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32 results for "authority"
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 70
26.46. "אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃", 26.46. "These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 71
1.5. "בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב הוֹאִיל מֹשֶׁה בֵּאֵר אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת לֵאמֹר׃", 1.5. "beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, took Moses upon him to expound this law, saying:",
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 66
2.10. "For she did not know that it was I that gave her The corn, and the wine, and the oil, And multiplied unto her silver and gold, Which they used for Baal.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 66
29.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃", 29.13. "And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;",
5. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.25-9.26 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 66
9.25. "וַיִּלְכְּדוּ עָרִים בְּצֻרוֹת וַאֲדָמָה שְׁמֵנָה וַיִּירְשׁוּ בָּתִּים מְלֵאִים־כָּל־טוּב בֹּרוֹת חֲצוּבִים כְּרָמִים וְזֵיתִים וְעֵץ מַאֲכָל לָרֹב וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׂבְּעוּ וַיַּשְׁמִינוּ וַיִּתְעַדְּנוּ בְּטוּבְךָ הַגָּדוֹל׃", 9.26. "וַיַּמְרוּ וַיִּמְרְדוּ בָּךְ וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתְךָ אַחֲרֵי גַוָּם וְאֶת־נְבִיאֶיךָ הָרָגוּ אֲשֶׁר־הֵעִידוּ בָם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֵלֶיךָ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ נֶאָצוֹת גְּדוֹלֹת׃", 9.25. "And they took fortified cities, and a fat land, and possessed houses full of all good things, cisterns hewn out, vineyards, and oliveyards, and fruit-trees in abundance; so they did eat, and were filled, and became fat, and luxuriated in Thy great goodness.", 9.26. "Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against Thee, and cast Thy law behind their back, and slew Thy prophets that did forewarn them to turn them back unto Thee, and they wrought great provocations.",
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.56-1.57 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 21
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 114
16. But there are some persons who have made a treaty with the body to last till the day of their death, and who have buried themselves in it as in a chest or coffin or whatever else you like to call it, of whom all the parts which are devoted to the slavery of the body and of the passions are consigned to oblivion and buried. But if anything well affected towards virtue has shot up by the side of it, that is preserved in the recollection, by means of which good things are naturally destined to be kept alive. IV.
8. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 89-91 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 114
91. and yet no one, not even of those immoderately cruel tyrants, nor of the more treacherous and hypocritical oppressors was ever able to bring any real accusation against the multitude of those called Essenes or Holy. But everyone being subdued by the virtue of these men, looked up to them as free by nature, and not subject to the frown of any human being, and have celebrated their manner of messing together, and their fellowship with one another beyond all description in respect of its mutual good faith, which is an ample proof of a perfect and very happy life. XIV.
9. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 114
4.1. "אֶחָד דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת וְאֶחָד דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, בִּדְרִישָׁה וּבַחֲקִירָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כד) מִשְׁפַּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם. מַה בֵּין דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת לְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה, וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת פּוֹתְחִין בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת פּוֹתְחִין לִזְכוּת וְאֵין פּוֹתְחִין לְחוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת מַטִּין עַל פִּי אֶחָד בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, וְדִינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת מַטִּין עַל פִּי אֶחָד לִזְכוּת וְעַל פִּי שְׁנַיִם לְחוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת מַחֲזִירִין בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת מַחֲזִירִין לִזְכוּת וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין לְחוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת הַכֹּל מְלַמְּדִין זְכוּת וְחוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת הַכֹּל מְלַמְּדִין זְכוּת וְאֵין הַכֹּל מְלַמְּדִין חוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת הַמְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה מְלַמֵּד זְכוּת וְהַמְלַמֵּד זְכוּת מְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת הַמְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה מְלַמֵּד זְכוּת, אֲבָל הַמְלַמֵּד זְכוּת אֵין יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְלַמֵּד חוֹבָה. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת דָּנִין בַּיּוֹם וְגוֹמְרִין בַּלַּיְלָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת דָּנִין בַּיּוֹם וְגוֹמְרִין בַּיּוֹם. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת גּוֹמְרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בֵּין לִזְכוּת בֵּין לְחוֹבָה, דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת גּוֹמְרִין בּוֹ בַיּוֹם לִזְכוּת וּבְיוֹם שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו לְחוֹבָה, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין דָּנִין לֹא בְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְלֹא בְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב: \n", 4.1. "Both non-capital and capital cases require examination and inquiry [of the witnesses], as it says, “You shall have one manner of law” (Lev. 24:22). How do non-capital cases differ from capital cases? Non-capital cases [are decided] by three and capital cases by twenty three. Non-capital cases may begin either with reasons for acquittal or for conviction; capital cases begin with reasons for acquittal and do not begin with reasons for conviction. In non-capital cases they may reach a verdict of either acquittal or conviction by the decision of a majority of one; in capital cases they may reach an acquittal by the majority of one but a verdict of conviction only by the decision of a majority of two. In non-capital cases they may reverse a verdict either [from conviction] to acquittal or [from acquittal] to conviction; in capital cases they may reverse a verdict [from conviction] to acquittal but not [from acquittal] to conviction. In non-capital cases all may argue either in favor of conviction or of acquittal; in capital cases all may argue in favor of acquittal but not all may argue in favor of conviction. In non-capital cases he that had argued in favor of conviction may afterward argue in favor of acquittal, or he that had argued in favor of acquittal may afterward argue in favor of conviction; in capital cases he that had argued in favor of conviction may afterward argue in favor of acquittal but he that had argued in favor of acquittal cannot afterward argue in favor of conviction. In non-capital cases they hold the trial during the daytime and the verdict may be reached during the night; in capital cases they hold the trial during the daytime and the verdict also must be reached during the daytime. In non-capital cases the verdict, whether of acquittal or of conviction, may be reached the same day; in capital cases a verdict of acquittal may be reached on the same day, but a verdict of conviction not until the following day. Therefore trials may not be held on the eve of a Sabbath or on the eve of a Festival.",
10. New Testament, Mark, 2.18-2.20, 7.5-7.8, 12.18-12.27, 14.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 66, 67, 68; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 110, 114
2.18. Καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες. καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ σοὶ [μαθηταὶ] οὐ νηστεύουσιν; 2.19. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν νηστεύειν; ὅσον χρόνον ἔχουσιν τὸν νυμφίον μετʼ αὐτῶν οὐ δύνανται νηστεύειν· 2.20. ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ. 7.5. —καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς Διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 7.6. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν Ἠσαίας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· 7.7. μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων· 7.8. ἀφέντες τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κρατεῖτε τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 12.18. Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν, οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι, καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες 12.19. Διδάσκαλε, Μωυσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν ὅτι ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ καὶ καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα καὶ μὴ ἀφῇ τέκνον, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ. 12.20. ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοὶ ἦσαν· καὶ ὁ πρῶτος ἔλαβεν γυναῖκα, καὶ ἀποθνήσκων οὐκ ἀφῆκεν σπέρμα· 12.21. καὶ ὁ δεύτερος ἔλαβεν αὐτήν, καὶ ἀπέθανεν μὴ καταλιπὼν σπέρμα, καὶ ὁ τρίτος ὡσαύτως· 12.22. καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐκ ἀφῆκαν σπέρμα· ἔσχατον πάντων καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν. 12.23. ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τίνος αὐτῶν ἔσται γυνή; οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα. 12.24. ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ θεοῦ; 12.25. ὅταν γὰρ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῶσιν, οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται, ἀλλʼ εἰσὶν ὡς ἄγγελοι ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· 12.26. περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωυσέως ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς λέγων Ἐγὼ ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ καὶ θεὸς Ἰακώβ; 12.27. οὐκ ἔστιν θεὸς νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων· πολὺ πλανᾶσθε. 14.53. Καὶ ἀπήγαγον τὸν Ἰησοῦν πρὸς τὸν ἀρχιερέα, καὶ συνέρχονται πάντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς. 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast?" 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. "For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things." 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying, 12.19. "Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.20. There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring. 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife." 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken." 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him.
11. New Testament, Philippians, 3.5-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 67
3.5. περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων, κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος, 3.6. κατὰ ζῆλος διώκων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατὰ δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν νόμῳ γενόμενος ἄμεμπτος. 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless.
12. New Testament, Galatians, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 67
1.14. καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
13. New Testament, Colossians, 2.8, 2.20-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 67
2.8. Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς ἔσται ὁ συλαγωγῶν διὰ τῆς φιλοσοφίας καὶ κενῆς ἀπάτης κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, κατὰ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου καὶ οὐ κατὰ Χριστόν· 2.20. Εἰ ἀπεθάνετε σὺν Χριστῷ ἀπὸ τῶν στοιχείεν τοῦ κόσμου, τί ὡς ζῶντες ἐν κόσμῳ δογματίζεσθε 2.21. Μὴ ἅψῃ μηδὲ γεύσῃ μηδὲ θίγῃς, 2.22. ἅ ἐστιν πάντα εἰς φθορὰν τῇ ἀποχρήσει, κατὰ τὰἐντάλματα καὶ διδασκαλίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων; 2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices, 2.21. "Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch" 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men?
14. New Testament, Acts, 4.1, 5.17, 5.34, 15.5, 23.6-23.9, 26.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 110
4.1. Λαλούν των δὲ αὐτῶν πρὸς τὸν λαὸν ἐπέστησαν αὐτοῖς οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ οἱ Σαδδουκαῖοι, 5.17. Ἀναστὰς δὲ ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ πάντες οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ, ἡ οὖσα αἵρεσις τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, 5.34. Ἀναστὰς δέ τις ἐν τῷ συνεδρίῳ Φαρισαῖος ὀνόματι Γαμαλιήλ, νομοδιδάσκαλος τίμιος παντὶ τῷ λαῷ, ἐκέλευσεν ἔξω βραχὺ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ποιῆσαι, 15.5. Ἐξανέστησαν δέ τινες τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς αἱρέσεως τῶν Φαρισαίων πεπιστευκότες, λέγοντες ὅτι δεῖ περιτέμνειν αὐτοὺς παραγγέλλειν τε τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον Μωυσέως. 23.6. Γνοὺς δὲ ὁ Παῦλος ὅτι τὸ ἓν μέρος ἐστὶν Σαδδουκαίων τὸ δὲ ἕτερον Φαρισαίων ἔκραζεν ἐν τῷ συνεδρίῳ Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἐγὼ Φαρισαῖός εἰμι, υἱὸς Φαρισαίων· περὶ ἐλπίδος καὶ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν κρίνομαι. 23.7. τοῦτο δὲ αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἐγένετο στάσις τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων, καὶ ἐσχίσθη τὸ πλῆθος. 23.8. Σαδδουκαῖοι γὰρ λέγουσιν μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν μήτε ἄγγελον μήτε πνεῦμα, Φαρισαῖοι δὲ ὁμολογοῦσιν τὰ ἀμφότερα. 23.9. ἐγένετο δὲ κραυγὴ μεγάλη, καὶ ἀναστάντες τινὲς pb n="302"/ τῶν γραμματέων τοῦ μέρους τῶν Φαρισαίων διεμάχοντο λέγοντες Οὐδὲν κακὸν εὑρίσκομεν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τούτῳ· εἰ δὲ πνεῦμα ἐλάλησεν αὐτῷ ἢ ἄγγελος—. 26.5. προγινώσκοντές με ἄνωθεν, ἐὰν θέλωσι μαρτυρεῖν, ὅτι κατὰ τὴν ἀκριβεστάτην αἵρεσιν τῆς ἡμετέρας θρησκείας ἔζησα Φαρισαῖος. 4.1. As they spoke to the people, the priests and the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came to them, 5.17. But the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with jealousy, 5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses." 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged!" 23.7. When he had said this, an argument arose between the Pharisees and Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these. 23.9. A great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and contended, saying, "We find no evil in this man. But if a spirit or angel has spoken to him, let's not fight against God!" 26.5. having known me from the first, if they are willing to testify, that after the strictest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee.
15. Anon., Didache, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 185
16. New Testament, Matthew, 5.17, 15.3, 21.45, 22.15, 22.23, 22.34, 23.2-23.7, 23.13, 23.23, 23.25-23.29, 27.62 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 21; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 110, 111, 114, 185
5.17. Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας· οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι· 15.3. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Διὰ τί καὶ ὑμεῖς παραβαίνετε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν; 21.45. Καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι τὰς παραβολὰς αὐτοῦ ἔγνωσαν ὅτι περὶ αὐτῶν λέγει· 22.15. Τότε πορευθέντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον ὅπως αὐτὸν παγιδεύσωσιν ἐν λόγῳ. 22.23. Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ προσῆλθον αὐτῷ Σαδδουκαῖοι, λέγοντες μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν, καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν 22.34. Οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἀκούσαντες ὅτι ἐφίμωσεν τοὺς Σαδδουκαίους συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό. 23.2. Ἐπὶ τῆς Μωυσέως καθέδρας ἐκάθισαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι. 23.3. πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν εἴπωσιν ὑμῖν ποιήσατε καὶ τηρεῖτε, κατὰ δὲ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν μὴ ποιεῖτε, λέγουσιν γὰρ καὶ οὐ ποιοῦσιν. 23.4. δεσμεύουσιν δὲ φορτία βαρέα καὶ ἐπιτιθέασιν ἐπὶ τοὺς ὤμους τῶν ἀνθρώπων, αὐτοὶ δὲ τῷ δακτύλῳ αὐτῶν οὐ θέλουσιν κινῆσαι αὐτά. 23.5. πάντα δὲ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν ποιοῦσιν πρὸς τὸ θεαθῆναι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· πλατύνουσι γὰρ τὰ φυλακτήρια αὐτῶν καὶ μεγαλύνουσι τὰ κράσπεδα, 23.6. φιλοῦσι δὲ τὴν πρωτοκλισίαν ἐν τοῖς δείπνοις καὶ τὰς πρωτοκαθεδρίας ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς 23.7. καὶ τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς καὶ καλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων Ῥαββεί. 23.13. 23.23. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι ἀποδεκατοῦτε τὸ ἡδύοσμον καὶ τὸ ἄνηθον καὶ τὸ κύμινον, καὶ ἀφήκατε τὰ βαρύτερα τοῦ νόμου, τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὸ ἔλεος καὶ τὴν πίστιν· ταῦτα δὲ ἔδει ποιῆσαι κἀκεῖνα μὴ ἀφεῖναι. 23.25. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι καθαρίζετε τὸ ἔξωθεν τοῦ ποτηρίου καὶ τῆς παροψίδος, ἔσωθεν δὲ γέμουσιν ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς καὶ ἀκρασίας. 23.26. Φαρισαῖε τυφλέ, καθάρισον πρῶτον τὸ ἔντος τοῦ ποτηρίου [καὶ τῆς παροψίδος], ἵνα γένηται καὶ τὸ ἐκτὸς αὐτοῦ καθαρόν. 23.27. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι παρομοιάζετε τάφοις κεκονιαμένοις, οἵτινες ἔξωθεν μὲν φαίνονται ὡραῖοι ἔσωθεν δὲ γέμουσιν ὀστέων νεκρῶν καὶ πάσης ἀκαθαρσίας· 23.28. οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ἔξωθεν μὲν φαίνεσθε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις δίκαιοι, ἔσωθεν δέ ἐστε μεστοὶ ὑποκρίσεως καὶ ἀνομίας. 23.29. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι οἰκοδομεῖτε τοὺς τάφους τῶν προφητῶν καὶ κοσμεῖτε τὰ μνημεῖα τῶν δικαίων, 27.62. Τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον, ἥτις ἐστὶν μετὰ τὴν παρασκευήν, συνήχθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι πρὸς Πειλᾶτον 5.17. "Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 21.45. When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they perceived that he spoke about them. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.23. On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him, 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments, 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues, 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.13. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.23. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 23.25. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and unrighteousness. 23.26. You blind Pharisee, first clean the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside of it may become clean also. 23.27. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. 23.28. Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. 23.29. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the tombs of the righteous, 27.62. Now on the next day, which was the day after the Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees were gathered together to Pilate,
17. New Testament, Luke, 5.17, 7.36, 11.37, 14.1, 18.12, 20.27-20.40, 22.66 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 110, 114, 185
5.17. Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διδάσκων, καὶ ἦσαν καθήμενοι Φαρισαῖοι καὶ νομοδιδάσκαλοι οἳ ἦσαν ἐληλυθότες ἐκ πάσης κώμης τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ Ἰουδαίας καὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ· καὶ δύναμις Κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτόν. 7.36. Ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων ἵνα φάγῃ μετʼ αὐτοῦ· καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου κατεκλίθη. 11.37. Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι ἐρωτᾷ αὐτὸν Φαρισαῖος ὅπως ἀριστήσῃ παρʼ αὐτῷ· εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν. 14.1. Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἐλθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς οἶκόν τινος τῶν ἀρχόντων [τῶν] Φαρισαίων σαββάτῳ φαγεῖν ἄρτον καὶ αὐτοὶ ἦσαν παρατηρούμενοι αὐτόν. 18.12. νηστεύω δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου, ἀποδεκατεύω πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι. 20.27. Προσελθόντες δέ τινες τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, οἱ λέγοντες ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι, ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν λέγοντες 20.28. Διδάσκαλε, Μωυσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν, ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ ἔχων γυναῖκα, καὶ οὗτος ἄτεκνος ᾖ, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ. 20.29. ἑπτὰ οὖν ἀδελφοὶ ἦσαν· καὶ ὁ πρῶτος λαβὼν γυναῖκα ἀπέθανεν ἄτεκνος· 20.30. καὶ ὁ δεύτερος καὶ ὁ τρίτος ἔλαβεν αὐτήν, 20.31. ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐ κατέλιπον τέκνα καὶ ἀπέθανον· 20.32. ὕστερον καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν. 20.33. ἡ γυνὴ οὖν ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τίνος αὐτῶν γίνεται γυνή; οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα. 20.34. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου γαμοῦσιν καὶ γαμίσκονται, 20.35. οἱ δὲ καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τῆς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται· 20.36. οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀποθανεῖν ἔτι δύνανται, ἰσάγγελοι γάρ εἰσιν, καὶ υἱοί εἰσιν θεοῦ τῆς ἀναστάσεως υἱοὶ ὄντες. 20.37. ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ καὶ Μωυσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς βάτου, ὡς λέγει Κύριον τὸν θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ καὶ θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ καὶ θεὸν Ἰακώβ· 20.38. θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων, πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν. 20.39. ἀποκριθέντες δέ τινες τῶν γραμματέων εἶπαν Διδάσκαλε, καλῶς εἶπας· 20.40. οὐκέτι γὰρ ἐτόλμων ἐπερωτᾷν αὐτὸν οὐδέν. 22.66. Καὶ ὡς ἐγένετο ἡμέρα, συνήχθη τὸ πρεσβυτέριον τοῦ λαοῦ, ἀρχιερεῖς τε καὶ γραμματεῖς, καὶ ἀπήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ συνέδριον αὐτῶν, 5.17. It happened on one of those days, that he was teaching; and there were Pharisees and teachers of the law sitting by, who had come out of every village of Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. The power of the Lord was with him to heal them. 7.36. One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 11.37. Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 14.1. It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 20.27. Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection. 20.28. They asked him, "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife, and raise up children for his brother. 20.29. There were therefore seven brothers. The first took a wife, and died childless. 20.30. The second took her as wife, and he died childless. 20.31. The third took her, and likewise the seven all left no children, and died. 20.32. Afterward the woman also died. 20.33. Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them will she be? For the seven had her as a wife." 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.36. For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 20.38. Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him." 20.39. Some of the scribes answered, "Teacher, you speak well." 20.40. They didn't dare to ask him any more questions. 22.66. As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying,
18. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 70
2.6. "מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁזָּרַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אִישׁ הַמִּצְפָּה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְעָלוּ לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית וְשָׁאָלוּ. אָמַר נַחוּם הַלַּבְלָר, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵאַבָּא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִן הַזּוּגוֹת, שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ מִן הַנְּבִיאִים, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, בְּזוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, אִם עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.6. "It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.",
19. Tosefta, Niddah, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 68
1.3. "רבי אליעזר אומר ארבע נשים דיין שעתן בתולה מעוברת מניקה וזקנה אמר רבי יהושע אני לא שמעתי אלא בתולה. אמר לו רבי אליעזר אין אומרים למי שלא ראה את החדש יבא ויעיד אלא למי שראה. אתה לא שמעת ואנחנו שמענו. אתה שמעת אחת ואנחנו שמענו ארבע כל ימיו של ר\"א היו העם נוהגין כדבריו אחר שמת ר\"א החזיר רבי יהושע את הדברים ליושנן והלכה כרבי אליעזר.",
20. Mishnah, Niddah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 68
1.1. "שַׁמַּאי אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַנָּשִׁים דַּיָּן שְׁעָתָן. הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, מִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ לְיָמִים הַרְבֵּה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא כְדִבְרֵי זֶה וְלֹא כְדִבְרֵי זֶה, אֶלָּא מֵעֵת לְעֵת מְמַעֵט עַל יַד מִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה, וּמִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה מְמַעֶטֶת עַל יַד מֵעֵת לְעֵת. כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁיֶּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת, דַּיָּהּ שְׁעָתָהּ. וְהַמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּעִדִּים, הֲרֵי זוֹ כִפְקִידָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת עַל יַד מֵעֵת לְעֵת וְעַל יַד מִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה: \n", 1.1. "Shammai says: for all women it suffices [to reckon] their [period of uncleanness from their time [of discovering the flow]. Hillel ruled: [their period of uncleanness is to be reckoned retroactively] from the [previous] examination to the [last] examination, even if this was many days. The sages say: [the law is] not like the words of these or the words of those, but [the women are deemed to have been unclean] during [the preceding] twenty-four hours when this lessens the period from the [previous] examination to the [last] examination, and during the period from the [previous] examination to the [last] examination when this lessens the period of twenty-four hours. For any woman who has a regular period it suffices [to reckon her period of uncleanness from] the time she discovers the flow. And if a woman uses rags when she has marital intercourse, this is like an examination which lessens either the period of the [past] twenty-four hours or the period from the [previous] examination to the [last] examination.",
21. Mishnah, Eduyot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 68
1.1. "שַׁמַּאי אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַנָּשִׁים דַּיָּן שְׁעָתָן. וְהִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, מִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה, אֲפִלּוּ לְיָמִים הַרְבֵּה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא כְדִבְרֵי זֶה וְלֹא כְדִבְרֵי זֶה, אֶלָּא מֵעֵת לְעֵת מְמַעֶטֶת עַל יַד מִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה, וּמִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה מְמַעֶטֶת עַל יַד מֵעֵת לְעֵת. כָּל אִשָּׁה שֶׁיֶּשׁ לָהּ וֶסֶת, דַּיָּהּ שְׁעָתָהּ. הַמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת בְּעִדִּים, הֲרֵי זוֹ כִפְקִידָה, מְמַעֶטֶת עַל יַד מֵעֵת לְעֵת וְעַל יַד מִפְּקִידָה לִפְקִידָה: \n", 1.1. "Shammai says: “For all women [who begin to menstruate] it suffices [to reckon their impurity from] the time [of their discovering it].” And Hillel says: “[Their impurity is reckoned backwards] from the [last] examination to the [previous] examination, even if this covers many days.” But the Sages say: “Neither according to the opinion of this one nor according to the opinion of this one, but [they are considered impure for] the past twenty four hours when this lessens the period from the [last] examination to the [previous] examination, and for the period from the [last] examination to the [previous] examination when this lessens the past twenty-four hours.” Any woman who has a regular period, it suffices [to reckon her impurity from] her set time. She who uses testing-cloths [when she has sexual relations], behold this is like an examination: it lessens either the period of the [past] twenty four hours or the period from the [last] examination to the [previous] examination.",
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.145, 2.228-2.231 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 21; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 114
2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.228. 2. Now there followed after this another calamity, which arose from a tumult made by robbers; for at the public road of Bethhoron, one Stephen, a servant of Caesar, carried some furniture, which the robbers fell upon and seized. 2.229. Upon this Cumanus sent men to go round about to the neighboring villages, and to bring their inhabitants to him bound, as laying it to their charge that they had not pursued after the thieves, and caught them. Now here it was that a certain soldier, finding the sacred book of the law, tore it to pieces, and threw it into the fire. 2.230. Hereupon the Jews were in great disorder, as if their whole country were in a flame, and assembled themselves so many of them by their zeal for their religion, as by an engine, and ran together with united clamor to Caesarea, to Cumanus, and made supplication to him that he would not overlook this man, who had offered such an affront to God, and to his law; but punish him for what he had done. 2.231. Accordingly, he, perceiving that the multitude would not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer from him, gave order that the soldier should be brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished, to execution, which being done, the Jews went their ways.
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.196, 13.171-13.172, 18.17, 20.113-20.117 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 21; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 111, 114
4.196. 4. Accordingly, I shall now first describe this form of government which was agreeable to the dignity and virtue of Moses; and shall thereby inform those that read these Antiquities, what our original settlements were, and shall then proceed to the remaining histories. Now those settlements are all still in writing, as he left them; and we shall add nothing by way of ornament, nor any thing besides what Moses left us; 13.171. 9. At this time there were three sects among the Jews, who had different opinions concerning human actions; the one was called the sect of the Pharisees, another the sect of the Sadducees, and the other the sect of the Essenes. 13.172. Now for the Pharisees, they say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our own power, and that they are liable to fate, but are not caused by fate. But the sect of the Essenes affirm, that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination. 18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them. 20.113. 4. Now before this their first mourning was over, another mischief befell them also; for some of those that raised the foregoing tumult, when they were traveling along the public road, about a hundred furlongs from the city, robbed Stephanus, a servant of Caesar, as he was journeying, and plundered him of all that he had with him; 20.114. which things when Cureanus heard of, he sent soldiers immediately, and ordered them to plunder the neighboring villages, and to bring the most eminent persons among them in bonds to him. 20.115. Now as this devastation was making, one of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses that lay in one of those villages, and brought them out before the eyes of all present, and tore them to pieces; and this was done with reproachful language, and much scurrility; 20.116. which things when the Jews heard of, they ran together, and that in great numbers, and came down to Caesarea, where Cumanus then was, and besought him that he would avenge, not themselves, but God himself, whose laws had been affronted; for that they could not bear to live any longer, if the laws of their forefathers must be affronted after this manner. 20.117. Accordingly Cumanus, out of fear lest the multitude should go into a sedition, and by the advice of his friends also, took care that the soldier who had offered the affront to the laws should be beheaded, and thereby put a stop to the sedition which was ready to be kindled a second time.
24. Mishnah, Orlah, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 71
3.9. "סְפֵק עָרְלָה, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר, וּבְסוּרְיָא מֻתָּר, וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ יוֹרֵד וְלוֹקֵחַ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאֶנּוּ לוֹקֵט. כֶּרֶם נָטוּעַ יָרָק, וְיָרָק נִמְכָּר חוּצָה לוֹ, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׁרָאֵל אָסוּר, וּבְסוּרְיָא מֻתָּר, וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ יוֹרֵד וְלוֹקֵט, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִלְקֹט בַּיָּד. הֶחָדָשׁ, אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם. וְהָעָרְלָה, הֲלָכָה. וְהַכִּלְאַיִם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים: \n", 3.9. "Doubtful orlah: in the land of Israel is prohibited, in Syria is permitted, and outside the land one may go down and purchase [from a non-Israelite] as long as he has not seen him gathering it. A vineyard planted with vegetables [which are kilayim], and they [the vegetables] are sold outside of it: in the land of Israel these are prohibited, and in Syria they are permitted; outside the land one may go down and purchase them as long as he does not gather [them] with [one’s own] hand. New [produce] is prohibited by the Torah in all places. And orlah is a halachah. And kilayim are an enactment of the scribes.",
25. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 70
1.1. "משֶׁה קִבֵּל תּוֹרָה מִסִּינַי, וּמְסָרָהּ לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לִזְקֵנִים, וּזְקֵנִים לִנְבִיאִים, וּנְבִיאִים מְסָרוּהָ לְאַנְשֵׁי כְנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. הֵם אָמְרוּ שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, הֱווּ מְתוּנִים בַּדִּין, וְהַעֲמִידוּ תַלְמִידִים הַרְבֵּה, וַעֲשׂוּ סְיָג לַתּוֹרָה: \n", 1.1. "Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah.",
26. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 71
27. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 70
28. Palestinian Talmud, Orlah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 71
29. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 105
70a. לאו חובה היא דאי סלקא דעתך חובה היא תיתי בשבת ותיתי במרובה ותיתי בטומאה,ובמועט מיהו מ"ט אתיא כדתניא חגיגה הבאה עם הפסח נאכלת תחילה כדי שיהא פסח נאכל על השבע:,ונאכלת לשני ימים וכו': מתני' דלא כבן תימא דתניא בן תימא אומר חגיגה הבאה עם הפסח הרי היא כפסח ואינה נאכלת אלא ליום ולילה וחגיגת חמשה עשר נאכלת לשני ימים ולילה אחד,וחגיגת ארבעה עשר יוצא בה משום שמחה ואין יוצא בה משום חגיגה,מ"ט דבן תימא כדמתני רב לחייא בריה (שמות לד, כה) ולא ילין לבקר זבח חג הפסח זבח חג זה חגיגה הפסח כמשמעו ואמר רחמנא לא ילין,איבעיא להו לבן תימא נאכלת צלי או אין נאכלת צלי כי אקשיה רחמנא לפסח ללינה אבל לצלי לא או דילמא לא שנא,ת"ש הלילה הזה כולו צלי ואמר רב חסדא זו דברי בן תימא שמע מינה,איבעיא להו לבן תימא באה מן הבקר או אינה באה מן הבקר באה מן הנקבות או אינה באה מן הנקבות באה בת שתי שנים או אינה באה בת שתי שנים,כי אקשיה רחמנא לפסח למידי דאכילה אבל לכל מילי לא או דילמא לא שנא,ת"ש חגיגה הבאה עם הפסח הרי היא כפסח באה מן הצאן ואינה באה מן הבקר באה מן הזכרים ואינה באה מן הנקבות באה בת שנתה ואינה באה בת שתי שנים ואינה נאכלת אלא ליום ולילה ואינה נאכלת אלא צלי ואינה נאכלת אלא למנויו,מאן שמעת ליה דאית ליה האי סברא בן תימא שמע מינה כולהו מילתא בעינן ש"מ,איבעיא להו לבן תימא יש בה משום שבירת עצם או אין בה משום שבירת העצם אע"ג דכי אקשיה רחמנא לפסח אמר קרא בו בו ולא בחגיגה או דילמא האי בו בכשר ולא בפסול הוא דאתא,ת"ש סכין שנמצאת בארבעה עשר שוחט בה מיד בשלשה עשר שונה ומטביל קופיץ בין בזה ובין בזה שונה ומטביל,מני אילימא רבנן מאי שנא סכין דמטביל דחזיא לפסח קופיץ נמי הא חזי לחגיגה,אלא לאו דבן תימא היא ושמע מינה יש בה משום שבירת העצם,לא לעולם רבנן וכגון שבא בשבת,והא מדקתני סיפא חל ארבעה עשר להיות בשבת שוחט בה מיד ובחמשה עשר שוחט בה מיד נמצאת קופיץ קשורה לסכין הרי היא כסכין מכלל דרישא לאו בשבת עסקינן,ואלא שבא 70a. b is not an obligation, /b meaning there is no Torah obligation to bring this offering. b For if it should enter your mind /b to say that b it is an obligation, it should come /b even b on Shabbat, and it should come /b even when each member of the group will receive b a large /b portion of the Paschal lamb, b and it should come /b even b in /b a state of b ritual impurity. /b ,The Gemara asks: If there is no obligation to bring this offering, b what is the reason that it nevertheless comes /b when each person’s portion of the Paschal lamb is b small? /b The Gemara explains that the reason is b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The Festival peace-offering that comes with the Paschal lamb is eaten first; /b the reason for this is b so that the Paschal lamb will be eaten when /b one is already b satiated. /b The Paschal lamb should not be eaten in a needy manner, but rather in joy and when one is already filled to satisfaction.,The mishna taught that the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b is eaten for two days /b and the intervening night. The Gemara notes that b the mishna is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b ben Teima, for it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b ben Teima says: The Festival peace-offering that comes with the Paschal lamb /b on the fourteenth of Nisan b is like the Paschal lamb and is eaten for only a day and a night, /b whereas b the Festival peace-offering of the fifteenth, /b i.e., the Festival peace-offering brought on the first day of Passover, just as it is brought on the first day of each of the other Festivals, is treated like a regular peace-offering and b is eaten for two days and one, /b i.e., the intervening, b night. /b , b And /b if one consecrated an animal to be used as b a Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth, /b but it was not slaughtered on that day, on the next day b he can fulfill with it /b his obligation to bring a peace-offering of b rejoicing, /b as it is stated: “And you shall rejoice on your Festival,” but b he cannot fulfill with it /b his obligation to bring a b Festival peace-offering /b of the fifteenth.,The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b and scriptural basis b for ben Teima’s /b opinion? The Gemara explains: b As Rav taught his son Ḥiyya /b based on the following verse: b “Neither shall the offering of the feast of the Passover be left to the morning” /b (Exodus 34:25). b “The offering of the feast,” this /b is referring to b the Festival peace-offering; “the Passover,” as per its plain meaning, /b i.e., this is referring to the Paschal lamb itself. b And /b with regard to both sacrifices, b the Merciful One states /b in the Torah: b “It shall not be left /b to the morning.” This proves that the Festival peace-offering may be eaten for only a day and a night., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b According to /b the opinion of b ben Teima, is /b the Festival peace-offering that is brought with the Paschal lamb b eaten roasted /b like the Paschal lamb itself b or is it not eaten roasted? /b The possible considerations are as follows: b When the Merciful One compares /b the Festival peace-offering b to the Paschal lamb /b in the Torah, was that only b with regard to leaving /b it b over /b until the morning, b but with regard to /b the mitzva of b roasting, no /b such comparison is made? b Or perhaps there is no difference; /b the comparison was complete, and the Festival peace-offering is roasted just like the Paschal lamb.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a solution from what was taught in a mishna: In the time of the Temple, one of the questions that the children would ask on the night of Passover was: How is this night different from all other nights? For on all other nights we eat meat that is roasted, stewed, or boiled, whereas b on this night it is all roasted. And Rav Ḥisda said: This is the statement of ben Teima, /b indicating that even the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth must be roasted. The Gemara concludes: b Learn from this /b that the Festival peace-offering must be roasted just like the Paschal lamb.,Another b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b According to /b the opinion of b ben Teima, does /b the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b come from the herd or does it not come from the herd, /b like the Paschal offering, which must be brought from the flock? b Does it come /b even b from females or does it not come from females, /b just like the Paschal offering comes only from males? b Does it come /b even from b a two-year-old /b animal b or does it not come /b from b a two-year-old /b animal, but rather only from a one-year-old animal, like the Paschal offering itself?,The Gemara explains that this dilemma is based on a fundamental question similar to the one raised earlier: b When the Merciful One compares /b the Festival peace-offering b to the Paschal lamb /b in the Torah, was that only b with regard to matters /b pertaining to b eating /b and the time during which the Paschal lamb must be eaten, b but for everything /b else there is b no /b comparison? b Or perhaps there is no difference /b and the Torah compared these two offerings in every way., b Come /b and b hear /b an answer to these questions from what was taught in a i baraita /i : b The Festival peace-offering that comes with the Paschal offering /b on the fourteenth of Nisan b is like the Paschal offering /b in every respect. b It comes from the flock and does not come from the herd, it comes from males and does not come from females, it comes /b from an animal that is b a year old and does not come /b from an animal that is b two years old, and it is eaten for only a day and a night, and it is eaten only roasted, and it is eaten only by those who registered for it /b in advance.,The Gemara explains how this i baraita /i answers the questions raised above: b Who have you heard adopts this reasoning, /b comparing the Paschal offering and the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth? Surely it is b ben Teima. Learn from this /b that b we require everything, /b that the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth must parallel the Paschal offering in all its details. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, b learn from this /b that they are comparable in every way.,Yet another b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b According to /b the opinion of b ben Teima, is /b the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b subject to /b the prohibition against b breaking a bone, /b as is the Paschal lamb, with regard to which the Torah explicitly states: “And you shall not break a bone in it” (Exodus 12:46), b or is it not subject to /b the prohibition against b breaking a bone? /b The possible considerations are as follows: Do we say that b even though the Merciful One compares /b the Festival peace-offering b to the Paschal lamb, the verse /b that teaches the prohibition against breaking a bone b says “in it,” /b and these words serve as a qualifying statement, indicating that the prohibition applies only b in it, /b the Paschal lamb, b and not in the Festival peace-offering /b that comes with it? b Or perhaps this /b term, b “in it,” /b teaches that the prohibition applies only b to a fit /b Paschal lamb b but not to a disqualified /b one.,The Gemara proposes: b Come /b and b hear /b a solution based on the following mishna: If b a /b slaughtering b knife was found on the fourteenth /b day of Nisan in Jerusalem, b one may slaughter with it immediately /b without concern that perhaps it is ritually impure, for presumably any knife that is valid for slaughtering had already been immersed on the previous day so that it could be used for slaughtering the Paschal lamb. But if it was found b on the thirteenth /b day of Nisan, b he must immerse /b it b again /b due to the possibility that it had not yet been immersed and purified.As for b a cleaver [ i kofitz /i ], /b a large knife that is used primarily for chopping bones, b whether /b it was found b on this /b day, the fourteenth, b or on the other /b day, the thirteenth, b he must immerse /b it b again. /b ,The Gemara clarifies: b Whose /b opinion is taught in this mishna? b If you say it is /b the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b who permit breaking the bones of the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth, b what is different /b about a slaughtering b knife /b found on the fourteenth b that /b we say its owner presumably b immersed /b it on the previous day? Is it b because it is fit for /b slaughtering b the Paschal lamb? /b If so, b a cleaver /b found on the fourteenth should b also /b not require immersion before being used, for presumably its owner already immersed it, as b it is fit for /b chopping the bones of b the Festival peace-offering. /b , b Rather, is it not /b the opinion of b ben Teima, and learn from this /b that even the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b is subject to /b the prohibition against b breaking a bone, /b and therefore a cleaver must be immersed again even if it was found on the fourteenth. Since no bones may be broken on the fourteenth of Nisan, neither those of the Paschal lamb nor those of the Festival peace-offering, it is possible that the knife was not immersed in preparation for the Festival.,The Gemara rejects this proof: b No, actually /b one can explain that the mishna reflects the opinion of b the Rabbis, and /b it is referring to a case b where /b the time to slaughter the Paschal lamb b comes on Shabbat. /b In this circumstance, all agree that the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth is not sacrificed. Since there is no need for a cleaver, there is no reason to assume that the knife had been immersed in preparation for the Festival.,The Gemara asks: b But from the fact that the latter clause /b of that same mishna b teaches /b that b if the fourteenth /b of Nisan b occurred on Shabbat he may slaughter with /b the knife b immediately, /b without immersing it, and similarly, if he found it b on the fifteenth, /b i.e., on the first day of the Festival, b he may slaughter with it immediately, /b as it was certainly immersed the day before, and b if a cleaver was found tied to /b a slaughtering b knife, /b then even if it was found on the fourteenth on a weekday, b it is like the /b slaughtering b knife, /b as they were certainly immersed together, it follows b by inference that /b in b the first clause /b of the mishna b we are not dealing with /b a case where the fourteenth of Nisan occurred on b Shabbat. /b , b Rather, /b this understanding must be rejected and instead we should say that the mishna is talking about a case where the Paschal lamb b came /b
30. Epiphanius, Panarion, 1.14, 1.16, 1.42-1.43 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 185
31. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q166, 2.4-2.6  Tagged with subjects: •authority, pharisees Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 67, 68
32. Anon., Gospel of Peter, 8.28  Tagged with subjects: •new testament, pharisees and legal authority in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 111