it retreated, moving first to the right and then to the left, and could not stand still, but kept moving, first to one side and then to the other, as if it had been under the influence of wine and intoxication; and though it was repeatedly beaten, it disregarded the blows, so that it very nearly threw its rider, and though he stuck on did still hurt him considerably; 1.271. for close on each side of the path there were walls and strong fences; therefore, when the beast in its violent motions struck heavily against the walls, the owner had his knee, and leg, and foot pressed and crushed, and was a good deal lacerated. 1.272. The truth is, that there was, as it seems, a divine vision, which, as the beast, on which the diviner was seeking, saw at a great distance as it was coming towards him, and it was frightened at it; but the man did not see it, which was a proof of his insensibility, for he was thus shown to be inferior to a brute beast in the power of sight, at a time when he was boasting that he could see, not only the whole world, but also the Creator of the world. 1.273. Accordingly, having after some time seen the angel opposing him, not because he was desiring to see so astonishing a spectacle, but that he might become acquainted with his own insignificance and nothingness, he betook himself to supplications and prayers, entreating to be pardoned, on the ground that he had acted as he had done out of ignorance, and had not sinned of deliberate purpose. 1.274. Then, as he said that he ought to return back again, he asked of the vision which appeared to him, whether he should go back again to his own house; but the angel beholding his insincerity, and being indigt at it (for what need was there for him to ask questions in a matter which was so evident, which had its answer plain in itself, and which did not require any more positive information by means of words, unless a person's ears are more to be trusted than his eyes, and words than thing 1.275. But when the king heard that he was now near at hand, he went forth with his guards to meet him; and when they met at first there were, as was natural, greetings and salutations, and then a brief reproof of his tardiness and of his not having come more readily. After this there were feastings and costly entertainments, and all those other things which are usually prepared on the occasion of the reception of strangers, everything with royal magnificence being prepared, so as to give an exaggerated idea of the power and glory of the king. 1.276. The next day at the rising of the sun, Balak took the prophet and led him up to a high hill, where it also happened that a pillar had been erected to some deity which the natives of the country had been accustomed to worship; and from thence there was seen a portion of the camp of the Hebrews, which was shown to the magician from this point, as if from a watch tower. 1.277. And he when he beheld it said: "Do thou, O king, build here seven altars, and offer upon every one of them a bullock and a ram. And I will turn aside and inquire of God what I am to say." So, having gone forth, immediately he became inspired, the prophetic spirit having entered into him, which drove all his artificial system of divination and cunning out of his soul; for it was not possible that holy inspiration should dwell in the same abode with magic. Then, returning back to the king, and beholding the sacrifices and the altars flaming, he became like the interpreter of some other being who was prompting his words, 1.278. and spoke in prophetic strain as follows: "Balak has sent for me from Mesopotamia, having caused me to take a long journey from the east, that he might chastise the Hebrews by means of curses. But in what manner shall I be able to curse those who have not been cursed by God? For I shall behold them with my eyes from the loftiest mountains, and I shall see them with my mind; and I shall never be able to injure the people which shall dwell alone, not being numbered among the other nations, not in accordance with the inheritance of any particular places, or any apportionment of lands, but by reason of the peculiar nature of their remarkable customs, as they will never mingle with any other nation so as to depart from their national and ancestral ways. 1.279. Who has ever discovered with accuracy the first origin of the birth of these people? Their bodies, indeed, may have been fashioned according to human means of propagation; but their souls have been brought forth by divine agency, wherefore they are nearly related to God. May my soul die as to the death of the body, that it may be remembered among the souls of the righteous, such as the souls of these men are." 1.280. When Balak heard these words he was grieved within himself; and after he had stopped speaking, not being able to contain his sorrow, he said: "You were invited hither to curse my enemies, and are you not ashamed to offer up prayers for their good? I must, without knowing it, have been deceiving myself, thinking you a friend; who were, on the contrary, without my being aware of it, enrolled among the ranks of the enemy, as is now plain. Perhaps, too, you made all the delay in coming to me by reason of the regard for them, which you were secretly cherishing in your soul, and your secret dislike to me and to my people; for, as the old proverb says, what is apparent affords the best means of judging of what is not visible." 1.281. But Balaam, his moment of inspiration being now past, replied: "I am exposed in this to a most unjust charge, and am undeservedly accused; for I am saying nothing of my own, but whatever the Deity prompts me to say. And this is not the first time that I have said and that you have heard this, but I declared it on the former occasion when you sent the ambassadors, to whom I made the same answer." 1.282. But as the king thought either that the prophet was deceiving him, or that the Deity might change his mind, and the consequence of a change of place might alter the firmness of his decision, he led him off to another spot, where, from an exceedingly long, and high, and distant hill, he might be able to show him a part of the army of his enemies. Then, again, he built seven altars and sacrificed the same number of victims that he had sacrificed at first, and sent the prophet to look for favourable omens and predictions. 1.283. And he, as soon as he was by himself, was again suddenly filled by divine inspiration, and, without at all understanding the words which he uttered, spoke everything that was put into his mouth, prophesying in the following manner:--"Rise up and listen, O king! prick up thy ears and hear. God is not able to speak falsely as if he were a man, nor does he change his purpose like the son of man. When he has once spoken, does he not abide by his word? For he will say nothing at all which shall not be completely brought to pass, since his word is also his deed. I, indeed, have been brought hither to bless this nation, and not to curse it. 1.284. There shall be no labour or distress among the Hebrews. God visibly holds his shield over them, who also dissipated the violence of the Egyptian attacks, leading forth all these myriads of people as one man. Therefore they disregarded auguries and every other part of the prophetic art, trusting to the one sole Governor of the world alone. And I see the people rising up like a young lion, and exulting as a lion. He shall feast on the prey, and for drink he shall drink the blood of the wounded; and, when he is satisfied, he shall not turn to sleep, but he shall be awake and sing the song of victory." 1.285. But Balak, being very indigt at finding that all the assistance which he expected to derive from divination was turning out contrary to his hopes, said: "O man, neither curse them at all, nor bless them at all; for silence, which is free from danger, is better than unpleasant speeches." And when he had said this, as if he had forgotten what he had said, owing to the inconstancy of his mind, he led the prophet to another place, from which he could show him a part of the Hebrew army; and again he invited him to curse them. 1.286. But the prophet, as being even more wicked than the king, although he had always replied to the accusations which were brought against him with one true excuse, namely, that he was saying nothing out of his own head, but was only interpreting the words of another, being himself carried away and inspired, when he ought no longer to have accompanied him but to have gone away home, ran forward even more eagerly than his conductor, although in his secret thoughts he was oppressed by a heavy feeling of evil, yet still desired in his mind to curse this people, though he was forbidden to do so with his mouth. 1.287. So, coming to a mountain greater than any of those on which he had stood before, and which reached a very long way, he bade the king perform the same sacrifices as before, again building seven altars, and again offering up fourteen victims, on each altar two, a bullock and a ram. And he himself did no longer, according to his usual custom, go to seek for divination and auguries, since he much loathed his art, looking upon it as a picture which had become defaced through age, and had been obscured, and lost its felicity of conjecture. But he now, though with difficulty, understood the fact that the designs of the king, who had hired him, did not correspond with the will of God. 1.288. Therefore, turning to the wilderness, he saw the Hebrews encamped in their tribes, and he saw their numbers and their array, and admired it as being like the order of a city rather than of a camp, and, becoming inspired, he again spoke. 1.289. What, then, said the man who saw truly, who in his sleep saw a clear vision of God with the ever open and sleepless eyes of his soul? "How goodly are thy abodes, O army of Hebrews; they tents are shady as groves, as a paradise on the bank of a river, as a cedar by the waters. 1.290. A man shall hereafter come forth out of thee who shall rule over many nations, and his kingdom shall increase every day and be raised up to heaven. This people hath God for its guide all the way from Egypt, who leads on their multitude in one line. 1.291. Therefore they shall devour many nations of their enemies, and they shall take all their fat as far as their very marrow, and shall destroy their enemies with their far-shooting arrows. He shall lie down to rest like a lion, and like a lion's whelp, fearing no one, but showing great contempt for every one, and causing fear to all other nations. Miserable is he who shall stir up and rouse him to anger. Blessed are they that bless thee, and cursed are they that curse thee." 1.292. And the king, being very indigt at these words, said: "Having been invited hither to curse my enemies, you have now prayed for and blessed them these three times. Fly, therefore, quickly, passion is a hasty affection, lest I be compelled to do something more violent than usual. 1.293. of what a vast amount of money, O most foolish of men, of how many presents, and of how much renown, and celebrity, and glory, hast thou deprived thyself in thy madness! Now you will return to thy home from a foreign land, bearing with thee no good thing, but only reproaches and (as it seems likely 1.294. And Balaam replied: "All that I have hitherto uttered have been oracles and words of God; but what I am going to say are merely the suggestions of my own mind: and taking him by the right hand, he, while they two were alone, gave him advice, by the adoption of which he might, as far as possible, guard against the power of his enemies, accusing himself of the most enormous crimes. For why, some one may perhaps say, do you thus retire into solitude and give counsel suggesting things contrary to the oracles of God, unless indeed that your counsels are more powerful than his decrees?" 1.295. Come, then, let us examine into his fine recommendations, and see how cunningly they were contrived with reference to the most certain defeat of those who had hitherto always been able to conquer. As he knew that the only way by which the Hebrews could be subdued was by leading them to violate the law, he endeavoured to seduce them by means of debauchery and intemperance, that mighty evil, to the still greater crime of impiety, putting pleasure before them as a bait; 1.296. for, said he, "O king! the women of the country surpass all other women in beauty, and there are no means by which a man is more easily subdued than by the beauty of a woman; therefore, if you enjoin the most beautiful of them to grant their favours to them and to prostitute themselves to them, they will allure and overcome the youth of your enemies. 1.297. But you must warn them not to surrender their beauty to those who desire them with too great facility and too speedily, for resistance and coyness will stimulate the passions and excite them more, and will kindle a more impetuous desire; and so, being wholly subdued by their appetites, they will endure to do and to suffer anything. 1.298. "And let any damsel who is thus prepared for the sport resist, and say, wantonly, to a lover who is thus influenced, "It is not fitting for you to enjoy my society till you have first abandoned your native habits, and have changed, and learnt to honour the same practices that I do. And I must have a conspicuous proof of your real change, which I can only have by your consenting to join me in the same sacrifices and libations which I use, and which we may then offer together at the same images and statues, and other erections in honour of my gods. 1.299. And the lover being, as it were, taken in the net of her manifold and multiform snares, not being able to resist her beauty and seductive conversation, will become wholly subdued in his reason, and, like a miserable man, will obey all the commands which she lays upon him, and will en enrolled as the salve of passion." 1.300. This, then, was the advice which Balaam gave to Balak. And he, thinking that what he said to him did not want sense, repealed the law against adulteries, and having abrogated all the enactments which had been established against seduction and harlotry, as if they had never been enacted at all, exhorted the women to admit to their favours, without any restraint, every man whom they chose. 1.301. Accordingly, when licence was thus given, they brought over a multitude of young men, having already long before this seduced their minds, and having by their tricks and allurements perverted them to impiety; until Phinehas, the son of the chief priest, being exceedingly indigt at all that was taking place (for it appeared to him to be a most scandalous thing for his countrymen to give up at one time both their bodies and souls--their bodies to pleasure, and their souls to transgression of the law, and to works of wickedne 1.302. For when he saw a man of his nation sacrificing with and then entering into the tent of a harlot, and that too without casting his eyes down on the ground and seeking to avoid the notice of the multitude, but making a display of his licentiousness with shameless boldness, and giving himself airs as if he were about to engage in a creditable action, and one deserving of smiles--Phinehas, I say, being very indigt and being filled with a just anger, ran in, and while they were still lying on the bed, slew both the lover and the harlot, cutting them in two pieces in the middle, because they thus indulged in illicit connections. 1.303. When some persons of those who admired temperance, and chastity, and piety, saw this example, they, at the command of Moses, imitated it, and slew all their own relations and friends, even to a man, who had sacrificed to idols made with hands, and thus they effaced the stain which was defiling the nation by this implacable revenge which they thus wreaked on those who had set the example of wrong doing, and so saved the rest, who made a clear defence of themselves, demonstrating their own piety, showing no compassion on any one of those who were justly condemned to death, and not passing over their offences out of pity, but looking upon those who slew them as pure from all sin. Therefore they did not allow any escape whatever to those who sinned in this way, and such conduct is the truest praise; 1.304. and they say that twenty-four thousand men were slain in one day, the common pollution, which was defiling the whole army, being thus at once got rid of. And when the works of purification were thus accomplished, Moses began to seek how he might give an honour worthy of him who had displayed such permanent excellence to the son of the chief priest, who was the first who hastened to inflict chastisement on the offenders. But God was beforehand with him, giving to Phinehas, by means of his holy word, the greatest of all good things, namely, peace, which no man is able to bestow; and also, in addition to this peace, he gave him the perpetual possession of the priesthood, an inheritance to his family, which could not be taken from it. 1.305. But when none of the civil and intestine evils remained any longer, but when all the men who were suspected of having either forsaken the ways of their ancestors or of treachery had perished, it appeared to be a most favourable opportunity for making an expedition against Balak, a man who had both planned to do, and had also executed an innumerable host of evil deeds, since he had planned them through the agency of the prophet, who he hoped would be able, by means of his curses, to destroy the power of the Hebrews, and who had executed his purpose by the agency of the licentiousness and incontinence of the women, who destroyed the bodies of those who associated with them by debauchery, and their souls by impiety. 1.306. Therefore Moses did not think fit to carry on war against him with his whole army, knowing that superfluous numbers are apt to meet with disaster in consequence of those very numbers; and also, at the same time, thinking it useful to have stations of reserve, to be assistants to those of their allies who appeared likely to fail; but he selected a thousand picked men of the youth of the nation, selected man by man, out of each tribe, twelve thousand in all, for that was the number of the tribes, and he appointed Phinehas to be the commander in the war, as he had already given proof of the happy daring which becomes a general; and after he had offered up sacrifices of good omen, he sent forth his warriors, and encouraged them in the following words:-- 1.307. "The present contest is not one for dominion or sovereignty, nor is it waged for the sake of acquiring the property of others, though these are the objects for which alone, or almost invariably, wars take place; but this war is undertaken in the cause of piety and holiness, from which the enemy has alienated our relations and friends, being the causes of bitter destruction to those who have been brought under their yoke. 1.308. It is therefore absurd for us to be the slayers of our own countrymen, for having offended against the law, and to spare our enemies, who have violated it in a much worse degree, and to slay, with every circumstance of violence, those who were only learning and beginning to sin, but to leave those who taught them to do so unpunished, who are, in reality, the guilty causes of all that has taken place, and of all the evils which our countrymen have either done or suffered." 1.309. Therefore being nerved by these exhortations, and being kindled and filled with noble courage which was indeed in their souls already, they went forth to that contest with invincible spirit as to a certain victory; and when they engaged with the enemy, they displayed such incredible vigour and courage that they slew all their enemies, and returned themselves unhurt, every one of them, not one of their number having been slain or even wounded. 1.310. Any one who did not know what had taken place, might have supposed, when he saw them returning, that they were coming in, not from war and from a pitched battle, but rather from a display and field-day of exercise under arms, such as often take place in time of peace; and these fielddays are days of exercise and practice, while the men train themselves among friends to attack their enemies. 1.311. Therefore they destroyed all their cities, razing them to the ground or else burning them, so that no one could tell that any cities had ever been inhabited in that land. And they led away a perfectly incalculable number of prisoners, of whom they chose to slay all the full-grown men and women, the men because they had set the example of wicked counsels and actions, and the women because they had beguiled the youth of the Hebrews, becoming the causes to them of incontinence and impiety, and at the last of death; but they pardoned all the young male children and all the virgins, their tender age procuring them forgiveness; 1.312. and as they had taken a vast booty from the king's palace, and from private houses, and also from the dwellings of all kinds in the open country (for there was not less booty in the country places than in the citie 1.313. And Moses praised Phinehas their general, and those who had served under him for their good success, and also because they had not been covetous of their own advantage, running after booty and thinking of nothing, but appropriating the spoil to themselves, but because they had brought it all into the common stock, so that they who had staid behind in the tents might share in the booty; and he ordered those men to remain outside the camp for some days, and the high priest he commanded to purify both the men themselves, and those of their allies who had returned from fighting by their side, of bloodshed; 1.314. for even though the slaughter of the enemies of one's country is according to law, still he who kills a man, even though justly and in self-defence, and because he has been attacked, still appears to be guilty of blood by reason of his supreme and common relationship to a common father; on which account those who had slain enemies were in need of rites of purification, to cleanse them from what was looked upon as a pollution. 1.315. However, after no long lapse of time he divided the booty among those who had taken a part in the expedition, and they were but a small number, giving one half among those who had remained inactive at home, and the other half to those who were still in the camp; for he looked upon it as just and equitable to give the share of the advantages gained, to those who had shared in the contest, if not with their souls, at all events with their bodies; for as the spectators were not inferior to the actual combatants in their zeal, they were inferior only in point of time and in respect of their being anticipated. 1.316. And as the smaller body had received each a larger share of the booty, by reason of their having been the foremost in encountering danger, and the larger body had received each a smaller share, by reason of their having remained at home; it appeared indispensable that they should consecrate the first fruits of the whole of the booty; those therefore who had remained at home brought a fiftieth, and those who had been actually engaged in the war, brought and contributed a five hundredth part; and of ten first fruits Moses commanded that portion which came from those who had borne a part in the expedition, to be given to the high priest, and that portion which came from those who had remained in the camp, to the keepers of the temple whose name were the Levites. 1.317. And the captains of thousands, and centurions, and all the rest of the multitude of commanders of battalions and companies willingly contributed special first fruits, as an offering for their own safety, and that of those who had gone out to war, and for the victory which had been gained in a manner beyond all hope, giving up all the golden ornaments which had fallen to the lot of each individual, in the apportionment of the booty, and the most costly vessels, of which the material was gold. All which things Moses took, and, admiring the piety of those who contributed them, dedicated them in the consecrated tabernacle as a memorial of the gratitude of the men; and the division of the first fruits was very beautiful; 1.318. those which had been given by the men who had borne their share in the war, he distributed among the keepers of the temple as among men who had only displayed one half of virtue, namely eagerness without action; but the first fruits of those who had warred and fought, who had encountered danger with their bodies and lives, and thus had displayed perfect and complete excellence, he allotted to him who presided over the keepers of the temple, namely to the high priest; and the first fruits of the captains, as being the offerings of chiefs and rulers, he allotted to the great ruler of all, namely to God. 1.319. All these wars were carried on and brought to an end before the Hebrews had crossed Jordan, the river of the country, being wars against the inhabitants of the country on the other side of Jordan, which was a rich and fertile land, in which there was a large champaign fertile in corn, and also very productive of herbage and fodder for cattle; 1.320. and when the two tribes who were occupied in feeding cattle saw this country, the two tribes being a sixth part of the whole Hebrew host, they besought Moses to permit them to take their inheritance in that district, where in fact they were already settled; for they said that the place was very suitable for cattle to be kept, and fed, and bred in, inasmuch as it was well watered and full of good herbage, and as it produced spontaneously abundant grass for the feeding of sheep. 1.321. But as he thought that they claimed a sort of right, by some kind of pre-eminence, to receive their share and the honours due to them before their time, or else that they preferred this petition by reason of their being unwilling to encounter the wars which were impending, as there were still many kings who were making ready to attack them, and who were the possessors of all the country inside the river, he was very indigt at their request, and answered them in anger, and said, 1.322. "Shall you then sit here and enjoy leisure, and yield to indolence at so improper a time? and shall the wars which still threaten us, afflict all your countrymen, and your relations, and your friends, and shall the prizes be given to you alone, as if you had all contributed to the success? And shall battles and wars, and distresses, and the most extreme dangers await others? 1.323. But it is not just that you should enjoy peace, and the blessings that flow from peace, and that the rest should endure wars and all the other indescribable evils which they bring with them, and that the whole should only be looked upon as an adjunct of a part; while, on the contrary, it is for the sake of the whole that the parts are thought worthy of any inheritance at all. 1.324. Ye are all entitled to equal honour, ye are one race, ye have the same fathers, one house, ye have the same customs, a community of laws, and an infinite number of other things, every one of which binds your kindred closer together, and cements your mutual good will; why then when you are thought worthy of equal shares of the most important and most necessary things, do you show a covetous spirit in the division of the lands, as if you were rulers despising your subjects as masters looking disdainfully on your slaves?" 1.325. You ought to have derived instruction from the afflictions of others; for it is the part of wise men not to wait till misfortunes come upon themselves. But now, though you have domestic examples in your own fathers, who went and spied out this land, and in the calamities which befell them, and all who participated in their despondency (for they all perished except two 1.326. therefore, while you are hastening to do wrong, you are also hastening to incur punishment. For justice is always a long time before it can be put in motion, but when it is once put in motion it makes great haste and speedily overtakes those who flee from it. 1.327. When, therefore, all our enemies are destroyed, and when there is no other war which can be expected or feared as impending, and when all those in our present alliance have been, on examination, found to be without reproach nor liable to any charge of desertion or treachery, or of any misconduct which could possibly tend to our defeat, but shall be seen to have endured steadfastly from the beginning to the end, with their bodily exertion and with all eagerness of mind, and when the whole country is cleared of those who have previously inherited it, then rewards and prizes for valour shall be given to all the tribes with perfect fairness. 1.328. So they, bearing this rebuke with moderation, as being genuine sons of a very kindlydisposed father (for they knew that Moses was not a man to behave insolently because of his power and authority, but one who cared for all of them, and honoured justice and equality, and who hated wickedness, not so as to reproach or insult the wicked, but so as to be constantly endeavouring by admonition and correction to improve those who were susceptible of improvement 1.329. but you must know that we are not alarmed at any undertaking that calls for valorous and virtuous exertion, even though it may be most laborious. And we judge that the task of virtue is to obey you who are such a brave and wise ruler, and not to fear to encounter dangers, and to be willing to bear our share in all future expeditions until all our business is brought to a fortunate conclusion. 1.330. "We, therefore, as we have agreed before, will remain in our ranks and cross over Jordan in complete armour, giving no soldier any excuse for lagging behind. But our infant children, and our daughters, and wives, and mothers, and the bulk of our cattle, shall, if you have no objection, be left behind, after we have made houses for our children and wives, and stables for our cattle that they may not be exposed to any incursion of the enemy, and so suffer injury from being taken in unwalled and unprotected dwellings." 1.331. And Moses answered with a mild look and even still gentler voice, "If you speak the truth and behave honestly, the allotments which you have asked for shall remain assured to you. Leave behind you now, as you desire, your wives and children, and flocks and herds, and go yourselves across Jordan in your ranks with the rest of the soldiers in full armour, arrayed for battle, as if you were prepared to fight at once, if it should be needful. 1.332. And hereafter when all our enemies are destroyed, and when, peace being established, we have made ourselves masters of the whole country, and have begun to divide it among ourselves, then you also shall return to your families to enjoy the good things which belong to you, and to possess the region which you have selected." 1.333. When Moses had said this, and given them this promise, they were filled with cheerfulness and joy, and established their families in safety as well as their flocks and herds in wellfortified and impregnable strongholds, the greater part of which were artificial. And taking their arms they marched forth more cheerfully than any of the rest of the allied forces, as if they alone had been going to fight, or at all events to fight in the first ranks as the champions of the whole army, for he who has received any gift beforehand is more eager in the cause in which he is engaged, since he thinks that he is repaying a necessary debt, and not giving a free gift. 1.334. I have now, then, given an account of what was done by Moses while invested with kingly power. I must now proceed to relate in order all the actions which he performed in accordance with virtue, and also successfully as a chief priest, and also in his character as a lawgiver; for he also exercised these two powers as very closely connected with his kingly authority
47. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.88-3.89 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
48. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 67-71, 73-80, 72 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
72. It is for this reason that Abraham is said to have made this first migration from the country of the Chaldaeans into the land of Charran. XVI. But Charran, in the Greek language, means "holes," which is a figurative emblem of the regions of our outward senses; by means of which, as by holes, each of those senses is able to look out so as to comprehend the objects which belong to it.
49. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.7.3-2.7.4, 2.12-2.13, 3.12-3.13, 16.89.1, 17.110.7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, city walls •babylon/babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 44; Gera (2014) 119, 120; Marek (2019) 173
2.7.3.  Taking the Euphrates river into the centre she threw about the city a wall with great towers set at frequent intervals, the wall being three hundred and sixty stades in circumference, as Ctesias of Cnidus says, but according to the account of Cleitarchus and certain of those who at a later time crossed into Asia with Alexander, three hundred and sixty-five stades; and these latter add that it was her desire to make the number of stades the same as the days in the year. 2.7.4.  Making baked bricks fast in bitumen she built a wall with a height, as Ctesias says, of fifty fathoms, but, as some later writers have recorded, of fifty cubits, and wide enough for more than two chariots abreast to drive upon; and the towers numbered two hundred and fifty, their height and width corresponding to the massive scale of the wall. 2.12. 1.  Although the sights to be seen in Babylonia are many and singular, not the least wonderful is the enormous amount of bitumen which the country produces; so great is the supply of this that it not only suffices for their buildings, which are numerous and large, but the common people also, gathering at the place, draw it out without any restriction, and drying it burn it in place of wood.,2.  And countless as is the multitude of men who draw it out, the amount remains undiminished, as if derived from some immense source. Moreover, near this source there is a vent-hole, of no great size but of remarkable potency. For it emits a heavy sulphurous vapour which brings death to all living creatures that approach it, and they meet with an end swift and strange; for after being subjected for a time to the retention of the breath they are killed, as though the expulsion of the breath were being prevented by the force which has attacked the processes of respiration; and immediately the body swells and blows up, particularly in the region about the lungs.,3.  And there is also across the river a lake whose edge offers solid footing, and if any man, unacquainted with it, enters it he swims for a short time, but as he advances towards the centre he is dragged down as though by a certain force; and when he begins to help himself and makes up his mind to turn back to shore again, though he struggles to extricate himself, it appears as if he were being hauled back by something else; and he becomes benumbed, first in his feet, then in his legs as far as the groin, and finally, overcome by numbness in his whole body, he is carried to the bottom, and a little later is cast up dead. Now concerning the wonders of Babylonia let what has been said suffice. 2.13. 1.  After Semiramis had made an end of her building operations she set forth in the direction of Media with a great force. And when she had arrived at the mountain known as Bagistanus, she encamped near it and laid out a park, which had a circumference of twelve stades and, being situated in the plain, contained a great spring by means of which her plantings could be irrigated.,2.  The Bagistanus mountain is sacred to Zeus and on the side facing the park has sheer cliffs which rise to a height of seventeen stades. The lowest part of these she smoothed off and engraved thereon a likeness of herself with a hundred spearmen at her side. And she also put this inscription on the cliff in Syrian letters: "Semiramis, with the pack-saddles of the beasts of burden in her army, built up a mound from the plain and thereby climbed this precipice, even to this very ridge.",3.  Setting forth from that place and arriving at the city of Chauon in Media, she noticed on a certain high plateau a rock both of striking height and mass. Accordingly, she laid out there another park of great size, putting the rock in the middle of it, and on the rock she erected, to satisfy her taste for luxury, some very costly buildings from which she used to look down both upon her plantings in the park and on the whole army encamped on the plain.,4.  In this place she passed a long time and enjoyed to the full every device that contributed to luxury; she was unwilling, however, to contract a lawful marriage, being afraid that she might be deprived of her supreme position, but choosing out the most handsome of the soldiers she consorted with them and then made away with all who had lain with her.,5.  After this she advanced in the direction of Ecbatana and arrived at the mountain called Zarcaeus; and since this extended many stades and was full of cliffs and chasms it rendered the journey round a long one. And so she became ambitious both to leave an immortal monument of herself and at the same time to shorten her way; consequently she cut through the cliffs, filled up the low places, and thus at great expense built a short road, which to this day is called the road of Semiramis.,6.  Upon arriving at Ecbatana, a city which lies in the plain, she built in it an expensive palace and in every other way gave rather exceptional attention to the region. For since the city had no water supply and there was no spring in its vicinity, she made the whole of it well watered by bringing to it with much hardship and expense an abundance of the purest water.,7.  For at a distance from Ecbatana of about twelve stades is a mountain, which is called Orontes and is unusual for its ruggedness and enormous height, since the ascent, straight to its summit, is twenty-five stades. And since a great lake, which emptied into a river, lay on the other side, she made a cutting through the base of this mountain.,8.  The tunnel was fifteen feet wide and forty feet high; and through it she brought in the river which flowed from the lake, and filled the city with water. Now this is what she did in Media. 3.12. 1.  At the extremity of Egypt and in the contiguous territory of both Arabia and Ethiopia there lies a region which contains many large gold mines, where the gold is secured in great quantities with much suffering and at great expense. For the earth is naturally black and contains seams and veins of a marble which is unusually white and in brilliancy surpasses everything else which shines brightly by its nature, and here the overseers of the labour in the mines work recover the gold with the aid of a multitude of workers.,2.  For the kings of Egypt gather together and condemn to the mining of the gold such as have been found guilty of some crime and captives of war, as well as those who have been accused unjustly and thrown into prison because of their anger, and not only such persons but occasionally all their relatives as well, by this means not only inflicting punishment upon those found guilty but also securing at the same time great revenues from their labours.,3.  And those who have been condemned in this way — and they are a great multitude and are all bound in chains — work at their task unceasingly both by day and throughout the entire night, enjoying no respite and being carefully cut off from any means of escape; since guards of foreign soldiers who speak a language different from theirs stand watch over them, so that not a man, either by conversation or by some contact of a friendly nature, is able to corrupt one of his keepers.,6.  Now these men, working in darkness as they do because of the bending and winding of the passages, carry lamps bound on their foreheads; and since much of the time they change the position of their bodies to follow the particular character of the stone they throw the blocks, as they cut them out, on the ground; and at this task they labour without ceasing beneath the sternness and blows of an overseer. 3.13. 1.  The boys there who have not yet come to maturity, entering through the tunnels into the galleries formed by the removal of the rock, laboriously gather up the rock as it is cast down piece by piece and carry it out into the open to the place outside the entrance. Then those who are above thirty years of age take this quarried stone from them and with iron pestles pound a specified amount of it in stone mortars, until they have worked it down to the size of a vetch.,2.  Thereupon the women and older men receive from them the rock of this size and cast it into mills of which a number stand there in a row, and taking their places in groups of two or three at the spoke or handle of each mill they grind it until they have worked down the amount given them to the consistency of the finest flour. And since no opportunity is afforded any of them to care for his body and they have no garment to cover their shame, no man can look upon unfortunate wretches without feeling pity for them because of the exceeding hardships they suffer.,3.  For no leniency or respite of any kind is given to any man who is sick, or maimed, or aged, or in the case of a woman for her weakness, but all without exception are compelled by blows to persevere in their labours, until through ill-treatment they die in the midst of their tortures. Consequently the poor unfortunates believe, because their punishment is so excessively severe, that the future will always be more terrible than the present and therefore look forward to death as more to be desired than life. 16.89.1.  When Phrynichus was archon at Athens, the Romans installed as consuls Titus Manlius Torquatus and Publius Decius. In this year King Philip, proudly conscious of his victory at Chaeroneia and seeing that he had dashed the confidence of the leading Greek cities, conceived of the ambition to become the leader of all Greece. 17.110.7.  They say that its circuit is two hundred and fifty stades. It contains the palace which is the capital of all Media and storehouses filled with great wealth. Here he refreshed his army for some time and staged a dramatic festival, accompanied by constant drinking parties among his friends.
50. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 58 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
58. On which account, a man would not be wrong who called our minds the sun of our composition; as the mind, if it does not rise and shed its own light in man, who may be looked upon as a small world, leaves a great darkness diffused over all existing things, and suffers nothing to be brought to light. XVII.
51. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 135, 134 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gruen (2020) 154
134. "But in the day," says God, "on which I smote the first-born in the land of Egypt, I consecrated to myself all the first-born of Israel." And he says this not to lead us to suppose that at the time when Egypt was stricken with this mighty blow by the destruction of all its first-born, the first-born of Israel all became holy, but because both in former times, and now, and hereafter, and for ever, this naturally happens in the case of the soul, that when the most domit parts of blind passion are destroyed, then the elder and most honourable offspring of God, who sees everything with a piercing sight, becomes holy;
52. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.30-1.32, 1.179, 1.201, 2.240 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 40, 171
1.30. 7. For our forefathers did not only appoint the best of these priests, and those that attended upon the divine worship, for that design from the beginning, but made provision that the stock of the priests should continue unmixed and pure; 1.31. for he who is partaker of the priesthood must propagate of a wife of the same nation, without having any regard to money, or any other dignities; but he is to make a scrutiny, and take his wife’s genealogy from the ancient tables, and procure many witnesses to it; 1.32. and this is our practice not only in Judea, but wheresoever any body of men of our nation do live; and even there, an exact catalogue of our priests’ marriages is kept; 1.179. This man, then [answered Aristotle], was by birth a Jew, and came from Celesyria: these Jews are derived from the Indian philosophers; they are named by the Indians Calami, and by the Syrians Judaei, and took their name from the country they inhabit, which is called Judea; but for the name of their city it is a very awkward one, for they call it Jerusalem. 1.201. “As I was myself going to the Red Sea, there followed us a man, whose name was Mosollam; he was one of the Jewish horsemen who conducted us; he was a person of great courage, of a strong body, and by all allowed to be the most skilful archer that was either among the Greeks or barbarians. 2.240. uch as these, that they may be allowed to be as numerous as they have a mind to have them; that they are begotten one by another, and that after all the kinds of generation you can imagine. They also distinguish them in their places and ways of living, as they would distinguish several sorts of animals: as some to be under the earth; as some to be in the sea; and the ancientest of them all to be bound in hell;
53. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.32, 1.35, 1.77, 1.120-1.122, 1.144, 1.152, 1.191, 1.193, 1.206, 1.214, 1.221, 1.235, 1.257, 2.246, 2.252-2.253, 3.206, 4.126-4.130, 4.197, 4.219, 4.228, 4.239, 5.125, 5.190-5.193, 6.114, 7.356, 8.183, 8.191-8.194, 8.297, 9.253, 9.278-9.279, 10.222, 11.88, 11.180, 11.184-11.185, 11.198, 11.211, 11.217, 11.221, 11.224-11.225, 11.227, 11.229, 11.262, 11.270, 12.68, 12.71, 12.131, 12.147-12.153, 12.222, 12.331, 13.65, 13.319, 14.43, 14.114, 14.187, 14.341, 14.343, 14.347, 14.440-14.442, 14.445, 15.15, 15.372, 15.402, 17.174, 18.47, 18.49, 18.106, 18.328, 19.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 50; Gera (2014) 118, 124, 205, 214; Gruen (2020) 40, 129, 171, 173, 174, 176; Huttner (2013) 67
1.32. And on the fifth day he produced the living creatures, both those that swim, and those that fly; the former in the sea, the latter in the air: he also sorted them as to society and mixture, for procreation, and that their kinds might increase and multiply. On the sixth day he created the four-footed beasts, and made them male and female: on the same day he also formed man. 1.35. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; 1.77. That he should make an ark of four stories high, three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits broad, and thirty cubits high. Accordingly he entered into that ark, and his wife, and sons, and their wives, and put into it not only other provisions, to support their wants there, but also sent in with the rest all sorts of living creatures, the male and his female, for the preservation of their kinds; and others of them by sevens. 1.120. 1. After this they were dispersed abroad, on account of their languages, and went out by colonies every where; and each colony took possession of that land which they light upon, and unto which God led them; so that the whole continent was filled with them, both the inland and the maritime countries. There were some also who passed over the sea in ships, and inhabited the islands: 1.121. and some of those nations do still retain the denominations which were given them by their first founders; but some have lost them also, and some have only admitted certain changes in them, that they might be the more intelligible to the inhabitants. And they were the Greeks who became the authors of such mutations. For when in after-ages they grew potent, they claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity; giving names to the nations that sounded well [in Greek] that they might be better understood among themselves; and setting agreeable forms of government over them, as if they were a people derived from themselves. 1.122. 1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. 1.144. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians; as Laud founded the Laudites, which are now called Lydians. 1.152. Now Terah hating Chaldea, on account of his mourning for Haran, they all removed to Haran of Mesopotamia, where Terah died, and was buried, when he had lived to be two hundred and five years old; for the life of man was already, by degrees, diminished, and became shorter than before, till the birth of Moses; after whom the term of human life was one hundred and twenty years, God determining it to the length that Moses happened to live. 1.191. 5. The forementioned son was born to Abram when he was eighty-six years old: but when he was ninety-nine, God appeared to him, and promised him that he Should have a son by Sarai, and commanded that his name should be Isaac; and showed him, that from this son should spring great nations and kings, and that they should obtain all the land of Canaan by war, from Sidon to Egypt. 1.193. And Abram inquiring also concerning Ismael, whether he should live or not, God signified to him that he should live to be very old, and should be the father of great nations. Abram therefore gave thanks to God for these blessings; and then he, and all his family, and his son Ismael, were circumcised immediately; the son being that day thirteen years of age, and he ninety-nine. 1.206. The former of whom was the father of the Moabites, which is even still a great nation; the latter was the father of the Ammonites; and both of them are inhabitants of Celesyria. And such was the departure of Lot from among the Sodomites. 1.214. o that this son was born to them both in the last year of each of those decimal numbers. And they circumcised him upon the eighth day and from that time the Jews continue the custom of circumcising their sons within that number of days. But as for the Arabians, they circumcise after the thirteenth year, because Ismael, the founder of their nation, who was born to Abraham of the concubine, was circumcised at that age; concerning whom I will presently give a particular account, with great exactness. 1.221. These inhabited all the country from Euphrates to the Red Sea, and called it Nabatene. They are an Arabian nation, and name their tribes from these, both because of their own virtue, and because of the dignity of Abraham their father. 1.235. He foretold also, that his family should increase into many nations and that those patriarchs should leave behind them an everlasting name; that they should obtain the possession of the land of Canaan, and be envied by all men. When God had said this, he produced to them a ram, which did not appear before, for the sacrifice. 1.257. 1. Now Isaac’s wife proved with child, after the death of Abraham; and when her belly was greatly burdened, Isaac was very anxious, and inquired of God; who answered, that Rebeka should bear twins; and that two nations should take the names of those sons; and that he who appeared the second should excel the elder. 2.246. for he made baskets, like unto arks, of sedge, and filled them with ibes, and carried them along with them; which animal is the greatest enemy to serpents imaginable, for they fly from them when they come near them; and as they fly they are caught and devoured by them, as if it were done by the harts; 2.252. Tharbis was the daughter of the king of the Ethiopians: she happened to see Moses as he led the army near the walls, and fought with great courage; and admiring the subtilty of his undertakings, and believing him to be the author of the Egyptians’ success, when they had before despaired of recovering their liberty, and to be the occasion of the great danger the Ethiopians were in, when they had before boasted of their great achievements, she fell deeply in love with him; and upon the prevalancy of that passion, sent to him the most faithful of all her servants to discourse with him about their marriage. 2.253. He thereupon accepted the offer, on condition she would procure the delivering up of the city; and gave her the assurance of an oath to take her to his wife; and that when he had once taken possession of the city, he would not break his oath to her. No sooner was the agreement made, but it took effect immediately; and when Moses had cut off the Ethiopians, he gave thanks to God, and consummated his marriage, and led the Egyptians back to their own land. 3.206. After this manner did he consecrate them and their garments for seven days together. The same he did to the tabernacle, and the vessels thereto belonging, both with oil first incensed, as I said, and with the blood of bulls and of rams, slain day by day one, according to its kind. But on the eighth day he appointed a feast for the people, and commanded them to offer sacrifice according to their ability. 4.126. 6. But Balak being very angry that the Israelites were not cursed, sent away Balaam without thinking him worthy of any honor. Whereupon, when he was just upon his journey, in order to pass the Euphrates, he sent for Balak, and for the princes of the Midianites, 4.127. and spake thus to them:—“O Balak, and you Midianites that are here present, (for I am obliged even without the will of God to gratify you,) it is true no entire destruction can seize upon the nation of the Hebrews, neither by war, nor by plague, nor by scarcity of the fruits of the earth, nor can any other unexpected accident be their entire ruin; 4.128. for the providence of God is concerned to preserve them from such a misfortune; nor will it permit any such calamity to come upon them whereby they may all perish; but some small misfortunes, and those for a short time, whereby they may appear to be brought low, may still befall them; but after that they will flourish again, to the terror of those that brought those mischiefs upon them. 4.129. So that if you have a mind to gain a victory over them for a short space of time, you will obtain it by following my directions:—Do you therefore set out the handsomest of such of your daughters as are most eminent for beauty, and proper to force and conquer the modesty of those that behold them, and these decked and trimmed to the highest degree you are able. Then do you send them to be near the Israelites’ camp, and give them in charge, that when the young men of the Hebrews desire their company, they allow it them; 4.130. and when they see that they are enamored of them, let them take their leaves; and if they entreat them to stay, let them not give their consent till they have persuaded them to leave off their obedience to their own laws, and the worship of that God who established them, and to worship the gods of the Midianites and Moabites; for by this means God will be angry at them .” Accordingly, when Balaam had suggested this counsel to them, he went his way. 4.197. only we shall so far innovate, as to digest the several kinds of laws into a regular system; for they were by him left in writing as they were accidentally scattered in their delivery, and as he upon inquiry had learned them of God. On which account I have thought it necessary to premise this observation beforehand, lest any of my own countrymen should blame me, as having been guilty of an offense herein. 4.219. 15. But let not a single witness be credited, but three, or two at the least, and those such whose testimony is confirmed by their good lives. But let not the testimony of women be admitted, on account of the levity and boldness of their sex Nor let servants be admitted to give testimony, on account of the ignobility of their soul; since it is probable that they may not speak truth, either out of hope of gain, or fear of punishment. But if any one be believed to have borne false witness, let him, when he is convicted, suffer all the very same punishments which he against whom he bore witness was to have suffered. 4.228. 20. You are not to sow with seed a piece of land which is planted with vines, for it is enough that it supply nourishment to that plant, and be not harassed by ploughing also. You are to plough your land with oxen, and not to oblige other animals to come under the same yoke with them; but to till your land with those beasts that are of the same kind with each other. The seeds are also to be pure, and without mixture, and not to be compounded of two or three sorts, since nature does not rejoice in the union of things that are not in their own nature alike; 4.239. for it is proper for you who have had the experience of the afflictions in Egypt, and of those in the wilderness, to make provision for those that are in the like circumstances; and while you have now obtained plenty yourselves, through the mercy and providence of God, to distribute of the same plenty, by the like sympathy, to such as stand in need of it. 5.125. 3. For which reason they removed their camp to Hebron; and when they had taken it, they slew all the inhabitants. There were till then left the race of giants, who had bodies so large, and counteces so entirely different from other men, that they were surprising to the sight, and terrible to the hearing. The bones of these men are still shown to this very day, unlike to any credible relations of other men. 5.190. Now, when on a time he was bringing presents to the king, and had two servants with him, he put a dagger on his right thigh secretly, and went in to him: it was then summer time, and the middle of the day, when the guards were not strictly on their watch, both because of the heat, and because they were gone to dinner. 5.191. So the young man, when he had offered his presents to the king, who then resided in a small parlor that stood conveniently to avoid the heat, fell into discourse with him, for they were now alone, the king having bid his servants that attended him to go their ways, because he had a mind to talk with Ehud. 5.192. He was now sitting on his throne; and fear seized upon Ehud lest he should miss his stroke, and not give him a deadly wound; 5.193. o he raised himself up, and said he had a dream to impart to him by the command of God; upon which the king leaped out of his throne for joy of the dream; so Ehud smote him to the heart, and leaving his dagger in his body, he went out and shut the door after him. Now the king’s servants were very still, as supposing that the king had composed himself to sleep. 6.114. but the greatest part, not knowing one another, because they were of different nations, suspected one another to be enemies, (for they did not imagine there were only two of the Hebrews that came up,) and so they fought one against another; and some of them died in the battle, and some, as they were flying away, were thrown down from the rock headlong. 7.356. and commanded them to follow Solomon through the midst of the city, and to sound the trumpets, and wish aloud that Solomon the king may sit upon the royal throne for ever, that so all the people may know that he is ordained king by his father. He also gave Solomon a charge concerning his government, to rule the whole nation of the Hebrews, and particularly the tribe of Judah, religiously and righteously. 8.183. for they sent him vessels of gold, and silver, and purple garments, and many sorts of spices, and horses, and chariots, and as many mules for his carriages as they could find proper to please the king’s eyes, by their strength and beauty. This addition that he made to those chariots and horses which he had before from those that were sent him, augmented the number of his chariots by above four hundred, for he had a thousand before, and augmented the number of his horses by two thousand, for he had twenty thousand before. 8.191. He grew mad in his love of women, and laid no restraint on himself in his lusts; nor was he satisfied with the women of his country alone, but he married many wives out of foreign nations; Sidontans, and Tyrians, and Ammonites, and Edomites; and he transgressed the laws of Moses, which forbade Jews to marry any but those that were of their own people. 8.192. He also began to worship their gods, which he did in order to the gratification of his wives, and out of his affection for them. This very thing our legislator suspected, and so admonished us beforehand, that we should not marry women of other countries, lest we should be entangled with foreign customs, and apostatize from our own; lest we should leave off to honor our own God, and should worship their gods. 8.193. But Solomon was Gllen headlong into unreasonable pleasures, and regarded not those admonitions; for when he had married seven hundred wives, the daughters of princes and of eminent persons, and three hundred concubines, and those besides the king of Egypt’s daughter, he soon was governed by them, till he came to imitate their practices. He was forced to give them this demonstration of his kindness and affection to them, to live according to the laws of their countries. 8.194. And as he grew into years, and his reason became weaker by length of time, it was not sufficient to recall to his mind the institutions of his own country; so he still more and more condemned his own God, and continued to regard the gods that his marriages had introduced; 8.297. but your cities shall be overthrown, and your nation scattered over the whole earth, and live the life of strangers and wanderers. So he advised them, while they had time, to be good, and not to deprive themselves of the favor of God. When the king and the people heard this, they rejoiced; and all in common, and every one in particular, took great care to behave themselves righteously. The king also sent some to take care that those in the country should observe the laws also. 9.253. Now this king, upon the reception of those ambassadors, came to assist Ahaz, and made war upon the Syrians, and laid their country waste, and took Damascus by force, and slew Rezin their king, and transplanted the people of Damascus into the Upper Media, and brought a colony of Assyrians, and planted them in Damascus. 9.278. but when he was not admitted [into the city] by the king, he besieged Samaria three years, and took it by force in the ninth year of the reign of Hoshea, and in the seventh year of Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, and quite demolished the government of the Israelites, and transplanted all the people into Media and Persia among whom he took king Hoshea alive; 9.279. and when he had removed these people out of this their land he transplanted other nations out of Cuthah, a place so called, (for there is [still] a river of that name in Persia,) into Samaria, and into the country of the Israelites. 10.222. and when he was made sensible, as he was in a little time, that his father Nebuchodonosor [Nabopollassar] was dead, and having settled the affairs of Egypt, and the other countries, as also those that concerned the captive Jews, and Phoenicians, and Syrians, and those of the Egyptian nations; and having committed the conveyance of them to Babylon to certain of his friends, together with the gross of his army, and the rest of their ammunition and provisions, he went himself hastily, accompanied with a few others, over the desert, and came to Babylon. 11.88. 4. When the Cuthearts heard this, for the Samaritans have that appellation, they had indignation at it, and persuaded the nations of Syria to desire of the governors, in the same manner as they had done formerly in the days of Cyrus, and again in the days of Cambyses afterwards, to put a stop to the building of the temple, and to endeavor to delay and protract the Jews in their zeal about it. 11.180. Now when the walls were finished, Nehemiah and the multitude offered sacrifices to God for the building of them, and they continued in feasting eight days. However, when the nations which dwelt in Syria heard that the building of the wall was finished, they had indignation at it. 11.184. 1. After the death of Xerxes, the kingdom came to be transferred to his son Cyrus, whom the Greeks called Artaxerxes. When this man had obtained the government over the Persians, the whole nation of the Jews, with their wives and children, were in danger of perishing; 11.185. the occasion whereof we shall declare in a little time; for it is proper, in the first place, to explain somewhat relating to this king, and how he came to marry a Jewish wife, who was herself of the royal family also, and who is related to have saved our nation; 11.198. So when a great number of these virgins were gathered together, there was found a damsel in Babylon, whose parents were both dead, and she was brought up with her uncle Mordecai, for that was her uncle’s name. This uncle was of the tribe of Benjamin, and was one of the principal persons among the Jews. 11.211. And when he desired to punish Mordecai, he thought it too small a thing to request of the king that he alone might be punished; he rather determined to abolish the whole nation, for he was naturally an enemy to the Jews, because the nation of the Amalekites, of which he was; had been destroyed by them. 11.217. And whereas I have been kindly informed by Haman, who, on account of his prudence and justice, is the first in my esteem, and in dignity, and only second to myself, for his fidelity and constant good-will to me, that there is an ill-natured nation intermixed with all mankind, that is averse to our laws, and not subject to kings, and of a different conduct of life from others, that hateth monarchy, and of a disposition that is pernicious to our affairs, 11.221. 7. Now when Mordecai was informed of what was done, he rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth, and sprinkled ashes upon his head, and went about the city, crying out, that “a nation that had been injurious to no man was to be destroyed.” And he went on saying thus as far as to the king’s palace, and there he stood, for it was not lawful for him to go into it in that habit. 11.224. Then did Mordecai inform the eunuch of the occasion of his mourning, and of the decree which was sent by the king into all the country, and of the promise of money whereby Haman brought the destruction of their nation. 11.225. He also gave him a copy of what was proclaimed at Shushan, to be carried to Esther; and he charged her to petition the king about this matter, and not to think it a dishonorable thing in her to put on a humble habit, for the safety of her nation, wherein she might deprecate the ruin of the Jews, who were in danger of it; for that Haman, whose dignity was only inferior to that of the king, had accused the Jews, and had irritated the king against them. 11.227. Now when the eunuch carried this message from Esther to Mordecai, he bade him also tell her that she must not only provide for her own preservation, but for the common preservation of her nation, for that if she now neglected this opportunity, there would certainly arise help to them from God some other way, but she and her father’s house would be destroyed by those whom she now despised. 11.229. 8. Accordingly, Mordecai did as Esther had enjoined him, and made the people fast; and he besought God, together with them, not to overlook his nation, particularly at this time, when it was going to be destroyed; but that, as he had often before provided for them, and forgiven, when they had sinned, so he would now deliver them from that destruction which was denounced against them; 11.262. Now when the king, with Haman, were at the banquet, he desired the queen to tell him what gifts she desired to obtain, and assured her that she should have whatsoever she had a mind to. She then lamented the danger her people were in; and said that “she and her nation were given up to be destroyed, and that she, on that account, made this her petition; 11.270. The queen also gave Haman’s estate to Mordecai; and prayed the king to deliver the nation of the Jews from the fear of death, and showed him what had been written over all the country by Haman the son of Ammedatha; for that if her country were destroyed, and her countrymen were to perish, she could not bear to live herself any longer. 12.68. But under these oval figures, thus engraven, the workmen had put a crown all round it, where the nature of all sorts of fruit was represented, insomuch that the bunches of grapes hung up. And when they had made the stones to represent all the kinds of fruit before mentioned, and that each in its proper color, they made them fast with gold round the whole table. 12.71. but upon the table itself they engraved a meander, inserting into it very valuable stones in the middle like stars, of various colors; the carbuncle and the emerald, each of which sent out agreeable rays of light to the spectators; with such stones of other sorts also as were most curious and best esteemed, as being most precious in their kind. 12.131. But at length, when Antiochus had beaten Ptolemy, he seized upon Judea; and when Philopater was dead, his son sent out a great army under Scopas, the general of his forces, against the inhabitants of Celesyria, who took many of their cities, and in particular our nation; 12.147. Moreover, this Antiochus bare testimony to our piety and fidelity, in an epistle of his, written when he was informed of a sedition in Phrygia and Lydia, at which time he was in the superior provinces, wherein he commanded Zenxis, the general of his forces, and his most intimate friend, to send some of our nation out of Babylon into Phrygia. The epistle was this: 12.148. “King Antiochus To Zeuxis His Father, Sendeth Greeting. /p “If you are in health, it is well. I also am in health. 12.149. Having been informed that a sedition is arisen in Lydia and Phrygia, I thought that matter required great care; and upon advising with my friends what was fit to be done, it hath been thought proper to remove two thousand families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon, unto the castles and places that lie most convenient; 12.150. for I am persuaded that they will be well-disposed guardians of our possessions, because of their piety towards God, and because I know that my predecessors have borne witness to them, that they are faithful, and with alacrity do what they are desired to do. I will, therefore, though it be a laborious work, that thou remove these Jews, under a promise, that they shall be permitted to use their own laws. 12.151. And when thou shalt have brought them to the places forementioned, thou shalt give everyone of their families a place for building their houses, and a portion of the land for their husbandry, and for the plantation of their vines; and thou shalt discharge them from paying taxes of the fruits of the earth for ten years; 12.152. and let them have a proper quantity of wheat for the maintece of their servants, until they receive breadcorn out of the earth; also let a sufficient share be given to such as minister to them in the necessaries of life, that by enjoying the effects of our humanity, they may show themselves the more willing and ready about our affairs. 12.153. Take care likewise of that nation, as far as thou art able, that they may not have any disturbance given them by any one.” Now these testimonials which I have produced are sufficient to declare the friendship that Antiochus the Great bare to the Jews. 12.222. And when Hyrcanus’s brethren came to fight him, he slew many others of those that were with them, as also two of his brethren themselves; but the rest of them escaped to Jerusalem to their father. But when Hyrcanus came to the city, where nobody would receive him, he was afraid for himself, and retired beyond the river Jordan, and there abode, but obliging the barbarians to pay their taxes. 12.331. And as these epistles were reading, there came other messengers out of Galilee, who informed him that the inhabitants of Ptolemais, and of Tyre and Sidon, and strangers of Galilee, were gotten together. 13.65. “Having done many and great things for you in the affairs of the war, by the assistance of God, and that in Celesyria and Phoenicia, I came at length with the Jews to Leontopolis, and to other places of your nation, 13.319. He was naturally a man of candor, and of great modesty, as Strabo bears witness, in the name of Timagenes; who says thus: “This man was a person of candor, and very serviceable to the Jews; for he added a country to them, and obtained a part of the nation of the Itureans for them, and bound them to them by the bond of the circumcision of their genitals.” 14.43. He also accused him, that the incursions which had been made into their neighbors’ countries, and the piracies that had been at sea, were owing to him; and that the nation would not have revolted, unless Aristobulus had been a man given to violence and disorder; and there were no fewer than a thousand Jews, of the best esteem among them, who confirmed this accusation; which confirmation was procured by Antipater. 14.114. And Strabo himself bears witness to the same thing in another place, that at the same time that Sylla passed over into Greece, in order to fight against Mithridates, he sent Lucullus to put an end to a sedition that our nation, of whom the habitable earth is full, had raised in Cyrene; where he speaks thus: 14.187. for whereas many will not believe what hath been written about us by the Persians and Macedonians, because those writings are not every where to be met with, nor do lie in public places, but among us ourselves, and certain other barbarous nations, 14.341. And when Phasaelus met him, and received him kindly, Pacorus persuaded him to go himself as ambassador to Barzapharnes, which was done fraudulently. Accordingly, Phasaelus, suspecting no harm, complied with his proposal, while Herod did not give his consent to what was done, because of the perfidiousness of these barbarians, but desired Phasaelus rather to fight those that were come into the city. 14.343. Barzaphanles also received them at the first with cheerfulness, and made them presents, though he afterward conspired against them; and Phasaelus, with his horsemen, were conducted to the sea-side. But when they heard that Antigonus had promised to give the Parthians a thousand talents, and five hundred women, to assist him against them, they soon had a suspicion of the barbarians. 14.347. But the barbarian swore to him that there was no truth in any of his suspicions, but that he was troubled with nothing but false proposals, and then went away to Pacorus. 14.440. And when he came to Antioch, and met there a great number of men gotten together that were very desirous to go to Antony, but durst not venture to go, out of fear, because the barbarians fell upon men on the road, and slew many, so he encouraged them, and became their conductor upon the road. 14.441. Now when they were within two days’ march of Samosata, the barbarians had laid an ambush there to disturb those that came to Antony, and where the woods made the passes narrow, as they led to the plains, there they laid not a few of their horsemen, who were to lie still until those passengers were gone by into the wide place. 14.442. Now as soon as the first ranks were gone by, (for Herod brought on the rear,) those that lay in ambush, who were about five hundred, fell upon them on the sudden, and when they had put the foremost to flight, the king came riding hard, with the forces that were about him, and immediately drove back the enemy; by which means he made the minds of his own men courageous, and imboldened them to go on, insomuch that those who ran away before now returned back, and the barbarians were slain on all sides. 14.445. 9. And when he was near to Samosata, Antony sent out his army in all their proper habiliments to meet him, in order to pay Herod this respect, and because of the assistance he had given him; for he had heard what attacks the barbarians had made upon him [in Judea]. 15.15. These Jews honored Hyrcanus as their high priest and king, as did all the Jewish nation that dwelt as far as Euphrates; which respect was very much to his satisfaction. 15.372. However, it is but fit to set down here the reasons wherefore Herod had these Essenes in such honor, and thought higher of them than their mortal nature required; nor will this account be unsuitable to the nature of this history, as it will show the opinion men had of these Essenes. 15.402. and round about the entire temple were fixed the spoils taken from barbarous nations; all these had been dedicated to the temple by Herod, with the addition of those he had taken from the Arabians. 17.174. He commanded that all the principal men of the entire Jewish nation, wheresoever they lived, should be called to him. Accordingly, they were a great number that came, because the whole nation was called, and all men heard of this call, and death was the penalty of such as should despise the epistles that were sent to call them. And now the king was in a wild rage against them all, the innocent as well as those that had afforded ground for accusations; 18.47. However, the barbarians soon changed their minds, they being naturally of a mutable disposition, upon the supposal that this man was not worthy to be their governor; for they could not think of obeying the commands of one that had been a slave, (for so they called those that had been hostages,) nor could they bear the ignominy of that name; and this was the more intolerable, because then the Parthians must have such a king set over them, not by right of war, but in time of peace. 18.49. Yet did he a little after gather a great army together, and fought with Vonones, and beat him; whereupon Vonones fled away on horseback, with a few of his attendants about him, to Seleucia [upon Tigris]. So when Artabanus had slain a great number, and this after he had gotten the victory by reason of the very great dismay the barbarians were in, he retired to Ctesiphon with a great number of his people; and so he now reigned over the Parthians. 18.106. 6. About this time it was that Philip, Herod’s brother, departed this life, in the twentieth year of the reign of Tiberius, after he had been tetrarch of Trachonitis and Gaulanitis, and of the nation of the Bataneans also, thirty-seven years. He had showed himself a person of moderation and quietness in the conduct of his life and government; 18.328. and when he understood that he was afraid, and staid by the lake, he took an oath, by the gods of his country, that he would do them no harm, if they came to him upon the assurances he gave them, and gave him his right hand. This is of the greatest force there with all these barbarians, and affords a firm security to those who converse with them; 19.119. The Germans were the first who perceived that Caius was slain. These Germans were Caius’s guard, and carried the name of the country whence they were chosen, and composed the Celtic legion.
54. New Testament, Matthew, 12.43-12.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 47
12.43. Ὅταν δὲ τὸ ἀκάθαρτον πνεῦμα ἐξέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, διέρχεται διʼ ἀνύδρων τόπων ζητοῦν ἀνάπαυσιν, καὶ οὐχ εὑρίσκει. 12.44. τότε λέγει Εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου ἐπιστρέψω ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον· καὶ ἐλθὸν εὑρίσκει σχολάζοντα [καὶ] σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον. 12.45. τότε πορεύεται καὶ παραλαμβάνει μεθʼ ἑαυτοῦ ἑπτὰ ἕτερα πνεύματα πονηρότερα ἑαυτοῦ, καὶ εἰσελθόντα κατοικεῖ ἐκεῖ· καὶ γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου χείρονα τῶν πρώτων. Οὕτως ἔσται καὶ τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ τῇ πονηρᾷ. 12.43. But the unclean spirit, when he is gone out of the man, passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and doesn't find it. 12.44. Then he says, 'I will return into my house from which I came out,' and when he has come back, he finds it empty, swept, and put in order. 12.45. Then he goes, and takes with himself seven other spirits more evil than he is, and they enter in and dwell there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first. Even so will it be also to this evil generation."
55. New Testament, Mark, 2.5, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 47
2.5. καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ Τέκνον, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. 6.5. Καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο ἐκεῖ ποιῆσαι οὐδεμίαν δύναμιν, εἰ μὴ ὀλίγοις ἀρρώστοις ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας ἐθεράπευσεν· 2.5. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, your sins are forgiven you." 6.5. He could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick folk, and healed them.
56. New Testament, Luke, 11.24-11.26, 13.1-13.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 47
11.24. Ὅταν τὸ ἀκάθαρτον πνεῦμα ἐξέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, διέρχεται διʼ ἀνύδρων τόπων ζητοῦν ἀνάπαυσιν, καὶ μὴ εὑρίσκον [τότε] λέγει Ὑποστρέψω εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου ὅθεν ἐξῆλθον· 11.25. καὶ ἐλθὸν εὑρίσκει [σχολάζοντα,] σεσαρωμένον καὶ κεκοσμημένον. 11.26. τότε πορεύεται καὶ παραλαμβάνει ἕτερα πνεύματα πονηρότερα ἑαυτοῦ ἑπτά, καὶ εἰσελθόντα κατοικεῖ ἐκεῖ, καὶ γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου χείρονα τῶν πρώτων. 13.1. Παρῆσαν δέ τινες ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ ἀπαγγέλλοντες αὐτῷ περὶ τῶν Γαλιλαίων ὧν τὸ αἷμα Πειλᾶτος ἔμιξεν μετὰ τῶν θυσιῶν αὐτῶν. 13.2. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Δοκεῖτε ὅτι οἱ Γαλιλαῖοι οὗτοι ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους ἐγένοντο, ὅτι ταῦτα πεπόνθασιν; 13.3. οὐχί, λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀλλʼ ἐὰν μὴ μετανοῆτε πάντες ὁμοίως ἀπολεῖσθε. 13.4. ἢ ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα ὀκτὼ ἐφʼ οὓς ἔπεσεν ὁ πύργος ἐν τῷ Σιλωὰμ καὶ ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτούς, δοκεῖτε ὅτι αὐτοὶ ὀφειλέται ἐγένοντο παρὰ πάντας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς κατοικοῦντας Ἰερουσαλήμ; 13.5. οὐχί, λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀλλʼ ἐὰν μὴ μετανοήσητε πάντες ὡσαύτως ἀπολεῖσθε. 11.24. The unclean spirit, when he has gone out of the man, passes through dry places, seeking rest, and finding none, he says, 'I will turn back to my house from which I came out.' 11.25. When he returns, he finds it swept and put in order. 11.26. Then he goes, and takes seven other spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first." 13.1. Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. 13.2. Jesus answered them, "Do you think that these Galilaeans were worse sinners than all the other Galilaeans, because they suffered such things? 13.3. I tell you, no, but, unless you repent, you will all perish in the same way. 13.4. Or those eighteen, on whom the tower in Siloam fell, and killed them; do you think that they were worse offenders than all the men who dwell in Jerusalem? 13.5. I tell you, no, but, unless you repent, you will all perish in the same way."
57. Josephus Flavius, Life, 196 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 171
58. New Testament, Jude, 22-23, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 27, 28
59. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.4, 1.11, 3.20, 19.7-19.9, 19.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Huttner (2013) 152, 178; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 294
1.4. ΙΩΑΝΗΣ ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸὁ ὢνκαὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἑπτὰ πνευμάτων ἃ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου αὐτοῦ, 1.11. λεγούσης Ὃ βλέπεις γράψον εἰς βιβλίον καὶ πέμψον ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις, εἰς Ἔφεσον καὶ εἰς Σμύρναν καὶ εἰς Πέργαμον καὶ εἰς Θυάτειρα καὶ εἰς Σάρδεις καὶ εἰς Φιλαδελφίαν καὶ εἰς Λαοδικίαν. 3.20. Ἰδοὺ ἕστηκα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούω· ἐάν τις ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου καὶ ἀνοίξῃ τὴν θύραν, εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ δειπνήσω μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς μετʼ ἐμοῦ. 19.7. χαίρωμεν καὶ ἀγαλλιῶμεν, καὶ δώσομεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτῷ, ὅτι ἦλθεν ὁ γάμος τοῦ ἀρνίου, καὶ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ ἡτοίμασεν ἑαυτήν, 19.8. καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῇ ἵνα περιβάληται βύσσινον λαμπρὸν καθαρόν, τὸ γὰρ βύσσινον τὰ δικαιώματα τῶν ἁγίων ἐστίν. 19.9. Καὶ λέγει μοι Γράψον Μακάριοι οἱ εἰς τὸ δεῖπνον τοῦ γάμου τοῦ ἀρνίου κεκλημένοι. καὶ λέγει μοι Οὗτοι οῖ λόγοι ἀληθινοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰσίν. 19.21. καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπεκτάνθησαν ἐν τῇ ῥομφαίᾳ τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ ἵππου τῇ ἐξελθούσῃ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶπάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶναὐτῶν. 1.4. John, to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from God, who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne; 1.11. saying, "What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea." 3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready." 19.8. It was given to her that she would array herself in bright, pure, fine linen: for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. 19.9. He said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.'" He said to me, "These are true words of God." 19.21. The rest were killed with the sword of him who sat on the horse, the sword which came forth out of his mouth. All the birds were filled with their flesh.
60. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.3, 1.6, 1.258, 1.261-1.262, 1.268, 1.274, 1.322, 2.510, 3.508, 4.231, 4.233, 4.261, 4.556, 5.560, 6.17, 6.271, 6.442, 7.43-7.45, 7.86, 7.94 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 40, 171, 173, 176
1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 1.6. I thought it therefore an absurd thing to see the truth falsified in affairs of such great consequence, and to take no notice of it; but to suffer those Greeks and Romans that were not in the wars to be ignorant of these things, and to read either flatteries or fictions, while the Parthians, and the Babylonians, and the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni, by my means, knew accurately both whence the war begun, what miseries it brought upon us, and after what manner it ended. 1.258. they also perceived that an ambush was always laid for them by the barbarians in the nighttime; they had also been seized on before this, unless they had waited for the seizure of Herod first at Jerusalem, because if he were once informed of this treachery of theirs, he would take care of himself; nor was this a mere report, but they saw the guards already not far off them. 1.261. 6. In the meantime, the cup-bearer was sent [back], and laid a plot how to seize upon Herod, by deluding him, and getting him out of the city, as he was commanded to do. But Herod suspected the barbarians from the beginning; and having then received intelligence that a messenger, who was to bring him the letters that informed him of the treachery intended, had fallen among the enemy, he would not go out of the city; though Pacorus said very positively that he ought to go out, and meet the messengers that brought the letters, for that the enemy had not taken them, and that the contents of them were not accounts of any plots upon them, but of what Phasaelus had done; 1.262. yet had he heard from others that his brother was seized; and Alexandra the shrewdest woman in the world, Hyrcanus’s daughter, begged of him that he would not go out, nor trust himself to those barbarians, who now were come to make an attempt upon him openly. 1.268. 9. As for the Parthians in Jerusalem, they betook themselves to plundering, and fell upon the houses of those that were fled, and upon the king’s palace, and spared nothing but Hyrcanus’s money, which was not above three hundred talents. They lighted on other men’s money also, but not so much as they hoped for; for Herod having a long while had a suspicion of the perfidiousness of the barbarians, had taken care to have what was most splendid among his treasures conveyed into Idumea, as every one belonging to him had in like manner done also. 1.274. 1. Now Herod did the more zealously pursue his journey into Arabia, as making haste to get money of the king, while his brother was yet alive; by which money alone it was that he hoped to prevail upon the covetous temper of the barbarians to spare Phasaelus; for he reasoned thus with himself:—that if the Arabian king was too forgetful of his father’s friendship with him, and was too covetous to make him a free gift, he would however borrow of him as much as might redeem his brother, and put into his hands, as a pledge, the son of him that was to be redeemed. 1.322. Indeed, when he came, he soon made an end of that siege, and slew a great number of the barbarians, and took from them a large prey; insomuch that Antony, who admired his courage formerly, did now admire it still more. Accordingly, he heaped many more honors upon him, and gave him more assured hopes that he should gain his kingdom; and now king Antiochus was forced to deliver up Samosata. 2.510. 11. But Cestius sent Gallus, the commander of the twelfth legion, into Galilee, and delivered to him as many of his forces as he supposed sufficient to subdue that nation. 3.508. Now when this water is kept in the open air, it is as cold as that snow which the country people are accustomed to make by night in summer. There are several kinds of fish in it, different both to the taste and the sight from those elsewhere. 4.231. for they knew well enough that these would immediately comply with their desires, as being ever a tumultuous and disorderly nation, always on the watch upon every motion, and delighting in mutations; and upon your flattering them ever so little, and petitioning them, they soon take their arms, and put themselves into motion, and make haste to a battle, as if it were to a feast. 4.233. 2. Now, these rulers were greatly surprised at the contents of the letter, and at what those that came with it further told them; whereupon they ran about the nation like madmen, and made proclamation that the people should come to war; 4.261. who have proceeded to that degree of madness, as not only to have transferred their impudent robberies out of the country, and the remote cities, into this city, the very face and head of the whole nation, but out of the city into the temple also; 4.556. 10. And now, as soon as Simon had set his wife free, and recovered her from the zealots, he returned back to the remainders of Idumea, and driving the nation all before him from all quarters, he compelled a great number of them to retire to Jerusalem; 5.560. This, therefore, which was forbidden by Caesar under such a threatening, was ventured upon privately against the deserters, and these barbarians would go out still, and meet those that ran away before any saw them, and looking about them to see that no Roman spied them, they dissected them, and pulled this polluted money out of their bowels; 6.17. that, in the first place, their conduct did not seem to be uimous, but they went out in distinct parties, and at distinct intervals, and after a slow manner, and timorously, and, to say all in a word, without a Jewish courage; for they were now defective in what is peculiar to our nation, that is, in boldness, in violence of assault, and in running upon the enemy all together, and in persevering in what they go about, though they do not at first succeed in it; 6.271. 1. While the holy house was on fire, everything was plundered that came to hand, and ten thousand of those that were caught were slain; nor was there a commiseration of any age, or any reverence of gravity, but children, and old men, and profane persons, and priests were all slain in the same manner; so that this war went round all sorts of men, and brought them to destruction, and as well those that made supplication for their lives, as those that defended themselves by fighting. 6.442. yet hath not its great antiquity, nor its vast riches, nor the diffusion of its nation over all the habitable earth, nor the greatness of the veneration paid to it on a religious account, been sufficient to preserve it from being destroyed. And thus ended the siege of Jerusalem. 7.43. 3. For as the Jewish nation is widely dispersed over all the habitable earth among its inhabitants, so it is very much intermingled with Syria by reason of its neighborhood, and had the greatest multitudes in Antioch by reason of the largeness of the city, wherein the kings, after Antiochus, had afforded them a habitation with the most undisturbed tranquillity; 7.44. for though Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body. 7.86. He had a courageous mind from his father, and had made greater improvements than belonged to such an age: accordingly he marched against the barbarians immediately; 7.94. So when this general had put an end to the war, he provided for the future security of the country also; for he placed more and more numerous garrisons in the place, till he made it altogether impossible for the barbarians to pass over the river any more.
61. New Testament, Acts, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 205
7.2. ὁ δὲ ἔφη Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοὶ καὶ πατέρες, ἀκούσατε. Ὁ θεὸς τῆς δόξης ὤφθη τῷ πατρὶ ἡμῶν Ἀβραὰμ ὄντι ἐν τῇ Μεσοποταμίᾳ πρὶν ἢ κατοικῆσαι αὐτὸν ἐν Χαρράν, 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran,
62. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 18.13-18.14, 21.1, 30.1, 44.7, 45.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 214; Gruen (2020) 129
63. Suetonius, Nero, 38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 257
64. Plutarch, Brutus, 18.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 177
18.6. οὕτω μὲν Ἀντώνιον Βροῦτος περιεποίησεν ἐν δὲ τῷ τότε φόβῳ μεταβαλὼν ἐσθῆτα δημοτικὴν ἔφυγεν. 18.6.
65. Tacitus, Annals, 15.41.1, 15.44.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 257
66. Tosefta, Terumot, 10.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 50
10.9. "בקרו של כהן שהיה עומד אצל בקרו של ישראל וכן כליו של כהן שהיה נארג אצל כליו של ישראל הרי זה מדליק עליהן שמן שריפה ישראל שהיה יושב בחנותו של כהן הרי זה ממלא לו את הנר שמן שריפה עולה לעליה ויורד לדור לעשות צרכיו של כהן ולא לעשות צרכיו של ישראל אם היה שותף עמו בחנות הרי זה מותר וכן כהן שהיה מיסב בתוך ביתו של ישראל הרי זה מדליק לו את הנר שמן שריפה אע\"פ שעמד כהן והלך לו אין מחייבין אותו לכבותו עד שיתכבה מאיליו ישראל שנכנס לתוך ביתו של כהן להדליק לו את הנר ומבקש לילך טובל לו פתילה בשמן שריפה וכן בת ישראל שנכנסה אצל בת כהן ומבקשת לילך טובלת לה פתילה בשמן שריפה בת כהן שהיתה בידה נר מלא שמן שריפה בערב שבת עם חשיכה הרי זו נותנת לתוכו חולין כל שהוא ומדליקו.",
67. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, 2.3, 2.4.2 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 177
2.4.2. τούτοις μὲν δὴ προστάσσει Ἀλέξανδρος ὑπακούειν Κάλᾳ τῷ σατράπῃ τῷ Φρυγίας. αὐτὸς δὲ ἐπὶ Καππαδοκίας ἐλάσας ξύμπασαν τὴν ἐντὸς Ἅλυος ποταμοῦ προσηγάγετο καὶ ἔτι ὑπὲρ τὸν Ἅλυν πολλήν· καταστήσας δὲ Καππαδοκῶν Σαβίκταν σατράπην αὐτὸς προῆγεν ἐπὶ τὰς πύλας τὰς Κιλικίας.
68. Censorinus, De Die Natali, 18.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 82
69. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
72a. והאידנא הוא דליוה פרסאי אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף להא גיסא דפרת עד היכא אמר ליה מאי דעתיך משום בירם מייחסי דפומבדיתא מבירם נסבי,אמר רב פפא כמחלוקת ליוחסין כך מחלוקת לענין גיטין ורב יוסף אמר מחלוקת ליוחסין אבל לגיטין דברי הכל עד ארבא תניינא דגישרא,אמר רמי בר אבא חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא תכילתא דחביל ימא רבינא אמר אף ציצורא תניא נמי הכי חנן בן פנחס אומר חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא וציצורא תכילתא דחביל ימא אמר רב פפא והאידנא איערבי בהו כותאי ולא היא איתתא הוא דבעא מינייהו ולא יהבו ליה מאי חביל ימא אמר רב פפא זו פרת דבורסי,ההוא גברא דאמר להו אנא מן שוט מישוט עמד רבי יצחק נפחא על רגליו ואמר שוט מישוט בין הנהרות עומדת וכי בין הנהרות עומדת מאי הוי אמר אביי אמר ר' חמא בר עוקבא אמר רבי יוסי בר' חנינא בין הנהרות הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין והיכא קיימא אמר ר' יוחנן מאיהי דקירא ולעיל והא אמר רבי יוחנן עד מעברתא דגיזמא אמר אביי רצועה נפקא,אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין א"ל אביי לא תציתו ליה יבמה היא דנפלה ליה התם א"ל אטו דידי היא דרב חננאל היא אזיל שיילוה לרב חננאל אמר להו הכי אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין,ופליגא דר' אבא בר כהנא דאמר ר' אבא בר כהנא מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, יא) וינחם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי חלח זו חלזון חבור זו הדייב נהר גוזן זו גינזק ערי מדי זו חמדן וחברותיה ואמרי לה זו נהוונד וחברותיה,מאי חברותיה אמר שמואל כרך מושכי חוסקי ורומקי אמר רבי יוחנן וכולם לפסול קסלקא דעתא מושכי היינו מושכני והאמר ר' חייא בר אבין אמר שמואל מושכני הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין אלא מושכי לחוד ומושכני לחוד,(דניאל ז, ה) ותלת עלעין בפומה בין שיניה אמר רבי יוחנן זו חלזון הדייב ונציבין שפעמים בולעתן ופעמים פולטתן,(דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוא אחרי תנינא דמיה לדוב תני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב ר' אמי כי הוה חזי פרסא דרכיב אמר היינו דובא ניידא,א"ל רבי ללוי הראני פרסיים אמר ליה דומים לחיילות של בית דוד הראני חברין דומין למלאכי חבלה הראני ישמעאלים דומין לשעירים של בית הכסא הראני תלמידי חכמים שבבבל דומים למלאכי השרת,כי הוה ניחא נפשיה דרבי אמר הומניא איכא בבבל כולה עמונאי היא מסגריא איכא בבבל כולה דממזירא היא בירקא איכא בבבל שני אחים יש שמחליפים נשותיהם זה לזה בירתא דסטיא איכא בבבל היום סרו מאחרי המקום דאקפי פירא בכוורי בשבתא ואזיל וצדו בהו בשבתא ושמתינהו ר' אחי ברבי יאשיה ואישתמוד אקרא דאגמא איכא בבבל אדא בר אהבה יש בה 72a. b And it is /b only b now /b that b the Persians moved /b the bridge further b up /b northward. b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Until where does /b the border extend b on this /b western b side of the Euphrates? Rav Yosef said to him: What are you thinking? /b Why do you ask? Is it b due to /b the town of b Biram? /b Even b those of /b pure b lineage /b who live in b Pumbedita marry /b women b from Biram, /b which demonstrates that the residents of Biram are presumed to have unflawed lineage., b Rav Pappa says: Just as /b there is b a dispute /b between Rav and Shmuel as to the northern border of Babylonia with regard b to lineage, so /b is there b a dispute with regard to bills of divorce. /b An agent bringing a bill of divorce from a country overseas to Eretz Yisrael must state that it was written and signed in his presence. If he brought it from Babylonia, there is no requirement for him to state this. Rav Pappa is teaching that the borders that define Babylonia with regard to this issue are the same as the borders with regard to lineage. b And Rav Yosef says: /b This b dispute /b is b with regard to lineage, but with regard to bills of divorce, everyone agrees /b that it is considered Babylonia b up to the second lake of the bridge /b that Shmuel mentioned., b Rami bar Abba said: /b The province of b Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia /b with regard to lineage; b Shunya and Guvya /b are b the glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Ravina said: /b The town of b Tzitzora /b is b also /b like Shunya and Guvya. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ḥa ben Pineḥas says: Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia; Shunya and Guvya and Tzitzora /b are b the glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Rav Pappa says: And nowadays, Samaritans have assimilated with them, /b and their lineage is problematic. The Gemara comments: b And /b that b is not so. /b Rather, one Samaritan b requested /b to marry b a woman from them and they would not give /b her b to him, /b which led to the rumor that Samaritans had assimilated with them. The Gemara asks: b What /b is this region called b Ḥaveil Yamma? Rav Pappa said: This /b is the area near the b Euphrates /b adjacent b to Bursi. /b ,The Gemara relates: There was b a certain man who said to /b the Sages: b I am from /b a place called b Shot Mishot. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stood on his feet and said: Shot Mishot is located between the /b Tigris and Euphrates b Rivers. /b The Gemara asks: b And if it is located between the rivers, what of it? /b What i halakha /i is this relevant for? b Abaye said /b that b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ukva says /b that b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: /b The area b between the rivers is like the exile, /b meaning Pumbedita, b with regard to lineage. /b The Gemara inquires: b And where is /b the area between the rivers b located /b for the purpose of this i halakha /i ? b Rabbi Yoḥa said: From Ihi Dekira and upward, /b i.e., northward. The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Until the crossing at Gizma /b but no further? b Abaye said: A strip extends /b from that region past Ihi Dekira., b Rav Ika bar Avin says /b that b Rav Ḥael says /b that b Rav says: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. Abaye said to them: Do not listen to /b Rav Ika bar Avin about this, as b it was a i yevama /i /b who b fell before him /b from b there /b to perform levirate marriage, and he said that its lineage was unflawed because he wished to marry her. Rav Ika bar Avin b said to him: Is that to say /b that this i halakha /i b is mine? It is Rav Ḥael’s, /b and it is not reasonable to say that I was influenced by my own interests in stating it. b They went and asked Rav Ḥael. He said to them: Rav said as follows: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. /b ,The Gemara comments: b And /b this b disagrees /b with the statement b of Rabbi Abba bar Kahana, as Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written /b with regard to the exile of the ten tribes of the kingdom of Israel: b “And he put them in Halah, and in Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes” /b (II Kings 18:11)? b Halah is Ḥillazon; Habor is Hadyav; the river of Gozan is Ginzak; the cities of the Medes are Ḥamadan and its neighboring towns, and some say: This is Nihavnad and its neighboring towns. /b Since the ten tribes assimilated with the gentiles, the lineage of Jews from those places is flawed, unlike that which was taught before.,The Gemara asks: b What /b are the b neighboring towns /b of Nihavnad? b Shmuel said: /b The b city /b of b Mushekhei, Ḥosekei, and Rumekei. Rabbi Yoḥa says: And /b all of these are the same with regard b to flawed /b lineage. b It was assumed /b that b Mushekhei is /b the same as b Mushekanei. /b The Gemara therefore asks: b But doesn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin say /b that b Shmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile with regard to lineage? Rather, /b it must be that b Mushekhei is discrete, and Mushekanei is discrete. /b ,In connection to the aforementioned places, the Gemara analyzes the following verse, describing a vision of a bear-like animal: b “And it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth” /b (Daniel 7:5). b Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is Ḥillazon, Hadyav, and Netzivin, which /b the Persian government b sometimes swallows and sometimes discharges. /b In other words, control over these places passed from the Persians to the Romans and back again several times.,The first part of that verse stated: b “And behold a second beast, similar to a bear” /b (Daniel 7:5). b Rav Yosef taught: These are Persians, who eat and drink /b copious amounts b like a bear, and are corpulent like a bear, and grow hair like a bear, and have no rest like a bear, /b which is constantly on the move from one place to another. b When Rabbi Ami saw a Persian riding, he would say: This is a bear on the move. /b , b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said to Levi: Show me Persians, /b i.e., describe a typical Persian to me. Levi b said to him: /b They b are similar to the legions of the house of David. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: b Show me Ḥabbarin, /b Persian priests. Levi said to him: They b are similar to angels of destruction. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: b Show me Ishmaelites. /b Levi said to him: They b are similar to demons of an outhouse. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: b Show me Torah scholars of Babylonia. /b Levi said to him: They b are similar to ministering angels. /b , b When Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b was dying, he said /b prophetically: b There is /b a place called b Homanya in Babylonia, /b and b all its /b people are the sons b of Ammon. There is /b a place called b Masgariya in Babylonia, /b and b all its /b people are b i mamzerim /i . There is /b a place called b Bireka in Babylonia, /b and b there are two brothers /b there b who exchange wives with each other, /b and their children are therefore i mamzerim /i . b There is /b a place called b Bireta DeSatya in Babylonia. Today they turned away from the Omnipresent. /b What did they do? b A ditch with fish overflowed, and they went and trapped /b the fish b on Shabbat. Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, excommunicated them, and they /b all b became apostates. There is /b a place called b Akra DeAgma in Babylonia. There is /b a man named b Adda bar Ahava there. /b
70. Origen, On First Principles, 3.2.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 27
3.2.1. We have now to notice, agreeably to the statements of Scripture, how the opposing powers, or the devil himself, contends with the human race, inciting and instigating men to sin. And in the first place, in the book of Genesis, the serpent is described as having seduced Eve; regarding whom, in the work entitled The Ascension of Moses (a little treatise, of which the Apostle Jude makes mention in his Epistle), the archangel Michael, when disputing with the devil regarding the body of Moses, says that the serpent, being inspired by the devil, was the cause of Adam and Eve's transgression. This also is made a subject of inquiry by some, viz., who the angel was that, speaking from heaven to Abraham, said, Now I know that you fear God, and on my account hast not spared your beloved son, whom you loved. For he is manifestly described as an angel who said that he knew then that Abraham feared God, and had not spared his beloved son, as the Scripture declares, although he did not say that it was on account of God that Abraham had done this, but on his, that is, the speaker's account. We must also ascertain who that is of whom it is stated in the book of Exodus that he wished to slay Moses, because he was taking his departure for Egypt; and afterwards, also, who he is that is called the destroying angel, as well as he who in the book of Leviticus is called Apopompæus, i.e., Averter, regarding whom Scripture says, One lot for the Lord, and one lot for Apopompæus, i.e., the Averter. In the first book of Kings, also, an evil spirit is said to strangle Saul; and in the third book, Micaiah the prophet says, I saw the Lord of Israel sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by Him, on His right hand and on His left. And the Lord said, Who will deceive Achab king of Israel, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead? And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner. And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, I will deceive him. And the Lord said to him, Wherewith? And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets. And He said, You shall deceive him, and prevail also: go forth, and do so quickly. And now therefore the Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouth of all your prophets: the Lord has spoken evil concerning you. Now by this last quotation it is clearly shown that a certain spirit, from his own (free) will and choice, elected to deceive (Achab), and to work a lie, in order that the Lord might mislead the king to his death, for he deserved to suffer. In the first book of Chronicles also it is said, The devil, Satan, stood up against Israel, and provoked David to number the people. In the Psalms, moreover, an evil angel is said to harass certain persons. In the book of Ecclesiastes, too, Solomon says, If the spirit of the ruler rise up against you, leave not your place; for soundness will restrain many transgressions. In Zechariah we read that the devil stood on the right hand of Joshua, and resisted him. Isaiah says that the sword of the Lord arises against the dragon, the crooked serpent. And what shall I say of Ezekiel, who in his second vision prophesies most unmistakeably to the prince of Tyre regarding an opposing power, and who says also that the dragon dwells in the rivers of Egypt? Nay, with what else are the contents of the whole work which is written regarding Job occupied, save with the (doings) of the devil, who asks that power may be given him over all that Job possesses, and over his sons, and even over his person? And yet the devil is defeated through the patience of Job. In that book the Lord has by His answers imparted much information regarding the power of that dragon which opposes us. Such, meanwhile, are the statements made in the Old Testament, so far as we can at present recall them, on the subject of hostile powers being either named in Scripture, or being said to oppose the human race, and to be afterwards subjected to punishment.
71. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71
44b. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דדין שוכבין כשל אשה כריסו צבה טיבורו יוצא נכפה אפילו אחת לימים רוח קצרה באה עליו המאושבן ובעל גבר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רבי אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא משתינין מים בפני רבים ואין שותין מים בפני רבים ותניא נמי הכי משתינין מים בפני רבים ואין שותין מים בפני רבים ומעשה באחד שביקש להשתין מים ולא השתין ונמצא כריסו צבה,שמואל איצטריך ליה בשבתא דרגלא נגדו ליה גלימא אתא לקמיה דאבוה א"ל אתן לך ד' מאה זוזי וזיל אהדר עובדא את דאפשר לך דלא אפשר ליה ליסתכן,מר בר רב אשי איצטריך אגודא גמלא אשתין אמרו ליה חמתך קאתיא אמר להו באודנה,ותיפוק לי משום עלקא בשותת,ת"ר שני נקבים יש בו באדם אחד מוציא שתן ואחד מוציא שכבת זרע ואין בין זה לזה אלא כקליפת השום בשעה שאדם נצרך אם נקבו זה לתוך זה נמצא עקר,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (דברים ז, יד) לא יהיה בך עקר ועקרה ובבהמתך אימתי לא יהיה בך עקר בזמן שבבהמתך,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי לא יהיה בך עקר מן התלמידים ועקרה שלא תהא תפלתך עקורה לפני המקום אימתי בזמן שאתה משים עצמך כבהמה,אמר רב פפא לא ישתין אדם מים לא על כלי חרס ולא על מקום קשה דאמר רב הני מדורי דבבל מהדרי מיא לעין עיטם אמר אביי הא איתתא לא תקום להדיא באנפי ינוקא אגיסא לית לן בה,תניא רשב"ג אומר עמוד החוזר מביא אדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא אדם לידי ירקון אמר רבה בר רב הונא אמר רב קטינא אמר ריש לקיש דם רבה שחין רבה שכבת זרע רבה צרעת רבה צואה רבה הדרוקן רבה מי רגלים רבין ירקון רבה:,רוח קצרית באה עליו מאי ניהו תנא רוח בן נפלים באה עליו:,המאושבן ובעל גבר: תנא משובן בביצים ובעל גבר בגיד תנא משובן זה הקיין הגרבתן זה בעל קיק קיין בביצים גרבתא בגיד,ועד כמה מחוי רב יהודה עד רכובה תניא רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר עד רכובה פסול למעלה מן רכובה כשר איכא דאמרי עד רכובה כשר למטה מן הרכובה פסול:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין לו ביצים או אין לו אלא ביצה אחת הרי זה (ויקרא כא, כ) מרוח אשך האמור בתורה רבי ישמעאל אומר כל שנימוחו אשכיו ר"ע אומר כל שרוח באשכיו רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אומר כל שמראיו חשוכין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big קשיא ליה לרבי ישמעאל הא חסר אשך מיבעי ליה תני שנמרחו אשכיו קשיא ליה לרבי עקיבא האי ממרוח אשך מיבעי ליה תני שהרוח באשכיו,קשיא ליה לרבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס האי רוח אשך מיבעי ליה תני שמראיו חשוכין קסבר גורעין ומוסיפין ודורשין,היינו כושי רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס לא תני כושי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מקיש בקרסוליו ובארכבותיו 44b. strong MISHNA: /strong The mishna lists additional blemishes that disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service: One who has b breasts /b so large that they b sag like /b those b of a woman; /b or if b one’s belly is swollen /b and protrudes; or if b one’s navel protrudes; /b or if one is b an epileptic, even /b if he experiences seizures only b once in /b a long b while; /b or one b who is afflicted with a melancholy temper; /b or b one whose scrotum is /b unnaturally b long; or one whose penis is /b unnaturally b long /b is disqualified from performing the Temple service., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a i halakha /i involving a swollen belly. b Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says /b that Torah scholars b may urinate in public /b and they need not be concerned with issues of modesty, because holding back from urinating causes bodily harm. b But they may not drink water in public, /b as such conduct is unbefitting a Torah scholar. b And this is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : Torah scholars b may urinate in public, but they may not drink water in public. And there was an incident involving one who sought to urinate, and he did not urinate, and his belly was found to be swollen. /b ,The Gemara relates: It b was necessary for Shmuel /b to urinate b on the Shabbat /b when everyone came to hear i halakhot /i relating b to the /b impending b Festival. /b In order to afford him privacy, b they spread a sheet for him. /b Shmuel then b came before his father, /b who b said to him: I will give you four hundred dinars /b if you will b go /b and b retract /b this b incident, /b i.e., if you will state publicly that one may not hold back from urinating even at the expense of one’s privacy. Since b you /b are an important man, b you can /b have others spread a sheet around you. But with regard to one b who cannot /b have others spread a sheet b for him, should he endanger /b himself by seeking privacy? You must therefore teach that one should not hold back from urinating even in public.,The Gemara further relates that it b was necessary /b for b Mar bar Rav Ashi /b to urinate while he was walking b on the beams /b of b a bridge, /b and therefore he b urinated. They said to him: Your mother-in-law is coming. /b Mar bar Rav Ashi b said to them: /b I would have done this even b in her ear. /b Since holding back from urinating would place him in physical danger, he would not care that his mother-in-law was coming and might see him.,The Gemara returns to the incident cited in the i baraita /i involving one who held back from urinating and his belly became swollen: b And let me derive, /b i.e., can it not be said, that his belly swelled b due to a leech /b that entered his intestines? The Gemara responds: The i baraita /i is referring to a case b where /b his urine would thereafter b drip /b and no longer flowed in a healthy manner. Evidently, his health problems resulted from damage to the urinary tract.,Concerning this topic b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b There are two orifices in a man. One /b of them b expels urine and one /b of them b expels semen, and there is only /b a partition b about /b the thickness of b a garlic peel between them. When a man needs /b to urinate and withholds the urine, b if /b his urinary duct and seminal duct b were punctured /b such that b this /b duct leads b into that /b one, b he /b will be b found /b to be b barren, /b as his urine will penetrate into his seminal duct., b Reish Lakish says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “There shall not be male or female barren among you, or among your cattle” /b (Deuteronomy 7:14)? It means as follows: b When will there not be a barren /b male b among you? At a time that /b you act as b among your cattle, /b i.e., you urinate when the need arises, without hesitation., b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says, /b with regard to the same verse, that the phrase b “There shall not be male /b … b barren among you” /b means you will not be barren b of students, /b as one who leaves behind no students is considered barren. The term b “or female barren” /b indicates b that your prayers will not be barren, /b i.e., unheard, b before the Omnipresent, /b but will be heard by Him. And b when /b will they be heard? b At a time when you place yourself /b in prayer as b an animal, /b with humility.,The Gemara cites additional statements of the Sages with regard to urination. b Rav Pappa says: A person /b should urinate in Babylonia only on the dust, as it absorbs the urine. He b should not urinate either on an earthenware vessel or on a hard place, /b as the urine will not be absorbed and will eventually flow into the underwater rivers. b As Rav says: Those inclines of Babylonia return the water /b through underground watercourses b to the Spring of Eitam /b in Eretz Yisrael, from which water was taken to the Temple. Additionally, b Abaye says: A woman should not stand openly in front of a child /b when she urinates. But if she urinates while turning b sideways, we have no /b problem b with it. /b ,It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A mass /b of feces b that is held back /b without being discharged b causes a person /b to suffer b from dropsy [ i hidrokan /i ], /b while b a stream /b of urine b that is held back causes a person /b to suffer b from jaundice. Rabba bar Rav Huna says /b that b Rav Ketina says /b that b Reish Lakish says: /b If one’s b blood /b levels b increase /b due to not undergoing bloodletting often enough, then b boils /b will b increase /b on him as well. If one’s b semen /b levels b increase /b due to not engaging in sexual intercourse often enough, then b leprosy /b will b increase /b on him. If one’s b feces /b levels b increase /b due to not relieving himself enough, b dropsy /b will b increase /b in him. Finally, if one’s b urine /b levels b increase /b due to not relieving himself enough, then b jaundice /b will b increase /b as well.,§ The mishna teaches that one b who is afflicted with a melancholy temper /b is disqualified from performing the Temple service. The Gemara asks: b What is this /b melancholy temper? b A i tanna /i /b taught: b A fallen spirit, /b i.e., the spirit of a demon, b has come upon him. /b ,The mishna also teaches that b one whose scrotum is /b unnaturally b long [ i me’ushban /i ] and one whose penis is /b unnaturally b long [ i ba’al gever /i ] /b are disqualified from performing the Temple service. The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A i meshuban /i /b is one b with /b exceedingly large b testicles, and a i ba’al gever /i /b is one b with /b an unnaturally long b penis. /b Similarly, it is b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A i meshuban /i , this is /b synonymous with b the i kayyan /i . The i garbetan /i , this is /b synonymous with b a i ba’al kik /i . A i kayyan /i /b is one with a condition b of the testicles, /b while b a i garbeta /i /b is one with a condition b of the penis. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And how much /b is considered too long, which disqualifies the priest from performing the Temple service? b Rav Yehuda pointed /b and said: b Until /b the b knee. It is /b likewise b taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: /b If one’s penis reaches b until /b his b knee /b he is b disqualified /b from performing the Temple service. But if it reaches until just b above /b his b knee /b he remains b fit. Some say /b if his penis reaches b until /b the b knee /b he is b fit, /b but if it passes b below the knee /b he is b disqualified. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong If b one has no testicles, or /b if b he has only one testicle, that is /b the b i mero’aḥ ashekh /i that is stated in the Torah /b (see Leviticus 21:20) among the blemishes that disqualify a priest from Temple service. b Rabbi Yishmael says: /b A i mero’aḥ ashekh /i is b anyone whose testicles were crushed. Rabbi Akiva says: /b It is b anyone that /b has b wind in his testicles, /b i.e., they are swollen. b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus says: /b i Mero’aḥ ashekh /i does not refer to the testicles; rather, the reference is to b anyone whose appearance [ i marav /i ] is /b especially b dark [ i ḥashukhin /i ]. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara explains why the i tanna’im /i interpret i mero’aḥ ashekh /i in different ways. It is b difficult for Rabbi Yishmael: /b If i mero’aḥ ashekh /i is referring to one who lacks two testicles, then the Torah b should have /b stated: b i Ḥasar ashekh /i , /b lacking a testicle, rather than i mero’aḥ ashekh /i . Therefore, he b teaches /b that it is referring to one b whose testicles were crushed. /b This is b difficult for Rabbi Akiva: /b If i mero’aḥ ashekh /i means one with crushed testicles, then the Torah b should have /b stated: b i Mimro’aḥ ashekh /i , /b crushed testicles, not i mero’aḥ ashekh /i . Therefore, he b teaches /b that the Torah is referring to one b who /b has b wind in his testicles. /b ,This is b difficult for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus: /b If i mero’aḥ ashekh /i is referring to one with wind in his testicles, then the Torah b should have /b stated: b i Ruaḥ ashekh /i , /b wind in the testicles. Therefore, he b teaches /b that the Torah is speaking of anyone b whose appearance is especially dark. /b And how does he derive such an interpretation from the verse? b He holds /b that the Sages b subtract and add and interpret homiletically. /b Accordingly, the i ḥet /i of i mero’aḥ /i is removed along with the i alef /i of i ashekh /i . The i ḥet /i is added to i ashekh /i and the i alef /i is added to i mero’aḥ /i , and i mero’aḥ ashekh /i is rearranged to state: i Marav ḥashukhin /i , his appearance is dark.,The Gemara asks: But if so, b this is /b identical to one whose skin is extremely b black, /b and the mishna on 45b explicitly states that such a priest is disqualified from performing the Temple service. The Gemara responds: b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus /b learns from the mishna only that a i mero’aḥ ashekh /i is disqualified; he b does not teach /b in that mishna the i halakha /i that a person with extremely b black /b skin is blemished., strong MISHNA: /strong The mishna lists additional blemishes that disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service: One whose legs are crooked and bend inward, causing him to b knock his ankles or his knees /b into each other as he walks,
72. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
59b. מתני׳ big strongהאשה /strong /big שהיא עושה צרכיה וראתה דם רבי מאיר אומר אם עומדת טמאה ואם יושבת טהורה ר' יוסי אומר בין כך ובין כך טהורה,איש ואשה שעשו צרכיהן לתוך הספל ונמצא דם על המים רבי יוסי מטהר ורבי שמעון מטמא שאין דרך האיש להוציא דם אלא שחזקת דמים מן האשה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי שנא עומדת דאמרינן מי רגלים הדור למקור ואייתי דם יושבת נמי נימא מי רגלים הדור למקור ואייתי דם,אמר שמואל במזנקת מזנקת נמי דלמא בתר דתמו מיא אתא דם,אמר ר' אבא ביושבת על שפת הספל ומזנקת בתוך הספל ונמצא דם בתוך הספל דאם איתא דבתר דתמו מיא אתא על שפת הספל איבעי ליה לאשתכוחי,אמר שמואל ואמרי לה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כר' יוסי וכן אורי ליה רבי אבא לקלא הלכה כרבי יוסי,איש ואשה [כו'] איבעיא להו איש ואשה עומדין מה לי א"ר מאיר,כי אמר רבי מאיר בחד ספקא אבל בספק ספקא לא מטמא או דלמא לא שנא,אמר ריש לקיש היא היא ממאי מדלא קתני ר' מאיר ורבי יוסי מטהרין,א"ה השתא רבי מאיר בספק ספקא מטמא בחד ספקא מיבעיא להודיעך כחו דרבי יוסי דאפילו בחד ספקא מטהר,ואדמיפלגי בחד ספק להודיעך כחו דר' יוסי ליפלגו בספק ספקא להודיעך כחו דר' מאיר כח דהיתרא עדיף ליה,ור' יוחנן אמר כי קאמר רבי מאיר בחד ספקא אבל בספק ספקא לא אמר אם כן ליתני ר"מ ור' יוסי מטהרין אין הכי נמי ואיידי דסליק מרבי יוסי פתח בדרבי יוסי,ורבי יוסי בחד ספקא מטהר בספק ספקא מיבעיא מהו דתימא הני מילי דיעבד אבל לכתחלה לא קא משמע לן,תניא כוותיה דרבי יוחנן איש ואשה שעשו צרכיהן לתוך הספל ונמצא דם על המים רבי מאיר ורבי יוסי מטהרין ור' שמעון מטמא,איבעיא להו אשה יושבת מה לי אמר רבי שמעון כי אמר רבי שמעון בעומדת דדחיק לה עלמא אבל יושבת לא או דלמא לא שנא,ת"ש דתניא יושבת תולה עומדת אינה תולה דברי ר"מ רבי יוסי אומר בין כך ובין כך תולה ר"ש אומר בין כך ובין כך אינה תולה,איבעיא להו איש ואשה יושבין מה לי א"ר שמעון כי אמר רבי שמעון עומדת דדחיק לה עלמא ויושבת דחד ספק אבל בספק ספקא לא אמר או דלמא לא שנה ,ת"ש כיון דא"ר שמעון חזקת דמים מן האשה ל"ש עומדין ולא שנא יושבין, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big השאילה חלוקה לנכרית או לנדה הרי זו תולה בה,ג' נשים שלבשו חלוק אחד או שישבו על ספסל אחד ונמצא עליו דם כולן טמאות,ישבו על ספסל של אבן או על האיצטבא של מרחץ רבי נחמיה מטהר שהיה רבי נחמיה אומר כל דבר שאינו מקבל טומאה אינו מקבל כתמים, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב בנכרית 59b. strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b a woman who is urinating and saw blood /b intermingled with the urine, b Rabbi Meir says: If /b she urinated while b standing /b she is b ritually impure, /b as the blood could have originated in the uterus. b And if she is sitting, /b she is b ritually pure, /b as it is clear that the blood is from a wound. b Rabbi Yosei says: Whether /b she urinates in b this /b manner, i.e., standing, b or whether /b she urinates in b that /b manner, i.e., sitting, she is b ritually pure. /b ,In the case of b a man and a woman who urinated into a basin [ i hasefel /i ], and blood is found on the water /b in the basin, b Rabbi Yosei deems her ritually pure. /b Even when it is clear that it is the blood of a woman who urinated, and there is only one uncertainty, Rabbi Yosei deems her ritually pure. In this case, there is a compound uncertainty: Did the blood originate with the man or with the woman, and did the blood come from the uterus or from a wound? b And Rabbi Shimon deems her ritually impure, /b because there is only one uncertainty, b as it is not /b the typical b manner of the man to discharge blood /b with his urine; b rather, the presumptive status of /b the b blood /b is that it was discharged b from the woman. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that in a case where a woman finds blood in her urine Rabbi Meir distinguishes between a case where she is standing and a case where she is sitting. The Gemara asks: b What is different /b about a situation where she is b standing? /b The difference is b that we say /b that while she was urinating the b urine returned to the uterus and brought blood /b from there, which renders her impure. But if so, when she is b sitting as well, let us say /b that the b urine returns to the uterus and brings blood. /b Why does Rabbi Meir deem her ritually pure in that case?, b Shmuel says, /b in answer to this question: This mishna is referring specifically to a case b where /b the urine b flows /b in a steady stream, without the woman straining. In such a situation, when she is sitting and the urine flows in a steady stream, the stream of urine does not return to the uterus and bring blood. By contrast, if she is standing the urine does not flow in a steady stream, and she must strain to urinate. When she strains to urinate, the urine can bring blood from the uterus with it, whether she is standing or sitting. The Gemara objects: But in a case where she is sitting b as well, /b when the urine b flows /b in a steady stream, b perhaps after the urine has finished, blood will come /b naturally from the uterus, and the flow of blood will mix with the urine?, b Rabbi Abba says: /b This is no concern, as the mishna is referring to a case b where she is sitting on the edge of the basin and /b urinates in a steady b flow into the basin, and /b the b blood is found /b only b inside the basin. As, if it is so that after /b the stream of b urine finished /b the blood b came /b naturally from her uterus, the blood b should have been found on the edge of the basin. /b Since the blood is found only inside the basin it is clear that it came with the urine, not separately., b Shmuel said, and some say /b that b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei. And similarly, Rabbi Abba ruled for /b a Sage called b Kala, /b who inquired into this matter, that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: In the case of b a man and a woman /b who urinated into a basin, and blood is found on the water in the basin, Rabbi Yosei deems her ritually pure. b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: In a case where b a man and a woman were standing /b and they urinated into the same basin, and blood was found in the basin, b what /b would b Rabbi Meir, /b who distinguishes between a woman who was sitting and a woman who was standing, b say /b the i halakha /i is?,The Gemara clarifies the dilemma: b When Rabbi Meir said /b that a woman who sees blood in her urine while standing is impure, does this apply b when /b there is only b one uncertainty, /b i.e., whether the blood came from a wound or from the uterus? b Whereas /b in a case b of a compound uncertainty, /b i.e., whether the blood came from the man or from the woman, and even if it came from the woman, whether it came from a wound or from her uterus, perhaps Rabbi Meir b does not deem /b her b impure? Or perhaps there is no difference /b between the two cases according to Rabbi Meir., b Reish Lakish said: /b Rabbi Meir would rule in b this /b case of a compound uncertainty exactly as he rules in b that /b case of a single uncertainty, i.e., there is no difference between the two cases. Reish Lakish clarifies: b From where /b do I know that this is Rabbi Meir’s opinion? b From /b the fact b that /b the latter clause of the mishna b does not teach: Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei deem her pure. /b Instead, the mishna states merely that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure. This indicates that Rabbi Meir deems her impure even if a man and a woman both urinated into the same basin where the blood was found.,The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Reish Lakish’s opinion: b If so, /b i.e., if according to Rabbi Meir a woman is impure even when a man also urinates into the same basin, b now /b that b Rabbi Meir deems her impure in /b a case of b compound uncertainty, is it necessary /b for the mishna to teach his opinion b in /b a case of b one uncertainty? /b The Gemara answers: The mishna formulated the i halakha /i in that manner b to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei, /b i.e., b that he deems her pure even in /b a case of b one uncertainty. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b if so, b rather than /b stating the b dispute in /b a case of b one uncertainty, /b which serves b to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei, let /b the i tanna /i teach the b dispute in /b a case of b compound uncertainty, /b in order b to convey the far-reaching /b nature of the opinion b of Rabbi Meir. /b The Gemara answers: It is b preferable for the /b i tanna /i to teach b the strength of a lenient /b ruling. If a i tanna /i can formulate a dispute in a manner that emphasizes the extent of the more lenient opinion, he will do so., b And Rabbi Yoḥa /b disagreed with Reish Lakish, and b said: When Rabbi Meir says /b that the woman is impure, that applies only to a case b of one uncertainty, but /b in a case b of compound uncertainty /b Rabbi Meir b did not say /b that she is impure. The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion: b If so, /b i.e., if Rabbi Meir deems her pure when both a man and a woman urinate into the same basin, b let /b the mishna b teach: Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei deem her pure. /b Why does the i tanna /i mention only Rabbi Yosei? The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so, /b that Rabbi Meir agrees with this ruling, b but since /b the mishna b left off /b with the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei /b at the end of the first clause of the mishna, the i tanna /i b opened /b the latter clause b with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yosei /b as well.,The Gemara asks: b But /b as b Rabbi Yosei deems /b her b pure /b in a case b of one uncertainty, is it necessary /b for the mishna to teach his opinion a case b of a compound uncertainty? /b The Gemara answers: It is necessary for the i tanna /i to state that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure in a case of compound uncertainty, b lest you say /b that b this statement, /b that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure, applies only b after the fact, /b if the woman has already touched pure items, b but /b he does b not /b deem her pure b i ab initio /i . /b Therefore, the i tanna /i b teaches us /b that Rabbi Yosei deems her pure even i ab initio /i .,It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yoḥa: /b In the case of b a man and a woman who urinated into a basin, and blood is found on the water /b in the basin, b Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yosei deem her ritually pure, and Rabbi Shimon deems her ritually impure, /b as there is only one uncertainty.,§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon deems her ritually impure because there is only one uncertainty, as it is not the typical manner of the man to discharge blood with his urine. b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: In a case where b a woman /b was b sitting /b and she urinated into a basin, and blood was found in the basin, b what /b would b Rabbi Shimon say? /b The Gemara explains the dilemma: b When Rabbi Shimon stated /b his opinion, was he referring specifically b to /b a woman who b is standing, who in general must strain /b to urinate in such a position, and perhaps as a result the blood came from the uterus? b Whereas /b if b she /b is b sitting /b without straining, in which case Rabbi Meir deems her pure, perhaps Rabbi Shimon agrees that she is b not /b impure. b Or perhaps there is no difference /b between the two cases according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.,The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : If a woman urinates while b sitting /b and blood is found in the basin, she can b attribute /b the blood to a wound and she is pure, but if she is b standing she cannot attribute /b the blood to a wound, and therefore she is impure; this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei said: Both /b in b this /b case b and /b in b that /b case b she /b can b attribute /b the blood to a wound and she is pure. b Rabbi Shimon said: Both /b in b this /b case b and /b in b that /b case b she cannot attribute /b the blood to a wound, and she is impure.,Another b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon: In a case where b a man and a woman /b were b sitting /b and urinated into the same basin, and blood was found in the basin, b what /b would b Rabbi Shimon say? /b The Gemara clarifies the dilemma: b When Rabbi Shimon stated /b his opinion, was he referring to a woman who b is standing, who in general must strain /b to urinate in such a position and perhaps as a result the blood came from the uterus, b or /b to a case where b she /b alone b is sitting, which /b are cases of only b one uncertainty? Whereas /b in a case of b compound uncertainty, /b i.e., uncertainty whether the blood came from the man or from the woman, and even if it did come from the woman, whether it was from a wound or from her uterus, perhaps b he does not say /b that she is impure. b Or perhaps there is no difference /b between the cases, as it is entirely atypical for a man to discharge blood.,The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear /b the mishna: b Since Rabbi Shimon said /b that b the presumptive status of /b the b blood /b is that it was discharged b from the woman, /b evidently there b is no difference /b in his opinion whether she was b standing or /b whether she was b sitting. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong In a case where a woman b lent her garment to a gentile woman or to a menstruating /b Jewish b woman, /b and after the borrower returned the garment the owner wore it and then discovered a blood stain, she b attributes /b the blood stain b to /b the gentile or the menstruating woman.,In a case of b three women who wore one garment or who sat on one bench [ i safsal /i ], /b one after the other, and the garment, or bench, was examined before the first of them donned it, or sat on it, and it was clean, and after the third one removed the garment, or stood up, b a blood /b stain b was discovered on /b the garment or on the bench, b all /b the women b are ritually impure. /b ,If b they sat on a stone bench or on the bench [ i ha’itzteva /i ] of a bathhouse, /b neither of which can become ritually impure, the first because it is stone and the second because it is attached to the floor of the bathhouse, and a blood stain was found on one of those benches, b Rabbi Neḥemya deems /b all three women b ritually pure, as Rabbi Neḥemya would say: Any item that is not susceptible to ritual impurity is not susceptible to /b ritual impurity due to blood b stains. /b The decree of impurity due to blood stains was limited to items susceptible to ritual impurity., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rav says: /b The ruling of the mishna is stated b with regard to a gentile woman /b
73. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
110a. מצוה באפי נפשה הוא,לא יעשה צרכיו תרי אמאי נמלך הוא אמר אביי הכי קאמר לא יאכל תרי וישתה תרי ולא יעשה צרכיו אפילו פעם אחת דילמא חליש ומיתרע,ת"ר שותה כפלים דמו בראשו אמר רב יהודה אימתי בזמן שלא ראה פני השוק אבל ראה פני השוק הרשות בידו אמר רב אשי חזינא ליה לרב חנניא בר ביבי דאכל כסא הוה נפיק וחזי אפי שוקא,ולא אמרן אלא לצאת לדרך אבל בביתו לא אמר ר' זירא ולישן כלצאת לדרך דמי אמר רב פפא ולצאת לבית הכסא כלצאת לדרך דמי ובביתו לא והא רבא מני כשורי,ואביי כי שתי חד כסא מנקיט ליה אימיה תרי כסי בתרי ידיה ורב נחמן בר יצחק כי הוה שתי תרי כסי מנקיט ליה שמעיה חד כסא חד כסא מנקיט ליה תרי כסי בתרי ידיה אדם חשוב שאני,אמר עולא עשרה כוסות אין בהם משום זוגות עולא לטעמיה דאמר עולא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה כוסות תיקנו חכמים בבית האבל ואי ס"ד עשרה כוסות יש בהן משום זוגות היכי קיימי רבנן ותקנו מילתא דאתי לידי סכנה אבל תמניא יש בהן משום זוגות,רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא דאמרי תרוייהו שלום לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף אבל שיתא יש בהן משום זוגות,רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו ויחונך לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף אבל ארבעה יש בהן משום זוגות,אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו וישמרך לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף,ואזדא רבא לטעמיה דרבא אפקינהו לרבנן בארבעה כוסות אע"ג דאיתזק רבא בר ליואי לא חש לה למילתא דאמר ההוא משום דאותבן בפירקא הוה,אמר רב יוסף אמר לי יוסף שידא אשמדאי מלכא דשידי ממונה הוא אכולהו זוגי ומלכא לא איקרי מזיק איכא דאמרי לה להאי גיסא אדרבה מלכא [רתחנא הוא] מאי דבעי עביד שהמלך פורץ גדר לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,אמר רב פפא אמר לי יוסף שידא בתרי קטלינן בארבעה לא קטלינן בארבעה מזקינן בתרי בין בשוגג בין במזיד בארבעה במזיד אין בשוגג לא,ואי אישתלי ואיקרי ונפק מאי תקנתיה לינקוט זקפא דידיה דימיניה בידא דשמאליה וזקפא דשמאליה בידא דימיניה ונימא הכי אתון ואנא הא תלתא ואי שמיע ליה דאמר אתון ואנא הא ארבעה נימא ליה אתון ואנא הא חמשה ואי שמיע ליה דאמר אתון ואנא הא שיתא נימא ליה אתון ואנא הא שבעה הוה עובדא עד מאה וחד ופקע שידא,אמר אמימר אמרה לי רישתינהי דנשים כשפניות האי מאן דפגע בהו בנשים כשפניות נימא הכי חרי חמימי בדיקולא בזייא לפומייכו נשי דחרשייא קרח קרחייכי פרח פרחייכי 110a. b is a distinct mitzva /b in its own right. In other words, each cup is treated separately and one is not considered to be drinking in pairs.,The i baraita /i taught that b one /b should b not attend to his /b sexual b needs in pairs. /b The Gemara asks: b Why /b should one be concerned for this; b he has changed his mind? /b One does not plan in advance to engage in marital relations twice, and therefore the two acts should not combine to form a dangerous pair. b Abaye said: This is /b what the i tanna /i b is saying, /b i.e., the i baraita /i should be understood in the following manner: b One /b should b not eat in pairs nor drink in pairs, and /b if he does so b he /b should b not attend to his /b sexual b needs /b right afterward b even once, lest he is weakened /b by the act b and will be harmed /b for having eaten or drunk in pairs., b The Sages taught /b in another i baraita /i : If one b drinks in pairs his blood is upon his head, /b i.e., he bears responsibility for his own demise. b Rav Yehuda said: When /b is that the case? b When one did not /b leave the house and b view the marketplace /b between cups. b However, if he saw the marketplace /b after the first cup, b he has permission /b to drink another cup without concern. Likewise, b Rav Ashi said: I saw Rav Ḥaya bar Beivai /b follow this policy: b Upon /b drinking b each cup, he would leave /b the house b and view the marketplace. /b , b And we said /b that there is concern for the safety of one who drinks in pairs b only /b when he intends b to set out on the road /b after drinking, b but /b if he intends to remain b in his home /b there is b no /b need for concern. b Rabbi Zeira said: And /b one who plans b to sleep is comparable to /b one who is b setting out on the road. /b He should be concerned that he might be harmed. b Rav Pappa said: And going to the bathroom is comparable to setting out on the road. /b The Gemara asks: b And /b if one intends to remain b in his home, /b is there b no /b cause for concern? b But Rava would count the beams /b of the house to keep track of the number of cups he had drunk so as to ensure that he would not consume an even number., b And /b likewise b Abaye, when he would drink one cup, his mother would /b immediately b place two cups in his two hands /b so that he would not inadvertently drink only one more cup and thereby expose himself to the danger of drinking in pairs. b And /b similarly, b when Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would drink two cups, his attendant would /b immediately b place one /b more b cup in his hand, /b and if he would drink b one cup, /b the attendant would b place two cups in his two hands. /b These reports indicate that one should be concerned for his safety after drinking an even number of cups, even when he remains at home. The Gemara answers: b An important person is different. /b The demons focus their attention on him, and he must therefore be more careful than the average person., b Ulla said: Ten cups contain no element of /b the danger associated with b pairs. Ulla /b rules here b in accordance with his reasoning /b stated elsewhere, b as Ulla said, and some say it was taught in a i baraita /i : The Sages instituted /b that one must drink b ten cups /b of wine b in the house of a mourner /b during the meal of comfort. b And if it could enter your mind /b that b ten cups do contain the element of /b danger associated with b pairs, how could the Sages arise and institute something that /b might b bring a person to /b a state of b danger? However, eight cups do contain the element of /b danger associated with b pairs. /b , b Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both say /b that eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word b i shalom /i , combines /b with the previous cups b for the good /b but b does not combine for the bad. /b The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countece upon you and give you peace [ i shalom /i ]” (Numbers 6:26). The word i shalom /i , the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. b However, six cups do contain the element of /b danger associated with b pairs. /b , b Rabba and Rav Yosef both say /b that even drinking six cups is not dangerous. The reason is that the fifth cup, represented by the word b i viḥuneka /i /b in the second verse of the priestly benediction: “The Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you [ i viḥuneka /i ]” (Numbers 6:25), b combines /b with the previous cups b for the good /b but b does not combine for the bad. However, four cups do contain the element of /b danger associated with b pairs. /b , b Abaye and Rava both say /b that even the number four is not dangerous, as b i veyishmerekha /i , /b the third word in the first verse of the priestly benediction, reads: “The Lord bless you and keep you [ i veyishmerekha /i ]” (Numbers 6:24). b It combines for the good /b but b does not combine for the bad. /b , b And Rava follows his /b standard line of b reasoning /b in this regard, b as Rava /b allowed b the Sages to leave /b after having drunk b four cups /b and was not concerned for their safety. b Although Rava bar Livai was injured /b on one such occasion, Rava b was not concerned /b that b the matter /b had been caused by his consumption of an even number of cups, b as he said: That /b injury occurred b because /b Rava bar Livai b challenged me during the /b public b lecture. /b It is improper for a student to raise difficulties against his rabbi during a public lecture, lest the rabbi be embarrassed by his inability to answer., b Rav Yosef said: Yosef the Demon said to me: Ashmedai, the king of the demons, is appointed over all /b who perform actions in b pairs, and a king is not called a harmful spirit. /b A king would not cause harm. Consequently, there is no reason to fear the harm of demons for having performed an action in pairs. b Some say /b this statement b in this manner: On the contrary, he is an angry king /b who b does what he wants, /b as the i halakha /i is b that a king /b may b breach the fence /b of an individual b in order to form a path for himself, and none /b may b protest his /b action. Similarly, the king of demons has full license to harm people who perform actions in pairs., b Rav Pappa said: Yosef the Demon said to me: /b If one drinks b two /b cups, b we /b demons b kill /b him; if he drinks b four, we do not kill /b him. But this person who drank b four, we harm /b him. There is another difference between two and four: b With /b regard to one who drinks b two, whether /b he did so b unwittingly or intentionally, /b we harm him. b With /b regard to one who drinks b four, /b if he does so b intentionally, yes, /b he is harmed; if he does so b unwittingly, no, /b he will not be harmed.,The Gemara asks: b And if one forgets and it happens that he goes outside /b after having drunk an even number of cups, b what is his solution? /b The Gemara answers: He should b take his right thumb in his left hand, and his left thumb in his right hand, and say as follows: You, /b my thumbs, b and I are three, /b which is not a pair. b And if he hears /b a voice b that says: You and I are four, /b which makes a pair, he should b say to it: You and I are five. And if he hears it say: You and I are six, /b he should b say to it: You and I are seven. /b The Gemara relates that b there was an incident /b in which someone kept counting after the demon b until /b he reached b a hundred and one, and the demon burst /b in anger., b Ameimar said: The chief of witches said to me: One who encounters witches /b should b say this /b incantation: b Hot feces in torn date baskets in your mouth, witches; may your hairs fall out /b because you use them for witchcraft; b your crumbs, /b which you use for witchcraft, b should scatter /b in the wind;
74. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71
82a. דלא מקנח לכו בחספא ולא קטיל לכו כינא אמנייכו ולא שליף לכו ירקא ואכיל לכו מכישא דאסיר גינאה:,אמר ליה רב הונא לרבה בריה מאי טעמא לא שכיחת קמיה דרב חסדא דמחדדן שמעתיה אמר ליה מאי איזיל לגביה דכי אזילנא לגביה מותיב לי במילי דעלמא א"ל מאן דעייל לבית הכסא לא ליתיב בהדיא ולא ליטרח טפי דהאי כרכשתא אתלת שיני יתיב דילמא משתמטא שיני דכרכשתא ואתי לידי סכנה א"ל הוא עסיק בחיי דברייתא ואת אמרת במילי דעלמא כ"ש זיל לגביה,היו לפניו צרור וחרס רב הונא אמר מקנח בצרור ואין מקנח בחרס ורב חסדא אמר מקנח בחרס ואין מקנח בצרור מיתיבי היו לפניו צרור וחרס מקנח בחרס ואין מקנח בצרור תיובתא דרב הונא תרגמא רפרם בר פפא קמיה דרב חסדא אליבא דרב הונא באוגני כלים:,היו לפניו צרור ועשבים רב חסדא ורב המנונא חד אמר מקנח בצרור ואין מקנח בעשבים וחד אמר מקנח בעשבים ואין מקנח בצרור מיתיבי המקנח בדבר שהאור שולטת בו שיניו התחתונות נושרות לא קשיא הא בלחין הא ביבשין,הנצרך לפנות ואינו נפנה רב חסדא ורבינא חד אמר רוח רעה שולטת בו וחד אמר רוח זוהמא שולטת בו תניא כמאן דאמר רוח זוהמא שולטת בו דתניא הנצרך לנקביו ואוכל דומה לתנור שהסיקוהו על גב אפרו וזו היא תחלת רוח זוהמא,הוצרך ליפנות ואינו יכול ליפנות אמר רב חסדא יעמוד וישב יעמוד וישב רב חנן מנהרדעא אמר יסתלק לצדדין רב המנונא אמר ימשמש בצרור באותו מקום ורבנן אמרי יסיח דעתו אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי כל שכן דכי מסח דעתיה לא מפני אמר ליה יסיח דעתו מדברים אחרים אמר רב ירמיה מדיפתי לדידי חזי לי ההוא טייעא דקם ויתיב וקם ויתיב עד דשפך כקדרה,ת"ר הנכנס לסעודת קבע יהלך י' פעמים של ארבע [ארבע] אמות ואמרי לה ד' פעמים של עשר עשר אמות ונפנה ונכנס וישב במקומו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big חרס כדי ליתן בין פצים לחברו דברי רבי יהודה רבי מאיר אומר כדי לחתות בו את האור רבי יוסי אומר כדי לקבל בו רביעית אמר רבי מאיר אף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר (ישעיהו ל, יד) לא ימצא במכיתתו חרש לחתות אש מיקוד אמר ליה רבי יוסי משם ראיה (ישעיהו ל, יד) ולחשוף מים מגבא:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big (איבעיא להו שיעורא דרבי מאיר נפיש או שיעורא דרבי יוסי נפיש) מסתברא שיעורא דרבי יוסי נפיש ומקרא שיעורא דרבי מאיר נפיש דאי סלקא דעתך שיעורא דרבי יוסי נפיש לייט לה במנא זוטרא והדר לייט לה במנא רבה אמר אביי [מתני' נמי] לחתות אש מיקידה גדולה:,רבי יוסי אומר משם ראיה: שפיר קאמר ליה רבי יוסי לרבי מאיר ורבי מאיר לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא מידי דחשיב לאינשי דלא לישתכח ליה אלא אפילו מידי דלא חשיב לאינשי לא לישתכח ליה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך המוציא יין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongאמר /strong /big רבי עקיבא מניין לעבודה זרה שמטמאה במשא כנדה שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כב) תזרם כמו דוה צא תאמר לו מה נדה מטמאה במשא אף עבודה זרה מטמאה במשא,גמ תנן התם מי שהיה ביתו סמוך לעבודה זרה ונפל אסור לבנותו כיצד יעשה כונס לתוך שלו ד' אמות ובונה 82a. b as you do not clean /b yourselves b with an earthenware shard, and you do not kill lice on your garments, and you do not pull out a vegetable and eat it /b before you untie b the bundle that was tied by the gardener? /b This implies that all these actions carry with them the danger of witchcraft., b Rav Huna said to his son Rabba: What is the reason that you are not /b to be b found /b among those who study b before Rav Ḥisda, whose i halakhot /i are incisive? /b Rabba b said to him: /b For b what /b purpose b should I go to him? When I go to him, he sits me down /b and occupies me b in mundane matters /b not related to Torah. For example, b he said to me: One who enters a bathroom should not sit down immediately and should not exert /b himself b excessively /b because b the rectum rests upon three teeth, /b the muscles that hold it in place, and there is concern b lest the teeth of /b the b rectum dislocate /b through exertion b and he come to danger. /b Rav Huna b said /b to his son Rabba: b He is dealing with /b matters crucial to b human life, and you say /b that he is dealing b with mundane matters? /b Now that I know what you meant, b all the more so go before him. /b ,The Gemara continues to discuss these i halakhot /i . b Rav Huna said: /b One who relieves himself and needs to wipe and b has before him a stone and an earthenware /b shard, b wipes with the stone and does not wipe with the earthenware /b shard, since he might injure himself. b And Rav Ḥisda said: He wipes with the earthenware /b shard b and does not wipe with the stone, /b which is set-aside. The Gemara b raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : b If one had before him a stone and an earthenware /b shard, b he wipes with the earthenware /b shard b and does not wipe with the stone. /b That is a b conclusive refutation /b of the opinion of b Rav Huna. Rafram bar Pappa explained it before Rav Ḥisda in accordance /b with the opinion b of Rav Huna: /b It is not referring to earthenware shards, but to b the /b smooth b rims of vessels, /b which pose no danger., b There were before him a stone and grasses. /b With regard to the preferred method to wipe on Shabbat, what is the ruling? There is a dispute between b Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna. One said: He wipes with the stone and does not wipe with the grasses; and one said: He wipes with the grasses and does not wipe with the stone. /b The Gemara b raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : b One who wipes with something flammable, his lower teeth, /b which hold the intestines in place, b fall out. /b How then, may one clean himself with grasses? The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult: This, /b where it is permitted, is referring b to moist /b grass; b that, /b where it is prohibited, is referring b to dry /b grass.,The Gemara continues to discuss this topic. With regard to b one who needs to defecate and does not do so, /b there is a dispute between b Rav Ḥisda and Ravina. One said: An evil spirit dominates him; and one said: An odor of filth dominates him. It was taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with the one who said /b that b an odor of filth dominates him, as it was taught: One who needs to defecate and eats is comparable to an oven that was heated on top of its ashes; and that is the onset of an odor of filth. /b ,The Gemara continues to discuss the issue: b One who needed to defecate and is unable to do so, Rav Ḥisda said: He should stand and sit, stand and sit. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a said: He should move to the sides /b and attempt to relieve himself in a different spot. b Rav Hamnuna said: He should manipulate with a stone in that place. And the Rabbis said: He should divert his thoughts /b to other matters. b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: All the more so that when he diverts his thoughts he will not /b be able to b defecate. /b Rav Ashi b said to him: He should divert his thoughts from other matters, /b and focus exclusively on his effort to relieve himself. b Rav Yirmeya from Difti said: I saw a certain Arab who stood and sat, stood and sat, until /b it b poured /b out of him b like a pot. /b Apparently, that advice is effective., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who wishes to enter /b and partake of b a regular meal /b that will last for some time, b should pace /b a distance of b four cubits ten times, and some say, ten cubits four times, /b in order to expedite the movement of the bowels, b and defecate, and enter, and sit in his place. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong One who carries out a shard of b earthenware /b on Shabbat is liable if it is in a measure b equivalent /b to that which is used b to place between one pillar and another /b when piled on the ground to separate them; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says: /b In a measure b equivalent /b to that which is used b to stoke a fire with it. Rabbi Yosei says: /b In a measure b equivalent /b to that which is used b to hold a quarter /b of a i log /i b in it. Rabbi Meir said: Although there is no proof for the matter, /b there is a biblical b allusion to /b my opinion, as it is stated: “And He shall break it as a potter’s vessel is broken, smashing it without sparing; b and there shall not be found among its pieces a shard to rake fire on the hearth” /b (Isaiah 30:14). b Rabbi Yosei said to him: /b Is there b proof from there? /b The verse concludes: b “And to extract water from the cistern,” /b indicating that earthenware is significant if it is large enough to hold water., strong GEMARA: /strong b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: Is b the measure /b stated by b Rabbi Meir greater, or /b is b the measure /b stated by b Rabbi Yosei greater? /b The Gemara responds: b It is reasonable /b to say that b the measure /b of b Rabbi Yosei is greater; however, /b based on the b verse /b it appears that b the measure /b of b Rabbi Meir is greater. As, if it enters your mind /b to say that b the measure /b of b Rabbi Yosei /b with regard to the shard of earthenware b is greater, /b would the prophet first b curse him /b by saying that b a small vessel /b will not be found, b and then curse him /b by saying that b a larger vessel /b will not be found? b Abaye said: The mishna is also /b referring to a large shard of earthenware required b to stoke the fire of a large conflagration. /b Even in the mishna, Rabbi Meir’s measure is larger.,We learned in the mishna that b Rabbi Yosei said to him: /b Is there b proof from there? /b He cites proof for his opinion from the conclusion of that same verse. The Gemara comments: b Rabbi Yosei spoke well to Rabbi Meir. And /b how does b Rabbi Meir /b address that proof? He explains that the verse b is stated /b employing the style of: b There is no need. /b It should be understood as follows: b There is no need /b to say that b an item /b that is b significant to people, /b e.g., a large shard of earthenware to stoke a fire, b shall not be found, but even an item /b that is b insignificant to people, /b i.e., a shard to extract water, b shall not be found. /b Therefore, the conclusion of the verse does not contradict Rabbi Meir’s opinion.,, strong MISHNA: /strong b Rabbi Akiva said: From where /b is it derived b that idolatry, e.g., /b a statue of a deity b , transmits impurity /b imparted b by carrying /b even when the person who carries it does not come into contact with it b , just as /b a b menstruating woman /b does? b As it is stated: “ /b And you will defile the silver overlays of your statues b , /b and the golden plating of your idols b , you will cast them away as you would a menstruating woman [ i dava /i ], you will tell it, get out” /b (Isaiah 30:22). b Just as a menstruating woman transmits impurity /b imparted b by carrying, so too, idolatry transmits impurity /b imparted b by carrying. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong Since the i halakhot /i of idolatry and the impurity it causes are beyond the scope of tractate i Shabbat /i , the fundamentals of this i halakha /i are cited from tractate i Avoda Zara /i . b We learned /b in a mishna b there: One whose house was adjacent to /b a house of b idolatry, /b sharing a common wall, b and /b the dividing wall b fell, it is prohibited to rebuild it /b as he would thereby have built a wall for idol worship. b What should one do? He moves four cubits into his own /b land b and builds /b the wall there.
75. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71
104b. א"ל אחד מהם לחבירו גמל שמהלכת לפנינו סומא באחת מעיניה וטעונה שתי נודות אחת של יין ואחת של שמן ושני בני אדם המנהיגים אותה אחד ישראל ואחד נכרי אמר להן [שבאי] עם קשה עורף מאין אתם יודעין,אמרו לו גמל מעשבים שלפניה מצד שרואה אוכלת מצד שאינה רואה אינה אוכלת וטעונה שתי נודות אחת של יין ואחת של שמן של יין מטפטף ושוקע ושל שמן מטפטף וצף ושני בני אדם המנהיגים אותה אחד נכרי ואחד ישראל נכרי נפנה לדרך וישראל נפנה לצדדין,רדף אחריהם ומצא כדבריהם בא ונשקן על ראשן והביאן לביתן ועשה להן סעודה גדולה והיה מרקד לפניהם ואמר ברוך שבחר בזרעו של אברהם ונתן להם מחכמתו ובכל מקום שהן הולכים נעשין שרים לאדוניהם ופטרן [והלכו] לבתיהם לשלום,(איכה א, ב) בכה תבכה בלילה שתי בכיות הללו למה אמר רבה אמר רבי יוחנן אחד על מקדש ראשון ואחד על מקדש שני בלילה על עסקי לילה שנאמר (במדבר יד, א) ותשא כל העדה ויתנו את קולם ויבכו העם בלילה ההוא,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן אותו (היום) ליל ט' באב היה אמר להן הקב"ה לישראל אתם בכיתם בכיה של חנם ואני אקבע לכם בכיה לדורות,ד"א בלילה שכל הבוכה בלילה קולו נשמע ד"א בלילה שכל הבוכה בלילה כוכבים ומזלות בוכין עמו ד"א בלילה שכל הבוכה בלילה השומע קולו בוכה כנגדו מעשה באשה אחת שכנתו של רבן גמליאל שמת בנה והיתה בוכה עליו בלילה שמע רבן גמליאל קולה ובכה כנגדה עד שנשרו ריסי עיניו למחר הכירו בו תלמידיו והוציאוה משכונתו,(איכה א, ב) ודמעתה על לחיה אמר רבא אמר ר' יוחנן כאשה שבוכה על בעל נעוריה שנאמר (יואל א, ח) אלי כבתולה חגורת שק על בעל נעוריה (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש אמר רבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש שנאמר (ישעיהו ח, כג) כי לא מועף לאשר מוצק לה כעת הראשון הקל ארצה זבולון וארצה נפתלי והאחרון הכביד דרך הים עבר הירדן גליל הגוים אמר רבא אמר ר' יוחנן כל המציק לישראל אינו עיף,(איכה א, יב) לא אליכם כל עוברי דרך אמר רבא אמר ר' יוחנן מכאן לקובלנא מן התורה כל עוברי דרך אמר רב עמרם אמר רב עשאוני כעוברי על דת דאילו בסדום כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ואילו בירושלים כתיב (איכה א, יג) ממרום שלח אש בעצמותי וירדנה וגו' וכתיב (איכה ד, ו) ויגדל עון בת עמי מחטאת סדום,וכי משוא פנים יש בדבר אמר רבא אמר ר' יוחנן מדה יתירה היתה בירושלים שלא היתה בסדום דאילו בסדום כתיב (יחזקאל טז, מט) הנה זה היה עון סדום אחותך גאון שבעת לחם ויד עני ואביון לא החזיקה וגו' ואילו בירושלים כתיב (איכה ד, י) ידי נשים רחמניות בשלו ילדיהן,(איכה א, טו) סלה כל אבירי ה' בקרבי כאדם שאומר לחברו נפסלה מטבע זו,(איכה ב, טז) פצו עליך פיהם אמר רבא אמר רבי יוחנן בשביל מה הקדים פ"א לעי"ן בשביל מרגלים שאמרו בפיהם מה שלא ראו בעיניהם,(תהלים יד, ד) אוכלי עמי אכלו לחם ה' לא קראו אמר רבא אמר ר' יוחנן כל האוכל מלחמן של ישראל טועם טעם לחם ושאינו אוכל מלחמן של ישראל אינו טועם טעם לחם ה' לא קראו רב אמר אלו הדיינין ושמואל אמר אלו מלמדי תינוקות,מי מנאן אמר רב אשי אנשי כנסת הגדולה מנאום אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקשו עוד למנות אחד באה דמות דיוקנו של אביו ונשטחה לפניהם ולא השגיחו עליה באה אש מן השמים ולחכה אש בספסליהם ולא השגיחו עליה,יצאה בת קול ואמרה להם (משלי כב, כט) חזית איש מהיר במלאכתו לפני מלכים יתיצב בל יתיצב לפני חשוכים מי שהקדים ביתי לביתו ולא עוד אלא שביתי בנה בשבע שנים וביתו בנה בשלש עשרה שנה לפני מלכים יתיצב [בל יתיצב] לפני חשוכים ולא השגיח עליה יצאה בת קול ואמרה (איוב לד, לג) המעמך ישלמנה כי מאסת כי אתה תבחר ולא אני וגו',דורשי רשומות היו אומרים כולן באין לעולם הבא שנאמר (תהלים ס, ט) לי גלעד ולי מנשה ואפרים מעוז ראשי יהודה מחוקקי מואב סיר רחצי על אדום אשליך נעלי עלי פלשת התרועעי לי גלעד (ולי מנשה) זה אחאב שנפל ברמות גלעד מנשה כמשמעו אפרים מעוז ראשי זה ירבעם דקאתי מאפרים יהודה מחוקקי זה אחיתופל 104b. b One of /b the captives b said to the other: /b The b camel that is walking ahead of us is blind in one of its eyes and laden /b with b two wineskins, one /b filled b with wine and one /b filled b with oil. And two people are driving /b the camel, b one a Jew and one a gentile. The captor said to them: Stiff-necked people, from where do you know /b these matters that you cannot see?, b They said to him: /b We know that the b camel /b is blind b from the grass that is before it, /b as b from /b the grass on b the side that it sees, it eats, /b and b from /b the grass on b the side that it does not see, it does not eat, /b i.e., it eats grass from only one side. b And /b we know that b it is laden /b with b two wineskins, one /b filled b with wine and one /b filled b with oil, /b as b wine drips and sinks into /b the ground b and oil drips and floats /b on the surface, and we see the difference on the ground. b And /b we know that b two people are driving /b the camel, b one a Jew and one a gentile, /b as b the gentile defecates on the road and the Jew, /b in the interests of modesty, goes b to the sides /b of the road to b defecate. /b ,The captor b pursued /b the camel and its drivers to determine whether the statements of the captives were accurate, b and found /b that the reality was b in accordance with their statements. He came and /b respectfully b kissed them on their head, and brought them to their house and prepared a great feast for them. And he was dancing before them and said: Blessed /b is He b who chose the descendants of Abraham and granted of His wisdom to them, and in every place that they go they become princes to their lords. And he released them and they went to their houses in peace. /b ,§ The Gemara returns to its interpretation of verses in Lamentations: b “She cries [ i bakho tivke /i ] at night” /b (Lamentations 1:2). b These two cries, /b indicated by the use of a compound verb, b why /b are they written? b Rabba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: One /b is a cry b over /b the destruction of b the First Temple, and one /b is a cry b over /b the destruction of b the Second Temple, /b which was destined to be destroyed. The term b “at night” /b indicates that the crying is b over matters of night, as it is stated /b with regard to the response of the Jewish people to the report of the spies after their return from the land of Canaan: b “And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and the people cried that night” /b (Numbers 14:1)., b Rabba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: That day /b that they heard the spies’ report b was the evening of the Ninth of Av. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You cried an unwarranted cry, and /b so b I will establish for you /b a reason to b cry for generations. /b , b Alternatively, /b the term b “at night” /b indicates b that /b with regard to b anyone who cries at night, his voice is heard /b due to the ambient silence. b Alternatively, /b the term b “at night” /b indicates b that /b in the case of b anyone who cries at night, the stars and the constellations cry with him. Alternatively, /b the term b “at night” /b indicates b that /b in the case of b anyone who cries at night, one who hears his voice /b is touched by his suffering and b cries with him. /b There was b an incident involving one woman, the neighbor of Rabban Gamliel, whose son died, and she would cry over his /b death b at night. Rabban Gamliel heard her voice and cried with her until his eyelashes fell /b out. b The next day his students noticed that he /b had been crying, b and they removed /b the woman b from his neighborhood /b so that Rabban Gamliel could sleep.,With regard to the verse: b “And her tears are on her cheeks” /b (Lamentations 1:2), b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b This is b like a woman who cries over the husband of her youth, as it is stated: “Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth” /b (Joel 1:8). With regard to the verse: b “Her adversaries have become the head” /b (Lamentations 1:5), b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b This indicates that b anyone who torments the Jewish people becomes a leader, as it is stated: “For there is no weariness to him that is set against her; at the first He lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali and afterward He afflicted her more grievously by the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan and the Galilee of the nations” /b (Isaiah 8:23). b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b From this verse one derives that b anyone who harasses Israel does not /b grow b weary. /b ,With regard to the verse: b “It is nothing to you, all you who pass by” /b (Lamentations 1:12), b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: From here /b there is a source b from the Torah for complaint, /b i.e., it is appropriate for one to make his suffering public so that others will have compassion for him. With regard to the phrase b “all you who pass by,” Rav Amram says /b that b Rav says /b that it is as though Jerusalem said: b They have rendered me like /b a city of b those who violate the /b most fundamental b precepts /b of law and morality, b as, with regard to Sodom, it is written: “Then the Lord rained upon Sodom /b brimstone and fire from the Lord out of Heaven” (Genesis 19:24), b while with regard to Jerusalem, it is written: “From above He has sent fire into my bones, and it prevails /b against them” (Lamentations 1:13). In both cities, fire rained down from Heaven. b And it is written: “For the iniquity of the daughter of my people is greater than the sin of Sodom” /b (Lamentations 4:6).,The Gemara asks: b And is there partiality in the matter? /b Why was Jerusalem not overturned like Sodom? b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b It is because there b was an additional measure /b of suffering b in Jerusalem that was not in Sodom, as with regard to Sodom it is written: “Behold this was the iniquity of your sister Sodom; pride, surfeit of bread /b and careless ease was in her and in her daughters; b and yet she did not strengthen the hand of the poor and needy” /b (Ezekiel 16:49). The people of Sodom were not subject to the afflictions of hunger and famine. b Whereas, with regard to Jerusalem it is written: “The hands of compassionate women cooked their own children” /b (Lamentations 4:10). The residents of Jerusalem were punished with great severity.,The verse: b “The Lord has spurned all my mighty men in the midst of me” /b (Lamentations 1:15), means b that /b this is b like a person who says to another: This coin was invalidated. /b The prominent residents of Jerusalem were crushed and discredited, and their reputations were irreversibly tainted.,With regard to the verse: b “They have opened their mouths against you” /b (Lamentations 2:16), b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: For what /b reason did the prophet b precede /b the verse beginning with the letter b i peh /i to /b the verse beginning with the letter b i ayin /i /b in several chapters of Lamentations? Since i peh /i means mouth and i ayin /i means eye, it is b for /b the b spies who said with their mouths [ i befihem /i ] what they did not see with their eyes [ i be’eineihem /i ]. /b ,With regard to the verse: b “The eaters of My people ate bread, and they call not upon the Lord” /b (Psalms 14:4), b Rava says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Any /b gentile thief b who eats the bread of the Jewish people tastes the flavor of bread, and one who does not eat from the bread of the Jewish people does not taste the flavor of bread. /b Apparently they enjoy only what they steal from the Jewish people. With regard to the people referred to in the phrase b “And they call not upon the Lord,” Rav says: These are the judges /b who are not God-fearing, b and Shmuel says: These are schoolteachers /b who do not perform their job in the name of God.,§ The Gemara resumes its discussion of the kings and commoners enumerated in the mishna who have no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara asks: b Who enumerated them? Rav Ashi says: The members of the Great Assembly enumerated them. Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: They sought to enumerate one more, /b King Solomon, in the list of kings with no share in the World-to-Come. b The image of the face of his father, /b King David, b came and prostrated itself before them, /b pleading to omit Solomon from the list, b and they paid it no heed. A fire came from Heaven and the fire scorched their benches [ i safseleihem /i ], and they paid it no heed. /b , b A Divine Voice emerged and said to /b the members of the Great Assembly: b “Do you see a man diligent in his business? He shall stand before kings; he shall stand not before obscure men” /b (Proverbs 22:29). See the greatness of Solomon, b who preceded /b construction of b My House, /b the Temple, b to /b the construction of b his house. Moreover, My House he built /b quickly, b in /b just b seven years, and his house he constructed in thirteen years. /b Therefore, b “he shall stand before kings; he shall stand not before obscure men,” /b and it is inappropriate to enumerate him among the wicked. b And they paid it no heed. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “Shall His recompense be as you will it? For you loathe it, so that you must choose, and not I? /b Therefore, speak what you know” (Job 34:33). Only God, and not the people, determines who has a share in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara adds: b Those who interpret the Torah metaphorically would say: All of /b those enumerated who have no share ultimately b enter the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine, and Ephraim also is the strength of My head; Judah is My scepter; Moab is My washing pot; over Edom I will cast My shoe; Philistia, cry aloud because of Me” /b (Psalms 60:9–10, and see 108:9–10). b “Gilead is Mine and Manasseh is Mine”; this /b is referring to b Ahab, who fell in Ramoth Gilead. “Manasseh”, in its plain meaning, /b is referring to King Manasseh. b “Ephraim also is the strength of My head”; this /b is referring to b Jeroboam, who comes /b from the tribe of b Ephraim. “Judah is My scepter”; this /b is referring to b Ahithophel, /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
45a. ורב ענן ברייתא לא שמיע ליה,ואי מדשמואל ממאי דאינה מכורה ומעות חוזרין דילמא אינה מכורה ומעות מתנה נינהו מידי דהוה אמקדש את אחותו דאיתמר המקדש את אחותו רב אמר מעות חוזרין ושמואל אמר מעות מתנה,אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף מאי חזית דקנסינן ללוקח נקנסיה למוכר א"ל לאו עכברא גנב אלא חורא גנב א"ל אי לאו עכברא חורא מנא ליה,מסתברא היכא דאיכא איסורא התם קנסינן:,ההוא עבדא דערק מחוצה לארץ לארץ אזל מריה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי אמי אמר ליה נכתוב לך שטרא אדמיה וכתוב ליה גיטא דחירותא ואי לא מפקנא ליה מינך מדרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה,דתניא (שמות כג, לג) לא ישבו בארצך פן יחטיאו אותך לי וגו' יכול בעובד כוכבים שקיבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודת כוכבים הכתוב מדבר ת"ל (דברים כג, טז) לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו אשר ינצל אליך מעם אדוניו מאי תקנתו עמך ישב בקרבך וגו',וקשיא ליה לר' יאשיה האי מעם אדוניו מעם אביו מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבי יאשיה במוכר עבדו לחוצה לארץ הכתוב מדבר,וקשיא ליה לרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה האי אשר ינצל אליך אשר ינצל מעמך מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבי אחי בר' יאשיה בעבד שברח מחו"ל לארץ הכתוב מדבר,תניא אידך לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו רבי אומר בלוקח עבד ע"מ לשחררו הכתוב מדבר היכי דמי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דכתב ליה הכי לכשאקחך הרי עצמך קנוי לך מעכשיו,רב חסדא ערק ליה עבדא לבי כותאי שלח להו הדרוה ניהלי שלחו ליה לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו (שלח להו (דברים כב, ג) וכן תעשה לחמורו וכן תעשה לשמלתו וכן תעשה לכל אבידת אחיך שלחו ליה והכתיב לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו) שלח להו ההוא בעבד שברח מחו"ל לארץ וכדרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה,ומאי שנא דשלח להו כדר' אחי בר' יאשיה משום דמשמע להו קראי,אביי אירכס ליה חמרא בי כותאי שלח להו שדרוה לי שלחו ליה שלח סימנא שלח להו דחיוורא כריסיה שלחו ליה אי לאו דנחמני את לא הוה משדרנא ליה ניהלך אטו כולי חמרי לאו כריסייהו חיוורין נינהו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פודין את השבויין יתר על כדי דמיהן מפני תיקון העולם ואין מבריחין את השבויין מפני תיקון העולם רשב"ג אומר מפני תקנת השבויין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איבעיא להו האי מפני תיקון העולם משום דוחקא דצבורא הוא או דילמא משום דלא לגרבו ולייתו טפי,ת"ש דלוי בר דרגא פרקא לברתיה בתליסר אלפי דינרי זהב,אמר אביי ומאן לימא לן דברצון חכמים עבד דילמא שלא ברצון חכמים עבד:,ואין מבריחין את השבויין מפני תיקון העולם רשב"ג אומר מפני תקנת שבויין: מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דליכא אלא חד:,בנתיה דרב נחמן בחשן קדרא בידייהו קשיא ליה לרב עיליש כתיב (קהלת ז, כח) אדם אחד מאלף מצאתי ואשה בכל אלה לא מצאתי הא איכא בנתיה דרב נחמן גרמא להו מילתא ואשתביין ואישתבאי איהו נמי בהדייהו,יומא חד הוה יתיב גביה ההוא גברא דהוה ידע בלישנא דציפורי אתא עורבא וקא קרי ליה אמר ליה מאי קאמר אמר ליה עיליש ברח עיליש ברח אמר עורבא שיקרא הוא ולא סמיכנא עליה,אדהכי אתא יונה וקא קריא אמר ליה מאי קאמרה א"ל עיליש ברח עיליש ברח אמר כנסת ישראל כיונה מתילא ש"מ מתרחיש לי ניסא אמר איזיל אחזי בנתיה דרב נחמן אי קיימן בהימנותייהו אהדרינהו,אמר נשי כל מילי דאית להו סדרן להדדי בבית הכסא שמעינהו דקאמרן עדי גוברין ונהרדעי גוברין לימא להו לשבוייהו דלירחקינהו מהכא דלא ליתו אינשין ולישמעי וליפרקינן,קם ערק אתא איהו וההוא גברא לדידיה איתרחיש ליה ניסא עבר במברא וההוא גברא אשכחוה וקטלוה כי הדרן ואתן אמר הוו קא בחשן קידרא בכשפים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואין לוקחין ספרים תפילין ומזוזות מן העובדי כוכבים יותר על כדי דמיהן 45a. The Gemara says: b And /b as for b Rav A, /b who could not determine in which case the money of the sale is returned, b the i baraita /i was not known to him, /b so he was not able to use it in order to resolve his dilemma., b And if /b Rav A would attempt to resolve his dilemma b from /b the statement b of Shmuel, /b who said that the sale does not take effect at all, this should mean that the money used in the sale is returned, it is possible to say: b From where /b can you assume b that it is not sold, and /b therefore b the money is returned? Perhaps it is not sold and the money is /b considered to be b a gift, just as it is /b according to the opinion of Shmuel b in /b the case of b one who betroths his sister. As /b it b was stated /b with regard to b one who betroths his sister, Rav said: The money /b he gave for the betrothal b is returned, /b since the betrothal does not take effect; b and Shmuel said: /b This b money /b is b a gift, /b meaning that he wished to give a gift to his sister and he did so in this manner. Therefore, Rav A remained uncertain as to when Shmuel required the money to be returned.,With regard to the i halakha /i that if one sells his slave to a Jew outside of Eretz Yisrael it is the purchaser who loses his money, b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What did you see /b to cause you to say b that we apply the penalty to the purchaser, /b in that he is required to emancipate the slave and loses his money; b we should apply the penalty to the seller, /b and he should be required to return the money. Rav Yosef answered Abaye with a parable and b said to him: /b It is b not the mouse /b that b steals, but the hole /b that b steals. /b In other words, a mouse cannot steal anything unless he has a hole for hiding the stolen items. Here too, the slave would not have been sold without the help of the purchaser. The Gemara questions this logic: But b if not /b for b the mouse, from where /b would b the hole /b have the stolen item; since they both contribute to the prohibited act, each of them is deserving of being penalized.,Rav Yosef responded to him: b It stands to reason /b that b anywhere that the forbidden /b item, i.e., the slave, b is, /b in this case, with the purchaser, b there we /b should b penalize. /b ,§ The Gemara relates: There was b a certain slave who fled /b from his master b from outside of Eretz /b Yisrael b to Eretz /b Yisrael. b His master followed him /b to Eretz Yisrael and b came before Rabbi Ami. /b Rabbi Ami b said to /b the master: b We will write a /b promissory b note for his value for you, and you /b should b write a bill of manumission for him. And if /b you do b not /b do this, b I will remove him from you /b entirely, since he does not have to return to outside of Eretz Yisrael, b based on /b the statement b of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states with regard to the residents of the Land of Canaan: b “They shall not dwell in your land lest they make you to sin against Me, /b for you will serve their gods; for they will be a snare to you” (Exodus 23:33). One b might /b have thought that b the verse is /b also b speaking of a gentile who accepted upon himself not to /b engage in b idol worship, /b and is teaching that such a gentile may not dwell in Eretz Yisrael as well; therefore b the verse states: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave who escaped to you from his master” /b (Deuteronomy 23:16). The i baraita /i understands that the verse is speaking in metaphoric terms about a gentile who has come to Eretz Yisrael, escaping his idolatrous past. The i baraita /i continues: b What /b is this gentile’s b remedy? “He shall dwell with you in your midst” /b (Deuteronomy 23:17). This teaches that as long as he accepts upon himself not to engage in idol worship, he may remain in Eretz Yisrael., b And /b the explanation of the verse in the i baraita /i is b difficult for Rabbi Yoshiya: This /b expression employed in the verse: b “From his master,” /b is imprecise if it is speaking about a gentile who abandons idol worship, as b it should have /b stated: b From his father, /b as a father is a more apt metaphor for the religion in which one was raised. b Rather, Rabbi Yoshiya /b explains differently and b says: The verse is speaking of one who sells his slave to /b a Jew who lives b outside of Eretz /b Yisrael, and the continuation of the verse: “He shall dwell with you,” means that he does not go to his new master outside of Eretz Yisrael, but is emancipated and remains in Eretz Yisrael., b And /b the explanation of Rabbi Yoshiya is b difficult for Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya: /b If it is referring to a slave who is sold to one outside of Eretz Yisrael, then b this /b expression: b “Who escaped to you,” /b is not accurate, as he is leaving from Eretz Yisrael, not escaping to Eretz Yisrael. According to Rabbi Yoshiya’s explanation, b it should have /b stated: b Who escaped from you. Rather, Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, said: The verse is speaking of a slave who escaped from outside of Eretz /b Yisrael b to Eretz /b Yisrael, which indicates that in such a case he may dwell there and is not returned to his master. Based on this statement of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, Rabbi Ami told the master that the slave will in any case be emancipated.,It b is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : The verse states: b “You shall not deliver to his master a slave” /b (Deuteronomy 23:16); b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: The verse is speaking of one who acquires a slave in order to emancipate him. /b The court may not deliver him to this master, because he is not his slave and he may not treat him as such. The Gemara asks: b What are the circumstances /b of this case? b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b For example, b when he wrote to /b the slave b like this: When I will purchase you, you are hereby acquired to yourself from now. /b The new master does not take possession of the slave, as he is emancipated immediately upon being purchased.,The Gemara relates that b Rav Ḥisda’s slave escaped to Bei Kutai, /b a place where Samaritans lived. b He sent /b a request b to /b the residents of that place: b Return him to me. They sent /b a response b to him: /b The verse states: b “You shall not deliver to his master a slave,” /b so we will not return this slave to you. b He sent /b a response b to them: /b The verse also states with regard to lost items: “And you shall restore it to him… b and so you shall do for his donkey and so you shall do for his garment and so you shall do for anything your brother has lost” /b (Deuteronomy 22:2–3). b They sent /b a response b to him /b again: b But isn’t it written: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave”? /b Rav Ḥisda b sent /b a response b to them: That /b verse is referring b to a slave who escaped from outside of Eretz /b Yisrael b to Eretz /b Yisrael, b and in accordance with /b the explanation b of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, /b and my slave escaped from one location outside of Eretz Yisrael to another location outside of Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara asks: b And what is different /b about this case b that /b led him to b send /b a response b to them /b specifically b in accordance with /b the explanation b of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, /b and not in accordance with any other interpretation of the verse? The Gemara answers: b Because that is /b how the Samaritans would b understand the verse. /b Samaritans did not generally accept the explanations of the Sages, and this explanation accords with the straightforward reading of the verse, while the other explanations do not.,The Gemara relates that b Abaye lost a donkey /b among the Samaritans in b Bei Kutai. He sent /b a request b to them: Send it to me. They sent /b a response b to him: Send a distinguishing mark /b and we will return it to you. b He sent /b the following distinguishing mark b to them: That its belly is white. They sent /b a response b to him: If not /b for the fact b that you are Naḥmani, /b meaning that we know that you are a trustworthy man, b we would not send it to you. Is that to say /b that b bellies of all donkeys aren’t white? /b Therefore, it is not a true distinguishing mark., strong MISHNA: /strong b The captives are not redeemed /b for b more than their /b actual monetary b value, for the betterment of the world; and one may not aid the captives /b in their attempt to b escape /b from their captors b for the betterment of the world, /b so that kidnappers will not be more restrictive with their captives to prevent them from escaping. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the betterment of the captives, /b so that kidnappers will not avenge the escape of the captives by treating other captives with cruelty., strong GEMARA: /strong b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: With regard to b this /b expression: b For the betterment of the world, /b is b it due to the /b ficial b pressure of the community? /b Is the concern that the increase in price will lead to the community assuming ficial pressures it will not be able to manage? b Or perhaps /b it is b because /b the result of this will be b that they will not seize and bring additional /b captives, as they will see that it is not worthwhile for them to take Jews captive?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b an answer based on the fact b that Levi bar Darga redeemed his daughter /b who was taken captive b with thirteen thousand gold dinars. /b This indicates that private citizens may pay excessive sums to redeem a captive if they so choose. Therefore, it must be that the reason for the ordice was to avoid an excessive burden being placed upon the community. If the ordice was instituted to remove the incentive for kidnappers to capture Jews, a private citizen would also not be permitted to pay an excessive sum., b Abaye said: And who told us that he acted in accordance with the wishes of the Sages? Perhaps he acted against the wishes of the Sages, /b and this anecdote cannot serve as a proof.,The mishna taught: b And one may not aid the captives /b in their attempt to b escape /b from their captors, b for the betterment of the world. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the betterment of /b the b captives. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the difference b between /b the two reasons given? The Gemara answers: b There is /b a difference b between them when there is only one /b captive. If this ordice was instituted for the benefit of the other captives, so that the kidnappers should not avenge a captive’s escape by treating the others with cruelty, then if there is only one captive to begin with, one may help him to escape. If it was instituted so that kidnappers in general will not act restrictively with their captives, it would be prohibited in this case as well.,§ The Gemara relates that b Rav Naḥman’s daughters would stir a /b boiling b pot with their /b bare b hands, /b and people thought that the heat did not harm them due to their righteousness. b Rav Ilish had a difficulty /b with a verse, as it b is written: “A man one of a thousand I have found, and a woman among all those have I not found” /b (Ecclesiastes 7:28). b Aren’t there Rav Naḥman’s daughters, /b who were exceptionally righteous? b These words caused them to be taken captive, /b due to the evil eye, b and /b Rav Ilish b was also taken captive with them. /b , b One day a certain man was sitting with him /b in captivity b who knew the language of birds. A raven came and called to /b Rav Ilish. Rav Ilish b said to /b the man: b What is /b the raven b saying? He said to him /b that it is saying: b Ilish, escape; Ilish, escape. /b Rav Ilish b said: It is a lying raven, and I do not rely on it. /b , b In the meantime, a dove came and was calling /b out. Rav Ilish b said to /b the man: b What is it saying? He said to him /b that the dove said: b Ilish, escape; Ilish, escape. /b Ilish b said: The Congregation of Israel is compared to a dove; /b I b conclude from /b the dove’s words that b a miracle will happen for me, /b and I can attempt to escape. Rav Ilish b said: /b Before I leave, b I will go /b and b I will see Rav Naḥman’s daughters. If they remained /b steadfast b in their faith /b and are acting appropriately, then I will take them with me and b I will return them /b to their home., b He said: Women tell all of their /b secret b matters to each other in the bathroom, /b so he went there to eavesdrop on them. b He heard them saying: These /b captors are now b our husbands, and the men of Neharde’a /b to whom we are married are b our husbands. We should tell our captors to distance us from here so that our husbands should not come /b to this area b and hear /b that we are here, b and redeem us, /b and take us home. They preferred to remain with their captors.,Upon hearing this Rav Ilish b arose /b and b escaped. He and that man /b who knew the language of the birds b came /b to a river crossing. b A miracle happened for him /b and b he crossed /b the river b on a ferry, and /b the captors b found that man and killed him. When /b Rav Naḥman’s daughters b were returned and they came /b back from their captivity, Rav Ilish b said: They would stir the pot with witchcraft, /b and that is why they were not burned by the boiling pot, but it was not due to their righteousness., strong MISHNA: /strong b And /b Torah b scrolls, phylacteries, or i mezuzot /i are not purchased from the gentiles /b when they acquire these objects, if they request b more than their /b actual monetary b value, /b
77. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 50
103a. בין עומד בין יושב בין מוטה והחולצת מן הסומא חליצתה כשרה אבל במנעל הנפרם שאין חופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שאינו מקבל את רוב הרגל ובסמיכת הידים ובאנפיליא של בגד וחולצת מן הקטן חליצתה פסולה,קב הקיטע מני רבי מאיר היא דתנן הקיטע יוצא בקב שלו דברי רבי מאיר ר' יוסי אוסר,באנפיליא של בגד אתאן לרבנן,אמר אביי מדסיפא רבנן רישא נמי רבנן ורישא במחופה עור,אמר ליה רבא אבל אין מחופה עור מאי פסול אי הכי אדתני סיפא באנפיליא של בגד ליפלוג בדידה בד"א במחופה עור אבל אין מחופה עור פסול,אלא אמר רבא מדרישא רבי מאיר סיפא נמי רבי מאיר האי מגין והאי לא מגין,אמר אמימר האי מאן דחליץ צריך למדחסיה לכרעיה,אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והתניא בין עומד בין יושב בין מוטה אימא ולעולם דדחיס לכרעיה,ואמר אמימר האי מאן דמסגי על ליחתא דכרעיה לא חליץ אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והתניא סמוכות הרגלים לאו דחליץ בה איהו לא דיהיב ליה לאחר וחליץ,אמר רב אשי למאי דקאמר אמימר לאו בר אובא חליץ ולאו בר קיפוף חליץ:,מן הארכובה ולמטה כו': ורמינהי רגלים פרט לבעלי קבין,שאני הכא דכתיב (דברים כה, ט) מעל רגלו אי הכי למעלה מן הארכובה נמי מעל ולא מעל דמעל,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה האי איסתוירא עד ארעא נחית דאי סלקא דעתך מיפסק פסיק הוה ליה איהו מעל ושוקא מעל דמעל אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא מיפסק פסיק כל דבהדי כרעא ככרעא דמי:,מן הארכובה ולמעלה: מתיב רב כהנא (דברים כח, נז) ובשליתה היוצאת מבין רגליה אמר אביי בשעה שכורעת לילד נועצת עקביה בירכותיה ויולדת,ת"ש (שמואל ב יט, כה) לא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו לישנא מעליא תא שמע (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו לישנא מעליא,ת"ש (שופטים ג, כד) אך מסיך הוא רגליו בחדר המקירה לישנא מעליא בין רגליה כו' לישנא מעליא,אמר רבי יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותו היום שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב בין רגליה כרע נפל באשר כרע שם נפל שדוד והא קא מתהניא מעבירה אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי כל טובתן של רשעים 103a. b whether /b the i yavam /i is b standing or sitting or leaning; and /b a woman b who performs i ḥalitza /i /b on a b blind /b i yavam /i ; in all of these cases b her i ḥalitza /i is valid. But /b if she performs i ḥalitza /i when he is wearing b a shoe /b that is so b torn that it does not cover most of the foot; or using a broken sandal that does not hold most of the foot; or using a hand blanket /b that the amputee wears on his hands, similar to a leather shoe, in order to drag himself using them; b or using a soft shoe [ i anpileya /i ] /b made b of cloth; or /b a woman b who performs i halitza /i with /b a i yavam /i who is b a minor; /b in all these cases b her i ḥalitza /i is disqualified. /b ,The Gemara comments: b Who is /b the i tanna /i who holds that b an amputee’s prosthetic /b is considered a shoe? b It is Rabbi Meir, as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Shabbat /i 65b): b One with an amputated leg may go out /b on Shabbat b with his wooden leg, /b as it has the legal status of a shoe; this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. /b He reasons that the prosthesis functions like the shoe of any other person, indicating that Rabbi Meir is not especially concerned about the material from which the shoe is made. And b Rabbi Yosei, /b on the other hand, b prohibits /b the amputee from going out on Shabbat with his wooden leg, as he does not consider it a shoe that is being worn, but rather a wooden object that is being carried.,The Gemara asks how Rabbi Meir can be the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i , as the continuation of the i baraita /i states i ḥalitza /i is disqualified if performed b with an i anpileya /i /b made b of cloth, /b as this cloth shoe is not to be considered a shoe. If so, have b we come to /b the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b who rule in accordance with Rabbi Yosei, and render it prohibited to use any shoes for i ḥalitza /i that are not made of leather?,In an attempt to resolve the contradiction b Abaye said: Since the latter clause /b of the i baraita /i b is /b in accordance with b the Rabbis, /b who rule like Rabbi Yosei, b the first clause is also /b in accordance with b the Rabbis. And /b therefore b the first clause, /b which permits the amputee’s prosthesis, is b referring to /b a prosthetic foot b covered in leather, /b as it constitutes a shoe due to its leather exterior., b Rava said to him: But /b according to your explanation, if the prosthesis is b not covered in leather, what /b would its status be? It would be b unfit. If so, rather than teaching /b in the b latter clause: i Anpileya /i /b made b of cloth /b is invalid for i ḥalitza /i , b let /b it b distinguish within /b the matter b itself /b and say: b In what /b case b is this statement /b that a wooden prosthesis is fit b said? /b It is b in /b the case of a prosthetic leg b covered in leather, but /b if it is b not covered in leather, it is unfit. /b , b Rather, /b the fact that the i baraita /i was not taught in that manner indicates that Abaye’s explanation is incorrect. Therefore, b Rava said /b that the contradiction should be reconciled in another way: b Since the first clause /b of the i baraita /i is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Meir, /b that the shoes need not be made of leather, b the latter clause is also /b taught in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Meir /b , and the distinction between a wooden prosthetic and an i anpileya /i of cloth is: b This /b prosthesis b protects /b the foot, b and that /b soft shoe b does not protect /b the foot, as it does not have a hard sole. Rabbi Meir does not require that the shoe be of leather, but he does require that it be protective footwear.,With regard to the statement in the i baraita /i that indicates that i ḥalitza /i may be performed even if the i yavam /i is not standing, b Ameimar said: The one who performs i ḥalitza /i /b by having his i yevama /i remove his shoe b must press his foot /b to the ground, and while in this position the i yevama /i will remove his shoe., b Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taught /b in the i baraita /i above: She may perform i ḥalitza /i b whether he was standing or sitting or leaning? /b One who is leaning cannot easily press his foot into the ground. He answered him: b Say /b that the man may perform i ḥalitza /i while in any of these positions, but that b actually /b this is true only if b he presses his foot /b to the ground, which is admittedly more difficult to do while leaning., b And Ameimar /b also b said /b about this issue: b Someone who walks on the backs of his feet, /b meaning he is clubfooted and his foot is twisted upside down, b cannot perform i ḥalitza /i . Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Leg supports /b can be used for i ḥalitza /i . b Does this not mean that /b this lame individual b performs i ḥalitza /i using these /b supports on his knees? This would indicate that even one with twisted feet can perform i ḥalitza /i . The Gemara answers: b No, /b the intention is that if b he gave these supports to another /b whose foot is shaped normally b and he /b wore them while b performing i ḥalitza /i , /b it is valid. That other one is allowed to perform i ḥalitza /i while wearing these supports because they are also considered shoes, but one whose foot is misshapen may not perform i ḥalitza /i with them, as it functions for him as a foot, not a shoe., b Rav Ashi said: According to what Ameimar said, bar Uva cannot perform i ḥalitza /i and bar Kipof cannot perform i ḥalitza /i , /b as these two, who were famous eulogizers in Rav Ashi’s generation, had feet that became so crooked that they were unable to walk normally.,It was taught in the mishna that if one’s leg was amputated b from the knee down /b and his i yevama /i performed i ḥalitza /i with him, the i ḥalitza /i is valid. The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i that comments on the pilgrimage one makes to Jerusalem during a Festival. The Torah states: “Three b Festivals [ i regalim /i ] /b you shall celebrate for Me in the year” (Exodus 23:14). The i baraita /i comments on the verse: Festivals are referred to in the verse as i regalim /i , which literally means feet, indicating that one must actually make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem by foot [ i regel /i ] during the Festival, which comes to b exclude people who have prostheses. /b This indicates that a prosthetic foot is not called a i regel /i , which seems to contradict the mishna that allows i ḥalitza /i on a prosthetic from the knee down.,The Gemara answers: b It is different here, /b with respect to i ḥalitza /i , b as it is written: /b “She removes the shoe b from on his foot [ i me’al raglo /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 25:9), which indicates that not only can his actual foot be used for performing i ḥalitza /i , but also the part above it, i.e., the calf. The Gemara objects: b If that is so, /b that one may use a part of his leg above his foot to perform i ḥalitza /i , then if one’s leg was amputated b from above the knee, /b he should b also /b be eligible for i ḥalitza /i ; and yet, the same mishna taught that only one with a leg amputated from below the knee is eligible for i ḥalitza /i . The Gemara answers that the verse states: b “From on /b his foot,” meaning above his foot, b but not: From on that which is on /b his foot; the wording indicates that it can be above his foot until the knee, but not any further above that., b Rav Pappa said: Learn from here that the heel bone [ i istavira /i ] reaches to the ground /b where it connects to the foot, b for if it enters your mind /b to say b that it is separate and divided, /b and there is another bone in between, b then that /b ankle bone b is “from on /b the foot” b and the calf /b would be prohibited for i ḥalitza /i , as it would be considered: b From on that which is on /b his foot. b Rav Ashi said: Even /b if b you say that it is separate and divided /b from the calf, because b anything that is connected with the /b sole of the b foot is considered like the foot, /b then the ankle is certainly part of the foot, making the calf the area that is “from on the foot.”,It was taught in the mishna that if one’s legs were amputated b from the knee and above, /b the i ḥalitza /i is invalid. This implies that the i regel /i includes the calf but not the thigh. b Rav Kahana raised an objection /b from the verse: b “And against her afterbirth that emerges from between her legs [ i ragleha /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 28:57), implying that i regel /i includes even the thighs. b Abaye said: /b The verse actually means between her feet, as b when /b a woman b crouches to give birth, she pushes her heels into her thighs and she gives birth, /b so it appears as if the fetus emerges from between her feet.,The Gemara continues its challenge. b Come /b and b hear /b another verse: b “He had neither dressed his feet [ i raglav /i ], nor trimmed his beard” /b (II Samuel 19:25). The phrase “dressed his feet [ i raglav /i ]” is referring to treating his pubic hair, implying that even the area around the thigh is referred to as i regel /i . The Gemara answers: This is b a euphemism. /b The Gemara attempts another challenge: b Come /b and b hear /b from another verse: b “And Saul went in to cover his feet [ i raglav /i ]” /b (I Samuel 24:3), meaning: To urinate, implying that i regel /i refers even to the thighs. The Gemara answers: This is also b a euphemism. /b , b Come /b and b hear /b the meaning of: His feet, from the following verse regarding the Moabite king, Eglon, which states: b “Surely he is covering his feet [ i raglav /i ] in the cabinet of the cool chamber” /b (Judges 3:24). The Gemara answers: This is b a euphemism. /b The Gemara attempts another proof from a verse regarding Sisera’s encounter with Yael: b “At her feet [ i ragleha /i ] /b he sunk, he fell” (Judges 5:27), which indicates that they had sexual intercourse, and implies that i regel /i includes the thigh. The Gemara answers: This is also b a euphemism. /b ,The Gemara elaborates on what happened when Sisera was in Yael’s tent. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That wicked /b man, Sisera, b had /b sexual b intercourse /b with Yael b seven times that day, as it is stated: “At her feet he sunk, he fell, he lay; at her feet he sunk, he fell; where he sunk, there he fell down dead” /b (Judges 5:27). Each instance of the terms “sunk,” “fell,” or “lay” in the verse indicates an act of intercourse, as Yael sought to tire and weaken Sisera to enable her to kill him. The Gemara asks: b But /b how could Yael do this even for the noble purpose of killing the wicked Sisera, as b she derived pleasure from /b the b transgression /b of licentious sexual relations with a gentile? b Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Every /b act that is a b benefit for the wicked /b
78. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71
31a. חוצץ או אינו חוצץ אמר ליה כל דתקון רבנן כעין דאורייתא תקון,אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף ביאה במקצת שמה ביאה או לא א"ל בהונות יוכיחו שהן ביאה במקצת ותניא מצורע טובל ועומד בשער ניקנור איבעיא להו מהו שיעשה סכין ארוכה וישחוט,תיבעי לבן זומא תיבעי לרבנן דפליגי עליה דר' יהודה תבעי לבן זומא עד כאן לא מחייב בן זומא אלא לגואי אבל לבראי לא או דילמא אתי לאימשוכי,תיבעי לרבנן דפליגי עליה דרבי יהודה ע"כ לא קאמרי רבנן התם דלא קא עביד עבודה אבל הכא דקא עביד עבודה לא או דילמא לא שנא תיקו,חמש טבילות ועשרה קידושין טובל ת"ר חמש טבילות ועשרה קידושין טובל כ"ג ומקדש בו ביום וכולן בקודש בבית הפרוה חוץ מראשונה שהיתה בחול ע"ג שער המים ובצד לשכתו היתה אמר אביי שמע מיניה עין עיטם גבוה מקרקע עזרה עשרים ושלש אמות,דתנן כל הפתחים שהיו שם גובהן עשרים אמה ורחבן עשר אמות חוץ משל אולם ותניא (ויקרא טו, יג) ורחץ בשרו במים במי מקוה כל בשרו מים שכל גופו עולה בהן וכמה הן אמה על אמה ברום ג' אמות ושיערו חכמים מי מקוה ארבעים סאה 31a. do items that are generally considered interpositions that invalidate an immersion b interpose /b in this immersion, b or /b do they b not interpose, /b since the immersion is only ancillary and serves as a reminder? Rav Yosef b said to him: All /b ordices b that the Sages instituted, they instituted parallel to Torah law. /b Therefore, this immersion by rabbinic law has the same basic parameters as immersion by Torah law. There may be no interposition., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: /b Is b partial entry, /b when one enters a certain place with only part of his body, b considered entry or not? /b Rav Yosef b said to him: The thumbs /b of the leper b will prove /b this point, b as /b the leper reaching his thumbs into the Temple b constitutes partial entry, and it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A leper immerses and stands at the Gate of Nicanor, /b indicating that immersion is required before even partial entry. b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the i halakha /i ; may an impure person b craft /b a very b long knife and slaughter /b an animal in the Temple courtyard while remaining outside the courtyard? Is it the essence of the service that requires immersion, or is it entry into the courtyard that requires immersion?,The Gemara comments: b Raise the dilemma /b according b to ben Zoma, /b who rules stringently with regard to immersion; and b raise the dilemma /b according b to the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Yehuda /b and do not obligate all people in this immersion. The Gemara elaborates: b Raise the dilemma /b according b to ben Zoma: /b Does b ben Zoma require /b immersion b only for /b entry b inside /b the courtyard; b however, for /b standing b outside /b the courtyard, b no, /b he does not require immersion? b Or perhaps /b even for one standing outside the courtyard ben Zoma requires immersion, b lest he /b inadvertently b come to be drawn /b inside in the course of his service.,Similarly, b raise the dilemma /b according b to the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Yehuda: /b How so? Do b the Rabbis say /b that there is no requirement of immersion b only there, where he is not performing /b any Temple b service; however, here, where he is performing service, no, /b they would require immersion? b Or perhaps there is no difference, /b and they would not require immersion under any circumstances. The Gemara concludes: The dilemma b shall stand /b unresolved.,§ It was taught in the mishna: b Five immersions and ten sanctifications /b the b High Priest immerses /b and sanctifies his hands and feet, respectively. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Five immersions and ten sanctifications /b the b High Priest immerses and sanctifies /b his hands and feet, respectively, b on the day /b of Yom Kippur. b And all /b of these immersions and sanctifications take place b in the sacred /b area, the Temple courtyard, b in /b the b Hall of i Parva /i , except for /b this b first /b immersion, b which was in the non-sacred /b area b on the roof of Gate of the Water, and /b that gate b was alongside his chamber. Abaye said: Conclude from that /b which was taught in this i baraita /i that b i Ein Eitam /i , /b the spring from which water was supplied to the Temple, was b twenty-three cubits higher than the ground of the Temple courtyard. /b , b As we learned /b in a mishna: b All the entrances that were there /b in the Temple, b their height is twenty cubits and their width is ten cubits, except for /b the entrance b to the Entrance Hall /b of the Sanctuary, which was twice that, i.e., forty cubits high and twenty cubits wide. b And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that it is stated: b “And he shall wash his flesh in water” /b (Leviticus 15:13), and it is stated in another verse: “And he shall wash all of his flesh in water”(Leviticus 15:16). This refers to water known as b the waters of a ritual bath. /b The verse adds the emphasis: b All of his flesh, /b to say that immersion must be b in water that one’s entire body enters /b at the same time. b And how much /b water b is it? /b It is b one cubit /b length b by one cubit /b width b by a height of three cubits. /b That is sufficient water to cover a person’s height. b And the Sages calculated /b that the volume of b the waters of a ritual bath /b that fit into that space is b forty i se’a /i . /b
79. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
82a. והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:,עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:,שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:,ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים,כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה,מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:,ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:,ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:,ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:,ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:,ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:,ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא,דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער,אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה 82a. The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: b But when Rabbi Avin came /b from Eretz Yisrael he said that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b With regard to b both a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundary /b with another field, the owner of the tree b brings /b the first fruits of the tree b and recites /b the accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, b as /b it was b on this condition /b that b Joshua apportioned Eretz /b Yisrael b to the Jewish people. /b This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.,The Gemara answers: b Rather, who /b is the one who b taught /b the i baraita /i that deals with the b ten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, /b an i amora /i . Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa, another i amora /i , can disagree with it. b Rav Geviha from Bei Katil teaches /b this b explicitly /b in his version of the i baraita /i : b Rabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is that /b elder? It is b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions. /b ,§ The Sages taught that b Ezra /b the Scribe b instituted ten ordices: /b He instituted b that /b communities b read /b the Torah b on Shabbat in the afternoon; and they /b also b read /b the Torah b on /b every b Monday and Thursday; and /b the courts convene and b judge /b every b Monday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. And /b Ezra further instituted b that a woman should rise early and bake /b bread on those days when she wants to bake; b and that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman should /b first b comb /b her hair b and /b only then b immerse /b in a ritual bath after being ritually impure; b and that peddlers /b of cosmetics and perfumes b should travel around through /b all b the towns. And /b Ezra further b instituted /b the requirement of b immersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b ,The Gemara analyzes these ordices, the first of which is b that /b communities b shall read /b the Torah b on Shabbat afternoon. /b This Gemara explains that this ordice was instituted b due to those who sit /b idly on street b corners, /b who do not attend the synagogue during the week.,The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordices: b And that they should read /b the Torah b on /b every b Monday and Thursday. /b The Gemara asks: b Did Ezra institute /b this practice? b But it was instituted from the beginning, /b i.e., long before his time. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; b and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water” /b (Exodus 15:22). b Those who interpret verses /b metaphorically b said /b that b water /b here is referring to b nothing other than Torah, as it is stated /b metaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: b “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water” /b (Isaiah 55:1).,The i baraita /i continues: The verse means that b since /b the Jews b traveled for three days without /b hearing any b Torah they became weary, /b and therefore the b prophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should read /b from the Torah each b Shabbat, and pause /b on b Sunday, and read /b again on b Monday, and pause /b on b Tuesday and Wednesday, and read /b again on b Thursday, and pause /b on b Shabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days without /b hearing the b Torah. /b Evidently this practice predates Ezra.,The Gemara answers: b Initially they instituted /b that b one man /b read b three verses; /b or b alternatively, /b that b three men /b read b three verses. /b Either way, the number three b corresponds to /b the three types of Jews: b Priests, Levites, and Israelites. /b Ezra later b came /b and b instituted /b that b three men /b always read, b and /b that b ten verses /b altogether be read by them, b corresponding to the ten idlers /b in a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.,The next ordice of Ezra is: b And /b the courts convene and b judge /b every b Monday and Thursday. /b The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordice is b that /b many people are b found /b in a city on these days, b as they come /b from the countryside b for the reading of the /b holy b book, /b the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.,The i baraita /i teaches: b And that one should do laundry on Thursday. /b This was instituted b due to /b the need to have clean garments in b deference to Shabbat. /b ,The Gemara explains the next listed ordice: b And that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve. /b This is b due to /b the fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for b conjugal relations. As it is written /b concerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, b who brings forth his fruit in his season” /b (Psalms 1:3); b and Rabbi Yehuda says, and some say /b it was b Rav Naḥman, and some say /b it was b Rav Kahana, and some say /b it was b Rabbi Yoḥa /b who said: b This /b is referring to b one who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i that b five matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warms /b the body; b it causes /b one’s b countece to shine; it increases /b one’s b sperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some say /b that it also b instills love /b into those who eat it b and removes jealousy /b from them.,The next ordice is: b And that a woman should rise early and bake /b bread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted b so that bread should be available for poor people, /b who go begging for bread in the mornings.,The i baraita /i further teaches: b And that a woman should don a breechcloth [ i sinar /i ]. /b This ordice was instituted b due to /b reasons of b modesty. /b ,The i baraita /i adds: b And that a woman should /b first b comb /b her hair b and /b only then b immerse /b in a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: b This is /b required b by Torah law, /b Ezra did not institute this., b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i , concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: b “And he shall bathe his flesh [ i et besaro /i ] in water” /b (Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches b that no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water. /b When the verse states this in the expanded form of b “ i et /i his flesh,” /b using the term “ i et /i ,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with b that which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that? /b It is one’s b hair. /b Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?,The Sages b say /b in response: b By Torah law /b one is required b to inspect /b his or her hair before immersion, as b perhaps /b some hairs are b knotted /b together, preventing contact with water at that spot, b or /b perhaps there is some b repulsive substance /b in his hair. One must perform this inspection b because /b these would constitute b an interposition. /b
80. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71
62b. תניא בן עזאי אומר על כל משכב שכב חוץ מן הקרקע על כל מושב שב חוץ מן הקורה אמר שמואל שינה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא יציאה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא,בר קפרא הוה מזבן מילי בדינרי עד דכפנת אכול עד דצחית שתי עד דרתחא קדרך שפוך קרנא קריא ברומי בר מזבין תאני תאני דאבוך זבין,אמר להו אביי לרבנן כי עייליתו בשבילי דמחוזא למיפק ביה בחקלא לא תחזו לא להך גיסא ולא להך גיסא דלמא יתבי נשי ולאו אורח ארעא לאסתכולי בהו,רב ספרא על לבית הכסא אתא רבי אבא נחר ליה אבבא אמר ליה ליעול מר בתר דנפק אמר ליה עד השתא לא עיילת לשעיר וגמרת לך מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד וזה היה כבודו מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם מצאו פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם אלמא לאו אורח ארעא הוא,והוא סבר מסוכן הוא דתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון,רבי אלעזר על לבית הכסא אתא ההוא פרסאה דחקיה קם ר' אלעזר ונפק אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה קרי עליה רבי אלעזר (ישעיהו מג, ד) ואתן אדם תחתיך אל תקרי אדם אלא אדום:,(שמואל א כד, יא) ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך,ואמר ואמרתי מיבעי ליה ותחס וחסתי מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו דוד לשאול מן התורה בן הריגה אתה שהרי רודף אתה והתורה אמרה בא להרגך השכם להרגו אלא צניעות שהיתה בך היא חסה עליך,ומאי היא דכתיב (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו תנא גדר לפנים מן גדר ומערה לפנים ממערה להסך אמר ר' אלעזר מלמד שסכך עצמו כסוכה:,(שמואל א כד, ה) ויקם דוד ויכרת את כנף המעיל אשר לשאול בלט אמר ר' יוסי בר' חנינא כל המבזה את הבגדים סוף אינו נהנה מהם שנאמר (מלכים א א, א) והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסוהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו:,(שמואל א כו, יט) אם ה' הסיתך בי ירח מנחה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה לדוד מסית קרית לי הרי אני מכשילך בדבר שאפי' תינוקות של בית רבן יודעים אותו דכתיב (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא את ראש בני ישראל לפקודיהם ונתנו איש כפר נפשו וגו' מיד (דברי הימים א כא, א) ויעמוד שטן על ישראל וכתיב (שמואל ב כד, א) ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר לך מנה את ישראל וכיון דמנינהו לא שקל מינייהו כופר דכתיב (שמואל ב כד, טו) ויתן ה' דבר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד,מאי עת מועד אמר שמואל סבא חתניה דרבי חנינא משמיה דרבי חנינא משעת שחיטת התמיד עד שעת זריקתו רבי יוחנן אמר עד חצות ממש:,(שמואל ב כד, טז) ויאמר למלאך המשחית בעם רב אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה למלאך טול לי רב שבהם שיש בו ליפרע מהם כמה חובות באותה שעה מת אבישי בן צרויה ששקול כרובה של סנהדרין:,(דברי הימים א כא, טו) ובהשחית ראה ה' וינחם מאי ראה,אמר רב ראה יעקב אבינו דכתיב (בראשית לב, ג) ויאמר יעקב כאשר ראם ושמואל אמר אפרו של יצחק ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, ח) אלהים יראה לו השה,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר כסף כפורים ראה שנאמר (שמות ל, טז) ולקחת את כסף הכפורים מאת בני ישראל וגו' רבי יוחנן אמר בית המקדש ראה דכתיב (בראשית כב, יד) בהר ה' יראה,פליגי בה ר' יעקב בר אידי ורבי שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כסף הכפורים ראה וחד אמר בית המקדש ראה ומסתברא כמאן דאמר בית המקדש ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, יד) אשר יאמר היום בהר ה' יראה:,לא יכנס אדם להר הבית במקלו וכו': מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה ורב חנא בר אדא משמיה דרב סמא בריה דרב מרי אמר כמאן דאמר אינש אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הנכנס לבית הכנסת על מנת שלא לעשותו קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא,רבי אבהו אמר אם היה שביל מעיקרו מותר אמר ר' חלבו אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנאמר (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים וגו':,ורקיקה מקל וחומר: אמר רב ביבי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל הרוקק בהר הבית בזמן הזה כאילו רוקק בבת עינו שנאמר (מלכים א ט, ג) והיה עיני ולבי שם כל הימים,אמר רבא רקיקה בבית הכנסת שריא מידי דהוה אמנעל מה מנעל בהר הבית אסור בבית הכנסת מותר אף רקיקה בהר הבית הוא דאסור בבית הכנסת שרי,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא ואמרי לה רבינא לרבא ואמרי לה רב אדא בר מתנא לרבא אדיליף ממנעל נילף מקפנדריא,אמר ליה תנא יליף ממנעל ואת אמרת מקפנדריא מאי היא דתניא לא יכנס אדם להר הבית לא במקלו שבידו ולא במנעלו שברגלו ולא במעות הצרורים לו בסדינו ובפונדתו מופשלת לאחוריו ולא יעשנה קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר ממנעל ומה מנעל שאין בו דרך בזיון אמרה תורה (שמות ג, ה) של נעליך מעל רגליך רקיקה שהיא דרך בזיון לא כל שכן,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (אסתר ד, ב) כי אין לבא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה שק שאינו מאוס לפני בשר ודם כך רקיקה שהיא מאוסה לפני מלך מלכי המלכים לא כל שכן,אמר ליה אנא הכי קאמינא נימא הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא 62b. Continuing with the subject of health, b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ben Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam, /b lest you fall off. b Shmuel said: Sleeping at dawn is /b as effective b as forging [ i istema /i ] /b is b to iron. A /b bowel b movement at dawn /b is as beneficial b as forging /b is b to iron. /b ,Similarly, the Gemara relates: b Bar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars; /b he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: b If you are hungry, eat; /b do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, b if you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour it /b out before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: b When the horn is sounded in Rome, /b signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, b son of a fig seller, sell your father’s figs, /b even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity., b Abaye said to the Sages: When you enter the paths /b of the city of b Meḥoza in order to go out /b and defecate b in a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them. /b ,The Gemara relates: b Rav Safra once entered a bathroom, /b when b Rabbi Abba came along. /b To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba b coughed next to the door. /b Rav Safra b said to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir, /b the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, b and /b yet b you /b already b learned the /b customs of b Seir? Didn’t we learn /b in the mishna concerning the Temple: b There was a fire /b next to the ritual bath, b and a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside; /b if b he found it open, it was known that no one was inside. /b Speaking in the bathroom b is not a desired mode of behavior /b .,The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra b held that it was dangerous /b for Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A column /b of feces b that is held back /b because one cannot relieve himself b causes dropsy [ i hidrokan /i ]. A stream [ i silon /i ] /b of urine b that is held back causes jaundice. /b ,The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed him /b away. b Rabbi Elazar stood and left, /b and b a serpent came and ripped out the intestines /b of the Roman. b Rabbi Elazar recited the /b following b verse about /b the Roman: b “Therefore I will give man [ i adam /i ] for you” /b (Isaiah 43:4); b do not read /b it as b i adam /i , but rather read /b it as b Edom, /b meaning a Roman.,With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: “Behold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, b and he said to kill you; and you spared you” /b (I Samuel 24:10).,The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: b And he said? It should /b say: b And I said. /b Why does the verse say: b And you spared? It should /b say: b And I spared. /b Rather, b Rabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuer /b who seeks to kill me, b and the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you. /b , b And what is this /b modesty? b As it is written: “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet, /b to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave” (I Samuel 24:3). b It was taught /b that the Sages said: b There was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave, /b and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, b to cover /b his feet, b Rabbi Elazar said: /b This b teaches that, /b even there, b he covered himself /b with his garment b like a i sukka /i . /b ,The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: b “Then David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul’s robe privily” /b (I Samuel 24:4). b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt, /b like David who tore Saul’s robe for no reason, will be punished in that b ultimately he will not benefit from /b his garments, b as it is stated: “Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat” /b (I Kings 1:1).,As for David’s statement to Saul: b “If it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering” /b (I Samuel 26:19), b Rabbi Elazar said /b that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter? /b In retribution, b I will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: “When you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul /b unto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them” (Exodus 30:12). b Immediately /b after God said this to David, b “Satan stood up against Israel /b and incited David to number Israel” (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, b it is written: /b “And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, b and He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea” /b (II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David’s calling God an inciter was that He incited David. b And when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them, /b and he was punished, b as it is written: “So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time” /b (II Samuel 24:15).,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of b the appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: /b It means b from when the daily offering is slaughtered until when /b its blood b is sprinkled. Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b It means b precisely until noon. /b ,It is also stated there: “The Lord repented Him of the evil b and said to the angel that destroyed the many [ i rav /i ] people: /b It is enough; now stay your hand” (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word i rav /i , b Rabbi Elazar said /b that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [ i rav /i ] from among them, who is worthy of defraying several /b of Israel’s b debts. /b As a result, b at that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died. /b His death atoned for the entire nation.,On a parallel note, it is said: b “The Lord beheld, and He repented him /b of the evil” (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: b What did the Lord behold? /b , b Rav said: He saw /b and remembered b the patriarch, Jacob, /b about whom the term seeing is used: b “And Jacob said when he saw them [ i ra’am /i ]: /b This is God’s camp” (Genesis 32:3). b And Shmuel said: He saw /b and remembered b Isaac’s ashes, as it is said /b in the portion of the binding of Isaac: b “God will provide [ i yireh /i ] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering” /b (Genesis 22:8)., b Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: He saw the money of atonement /b that Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, b as it is stated: “And you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel, /b and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls” (Exodus 30:16). b Rabbi Yoḥa said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: “On the mount where the Lord is seen [ i yera’e /i ]” /b (Genesis 22:14).,Additional i amora’im /i , b Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, differed /b in their opinions of what God saw. b One said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And /b it b stands to reason like the one who says /b that b he saw the Temple, as it is stated: /b “And Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; b as it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen” /b (Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.,We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, b a person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staff /b and his shoes. He may not make it a i kappandarya /i . The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of b i kappandarya /i ? Rava said: i Kappandarya, /i as its name /b implies; a shortcut. b Rav Ḥana bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said: /b One may interpret this as an acrostic, b as people say: Instead of circumventing the rows /b of houses b [ i ademakifna adarei /i ], I will enter this [ i ei’ol beha /i ] /b one. b Rav Naḥman said /b that b Rabba bar Avuh said: /b This i halakha /i applies in a synagogue as well. However, b one who enters a synagogue not /b intending b to make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcut /b if he later changed his mind.,Similarly, b Rabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a path /b that passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, b one is permitted /b to pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. b Rabbi Ḥelbo said /b that b Rav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: “But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons, /b he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9).,We learned in the mishna that b spitting /b on the Temple Mount is prohibited b through an i a fortiori /i inference. Rav Beivai said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount, /b even b today, it is as if he spit in the pupil of /b God’s b eye, as it is stated: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually” /b (I Kings 9:3)., b Rava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mount /b but b permitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mount /b but b permitted in a synagogue. /b , b Rav Pappa said to Rava, and some say /b that b Ravina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of deriving /b this b from /b the case of wearing b a shoe, derive it from /b the case of b a shortcut. /b Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.,Rava b said to him: /b The b i tanna /i derives /b the prohibition of spitting b from /b the case of b a shoe, and you say /b that it should be derived b from /b the case of b a shortcut? /b The Gemara elaborates: b What is this /b derivation from the case of a shoe? b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, nor /b should one b make it a shortcut. All the more so, spitting /b is prohibited b i a fortiori /i from /b the i halakha /i with regard to wearing b a shoe. Just as /b with regard to b a shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: “Put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground” /b (Exodus 3:5), b all the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous, /b should be prohibited., b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This /b i a fortiori /i inference b is unnecessary. /b It could be otherwise derived. b It says: “For none may enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth” /b (Esther 4:2). b This matter /b can be inferred b i a fortiori /i : Just as sackcloth, which is /b generally b not /b considered b repulsive before /b one who is b flesh and blood, is /b forbidden within the king’s gate, b all the more so spitting, which is repulsive, /b should be forbidden b before the King of Kings. /b ,The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, b said to Rava: I /b intended to b say the following: Let us say, be stringent here, /b with regard to the Temple Mount, b and be stringent here, /b with regard to the synagogue,
81. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 25.8.13 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 2
25.8.13. Meanwhile rumour, the swiftest messenger of sad events, outstripping these messengers, flew through provinces and nations, and most of all struck the people of Nisibis with bitter grief; when they learned that their city had been surrendered to Sapor, whose anger and hostility they feared, recalling as they did what constant losses he had suffered in his frequent attempts to take their city.
82. Augustine, De Utilitate Credendi Ad Honoratum, 4.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 174
83. Prudentius, Apotheosis, 316 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 257
84. Augustine, Enarrationes In Psalmos, 61.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 142
85. Augustine, The City of God, 5.9, 6.4-6.5, 10.16, 16.4, 18.24-18.25, 18.27-18.38, 18.40-18.41, 18.51, 21.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 82, 176, 178, 179, 227
5.9. The manner in which Cicero addresses himself to the task of refuting the Stoics, shows that he did not think he could effect anything against them in argument unless he had first demolished divination. And this he attempts to accomplish by denying that there is any knowledge of future things, and maintains with all his might that there is no such knowledge either in God or man, and that there is no prediction of events. Thus he both denies the foreknowledge of God, and attempts by vain arguments, and by opposing to himself certain oracles very easy to be refuted, to overthrow all prophecy, even such as is clearer than the light (though even these oracles are not refuted by him). But, in refuting these conjectures of the mathematicians, his argument is triumphant, because truly these are such as destroy and refute themselves. Nevertheless, they are far more tolerable who assert the fatal influence of the stars than they who deny the foreknowledge of future events. For, to confess that God exists, and at the same time to deny that He has foreknowledge of future things, is the most manifest folly. This Cicero himself saw, and therefore attempted to assert the doctrine embodied in the words of Scripture, The fool has said in his heart, There is no God. That, however, he did not do in his own person, for he saw how odious and offensive such an opinion would be; and therefore, in his book on the nature of the gods, he makes Cotta dispute concerning this against the Stoics, and preferred to give his own opinion in favor of Lucilius Balbus, to whom he assigned the defense of the Stoical position, rather than in favor of Cotta, who maintained that no divinity exists. However, in his book on divination, he in his own person most openly opposes the doctrine of the prescience of future things. But all this he seems to do in order that he may not grant the doctrine of fate, and by so doing destroy free will. For he thinks that, the knowledge of future things being once conceded, fate follows as so necessary a consequence that it cannot be denied. But, let these perplexing debatings and disputations of the philosophers go on as they may, we, in order that we may confess the most high and true God Himself, do confess His will, supreme power, and prescience. Neither let us be afraid lest, after all, we do not do by will that which we do by will, because He, whose foreknowledge is infallible, foreknew that we would do it. It was this which Cicero was afraid of, and therefore opposed foreknowledge. The Stoics also maintained that all things do not come to pass by necessity, although they contended that all things happen according to destiny. What is it, then, that Cicero feared in the prescience of future things? Doubtless it was this - that if all future things have been foreknown, they will happen in the order in which they have been foreknown; and if they come to pass in this order, there is a certain order of things foreknown by God; and if a certain order of things, then a certain order of causes, for nothing can happen which is not preceded by some efficient cause. But if there is a certain order of causes according to which everything happens which does happen, then by fate, says he, all things happen which do happen. But if this be so, then is there nothing in our own power, and there is no such thing as freedom of will; and if we grant that, says he, the whole economy of human life is subverted. In vain are laws enacted. In vain are reproaches, praises, chidings, exhortations had recourse to; and there is no justice whatever in the appointment of rewards for the good, and punishments for the wicked. And that consequences so disgraceful, and absurd, and pernicious to humanity may not follow, Cicero chooses to reject the foreknowledge of future things, and shuts up the religious mind to this alternative, to make choice between two things, either that something is in our own power, or that there is foreknowledge - both of which cannot be true; but if the one is affirmed, the other is thereby denied. He therefore, like a truly great and wise man, and one who consulted very much and very skillfully for the good of humanity, of those two chose the freedom of the will, to confirm which he denied the foreknowledge of future things; and thus, wishing to make men free he makes them sacrilegious. But the religious mind chooses both, confesses both, and maintains both by the faith of piety. But how so? Says Cicero; for the knowledge of future things being granted, there follows a chain of consequences which ends in this, that there can be nothing depending on our own free wills. And further, if there is anything depending on our wills, we must go backwards by the same steps of reasoning till we arrive at the conclusion that there is no foreknowledge of future things. For we go backwards through all the steps in the following order:- If there is free will, all things do not happen according to fate; if all things do not happen according to fate, there is not a certain order of causes; and if there is not a certain order of causes, neither is there a certain order of things foreknown by God - for things cannot come to pass except they are preceded by efficient causes, - but, if there is no fixed and certain order of causes foreknown by God, all things cannot be said to happen according as He foreknew that they would happen. And further, if it is not true that all things happen just as they have been foreknown by Him, there is not, says he, in God any foreknowledge of future events. Now, against the sacrilegious and impious darings of reason, we assert both that God knows all things before they come to pass, and that we do by our free will whatsoever we know and feel to be done by us only because we will it. But that all things come to pass by fate, we do not say; nay we affirm that nothing comes to pass by fate; for we demonstrate that the name of fate, as it is wont to be used by those who speak of fate, meaning thereby the position of the stars at the time of each one's conception or birth, is an unmeaning word, for astrology itself is a delusion. But an order of causes in which the highest efficiency is attributed to the will of God, we neither deny nor do we designate it by the name of fate, unless, perhaps, we may understand fate to mean that which is spoken, deriving it from fari, to speak; for we cannot deny that it is written in the sacred Scriptures, God has spoken once; these two things have I heard, that power belongs unto God. Also unto You, O God, belongs mercy: for You will render unto every man according to his works. Now the expression, Once has He spoken, is to be understood as meaning immovably, that is, unchangeably has He spoken, inasmuch as He knows unchangeably all things which shall be, and all things which He will do. We might, then, use the word fate in the sense it bears when derived from fari, to speak, had it not already come to be understood in another sense, into which I am unwilling that the hearts of men should unconsciously slide. But it does not follow that, though there is for God a certain order of all causes, there must therefore be nothing depending on the free exercise of our own wills, for our wills themselves are included in that order of causes which is certain to God, and is embraced by His foreknowledge, for human wills are also causes of human actions; and He who foreknew all the causes of things would certainly among those causes not have been ignorant of our wills. For even that very concession which Cicero himself makes is enough to refute him in this argument. For what does it help him to say that nothing takes place without a cause, but that every cause is not fatal, there being a fortuitous cause, a natural cause, and a voluntary cause? It is sufficient that he confesses that whatever happens must be preceded by a cause. For we say that those causes which are called fortuitous are not a mere name for the absence of causes, but are only latent, and we attribute them either to the will of the true God, or to that of spirits of some kind or other. And as to natural causes, we by no means separate them from the will of Him who is the author and framer of all nature. But now as to voluntary causes. They are referable either to God, or to angels, or to men, or to animals of whatever description, if indeed those instinctive movements of animals devoid of reason, by which, in accordance with their own nature, they seek or shun various things, are to be called wills. And when I speak of the wills of angels, I mean either the wills of good angels, whom we call the angels of God, or of the wicked angels, whom we call the angels of the devil, or demons. Also by the wills of men I mean the wills either of the good or of the wicked. And from this we conclude that there are no efficient causes of all things which come to pass unless voluntary causes, that is, such as belong to that nature which is the spirit of life. For the air or wind is called spirit, but, inasmuch as it is a body, it is not the spirit of life. The spirit of life, therefore, which quickens all things, and is the creator of every body, and of every created spirit, is God Himself, the uncreated spirit. In His supreme will resides the power which acts on the wills of all created spirits, helping the good, judging the evil, controlling all, granting power to some, not granting it to others. For, as He is the creator of all natures, so also is He the bestower of all powers, not of all wills; for wicked wills are not from Him, being contrary to nature, which is from Him. As to bodies, they are more subject to wills: some to our wills, by which I mean the wills of all living mortal creatures, but more to the wills of men than of beasts. But all of them are most of all subject to the will of God, to whom all wills also are subject, since they have no power except what He has bestowed upon them. The cause of things, therefore, which makes but is made, is God; but all other causes both make and are made. Such are all created spirits, and especially the rational. Material causes, therefore, which may rather be said to be made than to make, are not to be reckoned among efficient causes, because they can only do what the wills of spirits do by them. How, then, does an order of causes which is certain to the foreknowledge of God necessitate that there should be nothing which is dependent on our wills, when our wills themselves have a very important place in the order of causes? Cicero, then, contends with those who call this order of causes fatal, or rather designate this order itself by the name of fate; to which we have an abhorrence, especially on account of the word, which men have become accustomed to understand as meaning what is not true. But, whereas he denies that the order of all causes is most certain, and perfectly clear to the prescience of God, we detest his opinion more than the Stoics do. For he either denies that God exists, - which, indeed, in an assumed personage, he has labored to do, in his book De Natura Deorum, - or if he confesses that He exists, but denies that He is prescient of future things, what is that but just the fool saying in his heart there is no God? For one who is not prescient of all future things is not God. Wherefore our wills also have just so much power as God willed and foreknew that they should have; and therefore whatever power they have, they have it within most certain limits; and whatever they are to do, they are most assuredly to do, for He whose foreknowledge is infallible foreknew that they would have the power to do it, and would do it. Wherefore, if I should choose to apply the name of fate to anything at all, I should rather say that fate belongs to the weaker of two parties, will to the stronger, who has the other in his power, than that the freedom of our will is excluded by that order of causes, which, by an unusual application of the word peculiar to themselves, the Stoics call Fate. 6.4. In this whole series of most beautiful and most subtle distributions and distinctions, it will most easily appear evident from the things we have said already, and from what is to be said hereafter, to any man who is not, in the obstinacy of his heart, an enemy to himself, that it is vain to seek and to hope for, and even most impudent to wish for eternal life. For these institutions are either the work of men or of demons - not of those whom they call good demons, but, to speak more plainly, of unclean, and, without controversy, malign spirits, who with wonderful slyness and secretness suggest to the thoughts of the impious, and sometimes openly present to their understandings, noxious opinions, by which the human mind grows more and more foolish, and becomes unable to adapt itself to and abide in the immutable and eternal truth, and seek to confirm these opinions by every kind of fallacious attestation in their power. This very same Varro testifies that he wrote first concerning human things, but afterwards concerning divine things, because the states existed first, and afterward these things were instituted by them. But the true religion was not instituted by any earthly state, but plainly it established the celestial city. It, however, is inspired and taught by the true God, the giver of eternal life to His true worshippers. The following is the reason Varro gives when he confesses that he had written first concerning human things, and afterwards of divine things, because these divine things were instituted by men: - As the painter is before the painted tablet, the mason before the edifice, so states are before those things which are instituted by states. But he says that he would have written first concerning the gods, afterwards concerning men, if he had been writing concerning the whole nature of the gods - as if he were really writing concerning some portion of, and not all, the nature of the gods; or as if, indeed, some portion of, though not all, the nature of the gods ought not to be put before that of men. How, then, comes it that in those three last books, when he is diligently explaining the certain, uncertain and select gods, he seems to pass over no portion of the nature of the gods? Why, then, does he say, If we had been writing on the whole nature of the gods, we would first have finished the divine things before we touched the human? For he either writes concerning the whole nature of the gods, or concerning some portion of it, or concerning no part of it at all. If concerning it all, it is certainly to be put before human things; if concerning some part of it, why should it not, from the very nature of the case, precede human things? Is not even some part of the gods to be preferred to the whole of humanity? But if it is too much to prefer a part of the divine to all human things, that part is certainly worthy to be preferred to the Romans at least. For he writes the books concerning human things, not with reference to the whole world, but only to Rome; which books he says he had properly placed, in the order of writing, before the books on divine things, like a painter before the painted tablet, or a mason before the building, most openly confessing that, as a picture or a structure, even these divine things were instituted by men. There remains only the third supposition, that he is to be understood to have written concerning no divine nature, but that he did not wish to say this openly, but left it to the intelligent to infer; for when one says not all, usage understands that to mean some, but it may be understood as meaning none, because that which is none is neither all nor some. In fact, as he himself says, if he had been writing concerning all the nature of the gods, its due place would have been before human things in the order of writing. But, as the truth declares, even though Varro is silent, the divine nature should have taken precedence of Roman things, though it were not all, but only some. But it is properly put after, therefore it is none. His arrangement, therefore, was due, not to a desire to give human things priority to divine things, but to his unwillingness to prefer false things to true. For in what he wrote on human things, he followed the history of affairs; but in what he wrote concerning those things which they call divine, what else did he follow but mere conjectures about vain things? This, doubtless, is what, in a subtle manner, he wished to signify; not only writing concerning divine things after the human, but even giving a reason why he did so; for if he had suppressed this, some, perchance, would have defended his doing so in one way, and some in another. But in that very reason he has rendered, he has left nothing for men to conjecture at will, and has sufficiently proved that he preferred men to the institutions of men, not the nature of men to the nature of the gods. Thus he confessed that, in writing the books concerning divine things, he did not write concerning the truth which belongs to nature, but the falseness which belongs to error; which he has elsewhere expressed more openly (as I have mentioned in the fourth book ), saying that, had he been founding a new city himself, he would have written according to the order of nature; but as he had only found an old one, he could not but follow its custom. 6.5. Now what are we to say of this proposition of his, namely, that there are three kinds of theology, that is, of the account which is given of the gods; and of these, the one is called mythical, the other physical, and the third civil? Did the Latin usage permit, we should call the kind which he has placed first in order fabular, but let us call it fabulous, for mythical is derived from the Greek μῦθος, a fable; but that the second should be called natural, the usage of speech now admits; the third he himself has designated in Latin, call ing it civil. Then he says, they call that kind mythical which the poets chiefly use; physical, that which the philosophers use; civil, that which the people use. As to the first I have mentioned, says he, in it are many fictions, which are contrary to the dignity and nature of the immortals. For we find in it that one god has been born from the head, another from the thigh, another from drops of blood; also, in this we find that gods have stolen, committed adultery, served men; in a word, in this all manner of things are attributed to the gods, such as may befall, not merely any man, but even the most contemptible man. He certainly, where he could, where he dared, where he thought he could do it with impunity, has manifested, without any of the haziness of ambiguity, how great injury was done to the nature of the gods by lying fables; for he was speaking, not concerning natural theology, not concerning civil, but concerning fabulous theology, which he thought he could freely find fault with. Let us see, now, what he says concerning the second kind. The second kind which I have explained, he says, is that concerning which philosophers have left many books, in which they treat such questions as these: what gods there are, where they are, of what kind and character they are, since what time they have existed, or if they have existed from eternity; whether they are of fire, as Heraclitus believes; or of number, as Pythagoras; or of atoms, as Epicurus says; and other such things, which men's ears can more easily hear inside the walls of a school than outside in the Forum. He finds fault with nothing in this kind of theology which they call physical, and which belongs to philosophers, except that he has related their controversies among themselves, through which there has arisen a multitude of dissentient sects. Nevertheless he has removed this kind from the Forum, that is, from the populace, but he has shut it up in schools. But that first kind, most false and most base, he has not removed from the citizens. Oh, the religious ears of the people, and among them even those of the Romans, that are not able to bear what the philosophers dispute concerning the gods! But when the poets sing and stage-players act such things as are derogatory to the dignity and the nature of the immortals, such as may befall not a man merely, but the most contemptible man, they not only bear, but willingly listen to. Nor is this all, but they even consider that these things please the gods, and that they are propitiated by them. But some one may say, Let us distinguish these two kinds of theology, the mythical and the physical - that is, the fabulous and the natural - from this civil kind about which we are now speaking. Anticipating this, he himself has distinguished them. Let us see now how he explains the civil theology itself. I see, indeed, why it should be distinguished as fabulous, even because it is false, because it is base, because it is unworthy. But to wish to distinguish the natural from the civil, what else is that but to confess that the civil itself is false? For if that be natural, what fault has it that it should be excluded? And if this which is called civil be not natural, what merit has it that it should be admitted? This, in truth, is the cause why he wrote first concerning human things, and afterwards concerning divine things; since in divine things he did not follow nature, but the institution of men. Let us look at this civil theology of his. The third kind, says he, is that which citizens in cities, and especially the priests, ought to know and to administer. From it is to be known what god each one may suitably worship, what sacred rites and sacrifices each one may suitably perform. Let us still attend to what follows. The first theology, he says, is especially adapted to the theatre, the second to the world, the third to the city. Who does not see to which he gives the palm? Certainly to the second, which he said above is that of the philosophers. For he testifies that this pertains to the world, than which they think there is nothing better. But those two theologies, the first and the third - to wit, those of the theatre and of the city - has he distinguished them or united them? For although we see that the city is in the world, we do not see that it follows that any things belonging to the city pertain to the world. For it is possible that such things may be worshipped and believed in the city, according to false opinions, as have no existence either in the world or out of it. But where is the theatre but in the city? Who instituted the theatre but the state? For what purpose did it constitute it but for scenic plays? And to what class of things do scenic plays belong but to those divine things concerning which these books of Varro's are written with so much ability? 10.16. What angels, then, are we to believe in this matter of blessed and eternal life?- those who wish to be worshipped with religious rites and observances, and require that men sacrifice to them; or those who say that all this worship is due to one God, the Creator, and teach us to render it with true piety to Him, by the vision of whom they are themselves already blessed, and in whom they promise that we shall be so? For that vision of God is the beauty of a vision so great, and is so infinitely desirable, that Plotinus does not hesitate to say that he who enjoys all other blessings in abundance, and has not this, is supremely miserable. Since, therefore, miracles are wrought by some angels to induce us to worship this God, by others, to induce us to worship themselves; and since the former forbid us to worship these, while the latter dare not forbid us to worship God, which are we to listen to? Let the Platonists reply, or any philosophers, or the theurgists, or rather, periurgists, - for this name is good enough for those who practise such arts. In short, let all men answer - if, at least, there survives in them any spark of that natural perception which, as rational beings, they possess when created, - let them, I say, tell us whether we should sacrifice to the gods or angels who order us to sacrifice to them, or to that One to whom we are ordered to sacrifice by those who forbid us to worship either themselves or these others. If neither the one party nor the other had wrought miracles, but had merely uttered commands, the one to sacrifice to themselves, the other forbidding that, and ordering us to sacrifice to God, a godly mind would have been at no loss to discern which command proceeded from proud arrogance, and which from true religion. I will say more. If miracles had been wrought only by those who demand sacrifice for themselves, while those who forbade this, and enjoined sacrificing to the one God only, thought fit entirely to forego the use of visible miracles, the authority of the latter was to be preferred by all who would use, not their eyes only, but their reason. But since God, for the sake of commending to us the oracles of His truth, has, by means of these immortal messengers, who proclaim His majesty and not their own pride, wrought miracles of surpassing grandeur, certainty, and distinctness, in order that the weak among the godly might not be drawn away to false religion by those who require us to sacrifice to them and endeavor to convince us by stupendous appeals to our senses, who is so utterly unreasonable as not to choose and follow the truth, when he finds that it is heralded by even more striking evidences than falsehood? As for those miracles which history ascribes to the gods of the heathen - I do not refer to those prodigies which at intervals happen from some unknown physical causes, and which are arranged and appointed by Divine Providence, such as monstrous births, and unusual meteorological phenomena, whether startling only, or also injurious, and which are said to be brought about and removed by communication with demons, and by their most deceitful craft - but I refer to these prodigies which manifestly enough are wrought by their power and force, as, that the household gods which Æneas carried from Troy in his flight moved from place to place; that Tarquin cut a whetstone with a razor; that the Epidaurian serpent attached himself as a companion to Æsculapius on his voyage to Rome; that the ship in which the image of the Phrygian mother stood, and which could not be moved by a host of men and oxen, was moved by one weak woman, who attached her girdle to the vessel and drew it, as proof of her chastity; that a vestal, whose virginity was questioned, removed the suspicion by carrying from the Tiber a sieve full of water without any of it dropping: these, then, and the like, are by no means to be compared for greatness and virtue to those which, we read, were wrought among God's people. How much less can we compare those marvels, which even the laws of heathen nations prohibit and punish - I mean the magical and theurgic marvels, of which the great part are merely illusions practised upon the senses, as the drawing down of the moon, that, as Lucan says, it may shed a stronger influence on the plants? And if some of these do seem to equal those which are wrought by the godly, the end for which they are wrought distinguishes the two, and shows that ours are incomparably the more excellent. For those miracles commend the worship of a plurality of gods, who deserve worship the less the more they demand it; but these of ours commend the worship of the one God, who, both by the testimony of His own Scriptures, and by the eventual abolition of sacrifices, proves that He needs no such offerings. If, therefore, any angels demand sacrifice for themselves, we must prefer those who demand it, not for themselves, but for God, the Creator of all, whom they serve. For thus they prove how sincerely they love us, since they wish by sacrifice to subject us, not to themselves, but to Him by the contemplation of whom they themselves are blessed, and to bring us to Him from whom they themselves have never strayed. If, on the other hand, any angels wish us to sacrifice, not to one, but to many, not, indeed, to themselves, but to the gods whose angels they are, we must in this case also prefer those who are the angels of the one God of gods, and who so bid us to worship Him as to preclude our worshipping any other. But, further, if it be the case, as their pride and deceitfulness rather indicate, that they are neither good angels nor the angels of good gods, but wicked demons, who wish sacrifice to be paid, not to the one only and supreme God, but to themselves, what better protection against them can we choose than that of the one God whom the good angels serve, the angels who bid us sacrifice, not to themselves, but to Him whose sacrifice we ourselves ought to be? 16.4. But though these nations are said to have been dispersed according to their languages, yet the narrator recurs to that time when all had but one language, and explains how it came to pass that a diversity of languages was introduced. The whole earth, he says, was of one lip, and all had one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar, and dwelt there. And they said one to another, Come, and let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly. And they had bricks for stone, and slime for mortar. And they said, Come, and let us build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top shall reach the sky; and let us make us a name, before we be scattered abroad on the face of all the earth. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men built. And the Lord God said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. Come, and let us go down, and confound there their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. And God scattered them thence on the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city and the tower. Therefore the name of it is called Confusion; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and the Lord God scattered them thence on the face of all the earth. Genesis 11:1-9 This city, which was called Confusion, is the same as Babylon, whose wonderful construction Gentile history also notices. For Babylon means Confusion. Whence we conclude that the giant Nimrod was its founder, as had been hinted a little before, where Scripture, in speaking of him, says that the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, that is, Babylon had a supremacy over the other cities as the metropolis and royal residence; although it did not rise to the grand dimensions designed by its proud and impious founder. The plan was to make it so high that it should reach the sky, whether this was meant of one tower which they intended to build higher than the others, or of all the towers, which might be signified by the singular number, as we speak of the soldier, meaning the army, and of the frog or the locust, when we refer to the whole multitude of frogs and locusts in the plagues with which Moses smote the Egyptians. Exodus x But what did these vain and presumptuous men intend? How did they expect to raise this lofty mass against God, when they had built it above all the mountains and the clouds of the earth's atmosphere? What injury could any spiritual or material elevation do to God? The safe and true way to heaven is made by humility, which lifts up the heart to the Lord, not against Him; as this giant is said to have been a hunter against the Lord. This has been misunderstood by some through the ambiguity of the Greek word, and they have translated it, not against the Lord, but before the Lord; for ἐναντίον means both before and against. In the Psalm this word is rendered, Let us weep before the Lord our Maker. The same word occurs in the book of Job, where it is written, You have broken into fury against the Lord. Job 15:13 And so this giant is to be recognized as a hunter against the Lord. And what is meant by the term hunter but deceiver, oppressor, and destroyer of the animals of the earth? He and his people therefore, erected this tower against the Lord, and so gave expression to their impious pride; and justly was their wicked intention punished by God, even though it was unsuccessful. But what was the nature of the punishment? As the tongue is the instrument of domination, in it pride was punished; so that man, who would not understand God when He issued His commands, should be misunderstood when he himself gave orders. Thus was that conspiracy disbanded, for each man retired from those he could not understand, and associated with those whose speech was intelligible; and the nations were divided according to their languages, and scattered over the earth as seemed good to God, who accomplished this in ways hidden from and incomprehensible to us. 18.24. While Romulus reigned, Thales the Milesian is said to have lived, being one of the seven sages, who succeeded the theological poets, of whom Orpheus was the most renowned, and were called Σοφοί, that is, sages. During that time the ten tribes, which on the division of the people were called Israel, were conquered by the Chaldeans and led captive into their lands, while the two tribes which were called Judah, and had the seat of their kingdom in Jerusalem, remained in the land of Judea. As Romulus, when dead, could nowhere be found, the Romans, as is everywhere notorious, placed him among the gods - a thing which by that time had already ceased to be done, and which was not done afterwards till the time of the C sars, and then not through error, but in flattery; so that Cicero ascribes great praises to Romulus, because he merited such honors not in rude and unlearned times, when men were easily deceived, but in times already polished and learned, although the subtle and acute loquacity of the philosophers had not yet culminated. But although the later times did not deify dead men, still they did not cease to hold and worship as gods those deified of old; nay, by images, which the ancients never had, they even increased the allurements of vain and impious superstition, the unclean demons effecting this in their heart, and also deceiving them by lying oracles, so that even the fabulous crimes of the gods, which were not once imagined by a more polite age, were yet basely acted in the plays in honor of these same false deities. Numa reigned after Romulus; and although he had thought that Rome would be better defended the more gods there were, yet on his death he himself was not counted worthy of a place among them, as if it were supposed that he had so crowded heaven that a place could not be found for him there. They report that the Samian sibyl lived while he reigned at Rome, and when Manasseh began to reign over the Hebrews, - an impious king, by whom the prophet Isaiah is said to have been slain. 18.25. When Zedekiah reigned over the Hebrews, and Tarquinius Priscus, the successor of Ancus Martius, over the Romans, the Jewish people was led captive into Babylon, Jerusalem and the temple built by Solomon being overthrown. For the prophets, in chiding them for their iniquity and impiety, predicted that these things should come to pass, especially Jeremiah, who even stated the number of years. Pittacus of Mitylene, another of the sages, is reported to have lived at that time. And Eusebius writes that, while the people of God were held captive in Babylon, the five other sages lived, who must be added to Thales, whom we mentioned above, and Pittacus, in order to make up the seven. These are Solon of Athens, Chilo of Laced mon, Periander of Corinth, Cleobulus of Lindus, and Bias of Priene. These flourished after the theological poets, and were called sages, because they excelled other men in a certain laudable line of life, and summed up some moral precepts in epigrammatic sayings. But they left posterity no literary monuments, except that Solon is alleged to have given certain laws to the Athenians, and Thales was a natural philosopher, and left books of his doctrine in short proverbs. In that time of the Jewish captivity, Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Xenophanes, the natural philosophers, flourished. Pythagoras also lived then, and at this time the name philosopher was first used. 18.27. In order that we may be able to consider these times, let us go back a little to earlier times. At the beginning of the book of the prophet Hosea, who is placed first of twelve, it is written, The word of the Lord which came to Hosea in the days of Uzziah, Jothan, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. Hosea 1:1 Amos also writes that he prophesied in the days of Uzziah, and adds the name of Jeroboam king of Israel, who lived at the same time. Amos 1:1 Isaiah the son of Amos - either the above-named prophet, or, as is rather affirmed, another who was not a prophet, but was called by the same name - also puts at the head of his book these four kings named by Hosea, saying by way of preface that he prophesied in their days. Micah also names the same times as those of his prophecy, after the days of Uzziah; Micah 1:1 for he names the same three kings as Hosea named - Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. We find from their own writings that these men prophesied contemporaneously. To these are added Jonah in the reign of Uzziah, and Joel in that of Jotham, who succeeded Uzziah. But we can find the date of these two prophets in the chronicles, not in their own writings, for they say nothing about it themselves. Now these days extend from Procas king of the Latins, or his predecessor Aventinus, down to Romulus king of the Romans, or even to the beginning of the reign of his successor Numa Pompilius. Hezekiah king of Judah certainly reigned till then. So that thus these fountains of prophecy, as I may call them, burst forth at once during those times when the Assyrian kingdom failed and the Roman began; so that, just as in the first period of the Assyrian kingdom Abraham arose, to whom the most distinct promises were made that all nations should be blessed in his seed, so at the beginning of the western Babylon, in the time of whose government Christ was to come in whom these promises were to be fulfilled, the oracles of the prophets were given not only in spoken but in written words, for a testimony that so great a thing should come to pass. For although the people of Israel hardly ever lacked prophets from the time when they began to have kings, these were only for their own use, not for that of the nations. But when the more manifestly prophetic Scripture began to be formed, which was to benefit the nations too, it was fitting that it should begin when this city was founded which was to rule the nations. 18.28. The prophet Hosea speaks so very profoundly that it is laborious work to penetrate his meaning. But, according to promise, we must insert something from his book. He says, And it shall come to pass that in the place where it was said to them, You are not my people, there they shall be called the sons of the living God. Hosea 1:10 Even the apostles understood this as a prophetic testimony of the calling of the nations who did not formerly belong to God; and because this same people of the Gentiles is itself spiritually among the children of Abraham, and for that reason is rightly called Israel, therefore he goes on to say, And the children of Judah and the children of Israel shall be gathered together in one, and shall appoint themselves one headship, and shall ascend from the earth. Hosea 1:11 We should but weaken the savor of this prophetic oracle if we set ourselves to expound it. Let the reader but call to mind that cornerstone and those two walls of partition, the one of the Jews, the other of the Gentiles, Galatians 2:14-20 and he will recognize them, the one under the term sons of Judah, the other as sons of Israel, supporting themselves by one and the same headship, and ascending from the earth. But that those carnal Israelites who are now unwilling to believe in Christ shall afterward believe, that is, their children shall (for they themselves, of course, shall go to their own place by dying), this same prophet testifies, saying, For the children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, without a prince, without a sacrifice, without an altar, without a priesthood, without manifestations. Hosea 3:4 Who does not see that the Jews are now thus? But let us hear what he adds: And afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the Lord their God, and David their king, and shall be amazed at the Lord and at His goodness in the latter days. Hosea 3:5 Nothing is clearer than this prophecy, in which by David, as distinguished by the title of king, Christ is to be understood, who is made, as the apostle says, of the seed of David according to the flesh. Romans 1:3 This prophet has also foretold the resurrection of Christ on the third day, as it behooved to be foretold, with prophetic loftiness, when he says, He will heal us after two days, and in the third day we shall rise again. Hosea 6:2 In agreement with this the apostle says to us, If you be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above. Colossians 3:1 Amos also prophesies thus concerning such things: Prepare you, that you may invoke your God, O Israel; for lo, I am binding the thunder, and creating the spirit, and announcing to men their Christ. Amos 4:12-13 And in another place he says, In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and build up the breaches thereof: and I will raise up his ruins, and will build them up again as in the days of old: that the residue of men may inquire for me, and all the nations upon whom my name is invoked, says the Lord that does this. 18.29. The prophecy of Isaiah is not in the book of the twelve prophets, who are called the minor from the brevity of their writings, as compared with those who are called the greater prophets because they published larger volumes. Isaiah belongs to the latter, yet I connect him with the two above named, because he prophesied at the same time. Isaiah, then, together with his rebukes of wickedness, precepts of righteousness, and predictions of evil, also prophesied much more than the rest about Christ and the Church, that is, about the King and that city which he founded; so that some say he should be called an evangelist rather than a prophet. But, in order to finish this work, I quote only one out of many in this place. Speaking in the person of the Father, he says, Behold, my servant shall understand, and shall be exalted and glorified very much. As many shall be astonished at You. This is about Christ. But let us now hear what follows about the Church. He says, Rejoice, O barren, you that bear not; break forth and cry, you that did not travail with child: for many more are the children of the desolate than of her that has an husband. Isaiah 54:1-5 But these must suffice; and some things in them ought to be expounded; yet I think those parts sufficient which are so plain that even enemies must be compelled against their will to understand them. 18.30. The prophet Micah, representing Christ under the figure of a great mountain, speaks thus: It shall come to pass in the last days, that the manifested mountain of the Lord shall be prepared on the tops of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall hasten unto it. Many nations shall go, and shall say, Come, let us go up into the mountain of the Lord, and into the house of the God of Jacob; and He will show us His way, and we will go in His paths: for out of Zion shall proceed the law, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off. Micah 4:1-3 This prophet predicts the very place in which Christ was born, saying, And you, Bethlehem, of the house of Ephratah, art the least that can be reckoned among the thousands of Judah; out of you shall come forth unto me a leader, to be the prince in Israel; and His going forth is from the beginning, even from the days of eternity. Therefore will He give them [up] even until the time when she that travails shall bring forth; and the remt of His brethren shall be converted to the sons of Israel. And He shall stand, and see, and feed His flock in the strength of the Lord, and in the dignity of the name of the Lord His God: for now shall He be magnified even to the utmost of the earth. Micah 5:2-4 The prophet Jonah, not so much by speech as by his own painful experience, prophesied Christ's death and resurrection much more clearly than if he had proclaimed them with his voice. For why was he taken into the whale's belly and restored on the third day, but that he might be a sign that Christ should return from the depths of hell on the third day? I should be obliged to use many words in explaining all that Joel prophesies in order to make clear those that pertain to Christ and the Church. But there is one passage I must not pass by, which the apostles also quoted when the Holy Spirit came down from above on the assembled believers according to Christ's promise. He says, And it shall come to pass after these things, that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your old men shall dream, and your young men shall see visions: and even on my servants and mine handmaids in those days will I pour out my Spirit. Joel 2:28-29 18.31. The date of three of the minor prophets, Obadiah, Nahum, and Habakkuk, is neither mentioned by themselves nor given in the chronicles of Eusebius and Jerome. For although they put Obadiah with Micah, yet when Micah prophesied does not appear from that part of their writings in which the dates are noted. And this, I think, has happened through their error in negligently copying the works of others. But we could not find the two others now mentioned in the copies of the chronicles which we have; yet because they are contained in the canon, we ought not to pass them by. Obadiah, so far as his writings are concerned, the briefest of all the prophets, speaks against Idumea, that is, the nation of Esau, that reprobate elder of the twin sons of Isaac and grandsons of Abraham. Now if, by that form of speech in which a part is put for the whole, we take Idumea as put for the nations, we may understand of Christ what he says among other things, But upon Mount Sion shall be safety, and there shall be a Holy One. Obadiah 17 And a little after, at the end of the same prophecy, he says, And those who are saved again shall come up out of Mount Sion, that they may defend Mount Esau, and it shall be a kingdom to the Lord. Obadiah 21 It is quite evident this was fulfilled when those saved again out of Mount Sion - that is, the believers in Christ from Judea, of whom the apostles are chiefly to be acknowledged - went up to defend Mount Esau. How could they defend it except by making safe, through the preaching of the gospel, those who believed that they might be delivered from the power of darkness and translated into the kingdom of God? Colossians 1:13 This he expressed as an inference, adding, And it shall be to the Lord a kingdom. For Mount Sion signifies Judea, where it is predicted there shall be safety, and a Holy One, that is, Christ Jesus. But Mount Esau is Idumea, which signifies the Church of the Gentiles, which, as I have expounded, those saved again out of Sion have defended that it should be a kingdom to the Lord. This was obscure before it took place; but what believer does not find it out now that it is done? As for the prophet Nahum, through him God says, I will exterminate the graven and the molten things: I will make your burial. For lo, the feet of Him that brings good tidings and announces peace are swift upon the mountains! O Judah, celebrate your festival days, and perform your vows; for now they shall not go on any more so as to become antiquated. It is completed, it is consumed, it is taken away. He ascends who breathes in your face, delivering you out of tribulation. Let him that remembers the gospel call to mind who has ascended from hell and breathed the Holy Spirit in the face of Judah, that is, of the Jewish disciples; for they belong to the New Testament, whose festival days are so spiritually renewed that they cannot become antiquated. Moreover, we already see the graven and molten things, that is, the idols of the false gods, exterminated through the gospel, and given up to oblivion as of the grave, and we know that this prophecy is fulfilled in this very thing. of what else than the advent of Christ, who was to come, is Habakkuk understood to say, And the Lord answered me, and said, Write the vision openly on a tablet of boxwood, that he that reads these things may understand. For the vision is yet for a time appointed, and it will arise in the end, and will not become void: if it tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, and will not be delayed? Habakkuk 2:2-3 18.32. In his prayer, with a song, to whom but the Lord Christ does he say, O Lord, I have heard Your hearing, and was afraid: O Lord, I have considered Your works, and was greatly afraid? Habakkuk 3:2 What is this but the inexpressible admiration of the foreknown, new, and sudden salvation of men? In the midst of two living creatures you shall be recognized. What is this but either between the two testaments, or between the two thieves, or between Moses and Elias talking with Him on the mount? While the years draw near, You will be recognized; at the coming of the time You will be shown, does not even need exposition. While my soul shall be troubled at Him, in wrath You will be mindful of mercy. What is this but that He puts Himself for the Jews, of whose nation He was, who were troubled with great anger and crucified Christ, when He, mindful of mercy, said, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do? Luke 23:34 God shall come from Teman, and the Holy One from the shady and close mountain. Habakkuk 3:3 What is said here, He shall come from Teman, some interpret from the south, or from the southwest, by which is signified the noonday, that is, the fervor of charity and the splendor of truth. The shady and close mountain might be understood in many ways, yet I prefer to take it as meaning the depth of the divine Scriptures, in which Christ is prophesied: for in the Scriptures there are many things shady and close which exercise the mind of the reader; and Christ comes thence when he who has understanding finds Him there. His power covers up the heavens, and the earth is full of His praise. What is this but what is also said in the psalm, Be exalted, O God, above the heavens; and Your glory above all the earth? His splendor shall be as the light. What is it but that the fame of Him shall illuminate believers? Horns are in His hands. What is this but the trophy of the cross? And He has placed the firm charity of His strength Habakkuk 3:4 needs no exposition. Before His face shall go the word, and it shall go forth into the field after His feet. What is this but that He should both be announced before His coming hither and after His return hence? He stood, and the earth was moved. What is this but that He stood for succor, and the earth was moved to believe? He regarded, and the nations melted; that is, He had compassion, and made the people penitent. The mountains are broken with violence; that is, through the power of those who work miracles the pride of the haughty is broken. The everlasting hills flowed down; that is, they are humbled in time that they may be lifted up for eternity. I saw His goings [made] eternal for his labors; that is, I beheld His labor of love not left without the reward of eternity. The tents of Ethiopia shall be greatly afraid, and the tents of the land of Midian; that is, even those nations which are not under the Roman authority, being suddenly terrified by the news of Your wonderful works, shall become a Christian people. Were You angry at the rivers, O Lord? Or was Your fury against the rivers? Or was Your rage against the sea? This is said because He does not now come to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. John 3:17 For You shall mount upon Your horses, and Your riding shall be salvation; that is, Your evangelists shall carry You, for they are guided by You, and Your gospel is salvation to them that believe in You. Bending, You will bend Your bow against the sceptres, says the Lord; that is, You will threaten even the kings of the earth with Your judgment. The earth shall be cleft with rivers; that is, by the sermons of those who preach You flowing in upon them, men's hearts shall be opened to make confession, to whom it is said, Rend your hearts and not your garments. Joel 2:13 What does The people shall see You and grieve mean, but that in mourning they shall be blessed? Matthew 5:4 What is Scattering the waters in marching, but that by walking in those who everywhere proclaim You, You will scatter here and there the streams of Your doctrine? What is The abyss uttered its voice? Is it not that the depth of the human heart expressed what it perceived? The words, The depth of its phantasy, are an explanation of the previous verse, for the depth is the abyss; and Uttered its voice is to be understood before them, that is, as we have said, it expressed what it perceived. Now the phantasy is the vision, which it did not hold or conceal, but poured forth in confession. The sun was raised up, and the moon stood still in her course; that is, Christ ascended into heaven, and the Church was established under her King. Your darts shall go in the light; that is, Your words shall not be sent in secret, but openly. For He had said to His own disciples, What I tell you in darkness, speak in the light. Matthew 10:27 By threatening you shall diminish the earth; that is, by that threatening You shall humble men. And in fury You shall cast down the nations; for in punishing those who exalt themselves You dash them one against another. You went forth for the salvation of Your people, that You might save Your Christ; You have sent death on the heads of the wicked. None of these words require exposition. You have lifted up the bonds, even to the neck. This may be understood even of the good bonds of wisdom, that the feet may be put into its fetters, and the neck into its collar. You have struck off in amazement of mind the bonds must be understood for, He lifts up the good and strikes off the bad, about which it is said to Him, You have broken asunder my bonds, and that in amazement of mind, that is, wonderfully. The heads of the mighty shall be moved in it; to wit, in that wonder. They shall open their teeth like a poor man eating secretly. For some of the mighty among the Jews shall come to the Lord, admiring His works and words, and shall greedily eat the bread of His doctrine in secret for fear of the Jews, just as the Gospel has shown they did. And You have sent into the sea Your horses, troubling many waters, which are nothing else than many people; for unless all were troubled, some would not be converted with fear, others pursued with fury. I gave heed, and my belly trembled at the voice of the prayer of my lips; and trembling entered into my bones, and my habit of body was troubled under me. He gave heed to those things which he said, and was himself terrified at his own prayer, which he had poured forth prophetically, and in which he discerned things to come. For when many people are troubled, he saw the threatening tribulation of the Church, and at once acknowledged himself a member of it, and said, I shall rest in the day of tribulation, as being one of those who are rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation. Romans 12:12 That I may ascend, he says, among the people of my pilgrimage, departing quite from the wicked people of his carnal kinship, who are not pilgrims in this earth, and do not seek the country above. Although the fig-tree, he says, shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labor of the olive shall lie, and the fields shall yield no meat; the sheep shall be cut off from the meat, and there shall be no oxen in the stalls. He sees that nation which was to slay Christ about to lose the abundance of spiritual supplies, which, in prophetic fashion, he has set forth by the figure of earthly plenty. And because that nation was to suffer such wrath of God, because, being ignorant of the righteousness of God, it wished to establish its own, Romans 10:3 he immediately says, Yet will I rejoice in the Lord; I will joy in God my salvation. The Lord God is my strength, and He will set my feet in completion; He will place me above the heights, that I may conquer in His song, to wit, in that song of which something similar is said in the psalm, He set my feet upon a rock, and directed my goings, and put in my mouth a new song, a hymn to our God. He therefore conquers in the song of the Lord, who takes pleasure in His praise, not in his own; that He that glories, let him glory in the Lord. But some copies have, I will joy in God my Jesus, which seems to me better than the version of those who, wishing to put it in Latin, have not set down that very name which for us it is dearer and sweeter to name. 18.33. Jeremiah, like Isaiah, is one of the greater prophets, not of the minor, like the others from whose writings I have just given extracts. He prophesied when Josiah reigned in Jerusalem, and Ancus Martius at Rome, when the captivity of the Jews was already at hand; and he continued to prophesy down to the fifth month of the captivity, as we find from his writings. Zephaniah, one of the minor prophets, is put along with him, because he himself says that he prophesied in the days of Josiah; but he does not say till when. Jeremiah thus prophesied not only in the times of Ancus Martius, but also in those of Tarquinius Priscus, whom the Romans had for their fifth king. For he had already begun to reign when that captivity took place. Jeremiah, in prophesying of Christ, says, The breath of our mouth, the Lord Christ, was taken in our sins, Lamentations 4:20 thus briefly showing both that Christ is our Lord and that He suffered for us. Also in another place he says, This is my God, and there shall none other be accounted of in comparison of Him; who has found out all the way of prudence, and has given it to Jacob His servant, and to Israel His beloved: afterwards He was seen on the earth, and conversed with men. Some attribute this testimony not to Jeremiah, but to his secretary, who was called Baruch; but it is more commonly ascribed to Jeremiah. Again the same prophet says concerning Him, Behold the days come, says the Lord, that I will raise up unto David a righteous shoot, and a King shall reign and shall be wise, and shall do judgment and justice in the earth. In those days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell confidently: and this is the name which they shall call Him, Our righteous Lord. Jeremiah 23:5-6 And of the calling of the nations which was to come to pass, and which we now see fulfilled, he thus spoke: O Lord my God, and my refuge in the day of evils, to You shall the nations come from the utmost end of the earth, saying, Truly our fathers have worshipped lying images, wherein there is no profit. Jeremiah 16:19 But that the Jews, by whom He behooved even to be slain, were not going to acknowledge Him, this prophet thus intimates: Heavy is the heart through all; and He is a man, and who shall know Him? Jeremiah 17:9 That passage also is his which I have quoted in the seventeenth book concerning the new testament, of which Christ is the Mediator. For Jeremiah himself says, Behold, the days come, says the Lord, that I will complete over the house of Jacob a new testament, and the rest, which may be read there. For the present I shall put down those predictions about Christ by the prophet Zephaniah, who prophesied with Jeremiah. Wait upon me, says the Lord, in the day of my resurrection, in the future; because it is my determination to assemble the nations, and gather together the kingdoms. Zephaniah 3:8 And again he says, The Lord will be terrible upon them, and will exterminate all the gods of the earth; and they shall worship Him every man from his place, even all the isles of the nations. Zephaniah 2:11 And a little after he says, Then will I turn to the people a tongue, and to His offspring, that they may call upon the name of the Lord, and serve Him under one yoke. From the borders of the rivers of Ethiopia shall they bring sacrifices unto me. In that day you shall not be confounded for all your curious inventions, which you have done impiously against me: for then I will take away from you the haughtiness of your trespass; and you shall no more magnify yourself above your holy mountain. And I will leave in you a meek and humble people, and they who shall be left of Israel shall fear the name of the Lord. These are the remt of whom the apostle quotes that which is elsewhere prophesied: Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remt shall be saved. These are the remt of that nation who have believed in Christ. 18.34. Daniel and Ezekiel, other two of the greater prophets, also first prophesied in the very captivity of Babylon. Daniel even defined the time when Christ was to come and suffer by the exact date. It would take too long to show this by computation, and it has been done often by others before us. But of His power and glory he has thus spoken: I saw in a night vision, and, behold, one like the Son of man was coming with the clouds of heaven, and He came even to the Ancient of days, and He was brought into His presence. And to Him there was given dominion, and honor, and a kingdom: and all people, tribes, and tongues shall serve Him. His power is an everlasting power, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom shall not be destroyed. Daniel 7:13-14 Ezekiel also, speaking prophetically in the person of God the Father, thus foretells Christ, speaking of Him in the prophetic manner as David, because He assumed flesh of the seed of David, and on account of that form of a servant in which He was made man, He who is the Son of God is also called the servant of God. He says, And I will set up over my sheep one Shepherd, who will feed them, even my servant David; and He shall feed them, and He shall be their shepherd. And I the Lord will be their God, and my servant David a prince in the midst of them. I the Lord have spoken. Ezekiel 34:23 And in another place he says, And one King shall be over them all: and they shall no more be two nations, neither shall they be divided any more into two kingdoms: neither shall they defile themselves any more with their idols, and their abominations, and all their iniquities. And I will save them out of all their dwelling-places wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them; and they shall be my people, and I will be their God. And my servant David shall be king over them, and there shall be one Shepherd for them all. Ezekiel 37:22-24 18.35. There remain three minor prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, who prophesied at the close of the captivity. of these Haggai more openly prophesies of Christ and the Church thus briefly: Thus says the Lord of hosts, Yet one little while, and I will shake the heaven, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land; and I will move all nations, and the desired of all nations shall come. Haggai 2:6 The fulfillment of this prophecy is in part already seen, and in part hoped for in the end. For He moved the heaven by the testimony of the angels and the stars, when Christ became incarnate. He moved the earth by the great miracle of His birth of the virgin. He moved the sea and the dry land, when Christ was proclaimed both in the isles and in the whole world. So we see all nations moved to the faith; and the fulfillment of what follows, And the desired of all nations shall come, is looked for at His last coming. For ere men can desire and and wait for Him, they must believe and love Him. Zechariah says of Christ and the Church, Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion; shout joyfully, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, your King shall come unto you, just and the Saviour; Himself poor, and mounting an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass: and His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth. Zechariah 9:9-10 How this was done, when the Lord Christ on His journey used a beast of burden of this kind, we read in the Gospel, where, also, as much of this prophecy is quoted as appears sufficient for the context. In another place, speaking in the Spirit of prophecy to Christ Himself of the remission of sins through His blood, he says, You also, by the blood of Your testament, have sent forth Your prisoners from the lake wherein is no water. Zechariah 9:11 Different opinions may be held, consistently with right belief, as to what he meant by this lake. Yet it seems to me that no meaning suits better than that of the depth of human misery, which is, as it were, dry and barren, where there are no streams of righteousness, but only the mire of iniquity. For it is said of it in the Psalms, And He led me forth out of the lake of misery, and from the miry clay. Malachi, foretelling the Church which we now behold propagated through Christ, says most openly to the Jews, in the person of God, I have no pleasure in you, and I will not accept a gift at your hand. For from the rising even to the going down of the sun, my name is great among the nations; and in every place sacrifice shall be made, and a pure oblation shall be offered unto my name: for my name shall be great among the nations, says the Lord. Malachi 1:10-11 Since we can already see this sacrifice offered to God in every place, from the rising of the sun to his going down, through Christ's priesthood after the order of Melchisedec, while the Jews, to whom it was said, I have no pleasure in you, neither will I accept a gift at your hand, cannot deny that their sacrifice has ceased, why do they still look for another Christ, when they read this in the prophecy, and see it fulfilled, which could not be fulfilled except through Him? And a little after he says of Him, in the person of God, My covet was with Him of life and peace: and I gave to Him that He might fear me with fear, and be afraid before my name. The law of truth was in His mouth: directing in peace He has walked with me, and has turned many away from iniquity. For the Priest's lips shall keep knowledge, and they shall seek the law at His mouth: for He is the Angel of the Lord Almighty. Malachi 2:5-7 Nor is it to be wondered at that Christ Jesus is called the Angel of the Almighty God. For just as He is called a servant on account of the form of a servant in which He came to men, so He is called an angel on account of the evangel which He proclaimed to men. For if we interpret these Greek words, evangel is good news, and angel is messenger. Again he says of Him, Behold I will send mine angel, and He will look out the way before my face: and the Lord, whom you seek, shall suddenly come into His temple, even the Angel of the testament, whom you desire. Behold, He comes, says the Lord Almighty, and who shall abide the day of His entry, or who shall stand at His appearing? Malachi 3:1-2 In this place he has foretold both the first and second advent of Christ: the first, to wit, of which he says, And He shall come suddenly into His temple; that is, into His flesh, of which He said in the Gospel, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again. John 2:19 And of the second advent he says, Behold, He comes, says the Lord Almighty, and who shall abide the day of His entry, or who shall stand at His appearing? But what he says, The Lord whom you seek, and the Angel of the testament whom you desire, just means that even the Jews, according to the Scriptures which they read, shall seek and desire Christ. But many of them did not acknowledge that He whom they sought and desired had come, being blinded in their hearts, which were preoccupied with their own merits. Now what he here calls the testament, either above, where he says, My testament had been with Him, or here, where he has called Him the Angel of the testament, we ought, beyond a doubt, to take to be the new testament, in which the things promised are eternal, and not the old, in which they are only temporal. Yet many who are weak are troubled when they see the wicked abound in such temporal things, because they value them greatly, and serve the true God to be rewarded with them. On this account, to distinguish the eternal blessedness of the new testament, which shall be given only to the good, from the earthly felicity of the old, which for the most part is given to the bad as well, the same prophet says, You have made your words burdensome to me: yet you have said, In what have we spoken ill of You? You have said, Foolish is every one who serves God; and what profit is it that we have kept His observances, and that we have walked as suppliants before the face of the Lord Almighty? And now we call the aliens blessed; yea, all that do wicked things are built up again; yea, they are opposed to God and are saved. They that feared the Lord uttered these reproaches every one to his neighbor: and the Lord hearkened and heard; and He wrote a book of remembrance before Him, for them that fear the Lord and that revere His name. Malachi 3:13-16 By that book is meant the New Testament. Finally, let us hear what follows: And they shall be an acquisition for me, says the Lord Almighty, in the day which I make; and I will choose them as a man chooses his son that serves him. And you shall return, and shall discern between the just and the unjust, and between him that serves God and him that serves Him not. For, behold, the day comes burning as an oven, and it shall burn them up; and all the aliens and all that do wickedly shall be stubble: and the day that shall come will set them on fire, says the Lord Almighty, and shall leave neither root nor branch. And unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, and health shall be in His wings; and you shall go forth, and exult as calves let loose from bonds. And you shall tread down the wicked, and they shall be ashes under your feet, in the day in which I shall do [this], says the Lord Almighty. This day is the day of judgment, of which, if God will, we shall speak more fully in its own place. 18.36. After these three prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, during the same period of the liberation of the people from the Babylonian servitude Esdras also wrote, who is historical rather than prophetical, as is also the book called Esther, which is found to relate, for the praise of God, events not far from those times; unless, perhaps, Esdras is to be understood as prophesying of Christ in that passage where, on a question having arisen among certain young men as to what is the strongest thing, when one had said kings, another wine, the third women, who for the most part rule kings, yet that same third youth demonstrated that the truth is victorious over all. For by consulting the Gospel we learn that Christ is the Truth. From this time, when the temple was rebuilt, down to the time of Aristobulus, the Jews had not kings but princes; and the reckoning of their dates is found, not in the Holy Scriptures which are called canonical, but in others, among which are also the books of the Maccabees. These are held as canonical, not by the Jews, but by the Church, on account of the extreme and wonderful sufferings of certain martyrs, who, before Christ had come in the flesh, contended for the law of God even unto death, and endured most grievous and horrible evils. 18.37. In the time of our prophets, then, whose writings had already come to the knowledge of almost all nations, the philosophers of the nations had not yet arisen - at least, not those who were called by that name, which originated with Pythagoras the Samian, who was becoming famous at the time when the Jewish captivity ended. Much more, then, are the other philosophers found to be later than the prophets. For even Socrates the Athenian, the master of all who were then most famous, holding the pre-eminence in that department that is called the moral or active, is found after Esdras in the chronicles. Plato also was born not much later, who far out went the other disciples of Socrates. If, besides these, we take their predecessors, who had not yet been styled philosophers, to wit, the seven sages, and then the physicists, who succeeded Thales, and imitated his studious search into the nature of things, namely, Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Anaxagoras, and some others, before Pythagoras first professed himself a philosopher, even these did not precede the whole of our prophets in antiquity of time, since Thales, whom the others succeeded, is said to have flourished in the reign of Romulus, when the stream of prophecy burst forth from the fountains of Israel in those writings which spread over the whole world. So that only those theological poets, Orpheus, Linus, and Mus us, and, it may be, some others among the Greeks, are found earlier in date than the Hebrew prophets whose writings we hold as authoritative. But not even these preceded in time our true divine, Moses, who authentically preached the one true God, and whose writings are first in the authoritative canon; and therefore the Greeks, in whose tongue the literature of this age chiefly appears, have no ground for boasting of their wisdom, in which our religion, wherein is true wisdom, is not evidently more ancient at least, if not superior. Yet it must be confessed that before Moses there had already been, not indeed among the Greeks, but among barbarous nations, as in Egypt, some doctrine which might be called their wisdom, else it would not have been written in the holy books that Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, Acts 7:22 as he was, when, being born there, and adopted and nursed by Pharaoh's daughter, he was also liberally educated. Yet not even the wisdom of the Egyptians could be antecedent in time to the wisdom of our prophets, because even Abraham was a prophet. And what wisdom could there be in Egypt before Isis had given them letters, whom they thought fit to worship as a goddess after her death? Now Isis is declared to have been the daughter of Inachus, who first began to reign in Argos when the grandsons of Abraham are known to have been already born. 18.38. If I may recall far more ancient times, our patriarch Noah was certainly even before that great deluge, and I might not undeservedly call him a prophet, forasmuch as the ark he made, in which he escaped with his family, was itself a prophecy of our times. What of Enoch, the seventh from Adam? Does not the canonical epistle of the Apostle Jude declare that he prophesied? Jude 14 But the writings of these men could not be held as authoritative either among the Jews or us, on account of their too great antiquity, which made it seem needful to regard them with suspicion, lest false things should be set forth instead of true. For some writings which are said be theirs are quoted by those who, according to their own humor, loosely believe what they please. But the purity of the canon has not admitted these writings, not because the authority of these men who pleased God is rejected, but because they are not believed to be theirs. Nor ought it to appear strange if writings for which so great antiquity is claimed are held in suspicion, seeing that in the very history of the kings of Judah and Israel containing their acts, which we believe to belong to the canonical Scripture, very many things are mentioned which are not explained there, but are said to be found in other books which the prophets wrote, the very names of these prophets being sometimes given, and yet they are not found in the canon which the people of God received. Now I confess the reason of this is hidden from me; only I think that even those men, to whom certainly the Holy Spirit revealed those things which ought to be held as of religious authority, might write some things as men by historical diligence, and others as prophets by divine inspiration; and these things were so distinct, that it was judged that the former should be ascribed to themselves, but the latter to God speaking through them: and so the one pertained to the abundance of knowledge, the other to the authority of religion. In that authority the canon is guarded. So that, if any writings outside of it are now brought forward under the name of the ancient prophets, they cannot serve even as an aid to knowledge, because it is uncertain whether they are genuine; and on this account they are not trusted, especially those of them in which some things are found that are even contrary to the truth of the canonical books, so that it is quite apparent they do not belong to them. 18.40. In vain, then, do some babble with most empty presumption, saying that Egypt has understood the reckoning of the stars for more than a hundred thousand years. For in what books have they collected that number who learned letters from Isis their mistress, not much more than two thousand years ago? Varro, who has declared this, is no small authority in history, and it does not disagree with the truth of the divine books. For as it is not yet six thousand years since the first man, who is called Adam, are not those to be ridiculed rather than refuted who try to persuade us of anything regarding a space of time so different from, and contrary to, the ascertained truth? For what historian of the past should we credit more than him who has also predicted things to come which we now see fulfilled? And the very disagreement of the historians among themselves furnishes a good reason why we ought rather to believe him who does not contradict the divine history which we hold. But, on the other hand, the citizens of the impious city, scattered everywhere through the earth, when they read the most learned writers, none of whom seems to be of contemptible authority, and find them disagreeing among themselves about affairs most remote from the memory of our age, cannot find out whom they ought to trust. But we, being sustained by divine authority in the history of our religion, have no doubt that whatever is opposed to it is most false, whatever may be the case regarding other things in secular books, which, whether true or false, yield nothing of moment to our living rightly and happily. 18.41. But let us omit further examination of history, and return to the philosophers from whom we digressed to these things. They seem to have labored in their studies for no other end than to find out how to live in a way proper for laying hold of blessedness. Why, then, have the disciples dissented from their masters, and the fellow disciples from one another, except because as men they have sought after these things by human sense and human reasonings? Now, although there might be among them a desire of glory, so that each wished to be thought wiser and more acute than another, and in no way addicted to the judgment of others, but the inventor of his own dogma and opinion, yet I may grant that there were some, or even very many of them, whose love of truth severed them from their teachers or fellow disciples, that they might strive for what they thought was the truth, whether it was so or not. But what can human misery do, or how or where can it reach forth, so as to attain blessedness, if divine authority does not lead it? Finally, let our authors, among whom the canon of the sacred books is fixed and bounded, be far from disagreeing in any respect. It is not without good reason, then, that not merely a few people prating in the schools and gymnasia in captious disputations, but so many and great people, both learned and unlearned, in countries and cities, have believed that God spoke to them or by them, i.e. the canonical writers, when they wrote these books. There ought, indeed, to be but few of them, lest on account of their multitude what ought to be religiously esteemed should grow cheap; and yet not so few that their agreement should not be wonderful. For among the multitude of philosophers, who in their works have left behind them the monuments of their dogmas, no one will easily find any who agree in all their opinions. But to show this is too long a task for this work. But what author of any sect is so approved in this demon-worshipping city, that the rest who have differed from or opposed him in opinion have been disapproved? The Epicureans asserted that human affairs were not under the providence of the gods; and the Stoics, holding the opposite opinion, agreed that they were ruled and defended by favorable and tutelary gods. Yet were not both sects famous among the Athenians? I wonder, then, why Anaxagoras was accused of a crime for saying that the sun was a burning stone, and denying that it was a god at all; while in the same city Epicurus flourished gloriously and lived securely, although he not only did not believe that the sun or any star was a god, but contended that neither Jupiter nor any of the gods dwelt in the world at all, so that the prayers and supplications of men might reach them! Were not both Aristippus and Antisthenes there, two noble philosophers and both Socratic? Yet they placed the chief end of life within bounds so diverse and contradictory, that the first made the delight of the body the chief good, while the other asserted that man was made happy mainly by the virtue of the mind. The one also said that the wise man should flee from the republic; the other, that he should administer its affairs. Yet did not each gather disciples to follow his own sect? Indeed, in the conspicuous and well-known porch, in gymnasia, in gardens, in places public and private, they openly strove in bands each for his own opinion, some asserting there was one world, others innumerable worlds; some that this world had a beginning, others that it had not; some that it would perish, others that it would exist always; some that it was governed by the divine mind, others by chance and accident; some that souls are immortal, others that they are mortal - and of those who asserted their immortality, some said they transmigrated through beasts, others that it was by no means so; while of those who asserted their mortality, some said they perished immediately after the body, others that they survived either a little while or a longer time, but not always; some fixing supreme good in the body, some in the mind, some in both; others adding to the mind and body external good things; some thinking that the bodily senses ought to be trusted always, some not always, others never. Now what people, senate, power, or public dignity of the impious city has ever taken care to judge between all these and other nearly innumerable dissensions of the philosophers, approving and accepting some, and disapproving and rejecting others? Has it not held in its bosom at random, without any judgment, and confusedly, so many controversies of men at variance, not about fields, houses, or anything of a pecuniary nature, but about those things which make life either miserable or happy? Even if some true things were said in it, yet falsehoods were uttered with the same licence; so that such a city has not amiss received the title of the mystic Babylon. For Babylon means confusion, as we remember we have already explained. Nor does it matter to the devil, its king, how they wrangle among themselves in contradictory errors, since all alike deservedly belong to him on account of their great and varied impiety. But that nation, that people, that city, that republic, these Israelites, to whom the oracles of God were entrusted, by no means confounded with similar licence false prophets with the true prophets; but, agreeing together, and differing in nothing, acknowledged and upheld the authentic authors of their sacred books. These were their philosophers, these were their sages, divines, prophets, and teachers of probity and piety. Whoever was wise and lived according to them was wise and lived not according to men, but according to God who has spoken by them. If sacrilege is forbidden there, God has forbidden it. If it is said, Honor your father and your mother, Exodus 20:12 God has commanded it. If it is said, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You shall not steal, and other similar commandments, not human lips but the divine oracles have enounced them. Whatever truth certain philosophers, amid their false opinions, were able to see, and strove by laborious discussions to persuade men of - such as that God had made this world, and Himself most providently governs it, or of the nobility of the virtues, of the love of country, of fidelity in friendship, of good works and everything pertaining to virtuous manners, although they knew not to what end and what rule all these things were to be referred - all these, by words prophetic, that is, divine, although spoken by men, were commended to the people in that city, and not inculcated by contention in arguments, so that he who should know them might be afraid of contemning, not the wit of men, but the oracle of God. 18.51. But the devil, seeing the temples of the demons deserted, and the human race running to the name of the liberating Mediator, has moved the heretics under the Christian name to resist the Christian doctrine, as if they could be kept in the city of God indifferently without any correction, just as the city of confusion indifferently held the philosophers who were of diverse and adverse opinions. Those, therefore, in the Church of Christ who savor anything morbid and depraved, and, on being corrected that they may savor what is wholesome and right, contumaciously resist, and will not amend their pestiferous and deadly dogmas, but persist in defending them, become heretics, and, going without, are to be reckoned as enemies who serve for her discipline. For even thus they profit by their wickedness those true Catholic members of Christ, since God makes a good use even of the wicked, and all things work together for good to them that love Him. Romans 8:28 For all the enemies of the Church, whatever error blinds or malice depraves them, exercise her patience if they receive the power to afflict her corporally; and if they only oppose her by wicked thought, they exercise her wisdom: but at the same time, if these enemies are loved, they exercise her benevolence, or even her beneficence, whether she deals with them by persuasive doctrine or by terrible discipline. And thus the devil, the prince of the impious city, when he stirs up his own vessels against the city of God that sojourns in this world, is permitted to do her no harm. For without doubt the divine providence procures for her both consolation through prosperity, that she may not be broken by adversity, and trial through adversity, that she may not be corrupted by prosperity; and thus each is tempered by the other, as we recognize in the Psalms that voice which arises from no other cause, According to the multitude of my griefs in my heart, Your consolations have delighted my soul. Hence also is that saying of the apostle, Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation. Romans 12:12 For it is not to be thought that what the same teacher says can at any time fail, Whoever will live piously in Christ shall suffer persecution. 2 Timothy 3:12 Because even when those who are without do not rage, and thus there seems to be, and really is, tranquillity, which brings very much consolation, especially to the weak, yet there are not wanting, yea, there are many within who by their abandoned manners torment the hearts of those who live piously, since by them the Christian and Catholic name is blasphemed; and the dearer that name is to those who will live piously in Christ, the more do they grieve that through the wicked, who have a place within, it comes to be less loved than pious minds desire. The heretics themselves also, since they are thought to have the Christian name and sacraments, Scriptures, and profession, cause great grief in the hearts of the pious, both because many who wish to be Christians are compelled by their dissensions to hesitate, and many evil-speakers also find in them matter for blaspheming the Christian name, because they too are at any rate called Christians. By these and similar depraved manners and errors of men, those who will live piously in Christ suffer persecution, even when no one molests or vexes their body; for they suffer this persecution, not in their bodies, but in their hearts. Whence is that word, According to the multitude of my griefs in my heart; for he does not say, in my body. Yet, on the other hand, none of them can perish, because the immutable divine promises are thought of. And because the apostle says, The Lord knows them that are His; 2 Timothy 2:19 for whom He did foreknow, He also predestinated [to be] conformed to the image of His Son, Romans 8:29 none of them can perish; therefore it follows in that psalm, Your consolations have delighted my soul. But that grief which arises in the hearts of the pious, who are persecuted by the manners of bad or false Christians, is profitable to the sufferers, because it proceeds from the charity in which they do not wish them either to perish or to hinder the salvation of others. Finally, great consolations grow out of their chastisement, which imbue the souls of the pious with a fecundity as great as the pains with which they were troubled concerning their own perdition. Thus in this world, in these evil days, not only from the time of the bodily presence of Christ and His apostles, but even from that of Abel, whom first his wicked brother slew because he was righteous, 1 John 3:12 and thenceforth even to the end of this world, the Church has gone forward on pilgrimage amid the persecutions of the world and the consolations of God. 21.8. But if they reply that their reason for not believing us when we say that human bodies will always burn and yet never die, is that the nature of human bodies is known to be quite otherwise constituted; if they say that for this miracle we cannot give the reason which was valid in the case of those natural miracles, viz., that this is the natural property, the nature of the thing - for we know that this is not the nature of human flesh - we find our answer in the sacred writings, that even this human flesh was constituted in one fashion before there was sin - was constituted, in fact, so that it could not die - and in another fashion after sin, being made such as we see it in this miserable state of mortality, unable to retain enduring life. And so in the resurrection of the dead shall it be constituted differently from its present well-known condition. But as they do not believe these writings of ours, in which we read what nature man had in paradise, and how remote he was from the necessity of death - and indeed, if they did believe them, we should of course have little trouble in debating with them the future punishment of the damned, - we must produce from the writings of their own most learned authorities some instances to show that it is possible for a thing to become different from what it was formerly known characteristically to be. From the book of Marcus Varro, entitled, of the Race of the Roman People, I cite word for word the following instance: There occurred a remarkable celestial portent; for Castor records that, in the brilliant star Venus, called Vesperugo by Plautus, and the lovely Hesperus by Homer, there occurred so strange a prodigy, that it changed its color, size, form, course, which never happened before nor since. Adrastus of Cyzicus, and Dion of Naples, famous mathematicians, said that this occurred in the reign of Ogyges. So great an author as Varro would certainly not have called this a portent had it not seemed to be contrary to nature. For we say that all portents are contrary to nature; but they are not so. For how is that contrary to nature which happens by the will of God, since the will of so mighty a Creator is certainly the nature of each created thing? A portent, therefore, happens not contrary to nature, but contrary to what we know as nature. But who can number the multitude of portents recorded in profane histories? Let us then at present fix our attention on this one only which concerns the matter in hand. What is there so arranged by the Author of the nature of heaven and earth as the exactly ordered course of the stars? What is there established by laws so sure and inflexible? And yet, when it pleased Him who with sovereignty and supreme power regulates all He has created, a star conspicuous among the rest by its size and splendor changed its color, size, form, and, most wonderful of all, the order and law of its course! Certainly that phenomenon disturbed the canons of the astronomers, if there were any then, by which they tabulate, as by unerring computation, the past and future movements of the stars, so as to take upon them to affirm that this which happened to the morning star (Venus) never happened before nor since. But we read in the divine books that even the sun itself stood still when a holy man, Joshua the Son of Nun, had begged this from God until victory should finish the battle he had begun; and that it even went back, that the promise of fifteen years added to the life of king Hezekiah might be sealed by this additional prodigy. But these miracles, which were vouchsafed to the merits of holy men, even when our adversaries believe them, they attribute to magical arts; so Virgil, in the lines I quoted above, ascribes to magic the power to Turn rivers backward to their source, And make the stars forget their course. For in our sacred books we read that this also happened, that a river turned backward, was stayed above while the lower part flowed on, when the people passed over under the above-mentioned leader, Joshua the Son of Nun; and also when Elias the prophet crossed; and afterwards, when his disciple Elisha passed through it: and we have just mentioned how, in the case of king Hezekiah the greatest of the stars forgot its course. But what happened to Venus, according to Varro, was not said by him to have happened in answer to any man's prayer. Let not the sceptics then benight themselves in this knowledge of the nature of things, as if divine power cannot bring to pass in an object anything else than what their own experience has shown them to be in its nature. Even the very things which are most commonly known as natural would not be less wonderful nor less effectual to excite surprise in all who beheld them, if men were not accustomed to admire nothing but what is rare. For who that thoughtfully observes the countless multitude of men, and their similarity of nature, can fail to remark with surprise and admiration the individuality of each man's appearance, suggesting to us, as it does, that unless men were like one another, they would not be distinguished from the rest of the animals; while unless, on the other hand, they were unlike, they could not be distinguished from one another, so that those whom we declare to be like, we also find to be unlike? And the unlikeness is the more wonderful consideration of the two; for a common nature seems rather to require similarity. And yet, because the very rarity of things is that which makes them wonderful, we are filled with much greater wonder when we are introduced to two men so like, that we either always or frequently mistake in endeavoring to distinguish between them. But possibly, though Varro is a heathen historian, and a very learned one, they may disbelieve that what I have cited from him truly occurred; or they may say the example is invalid, because the star did not for any length of time continue to follow its new course, but returned to its ordinary orbit. There is, then, another phenomenon at present open to their observation, and which, in my opinion, ought to be sufficient to convince them that, though they have observed and ascertained some natural law, they ought not on that account to prescribe to God, as if He could not change and turn it into something very different from what they have observed. The land of Sodom was not always as it now is; but once it had the appearance of other lands, and enjoyed equal if not richer fertility; for, in the divine narrative, it was compared to the paradise of God. But after it was touched [by fire] from heaven, as even pagan history testifies, and as is now witnessed by those who visit the spot, it became unnaturally and horribly sooty in appearance; and its apples, under a deceitful appearance of ripeness, contain ashes within. Here is a thing which was of one kind, and is of another. You see how its nature was converted by the wonderful transmutation wrought by the Creator of all natures into so very disgusting a diversity - an alteration which after so long a time took place, and after so long a time still continues. As therefore it was not impossible to God to create such natures as He pleased, so it is not impossible to Him to change these natures of His own creation into whatever He pleases, and thus spread abroad a multitude of those marvels which are called monsters, portents, prodigies, phenomena, and which if I were minded to cite and record, what end would there be to this work? They say that they are called monsters, because they demonstrate or signify something; portents, because they portend something; and so forth. But let their diviners see how they are either deceived, or even when they do predict true things, it is because they are inspired by spirits, who are intent upon entangling the minds of men (worthy, indeed, of such a fate) in the meshes of a hurtful curiosity, or how they light now and then upon some truth, because they make so many predictions. Yet, for our part, these things which happen contrary to nature, and are said to be contrary to nature (as the apostle, speaking after the manner of men, says, that to graft the wild olive into the good olive, and to partake of its fatness, is contrary to nature), and are called monsters, phenomena, portents, prodigies, ought to demonstrate, portend, predict that God will bring to pass what He has foretold regarding the bodies of men, no difficulty preventing Him, no law of nature prescribing to Him His limit. How He has foretold what He is to do, I think I have sufficiently shown in the preceding book, culling from the sacred Scriptures, both of the New and Old Testaments, not, indeed, all the passages that relate to this, but as many as I judged to suffice for this work.
86. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 4.20 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 50, 71
87. Orosius Paulus, Historiae Adversum Paganos, 7.39.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 258
88. Prudentius, Hamartigenia, 723-724, 756-764, 725 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 258
89. Justinian, Digest, 47.9.9 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 257
90. Cassiodorus, Institutio Divinarum Litterarum, 2.5 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 257
91. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 9.16.4, 16.10.12 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 265
92. John of Damascus, Vita Barlaam Et Joasaph, 286, 294, 297-299, 285 (7th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 142
93. Augustine, Letters, 118.2.9, 137.4.16 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 142
94. Rufinus, Slavonic Life of Moses, 16  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 27
95. Epigraphy, Merkelbach / Stauber Iii, 16/06/01  Tagged with subjects: •babylon / babylonia, Found in books: Huttner (2013) 178
96. Josephus, Jewish Antiquitues, 6.93  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 69
97. Epigraphy, Ritti / Baysal / Miranda / Guizzi 2008, 157  Tagged with subjects: •babylon / babylonia, Found in books: Huttner (2013) 178
98. I-Ii, 4Q274, 1-4  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 48
99. I-Ii, 4Q510-4Q511, 0  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 48
100. I-Ii, 4Q242, 4  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 69
101. Babylonian Talmud, B. Sotêah, None  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 27
102. Papyri, P.Oxy., 34.2684  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonian/assyro-babylonian Found in books: Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 28
103. Ancient Near Eastern Sources, Telipinus Proclamation, None  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 72
104. Strabo, Geography, 1.3.2, 1.4.9, 2.3.7, 3.4.5, 3.4.8, 3.4.19, 5.3.12, 6.2.2, 6.3.2, 7.5.1, 7.7.1, 8.1.1, 8.6.6, 9.2.3, 10.3.9, 12.3.37, 12.8.4, 13.1.1, 14.5.25, 15.3.23, 16.2.38, 17.3.2  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 28; Marek (2019) 516
1.3.2. However, this is not all we have to say against him. of many places he tells us that nothing is known, when in fact they have every one been accurately described. Then he warns us to be very cautious in believing what we are told on such matters, and endeavours by long and tedious arguments to show the value of his advice; swallowing at the same time the most ridiculous absurdities himself concerning the Euxine and Adriatic. Thus he believed the Gulf of Issos to be the most easterly point of the Mediterranean, though Dioscurias, which is nearly at the bottom of the Pontus Euxinus, is, according to his own calculations, farther east by a distance of 3000 stadia. In describing the northern and farther parts of the Adriatic he cannot refrain from similar romancing, and gives credit to many strange narrations concerning what lies beyond the Pillars of Hercules, informing us of an Isle of Kerne there, and other places now nowhere to be found, which we shall speak of presently. Having remarked that the ancients, whether out on piratical excursions, or for the purposes of commerce, never ventured into the high seas, but crept along the coast, and instancing Jason, who leaving his vessels at Colchis penetrated into Armenia and Media on foot, he proceeds to tell us that formerly no one dared to navigate either the Euxine or the seas by Libya, Syria, and Cilicia. If by formerly he means periods so long past that we possess no record of them, it is of little consequence to us whether they navigated those seas or not, but if [he speaks] of times of which we know any thing, and if we are to place any trust in the accounts which have come down to us, every one will admit that the ancients appear to have made longer journeys both by sea and land than their successors; witness Bacchus, Hercules, nay Jason himself, and again Ulysses and Menelaus, of whom Homer tells us. It seems most probable that Theseus and Pirithous are indebted to some long voyages for the credit they afterwards obtained of having visited the infernal regions; and in like manner the Dioscuri gained the appellation of guardians of the sea, and the deliverers of sailors. The sovereignty of the seas exercised by Minos, and the navigation carried on by the Phoenicians, is well known. A little after the period of the Trojan war they had penetrated beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and founded cities as well there as to the midst of the African coast. Is it not correct to number amongst the ancients Aeneas, Antenor, the Heneti, and all the crowd of warriors, who, after the destruction of Troy, wandered over the face of the whole earth? For at the conclusion of the war both the Greeks and Barbarians found themselves deprived, the one of their livelihood at home, the other of the fruits of their expedition; so that when Troy was overthrown, the victors, and still more the vanquished, who had survived the conflict, were compelled by want to a life of piracy; and we learn that they became the founders of many cities along the sea-coast beyond Greece, besides several inland settlements. 1.4.9. At the close of the book Eratosthenes blames the system of those who would divide all mankind into Greeks and Barbarians, and likewise those who recommended Alexander to treat the Greeks as friends, but the Barbarians as enemies. He suggests, as a better course, to distinguish them according to their virtues and their vices, since amongst the Greeks there are many worthless characters, and many highly civilized are to be found amongst the Barbarians; witness the Indians and Ariani, or still better the Romans and Carthaginians, whose political system is so beautifully perfect. Alexander, considering this, disregarded the advice which had been offered him, and patronized without distinction any man he considered to be deserving. But we would inquire whether those men who thus divided the human race, abandoning one portion to contempt, and exalting to dignity the other, were not actuated to this because they found that on one side justice, knowledge, and the force of reason reigned supreme, but their contraries on the other. Alexander did not disregard the advice tendered him, but gladly embraced and followed it, respecting the wisdom of those who gave it; and so far from taking the opposite course, he closely pursued that which they pointed out. 2.3.7. Next he undertakes to find fault with those who gave to the continents their present division, instead of marking them out by lines drawn parallel to the equator, by which means the different animals, plants, and temperatures would have been distinguished, according as they approached the frigid or the torrid zones; so that each continent would have formed a kind of zone. Afterwards, however, he overturns and gives up altogether this view, bestowing every commendation on the existing system, and thus making his argument altogether worthless and of no avail. In fact, the various arrangements [of a country] are not the result of premeditation, any more than the diversities of nations or languages; they all depend on circumstances and chance. Arts, forms of government, and modes of life, arising from certain [internal] springs, flourish under whatever climate they may be situated; climate, however, has its influence, and therefore while some peculiarites are due to the nature of the country, others are the result of institutions and education. It is not owing to the nature of the country, but rather to their education, that the Athenians cultivate eloquence, while the Lacedemonians do not; nor yet the Thebans, who are nearer still. Neither are the Babylonians and Egyptians philosophers by nature, but by reason of their institutions and education. In like manner the excellence of horses, oxen, and other animals, results not alone from the places where they dwell, but also, from their breeding. Posidonius confounds all these distinctions. In praising the division of the continents as it now stands, he advances as an argument the difference between the Indians and the Ethiopians of Libya, the former being more robust, and less dried by the heat of the climate. It is on this account that Homer, who includes them all under the title of Ethiopians, describes them as being separated into two divisions, These eastward situate, those toward the west. [Od. i, 23. [Crates], to support his hypothesis, supposes another inhabited earth, of which Homer certainly knew nothing; and says that the passage ought to be read thus, towards the descending sun, viz. when having passed the meridian, it begins to decline. 3.4.5. The settlement of the Grecians amongst these barbarous nations may be regarded as the result of the division of these latter into small tribes and sovereignties, having on account of their moroseness no union amongst themselves, and therefore powerless against attacks from without. This moroseness is remarkably prevalent amongst the Iberians, who are besides crafty in their manner, devoid of sincerity, insidious, and predatory in their mode of life; they are bold in little adventures, but never undertake any thing of magnitude, inasmuch as they have never formed any extended power or confederacy. If they had had but the will to assist each other, neither could the Carthaginians by making an incursion have so easily deprived them of the greater part of their country, nor before them the Tyrians, then the Kelts, now called the Keltiberians and Berones, nor after these the brigand Viriathus, and Sertorius, nor any others who desired power. On this account the Romans, having carried the war into Iberia, lost much time by reason of the number of different sovereignties, having to conquer first one, then another; in fact, it occupied nearly two centuries, or even longer, before they had subdued the whole. — I return to my description. 3.4.8. The whole coast from the Pillars up to this place wants harbours, but all the way from here to Emporium, the countries of the Leetani, the Lartolaeetae, and others, are both furnished with excellent harbours and fertile. Emporium was founded by the people of Marseilles, and is about 4000 stadia distant from the Pyrenees, and the confines of Iberia and Keltica. This is a very fine region, and possesses good ports. Here also is Rhode, a small town of the Emporitae, but some say it was founded by the Rhodians. Both here and in Emporium they reverence the Ephesian Diana. The cause of this we will explain when we come to speak of Massalia. in former times the Emporitae dwelt on a small island opposite, now called the old city, but at the present day they inhabit the mainland. The city is double, being divided by a wall, for in past times some of the Indiceti dwelt close by, who, although they had a separate polity to themselves, desired, for the sake of safety, to be shut in by a common enclosure with the Greeks; but at the same time that this enclosure should be two-fold, being divided through its middle by a wall. In time, however, they came to have but one government, a mixture of Barbarian and Greek laws; a result which has taken place in many other [states]. 3.4.19. Some, as I have said, state that this country is separated into four divisions; others, into five. It is not easy to state any thing precisely on these points, both on account of the changes which the places have undergone, and by reason of their obscurity. In well-known and notable countries both the migrations are known, and the divisions of the land, and the changes of their names, and every thing else of the same kind. Such matters being the common topics with everybody, and especially with the Greeks, who are more talkative than any other people. But in barbarous and out-of-the-way countries, and such as are cut up into small divisions, and lie scattered, the remembrance of such occurrences is not nearly so certain, nor yet so full. If these countries are far removed from the Greeks [our] ignorance is increased. For although the Roman historians imitate the Greeks, they fall far short of them. What they relate is taken from the Greeks, very little being the result of their own ardour in acquiring information. So that whenever any thing has been omitted by the former there is not much supplied by the latter. Add to this, that the names most celebrated are generally Grecian. Formerly the name of Iberia was given to the whole country between the Rhone and the isthmus formed by the two Galatic gulfs; whereas now they make the Pyrenees its boundary, and call it indifferently Iberia or Hispania; others have restricted Iberia to the country on this side the Ebro. Still earlier it bore the name of the Igletes, who inhabited but a small district, according to Asclepiades the Myrlean. The Romans call the whole indifferently Iberia and Hispania, but designate one portion of it Ulterior, and the other Citerior. However, at different periods they have divided it differently, according to its political aspect at various times. 5.3.12. But within-side the chain of mountains, [where these cities are situated, ] there is another ridge, leaving a valley between it and Mount Algidus; it is lofty, and extends as far as Mount Albanus. It is on this ridge that Tusculum is situated, a city which is not wanting in adornment, being entirely surrounded by ornamental plantations and edifices, particularly that part of it which looks towards Rome. For on this side Tusculum presents a fertile hill, well irrigated, and with numerous gentle slopes embellished with majestic palaces. Contiguous are the undulating slopes of Mount Albanus, which are equally fertile and ornamented. Beyond are plains which extend some of them to Rome and its environs, others to the sea; these latter are unhealthy, but the others are salubrious and well cultivated. Next after Albanum is the city Aricia, on the Appian Way. It is 160 stadia from Rome. This place is situated in a hollow, and has a strong citadel. Beyond it on one side of the way is Lanuvium, a Roman city on the right of the Via Appia, and from which both the sea and Antium may be viewed. On the other side is the Artemisium, which is called Nemus, on the left side of the way, leading from Aricia to the sanctuary. They say that it is consecrated to Diana Taurica, and certainly the rites performed in this sanctuary are something barbarous and Scythic. They appoint as priest a fugitive who has murdered the preceding priest with his own hand. Apprehensive of an attack upon himself, the priest is always armed with a sword, ready for resistance. The sanctuary is in a grove, and before it is a lake of considerable size. The sanctuary and water are surrounded by abrupt and lofty precipices, so that they seem to be situated in a deep and hollow ravine. The springs by which the lake is filled are visible. One of these is denominated Egeria, after the name of a certain divinity; however, their course on leaving the lake is subterraneous, but they may be observed at some distance, when they rise to the surface of the ground. 6.2.2. The cities along the side that forms the Strait are, first, Messene, and then Tauromenium, Catana, and Syracuse; but those that were between Catana and Syracuse have disappeared — Naxus and Megara; and on this coast are the outlets of the Symaethus and all rivers that flow down from Aetna and have good harbors at their mouths; and here too is the promontory of Xiphonia. According to Ephorus these were the earliest Greek cities to be founded in Sicily, that is, in the tenth generation after the Trojan war; for before that time men were so afraid of the bands of Tyrrhenian pirates and the savagery of the barbarians in this region that they would not so much as sail thither for trafficking; but though Theocles, the Athenian, borne out of his course by the winds to Sicily, clearly perceived both the weakness of the peoples and the excellence of the soil, yet, when he went back, he could not persuade the Athenians, and hence took as partners a considerable number of Euboean Chalcidians and some Ionians and also some Dorians (most of whom were Megarians) and made the voyage; so the Chalcidians founded Naxos, whereas the Dorians founded Megara, which in earlier times had been called Hybla. The cities no longer exist, it is true, but the name of Hybla still endures, because of the excellence of the Hyblaean honey. 6.3.2. In speaking of the founding of Taras, Antiochus says: After the Messenian war broke out, those of the Lacedemonians who did not take part in the expedition were adjudged slaves and were named Helots, and all children who were born in the time of the expedition were called Partheniae and judicially deprived of the rights of citizenship, but they would not tolerate this, and since they were numerous formed a plot against the free citizens; and when the latter learned of the plot they sent secretly certain men who, through a pretence of friendship, were to report what manner of plot it was; among these was Phalanthus, who was reputed to be their champion, but he was not pleased, in general, with those who had been named to take part in the council. It was agreed, however, that the attack should be made at the Hyacinthian festival in the Amyclaion when the games were being celebrated, at the moment when Phalanthus should put on his leather cap (the free citizens were recognizable by their hair ); but when Phalanthus and his men had secretly reported the agreement, and when the games were in progress, the herald came forward and forbade Phalanthus to put on a leather cap; and when the plotters perceived that the plot had been revealed, some of them began to run away and others to beg for mercy; but they were bidden to be of good cheer and were given over to custody; Phalanthus, however, was sent to the sanctuary of the god to consult with reference to founding a colony; and the god responded, I give to thee Satyrium, both to take up thine abode in the rich land of Taras and to become a bane to the Iapygians. Accordingly, the Partheniae went thither with Phalanthus, and they were welcomed by both the barbarians and the Cretans who had previously taken possession of the place. These latter, it is said, are the people who sailed with Minos to Sicily, and, after his death, which occurred at the home of Cocalus in Camici, set sail from Sicily; but on the voyage back they were driven out of their course to Taras, although later some of them went afoot around the Adrias as far as Macedonia and were called Bottiaeans. But all the people as far as Daunia, it is said, were called Iapyges, after Iapyx, who is said to have been the son of Daedalus by a Cretan woman and to have been the leader of the Cretans. The city of Taras, however, was named after some hero. 7.5.1. The remainder of Europe consists of the country which is between the Ister and the encircling sea, beginning at the recess of the Adriatic and extending as far as the Sacred Mouth of the Ister. In this country are Greece and the tribes of the Macedonians and of the Epeirotes, and all those tribes above them whose countries reach to the Ister and to the seas on either side, both the Adriatic and the Pontic — to the Adriatic, the Illyrian tribes, and to the other sea as far as the Propontis and the Hellespont, the Thracian tribes and whatever Scythian or Celtic tribes are intermingled with them. But I must make my beginning at the Ister, speaking of the parts that come next in order after the regions which I have already encompassed in my description. These are the parts that border on Italy, on the Alps, and on the counties of the Germans, Dacians, and Getans. This country also might be divided into two parts, for, in a way, the Illyrian, Paeonian, and Thracian mountains are parallel to the Ister, thus completing what is almost a straight line that reaches from the Adrias as far as the Pontus; and to the north of this line are the parts that are between the Ister and the mountains, whereas to the south are Greece and the barbarian country which borders thereon and extends as far as the mountainous country. Now the mountain called Haemus is near the Pontus; it is the largest and highest of all mountains in that part of the world, and cleaves Thrace almost in the center. Polybius says that both seas are visible from the mountain, but this is untrue, for the distance to the Adrias is great and the things that obscure the view are many. On the other hand, almost the whole of Ardia is near the Adrias. But Paeonia is in the middle, and the whole of it too is high country. Paeonia is bounded on either side, first, towards the Thracian parts, by Rhodope, a mountain next in height to the Haemus, and secondly, on the other side, towards the north, by the Illyrian parts, both the country of the Autariatae and that of the Dardanians. So then, let me speak first of the Illyrian parts, which join the Ister and that part of the Alps which lies between Italy and Germany and begins at the lake which is near the country of the Vindelici, Rhaeti, and Toenii. 7.7.1. EpirusThese alone, then, of all the tribes that are marked off by the Ister and by the Illyrian and Thracian mountains, deserve to be mentioned, occupying as they do the whole of the Adriatic seaboard beginning at the recess, and also the sea-board that is called the left parts of the Pontus, and extends from the Ister River as far as Byzantium. But there remain to be described the southerly parts of the aforesaid mountainous country and next thereafter the districts that are situated below them, among which are both Greece and the adjacent barbarian country as far as the mountains. Now Hecataeus of Miletus says of the Peloponnesus that before the time of the Greeks it was inhabited by barbarians. Yet one might say that in the ancient times the whole of Greece was a settlement of barbarians, if one reasons from the traditions themselves: Pelops brought over peoples from Phrygia to the Peloponnesus that received its name from him; and Danaus from Egypt; whereas the Dryopes, the Caucones, the Pelasgi, the Leleges, and other such peoples, apportioned among themselves the parts that are inside the isthmus — and also the parts outside, for Attica was once held by the Thracians who came with Eumolpus, Daulis in Phocis by Tereus, Cadmeia by the Phoenicians who came with Cadmus, and Boeotia itself by the Aones and Temmices and Hyantes. According to Pindar, there was a time when the Boeotian tribe was called Syes. Moreover, the barbarian origin of some is indicated by their names — Cecrops, Godrus, Aiclus, Cothus, Drymas, and Crinacus. And even to the present day the Thracians, Illyrians, and Epeirotes live on the flanks of the Greeks (though this was still more the case formerly than now); indeed most of the country that at the present time is indisputably Greece is held by the barbarians — Macedonia and certain parts of Thessaly by the Thracians, and the parts above Acaria and Aitolia by the Thesproti, the Cassopaei, the Amphilochi, the Molossi, and the Athamanes — Epeirotic tribes. 8.1.1. Acaria I began my description by going over all the western parts of Europe comprised between the inner and the outer sea; and now that I have encompassed in my survey all the barbarian tribes in Europe as far as the Tanais and also a small part of Greece, Macedonia, I now shall give an account of the remainder of the geography of Greece. This subject was first treated by Homer; and then, after him, by several others, some of whom have written special treatises entitled Harbours, or Coasting Voyages, or General Descriptions of the Earth, or the like; and in these is comprised also the description of Greece. Others have set forth the topography of the continents in separate parts of their general histories, for instance, Ephorus and Polybius. Still others have inserted certain things on this subject in their treatises on physics and mathematics, for instance, Poseidonius and Hipparchus. Now although the statements of the others are easy to pass judgment upon, yet those of Homer require critical inquiry, since he speaks poetically, and not of things as they now are, but of things as they were in antiquity, which for the most part have been obscured by time. Be this as it may, as far as I can I must undertake the inquiry; and I shall begin where I left off. My account ended, on the west and the north, with the tribes of the Epeirotes and of the Illyrians, and, on the east, with those of the Macedonians as far as Byzantium. After the Epeirotes and the Illyrians, then, come the following peoples of the Greeks: the Acarians, the Aitolians, and the Ozolian Locrians; and, next, the Phocians and Boeotians; and opposite these, across the arm of the sea, is the Peloponnesus, which with these encloses the Corinthian Gulf, and not only shapes the gulf but also is shaped by it; and after Macedonia, the Thessalians (extending as far as the Malians) and the countries of the rest of the peoples outside the Isthmus, 3 as also of those inside. 8.6.6. But critics are in dispute in regard to the terms Hellas, Hellenes, and Panhellenes. For Thucydides says that the poet nowhere speaks of barbarians, because the Hellenes had not as yet been designated by a common distinctive name opposed to that of the barbarians. And Apollodorus says that only the Greeks in Thessaly were called Hellenes: and were called Myrmidons and Hellenes. He says, however, that Hesiod and Archilochus already knew that all the Greeks were called, not only Hellenes, but also Panhellenes, for Hesiod, in speaking of the daughters of Proteus, says that the Panhellenes wooed them, and Archilochus says that the woes of the Panhellenes centered upon Thasos. But others oppose this view, saying that the poet also speaks of barbarians, since he speaks of the Carians as men of barbarous speech, and of all the Greeks as Hellenes, the man whose fame is wide throughout Hellas and mid-Agros, and again, If thou wishest to journey throughout Hellas and mid-Agros. 9.2.3. Be that as it may, Boeotia in earlier times was inhabited by barbarians, the Aones and the Temmices, who wandered thither from Sounion, and by the Leleges and the Hyantes. Then the Phoenicians occupied it, I mean the Phoenicians with Cadmus, the man who fortified the Cadmeia and left the dominion to his descendants. Those Phoenicians founded Thebes in addition to the Cadmeia, and preserved their dominion, commanding most of the Boeotians until the expedition of the Epigoni. On this occasion they left Thebes for a short time, but came back again. And, in the same way, when they were ejected by the Thracians and the Pelasgians, they established their government in Thessaly along with the Arnaei for a long time, so that they were all called Boeotians. Then they returned to the homeland, at the time when the Aeolian fleet, near Aulis in Boeotia, was now ready to set sail, I mean the fleet which the sons of Orestes were despatching to Asia. After adding the Orchomenian country to Boeotia (for in earlier times the Orchomenians were not a part of the Boeotian community, nor did Homer enumerate them with the Boeotians, but as a separate people, for he called them Minyae), they, with the Orchomenians, drove out the Pelasgians to Athens (it was after these that a part of the city was named Pelasgicon, though they took up their abode below Hymettus), and the Thracians to Parnassus; and the Hyantes founded a city Hyas in Phocis. 10.3.9. But I must now investigate how it comes about that so many names have been used of one and the same thing, and the theological element contained in their history. Now this is common both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, to perform their sacred rites in connection with the relaxation of a festival, these rites being performed sometimes with religious frenzy, sometimes without it; sometimes with music, sometimes not; and sometimes in secret, sometimes openly. And it is in accordance with the dictates of nature that this should be so, for, in the first place, the relaxation draws the mind away from human occupations and turns the real mind towards that which is divine; and, secondly, the religious frenzy seems to afford a kind of divine inspiration and to be very like that of the soothsayer; and, thirdly, the secrecy with which the sacred rites are concealed induces reverence for the divine, since it imitates the nature of the divine, which is to avoid being perceived by our human senses; and, fourthly, music, which includes dancing as well as rhythm and melody, at the same time, by the delight it affords and by its artistic beauty, brings us in touch with the divine, and this for the following reason; for although it has been well said that human beings then act most like the gods when they are doing good to others, yet one might better say, when they are happy; and such happiness consists of rejoicing, celebrating festivals, pursuing philosophy, and engaging in music; for, if music is perverted when musicians turn their art to sensual delights at symposiums and in orchestric and scenic performances and the like, we should not lay the blame upon music itself, but should rather examine the nature of our system of education, since this is based on music. 12.3.37. The whole of the country around is held by Pythodoris, to whom belong, not only Phanaroea, but also Zelitis and Megalopolitis. Concerning Phanaroea I have already spoken. As for Zelitis, it has a city Zela, fortified on a mound of Semiramis, with the sanctuary of Anaitis, who is also revered by the Armenians. Now the sacred rites performed here are characterized by greater sanctity; and it is here that all the people of Pontus make their oaths concerning their matters of greatest importance. The large number of temple-servants and the honors of the priests were, in the time of the kings, of the same type as I have stated before, but at the present time everything is in the power of Pythodoris. Many persons had abused and reduced both the multitude of temple-servants and the rest of the resources of the sanctuary. The adjacent territory, also, was reduced, having been divided into several domains — I mean Zelitis, as it is called (which has the city Zela on a mound); for in, early times the kings governed Zela, not as a city, but as a sacred precinct of the Persian gods, and the priest was the master of the whole thing. It was inhabited by the multitude of temple-servants, and by the priest, who had an abundance of resources; and the sacred territory as well as that of the priest was subject to him and his numerous attendants. Pompey added many provinces to the boundaries of Zelitis, and named Zela, as he did Megalopolis, a city, and he united the latter and Culupene and Camisene into one state; the latter two border on both Lesser Armenia and Laviansene, and they contain rock-salt, and also an ancient fortress called Camisa, now in ruins. The later Roman prefects assigned a portion of these two governments to the priests of Comana, a portion to the priest of Zela, and a portion to Ateporix, a dynast of the family of tetrarchs of Galatia; but now that Ateporix has died, this portion, which is not large, is subject to the Romans, being called a province (and this little state is a political organization of itself, the people having incorporated Carana into it, from which fact its country is called Caranitis), whereas the rest is held by Pythodoris and Dyteutus. 12.8.4. Contributing to the creation of myths of this kind are the confusion of the tribes there and the fertility of the country this side the Halys River, particularly that of the seaboard, on account of which attacks were made against it from numerous places and continually by peoples from the opposite mainland, or else the people near by would attack one another. Now it was particularly in the time of the Trojan War and after that time that invasions and migrations took place, since at the same time both the barbarians and the Greeks felt an impulse to acquire possession of the countries of others; but this was also the case before the Trojan War, for the tribe of the Pelasgians was then in existence, as also that of the Cauconians and Leleges. And, as I have said before, they wandered in ancient times over many regions of Europe. These tribes the poet makes the allies of the Trojans, but not as coming from the opposite mainland. The accounts both of the Phrygians and of the Mysians go back to earlier times than the Trojan War. The existence of two groups of Lycians arouses suspicion that they were of the same tribe, whether it was the Trojan Lycians or those near Caria that colonized the country of the other of the two. And perhaps the same was also true in the case of the Cilicians, for these, too, were two-fold; however, we are unable to get the same kind of evidence that the present tribe of Cilicians was already in existence before the Trojan War. Telephus might be thought to have come from Arcadia with his mother; and having become related to Teuthras, to whom he was a welcome guest, by the marriage of his mother to that ruler, was regarded as his son and also succeeded to the rulership of the Mysians. 13.1.1. TROADLet this, then, mark the boundary of Phrygia. I shall now return again to the Propontis and the coast that comes next after the Aesepus River, and follow the same order of description as before. The first country on this seaboard is the Troad, the fame of which, although it is left in ruins and in desolation, nevertheless prompts in writers no ordinary prolixity. With this fact in view, I should ask the pardon of my readers and appeal to them not to fasten the blame for the length of my discussion upon me rather than upon those who strongly yearn for knowledge of the things that are famous and ancient. And my discussion is further prolonged by the number of the peoples who have colonized the country, both Greeks and barbarians, and by the historians, who do not write the same things on the same subjects, nor always clearly either; among the first of these is Homer, who leaves us to guess about most things. And it is necessary for me to arbitrate between his statements and those of the others, after I shall first have described in a summary way the nature of the region in question. 14.5.25. And who are the mixed tribes? For we would be unable to say that, as compared with the aforesaid places, others were either named or omitted by him which we shall assign to the mixed tribes; neither can we call mixed any of these peoples themselves whom he has mentioned or omitted; for, even if they had become mixed, still the predomit element has made them either Hellenes or barbarians; and I know nothing of a third tribe of people that is mixed. 15.3.23. of the barbarians the Persians were the best known to the Greeks, for none of the other barbarians who governed Asia governed Greece. The barbarians were not acquainted with the Greeks, and the Greeks were but slightly acquainted, and by distant report only, with the barbarians. As an instance, Homer was not acquainted with the empire of the Syrians nor of the Medes, for otherwise as he mentions the wealth of Egyptian Thebes and of Phoenicia, he would not have passed over in silence the wealth of Babylon, of Ninus, and of Ecbatana.The Persians were the first people that brought Greeks under their dominion; the Lydians (before them) did the same, they were not however masters of the whole, but of a small portion only of Asia, that within the river Halys; their empire lasted for a short time, during the reigns of Croesus and Alyattes; and they were deprived of what little glory they had acquired, when conquered by the Persians.The Persians, (on the contrary, increased in power and,)as soon as they had destroyed the Median empire, subdued the Lydians and brought the Greeks of Asia under their dominion. At a later period they even passed over into Greece and were worsted in many great battles, but still they continued to keep possession of Asia, as far as the places on the sea-coast, until they were completely subdued by the Macedonians. 16.2.38. This is according to nature, and common both to Greeks and barbarians. For, as members of a civil community, they live according to a common law; otherwise it would be impossible for the mass to execute any one thing in concert (in which consists a civil state), or to live in a social state at all. Law is twofold, divine and human. The ancients regarded and respected divine, in preference to human, law; in those times, therefore, the number of persons was very great who consulted oracles, and, being desirous of obtaining the advice of Jupiter, hurried to Dodona, to hear the answer of Jove from the lofty oak.The parent went to Delphi, anxious to learn whether the child which had been exposed (to die) was still living;while the child itself was gone to the temple of Apollo, with the hope of discovering its parents.And Minos among the Cretans, the king who in the ninth year enjoyed converse with Great Jupiter, every nine years, as Plato says, ascended to the cave of Jupiter, received ordices from him, and conveyed them to men. Lycurgus, his imitator, acted in a similar manner; for he was often accustomed, as it seemed, to leave his own country to inquire of the Pythian goddess what ordices he was to promulgate to the Lacedaemonians. 17.3.2. Here dwell a people called by the Greeks Maurusii, and by the Romans and the natives Mauri, a populous and flourishing African nation, situated opposite to Spain, on the other side of the strait, at the Pillars of Hercules, which we have frequently mentioned before. On proceeding beyond the strait at the Pillars, with Africa on the left hand, we come to a mountain which the Greeks call Atlas, and the barbarians Dyris. Thence projects into the sea a point formed by the foot of the mountain towards the west of Mauretania, and called the Coteis. Near it is a small town, a little above the sea, which the barbarians call Trinx; Artemidorus, Lynx; and Eratosthenes, Lixus. It lies on the side of the strait opposite to Gadeira, from which it is separated by a passage of 800 stadia, the width of the strait at the Pillars between both places. To the south, near Lixus and the Coteis, is a bay called Emporicus, having upon it Phoenician mercantile settlements. The whole coast continuous with this bay abounds with them. Subtracting these bays, and the projections of land in the triangular figure which I have described, the continent may rather be considered as increasing in magnitude in the direction of south and east. The mountain which extends through the middle of Mauretania, from the Coteis to the Syrtes, is itself inhabited, as well as others running parallel to it, first by the Maurusii, but deep in the interior of the country by the largest of the African tribes, called Gaetuli.
105. Epigraphy, I. Tyana, 34  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 516
106. Anon., Alexander Romance, 1.2  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 152
107. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71
47b. נידון מחצה על מחצה,אבניו עציו ועפרו מטמאין כשרץ שנאמר (דברים ז, כו) שקץ תשקצנו,ר"ע אומר כנדה שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כב) תזרם כמו דוה צא תאמר לו מה נדה מטמאה במשא אף עבודת כוכבים מטמאה במשא:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big והא קא מרווח לעבודת כוכבים א"ר חנינא מסורא דעבד ליה בית הכסא,והא בעי צניעותא דעבד ליה בית הכסא דלילה,והא אמר מר איזהו צנוע הנפנה בלילה במקום שנפנה ביום ואע"ג דאוקימנא בכדרך מיהו צניעותא בעי למעבד,דעבד ליה לתינוקות,א"נ דגדיר ליה בהיזמי והינגי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שלשה בתים הן בית שבנאו מתחלה לעבודת כוכבים הרי זה אסור סיידו וכיידו לעבודת כוכבים וחידש נוטל מה שחידש הכניס לתוכה עבודת כוכבים והוציאה הרי זה מותר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב המשתחוה לבית אסרו אלמא קסבר תלוש ולבסוף חברו כתלוש דמי והאנן בנאו תנן,בנאו אע"פ שלא השתחוה לו השתחוה אע"פ שלא בנאו א"ה הני שלשה ארבעה הוו,כיון דלענין ביטול בנה והשתחוה חד קא חשיב ליה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שלש אבנים הן אבן שחצבה מתחלה לבימוס הרי זו אסורה סיידה וכיידה לשם עבודת כוכבים נוטל מה שסייד וכייד ומותרת העמיד עליה עבודת כוכבים וסילקה הרי זו מותרת:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר אמי והוא שסייד וכייד בגופה של אבן,והא דומיא דבית תנן ובית לאו בגופיה הוא ומיתסר בית נמי איכא ביני אורבי,מי לא עסקינן דשייע והדר שייעיה,אלא כי אתמר דרבי אמי לענין ביטול אתמר ואע"ג דסייד וכייד בגופה של אבן כי נטל מה שחידש שפיר דמי,דמהו דתימא כיון שסייד וכייד בגופה של אבן כאבן שחצבה מתחלה לעבודת כוכבים דמיא ותיתסר כולה קמ"ל: 47b. the area b is treated /b as b half and half /b with regard to withdrawing into his property before rebuilding the wall; he may build the wall four cubits from the middle of that space., b The stones of /b the fallen wall, b its wood, and its dust, transmit impurity like a creeping animal, /b i.e., one who touches them becomes impure like one who touches a creeping animal, b as it is stated: /b “And you shall not bring an abomination into your house, and be accursed like it; b you shall detest it [ i shakketz teshakketzennu /i ], /b and you shall abhor it; for it is a proscribed item” (Deuteronomy 7:26). The term i shakketz /i is used in a different form, i shekketz /i , with regard to creeping animals., b Rabbi Akiva says: /b Those items transmit impurity b like a menstruating woman, as it is stated: “You will put them far away as a menstruating woman; you shall say to it: Go away” /b (Isaiah 30:22). b Just as a menstruating woman transmits impurity by carrying, /b as one who moves a menstruating woman, even without touching her, becomes impure, b so too, /b objects of b idol worship transmit impurity by carrying. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that one must rebuild his wall at a distance from the house of idol worship. The Gemara asks: b But /b how may one do so? b Isn’t he creating more space for the /b house of b idol worship? Rav Ḥanina of Sura said: /b This is not a problem, b as he converts /b the empty space into b a bathroom. /b ,Since the mishna teaches that no wall may be built in that space, the bathroom is apparently not enclosed. The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t /b a bathroom b need /b to be in a place of b modesty? /b The Gemara answers: This is not a problem, b as he converts it /b into b a bathroom for nighttime, /b when no one can see him.,The Gemara asks: b But didn’t the master say /b in a i baraita /i : b Who is a modest person? One who defecates at night in /b the same b place that he defecates during the day, /b i.e., in a place where no one can see him? b And although we interpreted /b the i baraita /i as referring not to location but to conduct, teaching that one must conduct himself at night b in the same manner, /b i.e., with the same degree of modesty, as he does during the day with regard to removing his clothing when defecating (see i Berakhot /i 62a), b nevertheless, /b it can be inferred from here that even at night one b is required to observe /b the dictates of b modesty. /b ,The Gemara answers: This is not a problem, b as he converts it /b into a bathroom b for children, /b who are not required to observe the same level of modesty.,The Gemara suggests a different answer to the problem of enlarging the space used for idolatry: b Alternatively, /b one can answer b that he fences /b in the four-cubit space b with thorns and shrubs, /b thereby preventing its use., strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to idol worship b there are three /b types of b houses, /b each with its own i halakhot /i . b A house that one built initially for /b the purpose of b idol worship is forbidden, /b i.e., it is prohibited to derive benefit from such a house. If one b plastered /b a house b or cemented it for /b the purpose of b idol worship, and he /b thereby b added /b a layer to the walls of the house, one b removes that which he added, /b and the rest of the house is permitted. If one b brought /b an object of b idol worship into /b a house temporarily b and /b then b removed it, /b the house b is /b then b permitted. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Rav says: One who bows to a house has rendered it forbidden. /b The Gemara infers: b Evidently, /b Rav b holds /b that an item that was b detached and /b that b one subsequently attached is considered as /b if it were still b detached. /b Consequently, a house, which is attached to the ground but was built with materials that were detached from the ground, can become forbidden through worship. The Gemara asks: b But didn’t we learn /b in the mishna that if a house was initially b built /b for the purpose of idol worship, it is forbidden? This indicates that the house becomes forbidden only when it is initially constructed for idolatrous purposes.,The Gemara answers that there are two cases where the house is rendered forbidden: If one b built it /b for purposes of idol worship, b even if he did not bow to it, /b or if b he bowed to it, even if he did not build it /b for purposes of idol worship; it is forbidden in either case. The Gemara asks: b If so, /b why does the mishna list only b these three /b types of houses, when b there are /b really b four? /b ,The Gemara answers: b Since with regard to /b the b revocation /b of their idolatrous status there is no difference between a house that one b built /b for idolatrous purposes b and /b a house that one b bowed /b down to, the mishna b considers them /b as b one. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to idol worship b there are three /b types of b stones, /b each with its own i halakhot /i . b A stone that /b one b initially hewed for /b use in b a platform [ i bimos /i ] /b for an idol b is forbidden. /b If one b plastered /b a stone b or cemented it for the sake of idol worship, one removes that which he plastered or cemented and /b the stone b is permitted. /b If one b erected /b an object of b idol worship upon /b a stone b and /b subsequently b removed it, /b the stone b is /b then b permitted. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that one may not derive benefit from a stone plastered or cemented for the sake of idol worship. b Rabbi Ami says: And /b that b is /b the i halakha /i provided b that one plastered or cemented within the stone itself, /b by carving or engraving into it. If the plaster or cement was merely appended to the outside of the stone as an external ornament, the stone is not forbidden.,The Gemara asks: b But didn’t we learn /b in the mishna the i halakha /i with regard to stones immediately following the i halakha /i with regard to a house utilized for idol worship? This indicates that the i halakha /i of a stone is b similar to /b the i halakha /i of b a house. And /b in the case of b a house /b that was rendered forbidden when it was plastered or cemented for idol worship, that plastering was b not /b done b within the house itself, /b but on the exterior of its walls, b and /b even so it is b rendered forbidden. /b Accordingly, even external plastering should render the stone forbidden. The Gemara answers: In the case of b a house /b it can b also /b be explained that the plaster or cement was added to the house itself, as b there is /b space b in between the bricks /b that can be filled in.,The Gemara asks: As the mishna does not specify, b are we not dealing /b even with a house b that one plastered /b with no idolatrous purpose b and /b then b plastered again /b on top of that layer for the sake of idol worship, rendering the house forbidden even without affecting the house itself?,The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ami was not explaining at what point a stone plastered for idolatry becomes forbidden; b rather, when Rabbi Ami’s /b statement b was stated, it was stated with regard to revocation /b of the stone’s idolatrous status, b and /b he taught that b even if one plastered or cemented within the stone itself, when one removes that which was added, /b it is b permitted. /b ,The Gemara explains Rabbi Ami’s ruling: b Lest you say /b that b since one plastered or cemented within the stone itself, it is equivalent to a stone that one initially hewed for idol worship, and /b there-fore the b entire /b stone is b forbidden, /b Rabbi Ami b teaches us /b that the stone can become permitted by the removal of the additional layer of plaster.
108. Ctesias, Fragments, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 119
109. Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, 3.1.8, 5.1.17-5.1.23  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 160; Marek (2019) 177
3.1.8. se scire inexpugnabiles esse, ad ultimum pro fide morituros. Ceterum ut circumsederi arcem et omnia sibi in dies artiora esse viderunt, sexaginta dierum indutias pacti, ut, nisi intra eos auxilium Dareus ipsis misisset, dederent urbem, postquam nihil inde praesidii mittebatur, ad praestitutam diem permisere se regi. 5.1.17. Ceterum Babylona procedenti Alexandro Mazaeus, qui ex acie in eam urbem confugerat, cum adultis liberis supplex occurrit urbem seque dedens. Gratus adventus eras regi fuit: quippe magni operis obsidio futura erat tam munitae urbis. 5.1.18. Ad hoc vir inlustris et manu promptus famaque etiam proximo proelio Celebris et ceteros ad deditionem suo incitaturus exemplo videbatur. Igitur hunc quidem benigne cum liberis excipit: 5.1.19. ceterum quadrato agmine, quod ipse ducebat, velut in aciem irent, ingredi suos iubet. Magna pars Babyloniorum constiterat in muris avida cognoscendi novum regem, plures obviam egressi sunt. 5.1.20. Inter quos Bagophanes, arcis et regiae pecuniae custos, ne studio a Mazaeo vinceretur, totum iter floribus coronisque constraverat argenteis altaribus utroque latere disposais, quae non ture modo, sed omnibus odoribus cumulaverat. 5.1.21. Dona eum sequebantur greges pecorum equorumque, leones quoque et pardales caveis praeferebantur. 5.1.22. Magi deinde suo more carmen canentes, post hos Chaldaei Babyloniorumque non vates modo, sed etiam artifices cum fidibus sui generis ibant: laudes hi regum canere soliti, Chaldaei siderum motus et statas vices temporum ostendere. 5.1.23. Equites deinde Babylonii suo equorumque cultu ad luxuriam magis quam ad magnificentiam exacto ultimi ibant. Rex armatis stipatus oppidanorum turbam post ultimos pedites ire iussit: ipse cum curru urbem ac deinde regiam intravit. Postero die supellectilem Darei et omnem pecuniam recognovit.
110. Epigraphy, Ogis, 54  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 213
111. Epigraphy, Priene, 132  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 213
112. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.2  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 124
4.2. So he came to Apollonius, governor of Syria, Phoenicia, and Cilicia, and said,
118. Papyri, Db, 2.24-2.25, 2.31-2.32  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 117
119. Ancient Near Eastern Sources, Ten-Year Annals, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Marek (2019) 74
120. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qap, 12.10  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 118
121. Berossus, Fgrh 680), None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 118
122. Papyri, Xph, 2  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 141
123. Papyri, Dse, 2  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians Found in books: Gera (2014) 141
126. Muirchu, Vita Patricii, 1.10.4, 1.15.2, 1.20.8-1.20.9  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 265
131. Tirechan, Vita Patricii, 42.6-42.7  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonians Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 265
132. Anon., 4 Baruch, 7.25-7.26, 8.1-8.8  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Gruen (2020) 130
7.25. For you have been found righteous before God, and he did not let you come here, lest you see the affliction which has come upon the people at the hands of the Babylonians. 7.26. For it is like a father with an only son, who is given over for punishment; and those who see his father and console him cover his face, lest he see how his son is being punished, and be even more ravaged by grief. 8.1. And the day came in which the Lord brought the people out of Babylon. 8.2. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Rise up -- you and the people -- and come to the Jordan and say to the people: Let anyone who desires the Lord forsake the works of Babylon. 8.3. As for the men who took wives from them and the women who took husbands from them -- those who listen to you shall cross over, and you take them into Jerusalem; but those who do not listen to you, do not lead them there. 8.4. And Jeremiah spoke these words to the people, and they arose and cameto the Jordan to cross over. 8.5. As he told them the words that the Lord had spoken to him, half ofthose who had taken spouses from them did not wish to listen toJeremiah, but said to him: We will never forsake our wives, but we will bring them back with us into our city. 8.6. So they crossed the Jordan and came to Jerusalem. 8.7. And Jeremiah and Baruch and Abimelech stood up and said: No man joined with Babylonians shall enter this city! 8.8. And they said to one another: Let us arise and return to Babylon to our place --And they departed.
133. Phylarchos Fr., Fgrh 81, 24  Tagged with subjects: •babylon/babylonians Found in books: Marek (2019) 213
134. Eupolemus, Fgrh 723, None  Tagged with subjects: •babylon and babylonians •babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Found in books: Gera (2014) 118, 141
135. Anon., Pirqe R. Hak., 3.64, 3.72  Tagged with subjects: •babylon, babylonian Found in books: Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 71